Hadith :Laws of Inheritance (Al-Faraa’id)

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Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 80:
Laws of Inheritance (Al-Faraa’id)
Volume 8, Book 80, Number 716:

Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah:

I became sick so Allah’s Apostle and Abu Bakr came on foot to pay me a visit. When they came, I was unconscious. Allah’s Apostle performed ablution and he poured over me the water (of his ablution) and I came to my senses and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! What shall I do regarding my property? How shall I distribute it?” The Prophet did not reply till the Divine Verses of inheritance were revealed .

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 717:
Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Beware of suspicion, for it is the worst of false tales and don’t look for the other’s faults and don’t spy and don’t hate each other, and don’t desert (cut your relations with) one another O Allah’s slaves, be brothers!” (See Hadith No. 90)

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 718:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

Fatima and Al ‘Abbas came to Abu Bakr, seeking their share from the property of Allah’s Apostle and at that time, they were asking for their land at Fadak and their share from Khaibar. Abu Bakr said to them, ” I have heard from Allah’s Apostle saying, ‘Our property cannot be inherited, and whatever we leave is to be spent in charity, but the family of Muhammad may take their provisions from this property.” Abu Bakr added, “By Allah, I will not leave the procedure I saw Allah’s Apostle following during his lifetime concerning this property.” Therefore Fatima left Abu Bakr and did not speak to him till she died.

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 719:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

The Prophet said, “Our (Apostles’) property should not be inherited, and whatever we leave, is to be spent in charity.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 720:
Narrated Malik bin Aus:

‘I went and entered upon ‘Umar, his doorman, Yarfa came saying ‘Uthman, ‘Abdur-Rahman, Az-Zubair and Sa’d are asking your permission (to see you). May I admit them? ‘Umar said, ‘Yes.’ So he admitted them Then he came again and said, ‘May I admit ‘Ali and ‘Abbas?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ ‘Abbas said, ‘O, chief of the believers! Judge between me and this man (Ali ). ‘Umar said, ‘I beseech you by Allah by Whose permission both the heaven and the earth exist, do you know that Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Our (the Apostles’) property will not be inherited, and whatever we leave (after our death) is to be spent in charity?’ And by that Allah’s Apostle meant himself.’ The group said, ‘(No doubt), he said so.’ ‘Umar then faced ‘Ali and ‘Abbas and said, ‘Do you both know that Allah’s Apostle said that?’ They replied, ‘(No doubt), he said so.’ ‘Umar said, ‘So let me talk to you about this matter. Allah favored His Apostle with something of this Fai’ (i.e. booty won by the Muslims at war without fighting) which He did not give to anybody else;

Allah said:– ‘And what Allah gave to His Apostle ( Fai’ Booty) ………to do all things….(59.6) And so that property was only for Allah’s Apostle . Yet, by Allah, he neither gathered that property for himself nor withheld it from you, but he gave its income to you, and distributed it among you till there remained the present property out of which the Prophet used to spend the yearly maintenance for his family, and whatever used to remain, he used to spend it where Allah’s property is spent (i.e. in charity etc.). Allah’s Apostle followed that throughout his life.

Now I beseech you by Allah, do you know all that?’ They said, ‘Yes.’ ‘Umar then said to ‘Ali and ‘Abbas, ‘I beseech you by Allah, do you know that?’ Both of them said, ‘Yes.’ ‘Umar added, ‘And when the Prophet died, Abu Bakr said, ‘ I am the successor of Allah’s Apostle, and took charge of that property and managed it in the same way as Allah’s Apostle did.

Then I took charge of this property for two years during which I managed it as Allah’s Apostle and Abu Bakr did. Then you both (‘Ali and ‘Abbas) came to talk to me, bearing the same claim and presenting the same case. (O ‘Abbas!) You came to me asking for your share from the property of your nephew, and this man (Ali) came to me, asking for the share of h is wife from the property of her father. I said, ‘If you both wish, I will give that to you on that condition (i.e. that you would follow the way of the Prophet and Abu Bakr and as I (Umar) have done in man aging it).’ Now both of you seek of me a verdict other than that? Lo! By Allah, by Whose permission both the heaven and the earth exist, I will not give any verdict other than that till the Hour is established. If you are unable to manage it, then return it to me, and I will be sufficient to manage it on your behalf.’ “

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 721:
Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Apostle said, “Not even a single Dinar of my property should be distributed (after my deaths to my inheritors, but whatever I leave excluding the provision for my wives and my servants, should be spent in charity.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 722:
Narrated ‘Urwa:

‘Aisha said, “When Allah’s Apostle died, his wives intended to send ‘Uthman to Abu Bakr asking him for their share of the inheritance.” Then ‘Aisha said to them, “Didn’t Allah’s Apostle say, ‘Our (Apostles’) property is not to be inherited, and whatever we leave is to be spent in charity?'”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 723:
Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, “I am more closer to the believers than their own selves, so whoever (of them) dies while being in debt and leaves nothing for its repayment, then we are to pay his debts on his behalf and whoever (among the believers) dies leaving some property, then that property is for his heirs.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 724:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

The Prophet said, “Give the Fara’id (the shares of the inheritance that are prescribed in the Qur’an) to those who are entitled to receive it. Then whatever remains, should be given to the closest male relative of the deceased .”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 725:
Narrated Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas:

I was stricken by an ailment that led me to the verge of death. The Prophet came to pay me a visit. I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have much property and no heir except my single daughter. Shall I give two-thirds of my property in charity?” He said, “No.” I said, “Half of it?” He said, “No.” I said, “One-third of it?” He said, “You may do so) though one-third is also to a much, for it is better for you to leave your off-spring wealthy than to leave them poor, asking others for help. And whatever you spend (for Allah’s sake) you will be rewarded for it, even for a morsel of food which you may put in the mouth of your wife.” I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Will I remain behind and fail to complete my emigration?” The Prophet said, “If you are left behind after me, whatever good deeds you will do for Allah’s sake, that will upgrade you and raise you high. May be you will have long life so that some people may benefit by you and others (the enemies) be harmed by you.” But Allah’s Apostle felt sorry for Sa’d bin Khaula as he died in Mecca. (Sufyan, a sub-narrator said that Sa’d bin Khaula was a man from the tribe of Bani ‘Amir bin Lu’ai.)

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 726:
Narrated Al-Aswad bin Yazid:

Mu’adh bin Jabal came to us in Yemen as a tutor and a ruler, and we (the people of Yemen) asked him about (the distribution of the property of ) a man who had died leaving a daughter and a sister. Mu’adh gave the daughter one-half of the property and gave the sister the other half.

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 727:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

Allah’s Apostle said, “Give the Fara’id (shares prescribed in the Qur’an) to those who are entitled to receive it; and whatever remains, should be given to the closest male relative of the deceased.’

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 728:
Narrated Huzail bin Shirahbil:

Abu Musa was asked regarding (the inheritance of) a daughter, a son’s daughter, and a sister. He said, “The daughter will take one-half and the sister will take one-half. If you go to Ibn Mas’ud, he will tell you the same.” Ibn Mas’ud was asked and was told of Abu Musa’s verdict. Ibn Mas’ud then said, “If I give the same verdict, I would stray and would not be of the rightly-guided. The verdict I will give in this case, will be the same as the Prophet did, i.e. one-half is for daughter, and one-sixth for the son’s daughter, i.e. both shares make two-thirds of the total property; and the rest is for the sister.” Afterwards we cams to Abu Musa and informed him of Ibn Mas’ud’s verdict, whereupon he said, “So, do not ask me for verdicts, as long as this learned man is among you.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 729:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

The Prophet said, “Give the Fara’id, (the shares prescribed in the Qur’an) to those who are entitled to receive it, and then whatever remains, should be given to the closest male relative of the deceased.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 730:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

The person about whom Allah’s Apostle said, “If I were to take a Khalil from this nation (my followers), then I would have taken him (i.e., Abu Bakr), but the Islamic Brotherhood is better (or said: good),” regarded a grandfather as the father himself (in inheritance).

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 731:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

(During the early days of Islam), the inheritance used to be given to one’s offspring and legacy used to be bequeathed to the parents, then Allah cancelled what He wished from that order and decreed that the male should be given the equivalent of the portion of two females, and for the parents one-sixth for each of them, and for one’s wife one-eighth (if the deceased has children) and one-fourth (if he has no children), for one’s husband one-half (if the deceased has no children) and one-fourth (if she has children).”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 732:
Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Apostle gave the judgment that a male or female slave should be given in Qisas for an abortion case of a woman from the tribe of Bani Lihyan (as blood money for the fetus) but the lady on whom the penalty had been imposed died, so the Prophets ordered that her property be inherited by her offspring and her husband and that the penalty be paid by her Asaba.

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 733:
Narrated Al-Aswad:

Mu’adh bin Jabal gave this verdict for us in the lifetime of Allah’s Apostle. One-half of the inheritance is to be given to the daughter and the other half to the sister. Sulaiman said: Mu’adh gave a verdict for us, but he did not mention that it was so in the lifetime of Allah’s Apostle.

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 734:
Narrated Huzail:

‘Abdullah said, “The judgment I will give in this matter will be like the judgment of the Prophet, i.e. one-half is for the daughter and one-sixth for the son’s daughter and the rest of the inheritance for the sister.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 735:
Narrated Jabir:

While I was sick, the Prophet entered upon me and asked for some water to perform ablution, and after he had finished his ablution, he sprinkled some water of his ablution over me, whereupon I became conscious and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have sisters.” Then the Divine Verses regarding the laws of inheritance were revealed.

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 736:
Narrated Al-Bara:

The last Quranic Verse that was revealed (to the Prophet) was the final Verse of Surat-an-Nisa, i.e., ‘They ask you for a legal verdict Say: Allah directs (thus) About those who leave No descendants or ascendants as heirs….’ (4.176)

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 737:
Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Apostle said, “I am more closer to the believers than their ownselves, so whoever (among them) dies leaving some inheritance, his inheritance will be given to his ‘Asaba, and whoever dies leaving a debt or dependants or destitute children, then I am their supporter.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 738:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

The Prophet said, “Give the Fara’id (the shares of the inheritance that are prescribed in the Qur’an) to those who are entitled to receive it; and whatever is left should be given to the closest male relative of the deceased.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 739:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas: regarding the Holy Verse:–‘And to everyone, We have appointed heirs.

When the emigrants came to Medina, the Ansar used to be the heir of the emigrants (and vice versa) instead of their own kindred by blood (Dhawl-l-arham), and that was because of the bond of brotherhood which the Prophet had established between them, i.e. the Ansar and the emigrants. But when the Divine Verse:–

‘And to everyone We have appointed heirs,’ (4.33) was revealed, it cancelled the other, order i.e. ‘To those also, to whom Your right hands have pledged.’

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 740:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

A man and his wife had a case of Lian (or Mula’ana) during the lifetime of the Prophet and the man denied the paternity of her child. The Prophet gave his verdict for their separation (divorce) and then the child was regarded as belonging to the wife only.

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 741:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

‘Utba (bin Abi Waqqas) said to his brother Sa’d, “The son of the slave girl of Zam’a is my son, so be his custodian.” So when it was the year of the Conquest of Mecca, Sa’d took that child and said, “He is my nephew, and my brother told me to be his custodian.” On that, ‘Abu bin Zam’a got up and said, ‘but the child is my brother, and the son of my father’s slave girl as he was born on his bed.” So they both went to the Prophet. Sa’d said, “O Allah’s Apostle! (This is) the son of my brother and he told me to be his custodian.” Then ‘Abu bin Zam’a said, “(But he is) my brother and the son of the slave girl of my father, born on his bed.” The Prophet said, “This child is for you. O ‘Abu bin Zam’a, as the child is for the owner of the bed, and the adulterer receives the stones.” He then ordered (his wife) Sauda bint Zam’a to cover herself before that boy as he noticed the boy’s resemblance to ‘Utba. Since then the boy had never seen Sauda till he died.

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 742:
Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, “The boy is for the owner of the bed.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 743:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

I bought Barira (a female slave). The Prophet said (to me), “Buy her as the Wala’ is for the manumitted.” Once she was given a sheep (in charity). The Prophet said, “It (the sheep) is a charitable gift for her (Barira) and a gift for us.” Al-Hakam said, “Barira’s husband was a free man.” Ibn ‘Abbas said, ‘When I saw him, he was a slave.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 744:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

The Prophet said, “The Wala’ is for the manumitted (of the slave).”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 745:
Narrated ‘Abdullah:

The Muslims did not free slaves as Sa’iba, but the People of the Pre-lslamic Period of Ignorance used to do so.

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 746:
Narrated Al-Aswad:

‘Aisha bought Barira in order to manumit her, but her masters stipulated that her Wala’ (after her death) would be for them. ‘Aisha said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have bought Barira in order to manumit her, but her masters stipulated that her Wala’ will be for them.” The Prophet said, “Manumit her as the Wala is for the one who manumits (the slave),” or said, “The one who pays her price.” Then ‘Aisha bought and manumitted her. After that, Barira was given the choice (by the Prophet) (to stay with her husband or leave him). She said, “If he gave me so much and so much (money) I would not stay with him.” (Al-Aswad added: Her husband was a free man.) The sub-narrator added: The series of the narrators of Al-Aswad’s statement is incomplete. The statement of Ibn Abbas, i.e., when I saw him he was a slave, is more authentic.

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 747:
Narrated ‘Ali:

We have no Book to recite except the Book of Allah (Qur’an) and this paper. Then ‘Ali took out the paper, and behold ! There was written in it, legal verdicts about the retaliation for wounds, the ages of the camels (to be paid as Zakat or as blood money). In it was also written: ‘Medina is a sanctuary from Air (mountain) to Thaur (mountain). So whoever innovates in it an heresy (something new in religion) or commits a crime in it or gives shelter to such an innovator, will incur the curse of Allah, the angels and all the people, and none of his compulsory or optional good deeds will be accepted on the Day of Resurrection. And whoever (a freed slave) takes as his master (i.e. be-friends) some people other than hi real masters without the permission of his real masters, will incur the curse of Allah, the angels and all the people, and none of his compulsory, or optional good deeds will be accepted on the Day of Resurrection. And the asylum granted by any Muslim is to be secured by all the Muslims, even if it is granted by one of the lowest social status among them; and whoever betrays a Muslim, in this respect will incur the curse of Allah, the angels, and all the people, and none of his Compulsory or optional good deeds will be accepted on the Day of Resurrection.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 748:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

The Prophet forbade the selling of the Wala’ (of slaves) or giving it as a present.

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 749:
Narrated Ibn Umar:

That Aisha, the mother of the Believers, intended to buy a slave girl in order to manumit her. The slave girl’s master said, “We are ready to sell her to you on the condition that her Wala should be for us.” Aisha mentioned that to Allah’s Apostle who said, “This (condition) should not prevent you from buying her, for the Wala is for the one who manumits (the slave).”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 750:
Narrated Al-Aswad:

Aisha said, “I bought Barira and her masters stipulated that the Wala would be for them.” Aisha mentioned that to the Prophet and he said, “Manumit her, as the Wala is for the one who gives the silver (i.e. pays the price for freeing the slave).” Aisha added, “So I manumitted her. After that, the Prophet caller her (Barira) and gave her the choice to go back to her husband or not. She said, “If he gave me so much and so much (money) I would not stay with him.” So she selected her ownself (i.e. refused to go back to her husband).”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 751:
Narrated Ibn Umar:

When Aisha intended to buy Barira, she said to the Prophet, “Barira’s masters stipulated that they will have the Wala.” The Prophet said (to Aisha), “Buy her, as the Wala is for the one who manumits.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 752:
Narrated Aisha:

Allah’s Apostle said, “The wala is for the one who gives the silver (pays the price) and does the favor (of manumission after paying the price).”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 753:
Narrated Anas bin Malik:

The Prophet said, “The freed slave belongs to the people who have freed him,” or said something similar.

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 754:
Narrated Anas bin Malik:

The Prophet said, “The son of the sister of some people is from them or from their own selves.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 755:
Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, ” If somebody dies (among the Muslims) leaving some property, the property will go to his heirs; and if he leaves a debt or dependants, we will take care of them.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 756:
Narrated Usama bin Zaid:

the Prophet said, “A Muslim cannot be the heir of a disbeliever, nor can a disbeliever be the heir of a Muslim.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 757:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas and ‘Abu bin Zam’a had a dispute over a boy. Sa’d said, “O Allah’s Apostle! This (boy) is the son of my brother, ‘Utba bin Abi Waqqas who told me to be his custodian as he was his son. Please notice to whom he bears affinity.” And ‘Abu bin Zam’a said, “This is my brother, O Allah’s Apostle! He was born on my father’s bed by his slave girl.” Then the Prophet looked at the boy and noticed evident resemblance between him and ‘Utba, so he said, “He (the toy) is for you, O ‘Abu bin Zam’a, for the boy is for the owner of the bed, and the stone is for the adulterer. Screen yourself before the boy, O Sauda bint Zam’a.” ‘Aisha added: Since then he had never seen Sauda.

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 758:
Narrated Sa’d:

I heard the Prophet saying, “Whoever claims to be the son of a person other than his father, and he knows that person is not his father, then Paradise will be forbidden for him.” I mentioned that to Abu Bakra, and he said, “My ears heard that and my heart memorized it from Allah’s Apostle

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 759:
Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, “Do not deny your fathers (i.e. claim to be the sons of persons other than your fathers), and whoever denies his father, is charged with disbelief.”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 760:
Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Apostle said, “There were two women with whom there were their two sons. A wolf came and took away the son of one of them. That lady said to her companion, ‘The wolf has taken your son.’ The other said, ‘But it has taken your son.’ So both of them sought the judgment of (the Prophet) David who judged that the boy should be given to the older lady. Then both of them went to (the Prophet) Solomon, son of David and informed him of the case. Solomon said, ‘Give me a knife so that I may cut the child into two portions and give one half to each of you.’ The younger lady said, ‘Do not do so; may Allah bless you ! He is her child.’ On that, he gave the child to the younger lady.” Abu Huraira added: By Allah! I had never heard the word ‘Sakkin’ as meaning knife, except on that day, for we used to call it ‘Mudya”

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 761:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

Allah’s Apostle once entered upon me in a very happy mood, with his features glittering with joy, and said, “O ‘Aisha! won’t you see that Mujazziz (a Qa’if) looked just now at Zaid bin Haritha and Usama bin Zaid and said, ‘These feet (of Usama and his father) belong to each other.” (See Hadith No. 755, Vol. 4)

Volume 8, Book 80, Number 762:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

Once Allah’s Apostle entered upon me and he was in a very happy mood and said, “O ‘Aisha: Don’t you know that Mujazziz Al-Mudliji entered and saw Usama and Zaid with a velvet covering on them and their heads were covered while their feet were uncovered. He said, ‘These feet belong to each other.’

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Jung e Siffin part 5

Treacherous Tricks to divide

Hazrat Ammar Radiallahu anhoo was martyred on 9th of Safar, Hijri 37. A bloody war was broken on 10th of Safar, Hijri 37. As if the army of Amir-e-Muavia was near to welcome the defeat, they asked Amr Ibn-e-A’as, “What should we do?” He replied, “I have already thought over the trick for such occasion.” He suggested, “By keeping the Quran on the lance, our army should announce loudly, i.e. this is a mediator between you and us. He said “As a result of this, some of Ali’s people will be reluctant to fight after seeing this, while some will support him. This will create a difference of opinion in Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam army.” By this move, their aim was to create a split in his army. To use the Holy Quran as an arbitrator was not out of and us. any religious purpose but, as Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam had said, it was their dirty e politics. As the religious stalwarts like Imam Suyuti etc. have said, it was clear treachery. Tulaqa-Muavia and his people kept Holy Quran on the lances and repeatedly said, “This is a mediator between you ” Amr libn-e-A’as’s trick did not succeed. Some people said they should accept the proposal, while, others said that it was merely a malicious plan. The wiser of them appealed to understand their vicious plan. They appealed the farmy to fight with all zest and vigour because their victory and the rival’s (defeat was not very far. Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam also tried his best to convince his farmy that it was their tricky plan, and the army should not be misled. But, as the proposal was presented with keeping the Holy Quran in hands, a big number of Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam army became the victim of it. They were so much under the magic of the plan that they were bent upon the opposition of Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and argued that “Their, including that of Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam person plan is that the Syrians should respect and accept Holy Quran. Now, when they were keeping Quran Majid as an arbitrator among us, there is no point in fighting with them.” Some people warned Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam that if he (refused to accept the holy book as a mediator, they would fight with him fand kill him. This created a great difference of opinion. The atmosphere was so much affected that it was on the verge of an opening fight in Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam army itself. Under the circumstances, Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam had to stop the fight. He decided to accept the proposal.

Arbitration (Tahkim)

‘When Amir-e-Muavia took the Holy Quran in his hands and said “The Book is a mediator between you and us,” it implied that each party should appoint a mediator from among their side. Now, on the basis of the Holy Quran, whatever settlement they arrive at, will be accepted by both the parties. This is known as arbitration (Tahkim).

The trick that created a difference of opinion in the Hyderi army succeeded here also in the selection of the arbitrator. The people who went (against Quaid-e-A’azm Saiyedena Hazrat Ali Murtuza AlahisSalam forced him to accept the treaty of peace. In future also they followed the same method. Hence, whenever, in the times to come, there was a need to appoint the mediator, Amir-e-Muavia selected Amr bin A’as and Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam appointed Ibn-e-Abbas Radiallahu anhoo, as their arbitrators. But the group of Hyderi army that pressurized Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam for the acceptance, immediately shouted, “But he is your cousin. Instead, Abu Musa Ash’ari is the proper person.” Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam said, “I am doubtful about his faithfulness. He has once betrayed us. He was instigating people against us. I cannot rely on his understanding and positive thinking also. If it is so, you can make Ashtar Nakhai the mediator.” But they insisted upon Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari’s appointment. Finally, on their obstinacy, Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari was appointed the mediator.

On which principle the mediators should give judgement?

On the principle of the agreement that was signed by both Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and Muavia for the acceptance of the treaty, both the mediators were given the authority to arrive at the compromise between both the parties, doing away with the differences that existed between them. The principle given was that both the arbitrators should take the decision on the basis of the Holy Quran and preachings of Prophetic (Sunnat-e-Rasulallah it). It was decided that if the judgement were against the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah it, it would not be accepted.

But the judgement was not given on the basis of the principle

According to the treaty signed, both the arbitrators met at Dumat ul Jandal, on the borders of Syria and Iraq, for the negotiations. As this judgement was going to be a judgement of life or death for the community, thousands of Muslims, including many Sahaaba-e-Kira’am and Hazrat Sa’ad ibn-e-Waqas Radiallahu anhoo Hazrat Abdullah ibn-e-Umar Radiallahu anhoo etc. were gathered there together.

Both the mediators were authorized to give judgement on the basis of the Holy Quran and preachings of Prophet ﷺ. If their judgement was not based on the Holy Quran and preachings of Prophet ﷺ would not be 9 acceptable. But, right from the beginning during the process of negotiations, they did not bother about this main point. They did not bother to refer to the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah’s views about such matters. According to the principle established by Huzur ﷺ when the emigrants and the Ansars had appointed Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam Caliph. There was no doubt about it. Now, let us see what do the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah ﷺ had to say about the people who did not accept the decision of the emigrants and the Ansars. There were clear orders in the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulalllah fits about this. There are verses in Surah Hujarat containing orders of behaviour under this situation. They are as under:

Translation: Al-Hujarat Juz 1: If one group of Muslims is rebellious towards another one, the faithful group should fight with the mutineers until they surrender to the commandments of Allah, the Almighty. (It is the order of Allah, the Almighty that the epoch-maker should be respected.)

After Hazrat Ammar Radiallahu anhoo martyrdom, the Hadith had given a verdict that Amir-e-Muavia’s group was rebellious. After the clarification given by Hadith, the decision that was to be taken on the basis of the Holy Quran was as under:

“Because, the group of Amir-e-Muavia is rebellious, according to the orders of Holy Quran, they will have to leave treachery and, will have to accept the dominance of the Caliph of the time.”

In the Holy Quran, it has been very clearly said that the Muslims have to respect and accept the Caliph of the time and the epoch maker. Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam was, a Caliph in the real sense of the term because, he had been selected by the emigrants and the Ansars. None else had a right to be selected as Caliph so long as Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam was on that post. Due to this, the decision is taken, as shown above, was the final one and Amir-eMuavia and his people should have respected and accepted Hazrat Ali’s AlahisSalam Caliphate.

It was a state of great sorrow that the mediators did not pay any heed to the orders of the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah. On what base, was it wrongly decided that instead of Caliphate Regin, a kingship should be allowed in the Muslims? The political structure and the positive Islamic view about looking towards the world had been so much detached from the Nabuwat ﷺ that till today, it could not be repaired and corrected.

Amir-e-Muavia and his people had no right at all to fight and reject the rightful Caliphate under the excuse of revenge of Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo death. This was treachery, and it was absolutely prohibited. The assassination of Ammar Radiallahu anhoo made it very clear that Amir-e-Muavia’s group was a rebellious one. It was a matter of grief that both the arbitrators equally accepted such a course of action and avoided this important and very essential right. The experts and practitioners of spirituality and religion have described this as treachery and cunningness.

As it has been stated above, when both the arbitrators met at Dumat-ul Jandal for the final decision, the orders of Hadith were, during the discussions, totally neglected. Not only that, they kept on discussing such things by which the orders of Hadith and the Holy Quran were avoided. This led to the wrong judgement.

Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari was a simple-hearted man, so, he was duped by the talks of Amr ibn-e-A’as, who was unique in the whole of Arab country as far as politics was concerned. To impress Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari, Amr ibn-e-A’as started praising and respecting him. At every step, he used to say, “You are a venerable person for me. You are one of the nearest Sahaabis of Huzur ﷺ. First, please let us know your opinion.” The talks that took place between the mediators are given below:

Amr ibn-e-A’as: We will select such a person as Caliph through whom we can please Allah, the Almighty and through whom; the development of the people can also be possible. To whom shall we select as Caliph?

Hazrat Abu Musa: We shall select Abdullah ibn-e-Umar as Caliph. Amr ibn-e-A’as: What is wrong with Muavia?

Hazrat Abu Musa: What designation and prestige does he have? He is not at all the claimant to Caliphate. In comparison with the emigrants and the Ansars, I can never make Muavia a Caliph.

االول Amr ibn-e-A’as: Hazrat Uthman was tortured and killed. Muavia is in favour of the revenge of his assassination. He is Ummul Mominin Hazrat Umm-e-Habiba’s brother.

Hazrat Abu Musa: Ibn-e-A’as has a fear of Allah. These are not sufficient qualifications to demand one’s right of Caliphate. If it is a matter of goodness, how can Muavia be compared with Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam? Had I the authority to select the best of the Quraishis as a Caliph, I would have selected Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam. You are not right when you say, Muavia is the supporter for the revenge of Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo death. Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo sons, who are present now, have the first right of this. If you agree with me, we will select Abdullah ibn-e-Umar as Caliph. He will always keep his father’s memory alive.

Amr ibn-e-A’as: What is wrong with my son Abdullah? You are well aware of his virtues.

Hazrat Abu Musa: There is no doubt that your son is pious and is quite suitable for Caliphate. But as he was involved in the conspiracy, his cloth also has been stained. Why should we not select Taiyab ibn-e-Taiyab Abdullah Umar as Caliph?

Amr ibn-e-A’as: As a Caliph, only such a person can be selected who always shares his bread with other people.

Hazrat Abu Musa: You will have bad days. After a long period of struggle, the Muslims have come to us for guidance. Now, do not create unrest among them.

Amr ibn-e-A’as: Then, what is your opinion?

Hazrat Abu Musa: In my opinion, the names of both Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and Muavia should be cancelled. And let the executive committee select the Caliph.

Amr ibn-e-A’as: I agree with you. The welfare of the community is protected in this. While going through the process of negotiations, it is clearly seen that the basic and fundamental guide-lines, i.e. the orders of the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah fit which are provided for the settlement between two groups when there is a quarrel over some matters were not at all referred to. When the emigrants and the Ansars, who had the right to do so, had selected Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam, then, Amir-e-Muavia had no scope for the disagreement, rejection and revolt. What are the commandments of the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasullah it? The discussion that took place without considering the main point was just like the incident in which the rail engine gets derailed. And, ultimately, the result was the same as it was expected

After this discussion, the arbitrators came to Jama Masjid to announce their decision. Thousands of people, including well known Saha’abas, gathered there to hear the judgement. Hazrat Abdullah-bin Umar Radiallahu anhoo had warned Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari, “If you have arrived at a joint decision, there should not be any delay in the announcement. First, let Amr Ibn-eA’as make the announcement because he is a very clever and shrewd person. I am afraid; if you make the announcement first, he may betray you.” But Abu Musa said, “There is no problem. We both have arrived at the same conclusion.” Now it was the time to announce the judgement. Thousands of people’s eyes were on the arbitrators.

Announcement of the decision

Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ar told Amr Ibn-e-A’as, “First, you make the announcement of the decision.” He said, “You are much better than me in the matter of grace and unique qualities. I dare not do so when you are there.” Hazrat Abu Musa was misled by such talks and went to the dais. From there he announced, “Both, I and my friend (Amr Ibn-e-A’as), jointly come to the decision that Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and Muavia both’s claims for Caliphate should be cancelled and, the executive committee (Shura) may select the Caliph once again. Hence, I cancel the names of both, Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and Muavia. Now let the executive committee selects the Khalifa.”

After this, Amr Ibn-e-A’as stood up and said, “You have heard what Abu Musa said. He has cancelled Ali AlaihisSalam Caliphate. I also cancel it and retain the claim of Muavia because; he is a more suitable claimant for the post of Hazrat Uthman, as, he is eager to take revenge of Hazrat Uthman’s assassination,” Hazrat Abu Musa was taken aback with surprise to hear such a negative judgement. With great fury, he said, “What the hell did you do? Let Allah not give you the right understanding. You are perfidious. You have sown seeds of great quarrels and disputes.”

Now, the horse had run away from the stable. Locking the stable had no meaning. Hazrat Abu Musa was very repentful, but it was alb in vain. This was the result of the fact that the arbitrators discussed on the basis of irrelevant principles, neglecting the basic norms of the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasullah . Due to Amr Ibn-e-A’as’ decision, very unpalatable situation was created. Hazrat Sharih Ibn-e-Hani Radiallahu anhoo started whipping on them. People were greatly displeased with Hazrat Abu Musa also. Hazrat Sa’ad Ibn-e-Abi Waqasini said, “Abu Musa, we are sorry for your position. You proved to be too weak for Amr’s vicious policy.” Hazrat Abu Musa replied, “What can I do? We agreed on one point, and now he is changed. The decision that he has declared is not the one upon which we had an agreement, but, it has fundamentally changed.” Hazrat Abdur Rehman Ibn-e-Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo said, “Had Abu Musa died before this, it would have been better on his part.” Hazrat Abdullah Ibn-e-Umar Radiallahu anhoo said, “See, where does this community lead itself. Its future was handed over to two persons, one of whom had no feeling for the community and did not think at all over the repercussions of the decision, whereas, the other proved to be too weak for the purpose.”

After this, Amr Ibn-e-A’as consented to give Caliphate to Amir-e-Muavia and appointed him Caliph on this wrong basis. People at large thought, “Can the post of Khalifat-e-Rasul intrebe decided by such a wrong and malicious method?”

Hazrat Abu Musa was extremely ashamed. He dared not face Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and avoided coming in public throughout life. Hazrat Imam Hasan Basri, who is expert in-depth analysis of religious matters Tafsir, Hadith,Islamic philosophy (Fikah) and Islamic mysticism (Tasawwuf), said about Amr Ibn-e-A’as (who supported the whole mission of making Tulaqa Muavia, Caliph) and Mughera Ibn-e-Shoba (who convinced Amir-eMuavia of the scheme for making Yazid a Caliph), to the extent that, “These two people have totally spoiled the welfare of the community.”

हुनैन बिन इसहाक़ (Johannititus )(809 ई० – 873 ई०)



हुनैन बिन इसहाक़ (Johannititus )
(809 ई० – 873 ई०)

हुनैन बिन इसहाक़ इराक़ के शहर अलहिरा के रहने वाले थे। उनका परिवार बनू अल-इबादी कहलाता था। इसी कारण पूरा नाम हुनैन बिन इसहाक़ मरानी अल-इबादी है। यूरोप में आपको जॉहन्नीटीटस के नाम से याद किया जाता है।

हुनैन बिन इसहाक़ एक निपुण चिकित्सक ही नहीं एक अच्छे अनुवादक भी थे।

सर्जरी के उपकरण

हुनैन लड़कपन में ही रोज़गार के लिए शाहपुर आये और वहाँ के प्रसिद्ध चिकित्सक यूहन्ना बिन मासूया के क्लीनिक पर दवा बनाने का काम करने लगे।। यूहन्ना मरीजों को देखकर छात्रों को आयुर्विज्ञान पढ़ाता था। अत: जब वह छात्रों को पढ़ाता तो हुनैन ध्यानपूर्वक उसकी बातें सुनते। लेकिन यूहन्ना को यह बात पसन्द नहीं थी। उसने उन्हें टोका तो वह यूनान फिर मिस्र चले गये। वहाँ उन्होंने सिरयानी भाषा सीखी और बग़दाद आ गये। उस समय मामून रशीद का शासनकाल था जो ज्ञानियों का बड़ा आदर करता था। हुनैन उसकी स्थापित की हुई संस्था बैतुल हिकमत में अनुवाद का कार्य करने लगे। अपनी लगन और परिश्रम के कारण वह पदोन्नति करते-करते अनुवाद विभाग के अध्यक्ष बन गये। उन्होंने पुस्तकों के शानदार अनुवाद किये। मामून रशीद उनके काम की बड़ी क़दर करता था। वह पगार के अलावा हर अनुवादित पुस्तक के बराबर उन्हें सोना देता था। मामून रशीद की मृत्यु के चालीस साल बाद भी हुनैन जीवित रहे और अनुवाद व पुस्तक लेखन के

काम में व्यस्त रहे। हुनैन ने नेत्रविज्ञान (Ophthalmology) पर दस पुस्तकें लिखीं। पहली बार इनमें नेत्र रोगों की चिकित्सा को बड़े प्रभावशाली ढंग से प्रस्तुत किया। वह अच्छे चिकित्सक ही नहीं बल्कि धार्मिक और साहसी इंसान भी थे।

कहा अब्बासी ख़लीफ़ा मुतवक्किल ने उन्हें अपना निजी चिकित्सक बनाने के लिए उनकी परीक्षा लेनी चाही। ख़लीफ़ा ने उन्हें बुलाया और राज़दारी से “मैं अपने एक शत्रु को चुपचाप मौत की नींद सुलाना चाहता हूँ। तुम मुझे दवा में ऐसा विष मिलाकर दे दो कि किसी को पता न चले।” लेकिन हुनैन ने साफ़ उत्तर दिया, “मुझे केवल प्राण बचाने वाली दवाओं का पता है। मेरा काम इंसानों को बचाना है न कि उनकी हत्या करना।” यह सुनकर खलीफ़ा ने पहले इनाम का लालच दिया फिर जान से मारने की धमकी दी लेकिन वह अपनी बात पर जमे रहे। इस पर ख़लीफ़ा ने नाराज होकर उन्हें कारागार में भेज दिया। एक साल बाद उन्हें ख़लीफ़ा के सामने लाया गया। ख़लीफ़ा ने एक तरफ़ तलवार रखी हुई थी और दूसरी ओर सोना चाँदी। जब सिपाही उन्हें ख़लीफ़ा के सामने लाये तो उसने कहा, “एक साल जेल में रहकर तुम्हारा दिमाग़ ठीक हो गया होगा। अभी अवसर है कि मेरे शत्रु के लिए विषैली दवाई तैयार करो और यह सारा सोना-चाँदी ले लो। वर्ना यह तलवार तुम्हारा सिर उड़ा देगी।” हुनैन ने ख़लीफ़ा की आँखों में आँखें डालकर कहा मेरा जवाब आज भी वही है। मैं अपने व्यवसाय का दुरुपयोग किसी के प्राण लेने के लिए नहीं कर सकता, चाहे आप मेरी जान ले लें। यह साहस देखकर ख़लीफ़ा आगे बढ़ा और उसने तलवार हुनैन की पीठ पर बाँध कर उन्हें गले लगा लिया। उसने कहा, “मैं आपको राज चिकित्सक बनाना चाहता हूँ। इसलिए आपकी परीक्षा ले रहा था। मैंने जेल में डालकर वर्ष भर तुम पर नज़र रखी तुम अपनी परीक्षा में पूरे उतरे। अतः आज से तुम राज चिकित्सक हो। इस घटना से पता चलता है कि हुनैन एक निपुण चिकित्सक होने के साथ-साथ एक सुचरित्र और सत्यनिष्ठ इंसान भी थे। उनका अनुवाद किया। सिर्फ़ यूनानी
उन्होंने नब्बे पुस्तकें लिखीं या

हकीम जालीनूस की सोलह पुस्तकों का सरल अरबी में अनुवाद किया। । उसके अलावा यूनानी दर्शनशास्त्री बुकरात की सात पुस्तकों का भी अरबी भाषा में अनुवाद किया।

उन्होंने ज्वार-भाटा, इन्द्रधनुष और उल्का पिंडों पर भी पुस्तकें लिखीं। एक व्यस्त चिकित्सक होते हुए भी उन्होंने दूसरे क्षेत्रों में शोध किये। निसंदेह वह अपने समय के महान शोधकर्ता और वैज्ञानिक थे।

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