PROPHET صلى الله عليه وسلم PARADISE ANDHELL FIRE WHILE PERFORMING PRAYER.

According to Abd Allah b. Abbas :Allah’s Messenger offered the eclipse prayer. The people said:‘0 Allah’s Messenger ! We saw you taking something (while
standing) from your place and then we saw you retreating.’ The
Prophet replied: ‘I saw Paradise and stretched my hands
towards a bunch (of its fruits) and if I would have taken it, you
would eat from it as long as the world remains.’”
Agreed upon by al-Bukhari and al-Muslim.

According to Aysha :
“The Messenger of Allah said: ‘While I was standing, I
saw everything that you have been promised; I even saw myself
wanting to take a bunch of grapes from Paradise when you saw
me stepping forward. And I saw Hell, parts of it consuming other
parts, when you saw me moving back. And I saw therein ‘Amr b.
Luhayy, the one who established the custom of As- Sa ib.’”
Agreed upon by al-Bukhari and al-Muslim.

Set forth by al-Bukhari in al-Sahih, Bk.: Sifat al-Salat, [The qualities of the
prayer], 1/261, $ 715. And in Bk.: al-Kasuf, [The Eclipse], 1/357, $ 1004, and
in Bk.: al-Nikaah, [Marriage], 5/1994, $ 4901. al-Muslim in al-Sahih, Bk.: alKasuf, [The Eclipse], 2/626, $ 907. al-Nas’ai in al-Sunan, Bk.: al-Kasuf, [The
Eclipse], 3/147, $ 1493. and in al-Sunan al-Kubra,1/578, $ 1878. Ahmed b.
Hambal in al-Musnad, 1/298, $ 2711, 3374.Ibn Hibban in al-Sahih,7/73, $
2832, 2853. Abd al-Razzaq in al-Musannaf, 3/98, $ 4925. al-Bayhaqi in alSunan al-Kubra, 3/321, $ 6096. al-Shafi in al-Sunan al-Mathurah, 1/140, $
Set forth by al-Bukhari in al-Sahih, Bk.: al-Tahajjud, [Nighttime prayer],
1/406, $ 1154. al-Muslim in al-Sahih, Bk.: al-Kusuf, [The Eclipse], 1/296, $
901. al-Nas’ai in al-Sunan, Bk.: al-Kusuf, [The Eclipse], $ 1472. Ibn Hibban in
al-Sahih, 7/83, $ 2841.

Hadith :Limits and Punishments set by Allah (Hudood)

Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 81:
Limits and Punishments set by Allah (Hudood)
Volume 8, Book 81, Number 763:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Apostle said, “When an adulterer commits illegal sexual intercourse, then he is not a believer at the time he is doing it; and when somebody drinks an alcoholic drink, then he is not believer at the time of drinking, and when a thief steals, he is not a believer at the time when he is stealing; and when a robber robs and the people look at him, then he is not a believer at the time of doing it.” Abu Huraira in another narration, narrated the same from the Prophet with the exclusion of robbery.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 764:
Narrated Anas bin Malik:

The Prophet beat a drunk with palm-leaf stalks and shoes. And Abu Bakr gave (such a sinner) forty lashes.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 765:
Narrated ‘Uqba bin Al-Harith:

An-Nu’man or the son of An-Nu’man was brought to the Prophet on a charge of drunkenness. So the Prophet ordered all the men present in the house, to beat him. So all of them beat him, and I was also one of them who beat him with shoes.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 766:
Narrated’ Uqba bin Al-Harith:

An-Nu’man or the son of An-Nu’man was brought to the Prophet in a state of intoxication. The Prophet felt it hard (was angry) and ordered all those who were present in the house, to beat him. And they beat him, using palm-leaf stalks and shoes, and I was among those who beat him.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 767:
Narrated Anas:

The Prophet lashed a drunk with dateleaf stalks and shoes. And Abu Bakr gave a drunk forty lashes.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 768:
Narrated Abu Salama:

Abu Huraira said, “A man who drank wine was brought to the Prophet. The Prophet said, ‘Beat him!” Abu Huraira added, “So some of us beat him with our hands, and some with their shoes, and some with their garments (by twisting it) like a lash, and then when we finished, someone said to him, ‘May Allah disgrace you!’ On that the Prophet said, ‘Do not say so, for you are helping Satan to overpower him.’ “

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 769:
Narrated ‘Ali bin Abi Talib:

I would not feel sorry for one who dies because of receiving a legal punishment, except the drunk, for if he should die (when being punished), I would give blood money to his family because no fixed punishment has been ordered by Allah’s Apostle for the drunk.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 770:
Narrated As-Sa’ib bin Yazid:

We used to strike the drunks with our hands, shoes, clothes (by twisting it into the shape of lashes) during the lifetime of the Prophet, Abu Bakr and the early part of ‘Umar’s caliphate. But during the last period of ‘Umar’s caliphate, he used to give the drunk forty lashes; and when drunks became mischievous and disobedient, he used to scourge them eighty lashes.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 771:
Narrated ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab:

During the lifetime of the Prophet there was a man called ‘Abdullah whose nickname was Donkey, and he used to make Allah’s Apostle laugh. The Prophet lashed him because of drinking (alcohol). And one-day he was brought to the Prophet on the same charge and was lashed. On that, a man among the people said, “O Allah, curse him ! How frequently he has been brought (to the Prophet on such a charge)!” The Prophet said, “Do not curse him, for by Allah, I know for he loves Allah and His Apostle.”

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 772:
Narrated Abu Huraira:

A drunk was brought to the Prophet and he ordered him to be beaten (lashed). Some of us beat him with our hands, and some with their shoes, and some with their garments (twisted in the form of a lash). When that drunk had left, a man said, “What is wrong with him? May Allah disgrace him!” Allah’s Apostle said, “Do not help Satan against your (Muslim) brother.”

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 773:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

The Prophet said, “When (a person) an adulterer commits illegal sexual intercourse then he is not a believer at the time he is doing it; and when somebody steals, then he is not a believer at the time he is stealing.”

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 774:
Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet said, “Allah curses a man who steals an egg and gets his hand cut off, or steals a rope and gets his hands cut off.” Al-A’mash said, “People used to interpret the Baida as an iron helmet, and they used to think that the rope may cost a few dirhams.”

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 775:
Narrated ‘Ubada bin As-Samit:

We were with the Prophet in a gathering and he said, ‘Swear allegiance to me that you will not worship anything besides Allah, Will not steal, and will not commit illegal sexual intercourse.” And then (the Prophet) recited the whole Verse (i.e. 60:12). The Prophet added, ‘And whoever among you fulfills his pledge, his reward is with Allah; and whoever commits something of such sins and receives the legal punishment for it, that will be considered as the expiation for that sin, and whoever commits something of such sins and Allah screens him, it is up to Allah whether to excuse or punish him.”

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 776:
Narrated Abdullah:

Allah Apostle said in Hajjat-al-Wada, “Which month (of the year) do you think is most sacred?” The people said, “This current month of ours (the month of Dhull-Hijja).” He said, “Which town (country) do you think is the most sacred?” They said, “This city of ours (Mecca).” He said, “Which day do you think is the most sacred?” The people said, “This day of ours.” He then said, “Allah, the Blessed, the Supreme, has made your blood, your property and your honor as sacred as this day of yours in this town of yours, in this month of yours (and such protection cannot be slighted) except rightfully.” He then said thrice, “Have I conveyed Allah’s Message (to you)?” The people answered him each time saying, ‘Yes.” The Prophet added, ‘May Allah be merciful to you (or, woe on you)! Do not revert to disbelief after me by cutting the necks of each other.’

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 777:
Narrated Aisha:

Whenever the Prophet was given an option between two things, he used to select the easier of the tow as long as it was not sinful; but if it was sinful, he would remain far from it. By Allah, he never took revenge for himself concerning any matter that was presented to him, but when Allah’s Limits were transgressed, he would take revenge for Allah’s Sake.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 778:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

Usama approached the Prophet on behalf of a woman (who had committed theft). The Prophet said, “The people before you were destroyed because they used to inflict the legal punishments on the poor and forgive the rich. By Him in Whose Hand my soul is! If Fatima (the daughter of the Prophet ) did that (i.e. stole), I would cut off her hand.”

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 779:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

The Quraish people became very worried about the Makhzumiya lady who had committed theft. They said, “Nobody can speak (in favor of the lady) to Allah’s Apostle and nobody dares do that except Usama who is the favorite of Allah’s Apostle. ” When Usama spoke to Allah’s Apostle about that matter, Allah’s Apostle said, “Do you intercede (with me) to violate one of the legal punishment of Allah?” Then he got up and addressed the people, saying, “O people! The nations before you went astray because if a noble person committed theft, they used to leave him, but if a weak person among them committed theft, they used to inflict the legal punishment on him. By Allah, if Fatima, the daughter of Muhammad committed theft, Muhammad will cut off her hand.!”

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 780:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

The Prophet said, “The hand should be cut off for stealing something that is worth a quarter of a Dinar or more.”

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 781:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

The Prophet said, “The hand of a thief should be cut off for stealing a quarter of a Dinar.”

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 782:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

The Prophet said, “The hand should be cut off for stealing a quarter of a Dinar.”

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 783:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

The hand of a thief was not cut off during the lifetime of the Prophet except for stealing something equal to a shield in value.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 784:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

as above (783).

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 785:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

A thief’s hand was not cut off for stealing something cheaper than a Hajafa or a Turs (two kinds of shields), each of which was worth a (respectable) price.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 786:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

A thief’s hand was not cut off for stealing something worth less than the price of a shield, whether a Turs or Hajafa (two kinds of shields), each of which was worth a (respectable) price.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 787:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

Allah’s Apostle cut off the hand of a thief for stealing a shield that was worth three Dirhams.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 788:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

The Prophet cut off the hand of a thief for stealing a shield that was worth three Dirhams.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 789:
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar:

The Prophet cut off the hand of a thief for stealing a shield that was worth three Dirhams.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 790:
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar:

The Prophet cutoff the hand of a thief for stealing a shield that was worth three Dirhams.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 791:
Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah ‘s Apostle said, “Allah curses the thief who steals an egg (or a helmet) for which his hand is to be cut off, or steals a rope, for which his hand is to be cut off.”

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 792:
Narrated ‘Aisha:

The Prophet cut off the hand of a lady, and that lady used to come to me, and I used to convey her message to the Prophet and she repented, and her repentance was sincere.

Volume 8, Book 81, Number 793:
Narrated Ubada bin As-Samit:

I gave the pledge of allegiance to the Prophet with a group of people, and he said, “I take your pledge that you will not worship anything besides Allah, will not steal, will not commit infanticide, will not slander others by forging false statements and spreading it, and will not disobey me in anything good. And whoever among you fulfill all these (obligations of the pledge), his reward is with Allah. And whoever commits any of the above crimes and receives his legal punishment in this world, that will be his expiation and purification. But if Allah screens his sin, it will be up to Allah, Who will either punish or forgive him according to His wish.” Abu Abdullah said: “If a thief repents after his hand has been cut off, the his witness well be accepted. Similarly, if any person upon whom any legal punishment has been inflicted, repents, his witness will be accepted.”

Jung e Siffin part 6


Dangerous results of the dangerous announcement

The fact that the arbitrators were entrusted such an important responsibility of giving justice on the basis of the Holy Quran and Sunnate-Rasulallah was pushed in the background. Their duty was only to let the people know the decision, about Hazrat Aliments and the rival group, which can be justified by the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah ﷺ. Everyone who knew the Holy Quran and the Hadith accepted that to respect and obeyed, the selected Caliph was compulsory for all. The group that did not follow this was rebellious. Hence, Muavia and his party were rebellious, and the martyrdom of Hazrat Ammar Radiallahu anhoo proved it like the light of the midday Sun that they were far away from the commandments of the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallalh. Thus, it was resolved that they should come back from the revolt and should obey Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam . But alas! The arbitrators overtook the consideration of the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallalhits and opened the gateway for Tulqa Muavia and his people to disobey and open revolt against Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam. Committing blunder, they said, they had cancelled Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam selection as a Caliph. As a result of this, Muavia and the people of Syria’s rebellious activities were supported, and day by day, they became more and more popular and stronger. This helped them in confirming their power. Amr Ibn-e-A’as committed a great mistake by betraying Abu Musa Ash’ari and said that both of them had consented to cancel Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam name as a Caliph. Again he, maliciously, asked Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari to announce and said he would follow him in the announcement. But when he went to the dais, he made a twisted announcement (which has already been stated above). Was it anything less than treachery? When Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari came to his senses, he shouted, “O Amr Ibn-eA’as, what blunder you have committed? You have betrayed me. You have cheated me and have committed a great sin.”

The lovers of justice have considered Amr Ibn-e-A’as’s this activity as a fraud and sheer lie. So much so that Imam Suyuti, who is a great scholar of the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah het, till today there is no one so brilliant in the Hadith as him, and he has never written a single word against anybody, he also in his book, Tarikh-ul-Khulfa writes, “This was Amr Ibn-e-A’as’s fraudulent activity, and he was a liar.” When, during the battle of Siffin in Syria, the rivals put the Holy Quran on the lances and declared the cease fire and added that Holy Quran would be the arbitrator between them, that also was a Amr Ibn-e-A’as’s deep, vicious plan and it was a great conspiracy.

About this matter, some people say, it was a mistake of the whole community. But are frauds and lie also the religious group-mistake? It should always be kept in mind that the Ummat scholars always believe that relation to the final decision about any matter, it is absolutely wrong to guess. When there is a solution according to the Holy Quran and Hadith, it is strictly prohibited, rather it is anti-religious, to arrive at any conclusion on the basis of guesses and inferences. This is, in a way, the avoidance and insult of the Holy Quran and Hadith.

To be cautious of Amr Ibn-e-A’as and Muavia people and progenitor

It is an open truth that Amr Ibn-e-A’as had used fraudulent ways and means in the pious field like Islamic governmental system which was, in fact, a matter of life and death for the Caliphate Reign. It was a blunder. Tulaqa Muavia also had taken a very wrong course of action by going against and fighting along with his army with Amir-ul-Mominin Sayyiduna Ali Murtuza AlahisSalam, equal to whom there was none, nay, till today none could follow his footsteps. As a result of this, Muslims were massacred in the battlefield of Siffin, and instead of Caliphate Regin, kingship was established and authorized. All the people at large should keep away from them. A better way was to proceed further cautiously, Allama Sadruddin Taftazani writes in Taftazani Sharhulakaidin’nisfia: Translation: In the eyes of the pious, learned. scholars, it is not imparted to contempt Muavia and his group because, according to the commandments, though they had cheated the real Caliph and revolted against him yet, such acts do not allow the rival liable for contempt.

Impact of the Declaration of Abu Musa Ash’ari and Amr Ibn-e-A’as

After the declaration made by the above two gentries, all the people who were present there and witnessed the whole proceedings realized that the actions taken against Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam were absolutely illegal, against the true justice and without the reference to the Holy Quran and Sunnat. They were authorized as arbitrators on the conditions that they would give their final decision depending on Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah. Also, they were warned that if their decision were against the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah it, it would not be accepted. Hence, it was the duty of Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam to reject the decision which was against the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah it. He performed his duty, rejected the decision and explained the reasons for the rejection. He said, “You had appointed Abu Musa Ash’ari and Amr Ibn-e-A’as as mediators to give a decision based on the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah . But they pushed these norms back. They ignored the Allah orders and used their own prudence and discretion power, and gave such a decision which was an open insult and disrespect to the Holy Quran. It was not based on the commandments of the Almighty. Thus, the decisions of both of them were against religious traditions. None of them arrived at an acceptable decision.”

After declaring his decision, Amr Ibn-e-A’as, in a very happy mood, went to Tulaqa Muavia and informed him about the sacred message. He told him, “I have made you Amir-ul-Mominin.” Then he initiated his discipleship from Amir-e-Muavia. In fact, neither Ibn-e-A’as had any power to make anybody Caliph, nor Amir-e-Muavia could be made Caliph by him. Wrong is always wrong. Amir-e-Muavia and his party were still mutineers and Munafiq Amr Ibn-e-A’as called him Caliph, but Hadith-e-Rasul ﷺ called them rebels. In the whole of Islamic legality, there is not a single section that can support this action of Amr Ibne-e-A’as. According to Holy Quran-e-Majid, Sunnat-e-Rasulallah , public opinion and the jurisprudence, this act was absolutely wrong and deserved outright rejection. They, including Abu Musa Ash’ari, were instructed to give the decision a based on the Holy Quran and Sunnat. How could they have the power to give a decision against the Holy Quran and Sunnat? Under this situation, to cancel the Righteous Caliphate and to appoint a rebel as a Caliph was extremely a villainous act. The truth was the truth, and lie was lie. Everyone knew that Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam was a Righteous Caliph. All the moralists of Islamic philosophy had supported this view. A basic book of Hanafite Islamic philosophy, Fath-ul-Qadir (the last para of Cha.-Adb-ulQazi) says,

Translation: During the period of Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam, the truth was only with him because the initiation of Caliphate done on his hand was absolutely true, and its planning also was perfect. Hence, he was on the side of truth during the battle of Jamal and at Siffin during the fight with Muavia. It was Huzur ﷺ prophecy for Hazrat Ammar Radiallahu anhoo that the rebellious group would kill him. And, Muavia’s group had assassinated him. In this way, the prophecy of Huzur ﷺ clarified and proved that those people were rebellious.

This description is the explanation of this part of the para. (Hidaya-eAakhirin-last para): “During the time of Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam, the truth was with him (Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam).”

Hence, whatever had been done even by Amr Ibn-e-A’as etc. against Hazrat Ali Murtaza AlahisSalam was absolutely unfair. It was so much unjustifiable that none would accept it as a rightful deed.

Due to Amr Ibn-e-A’as’s wrong procedure of work, he, not only imposed the faulty system of government on the community on the one hand and the other, he put Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam who was a true and authorized Caliph and was trying his level best to perform his duties in the right way, actually was in a lot of trouble. By this act he prove that he is also Munafiq. Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam was aware of the danger that was a going to be created. He was sure that he had Muawia, and his people established their governance, Qaisar o Kisra would be the rulers. He, therefore, said in one of his addresses, “By Allah, if these people are your
was a rulers, they would interact with you like Qaisar o Kisra.” After Amr Ibn-e-A’as’s this activity, the danger that was imaginative, openly seen. The people, who were behaving like black sheep during the battle of Siffin, were also fully exposed, and they publicly supported them. They did not support Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam in the efforts of defeating the rivals. Hazrat Abdullah Ibn-e-Umar Radiallahu anhoo also was one of them. He, with a great affliction, expressed that it was the blunder he committed. He accepted that he committed a sin of supporting the rivals and was extremely sorry for not supporting Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam in his efforts of doing away with the powers of the rivals. Throughout his life, he was the prey of guilty consciousness for this of his misdeed. So much so that he said:

Translation: “I have never repented for anything. But, I am really very sorry for not supporting Hazrat Alim in the fight with the rebels.”
(Leelkabir Jama-ul-fawaid Vol-2)

This was such a great repentance that he realized that Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam was trying in the right direction to save the system of traditional way of Caliphate and was creating an iron wall for its protection so that, the proper system which has already been established, would not be damaged by the vested interests and the world-wide system of Khilafat-e-Rasulst should not be the kingship of Qaisar o Kisra.

Had all the wise companions of Huzur ﷺ i.e. Hazrat Ibn-e-Umar etc. left their policy of supporting the rebellious elements and helped the advocate of truth by supporting Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and his path of truth openly and opposed the rebellious elements, the rivals would have surely submitted and accepted the Caliphate Regin with respect. Had they done this, the rivals could not have dared to establish their power. Now, they felt sorry as to why they were supporting the rivals and more so why they did not support Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and not fight against the rebels. They regretted that they were deprived of the proud of becoming Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam associates. They could have, very well, created an iron wall around Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and protected the system. Now, they repented because they were deprived of that pride. They regretted this throughout their lives.

Some elderly persons were ashamed and were begging for forgiveness. It is given in Imam Ibn-e-Abdul-bir Istiab (Vol-2) that Hazrat Asaruk Ibn-eAzda was sorry and begging for forgiveness for not supporting Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam

अबु अब्दुल्ला मुहम्मद बिन अहमद अल-मुक़द्दसी

अबु अब्दुल्ला मुहम्मद बिन अहमद अल-मुक़द्दस

अबु अब्दुल्ला मुहम्मद अबु अब्दुल्ला मुहम्मद बिन अहमद अल मुक़द्दसी चौथी शताब्दी के महान भूगोलशास्त्री हैं। उनके बारे में कहा जाता है कि उन्होंने भूगोल को एक नई दिशा दी और अरबी भूगोल को चिरस्थाई आधार प्रदान किया। अबु अब्दुल्ला के विचार में समाज के विभिन्न वर्गों और व्यवसाय के लिए भूगोल का ज्ञान लाभकारी होना चाहिए। अतः उन्होंने भूगोलशास्त्री का विस्तार किया और उसमें बिन अहमद अल-मुक़द्दसी कई विषयों की वृद्धि की जैसे हर क्षेत्र की प्राकृतिक विशेषताएं, उसके खान-पान, भाषाएं, नागरिकों की नसलें, रस्म-व-रिवाज, धर्म और समुदाय, नाप-तौल के पैमाने, क्षेत्रीय भिन्नता आदि। इन सब विषयों पर उन्होंने एक पुस्तक अहसनुल-तक़ासीम-फ्री- अलमुआरफ़तुल-अक़लीम लिखी।

अल-मुक़द्दसी का भी दूसरे मुस्लिम शोधकर्ताओं की तरह मानना है कि विज्ञान वही है जो निजी अनुभव और खोज से प्राप्त हो। उन्होंने भी खोज और अनुसंधान को वरीयता दी है। इसके अलावा उन्होंने पूर्व खोजकर्ताओं के अनुभवों से फ़ायदा उठाया। उन्होंने अपनी पुस्तकों के प्राक्कथन में भूगोलिक परिभाषा से बहस की है। इस ज्ञान में प्रयोग होने वाले विशेष शब्दों के अर्थ की व्याख्या भी की है। विभिन्न देशों के भागों एवं जिलों का रेखा चित्र भी पेश किया है ताकि पर्यटन की दृष्टि से वह लाभकारी हों। उनकी एक विशेषता यह है कि सामान्य भूगोल के विभिन्न विषयों पर बड़े विस्तार से बहस की है।

उनके युग में भूगोलशास्त्र में जो प्रगति हुई उसकी सहायता से नाविकों में ने सुदूर क्षेत्रों की यात्राएं कीं और कई ज्ञानवर्धक सफ़रनामे लिखे।

*****