learn_about_islam

Assalamu Alaikum dear brothers & sisters,

​We welcome you to the great and the only accepted religion of Almighty Allah, that is Islam. Since, it is the duty of every Muslim to learn about Islam and to follow it accordingly; we hope this section will be useful to our new Muslim brothers and sisters. May Allah Almighty bless you and guide you in the right path.

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INTRODUCTION TO ISLAM

WHAT IS ISLAM?

​Islam, the word has two meanings:

1. Peace

2. Submission

Islam teaches that one can only find peace in one’s life in this world and the hereafter by submitting to Almighty God (Allah) in heart, soul and deed. It means voluntary surrender to the Will of Allah and obedience to His commands. Allah, also, an Arabic word, is the unique name of God. Muslims prefer to use Allah rather than God.

Further Islam is not just a religion. In its fullest form, it is a complete, total, 100 percent system of life. It teaches every aspects of life such as legal, political, economic, social and family life.

WHO IS A MUSLIM?

A person who believes in and consciously follows Islam, i.e. believe in Allah, the only God and follow his messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him), is called Muslim.

The word Muslim also came from the same root word. So, the religion is called “Islam,” and a person who believes in and follows it is a “Muslim.”

Muslim Population Statistics

Total Muslim Population – Approx. 1.5 to 1.57 billion (Estimated)

World largest Muslim country – Indonesia (Approx. 200 million Muslims)

For detailed Muslim population statistics, click here

IS ISLAM A NEW RELIGION?

No. some might think that Islam is a new religion which was started with the beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). That is wrong. According to Islam, Allah Almighty created Adam (Peace be upon him), the first man, and he was a Prophet. The fundamental message what he propagated to his nation was the same as of our beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). That is, do not worship anything except Allah Almighty. Obey to his commands, etc. The same message was propagated by each prophets who were sent before to the beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). However, the divine law and instructions revealed to each prophet and each nation were different. Each prophet was sent with the divine law or instructions to a particular nation. It was not valid to other nations or other generations. However, the beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) is the last messenger and seal of the all the prophets. Allah Almighty completed the Religion of Islam through him. Al Quran, the final scripture which was revealed to the beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) has the complete set of instructions to whole mankind until the Day of Judgment.

Accordingly, Islam is the complete religion which testifies all the previous prophets and believes in one God Almighty.

BASIS OF ISLAM

​​​​”La ilaha illallahu Muhammadur Rasoolullah”

Trans: There is no god but Allah, Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is the messenger of Allah.

According to the above statement, every Muslim must believe Allah Almighty as the one and only God and must worship him alone. Further, Muslims must believe Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as the final messenger of Allah and follow him in every aspects of life. Every Muslim should love Allah Almighty and his beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) more than his soul, parents, kids and anything. That is compulsory for every Muslim.

Also every Muslim must believe all the previous Prophets who were sent by Allah Almighty before to the beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Hence, Muslims believe, accept and respect all the Prophets like Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David and Jesus (Peace be upon them). But Muslims never worship them as what Jewish and Christians do, because they are not God but the prophets of God.

FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM

Five pillars are the five practices essential to every Muslims. If a person becomes a Muslim, these five practices become obligatory upon him, provided if he fulfills the certain conditions in case of certain practices.

1. Faith (Imaan or Kalima)

2. The Prayer (Salat)

3. The Fasting (Sawm)

4. The Compulsory Charity (Zakat)

5. The Pilgrimage (Hajj)

​♣ WHAT IS FAITH (IMAAN)?

Imaan is the base of Islam. Without Imaan whatever good deeds a person does, will not be accepted by Almighty Allah. We can see today many people feeding food to poor, caring orphans and orphanages, providing the medical and all types of assistance to needy. However, these all merits will be nullified due to his unbelief. If the pot is unclean, whatever Milk you pour into it also will become unclean.

Hence, every Muslim must believe 6 things in Islam. If he refutes to believe even one of them, he will not be considered as a Muslim.

♣ WHAT IS KALIMAH?

Kalimah is the statement (words) which testifies the belief of Islam. There are 5 kalimah in Islam.

1. Kalimah Thoiba

Laa ilaaha illallaahu Muhammadur Rasoolullaah

(Trans: There is no god but Allah, Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is the messenger of Allah)

2. Kalimah Shahaada

Ash-hadu an-laa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lahoo, wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan abduhoo wa rasooluh

(Trans: I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship besides Allah. He is alone. He has no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger)

3. Kalimah Thamjeed

Subhaanallaahi wal hamdulillaahi wa laa ilaaha illallaahu wallaahu Akbar, wa laa hawla walaa quwwata illaa billaahil aliyyil adheem

(Trans: Glory be to Allah. All praise be to Allah. There is none worthy of worship besides Allah and Allah is the Gratest. There is no power and might except from Allah, the Most High, the Great)

4. Kalimah Tawheed

Laa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lah. Lahul mulk, wa lahul hamd, yuhyiy wa yumeet biyadihil khayr wa huwa alaa kulli shay-in qadeer

(Trans: There is none worthy of worship besides Allah who is alone. He has no partner. For him is the Kingdom, and for Him is all praise. He gives life and causes death. In His hand is all good. And He has power over everything)

5. Kalimah Radd Kufr

Allaahumma inniy a’oodhu bika min an ushrika bika shay-an wa ana a’alamu bihi wa astaghfiruka lima laa a’alamu bih. Tubtu anhu wa tabarratu minal kufri wash-shirki wal kizbi wal ma’aasi kullihaa aslamtu wa aamantu wa aqoolu laa ilaaha illallaahu Muhammadur rasoolullah

(Trans: O Allah, surely I do seek refuge in You from knowingly associating any partner with You, I beg Your forgiveness for the sin from which I am not aware of, I repent it and I declare myself free from infidelity, polytheism (associating any partner with Allah), telling lies and all other sins. I accept Islam and believe and declare that there is none worthy of worship besides Allah and Muhammad [sallallaahu alayhi wasallam] is the messenger of Allah.

♣ SIX ARTICLES OF FAITH

​​1. BELIEF IN ALLAH

Allah is the unique name of God. Muslims prefer to use Allah rather than God. Allah is the only God, all-powerful and all-knowing creator, sustainer, ordainer and judge of the universe. He is unique (wahid) and inherently one (ahad), all-merciful and omnipotent.

Allah says in Al Quran about him:

(O Esteemed Messenger!) Proclaim: ‘He is Allah, Who is the One. Allah is the Transcendent of all, the Protector and Far-Superior to all. He has not begotten any, nor is He begotten. Nor is there anyone equal to Him.’

(Al Quran 112: 1-4)

It is the fundamental belief of the Muslims that Allah does not resemble anything. He does not have body, face, hands, legs or any other parts. But He sees without the eyes. He hears without the ears. He exists without a place. According to Al Quran, “No vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision. God is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things”

(Al Quran 6:103)

Allah created whole universe and all the creatures by his command “Kun” means “Be”. According to Al Quran,

“(He is the) Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decides a matter, He simply says to it: “Be”, and it comes to be.”

(Al Quran 2: 117)

Further Allah says that the purpose of human creation is to worship him.

“I did not create the Jinns and the human beings except for the purpose that they should worship Me.”

(Al Quran 51: 56)

There are 99 Names of Allah which is called as “al hasma al husnaa” means “The beautiful names”. Each of which evoke a distinct characteristic of Allah. All these names refer to Allah, the supreme and all-comprehensive divine name. Among the 99 names of God, the most famous and most frequent of these names are “the Merciful” (ar-raḥman) and “the Compassionate” (ar-raḥim).

​2. BELIEF IN ANGELS

Belief in the angels is the part of faith of Islam. The Arabic word for angel is malaak. Angels were created from light.

Hazrat Aa’ishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported:

“The Messenger of Allah (Peace and blessings be upon him) said: ‘The angels are created from light, just as the jinn are created from smokeless fire and mankind is created from what you have been told about.’”

(Book: Sahih Muslim)

Angels do not possess free will, and worship God in total obedience. Angels’ duties include communicating revelations from Allah Almighty, glorifying Allah Almighty, recording every person’s actions and taking a person’s soul at the time of death. They are also thought to intercede on man’s behalf.

The most important names of angels and their duties are listed below:

1. Jibril (Gabriel) (Peace be upon him)

Duty: Conveying revelation to the Prophets from Allah Almighty

2. Mikkail (Michael) (Peace be upon him)

Duty: Responsible for nature and delivering food

3. Israfil (Raphael) (Peace be upon him)

Duty : Responsible for blowing the trumpet on the Day of Judgment

4. Israel (Samael) (Peace be upon him)

Duty : Responsible for death (taking a life)

5. Ridwan (Peace be upon him)

Duty : Responsible for maintaining Paradise (Jannah)

6. Maalik (Peace be upon him)

Duty : Responsible for Hellfire (Jahannam)

7. Munkar (Peace be upon him)

8. Nakir (Peace be upon him)

Duty : Responsible for testing the faith of the dead in their graves. These angels will ask the soul of the dead person questions. If the person fails the questions, the angels make the man suffer until the Day of Judgment. If the soul passes the questions, he will have a pleasant time in the grave until the Day of Judgment.

9. Raqib (Peace be upon him)

10. Atid (Peace be upon him)

Duty : Responsible for recording a person’s good and bad deeds

​3. BELIEF IN SCRIPTURES

​Muslims believe that four Holy Scriptures were revealed by Allah Almighty to Messengers of Allah in various time periods. However, they believe that except Al Quran, all the previous books were distorted either in interpretation, text or both. Also Al Quran is the final scripture revealed by Allah Almighty for the entire people of universe.

The four books which were revealed by Allah Almighty are:

1. Tawrat – Revelaed to Prophet Musa (Moses) (Peace be upon him) – in Hibr language

2. Zabur – Revelaed to Prophet Dawud (David) (Peace be upon him) – in Greek language

3. Injil – Revelaed to Prophet Eissa (Jesus) (Peace be upon him) – in Syriac language

4. Al Quran – Revelaed to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) – in Arabic language

In addition to the above books, Allah Almighty revealed 110 Suhufs (Commandments) to various Prophets.

Prophet Adam (Peace be upon him) – 10

Prophet Sheeth (seth) (Peace be upon him) – 50

Prophet Idris (Enoch) (Peace be upon him) – 30

Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) (Peace be upon him) – 10

Prophet Musa (Moses) (Peace be upon him) – 10

4. BELIEF IN PROPHETS

Allah created the mankind and sent the prophets to every nation throughout the history to show the straight path to the mankind. They were sent with the message of Allah and showed mankind the right path that will lead them to Paradise and to salvation from Hell-fire. All the Prophets preached to their people about the message of Islam; i.e. Allah Almighty is the one and only God and submission to the will of God.

Each prophet was sent only for his respective nation except the last prophet, beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) who was sent to the entire world. The Holy Quran, the scripture which was revealed to him, is also Almighty’s last testament and it is the message for whole world.

Each Prophet taught his nation about the Oneness of Allah, power of Allah, what are the halal (permissible) and what are the haram (sinful) in the religion of Allah.

It is the Islamic belief that Adam (Peace be upon him) was the first man as well a Prophet and beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was the final Prophet. It is said that Allah has sent almost 124,000 Prophets to the entire world. However, 25 names of Prophets have been mentioned in Al Quran.

Names of Prophets mentioned in Al Quran:

1. Hazrat Adam (Peace be upon him)

2. Hazrat Idris (Peace be upon him)

3. Hazrat Nuh (Peace be upon him)

4. Hazrat Hud (Peace be upon him)

5. Hazrat Saleh (Peace be upon him)

6. Hazrat Ibrahim (Peace be upon him)

7. Hazrat Lut (Peace be upon him)

8. Hazrat Ismail (Peace be upon him)

9. Hazrat Ishaq (Peace be upon him)

10. Hazrat Yaqub (Peace be upon him)

11. Hazrat Yusuf (Peace be upon him)

12. Hazrat Ayyub (Peace be upon him)

13. Hazrat Shuayb (Peace be upon him)

14. Hazrat Musa (Peace be upon him)

15. Hazrat Harun (Peace be upon him)

16. Hazrat Dawud (Peace be upon him)

17. Hazrat Sulaiman (Peace be upon him)

18. Hazrat Ilyas (Peace be upon him)

19. Hazrat Alyasa (Peace be upon him)

20. Hazrat Yunus (Peace be upon him)

21. Hazrat Dhulkifl (Peace be upon him)

22. Hazrat Zakariya (Peace be upon him)

23. Hazrat Yahya (Peace be upon him)

24. Hazrat Eissa (Peace be upon him)

25. Hazrat Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)

(Read our book – Biography of Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)

​DIFFERENCE BETWEEN PROPHETS (NABI) AND MESSENGERS (RASOOL)

Messengers are the Prophets, but they were sent with new scriptures or new divine law to propagate to their nation while Prophets taught the previous established teachings to their nation. Hence, all the Messengers are the Prophets. But all the Prophets are not Messengers. It is said that Allah sent about 124,000 prophets to entire world throughout the history but out of them only 313 are messengers.

The Messengers are ranked more than the Prophets. The best of them are called, Ulul ‘Azm (Possessors of strong will and perseverance), in patience and enduring difficulties, who are five:

1. Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)

2. Prophet Eissa (Jesus) (Peace be upon him)

3. Prophet Musa (Moses) (Peace be upon him)

4. Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) (Peace be upon him)

5. Prophet Nuh (Noah) (Peace be upon him)

Some scholars consider Prophet Adam (Peace be upon him) is one of them, hence Ulul Azms are six. However, majority of scholars consider as five as stated above.

5. BELIEF IN “DAY OF JUDGEMENT”

Belief in the Day of Judgment is considered as a fundamental tenet of faith in Islam. Every human, whether Muslim or Non-Muslim, will die and be resurrected, be held accountable for their deeds and be judged by Allah Almighty accordingly.

During divine judgment, each person’s Book of Deeds, in which “every small and great thing is recorded”, will be opened. Throughout the judgment, the underlying principle is complete and perfect justice administered by Allah Almighty. Accounts of the judgment are also replete with the emphasis that Allah is merciful and forgiving, and that mercy and forgiveness will be granted on that day. Anyhow whoever did not accept Allah Almighty and his beloved Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in his lifetime and those who worshiped other than Allah Almighty will be sent to the Hell.

Since Allah Almighty says in Al Quran:

“Surely, Allah does not forgive setting up of partners with Him, and He forgives (any other sin) lesser in degree for whom He wills. And whoever sets up partners with Allah certainly fabricates a horrible sin”

Chapter: 4, Verse: 48

Further Allah Almighty says in Al Quran that even the smallest acts of the believers will not be wasted.

“So whoever does an atom’s weight of good shall see it and whoever does an atom’s weight of evil shall see it.”

Chapter: 99, Verse: 7-8

6. BELIEF IN DIVINE DECREE

Predestination is the sixth article of belief in Islam. In accordance with the Islamic belief in predestination, or divine preordainment (al-qadā wa’l-qadar), Allah has full knowledge and control over all that occurs. Nothing will happen without Allah’s willing.

This is explained in Qur’anic verses such as:

(O Beloved!) Say: ‘Never shall (anything) befall us but what Allah has decreed for us; He alone is our Protector. And in Allah alone the believers should put their trust.’

Chapter: 9, Verse: 51

Muslims should believe that everything in the world that occurs, good or evil, has been preordained and nothing can happen unless permitted by Allah Almighty. Although events are pre-ordained, man possesses free will in that he has the faculty to choose between right and wrong, and is thus responsible for his actions. According to the Islamic belief, all that has been decreed by Allah Almighty has been written in al-Lawh al-Mahfūz, the “Preserved Tablet”.

♣ WHAT IS PRAYERS?

It is the duty of every Muslim to pray five times a day. Prayers are intended to focus the mind on Allah, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. According to Islam, if a person offers the prayers, he will get merits and blessings of Allah Almighty, on the other hand, if he misses the prayers, he will get sins which will lead for the divine punishment.

​Followings are the names of those prayers.

1. Fajr — The dawn prayer: 2 raka’at

2. Dhuhr — The noon prayer: 4 raka’at

3. Asr — The afternoon prayer: 4 raka’at

4. Maghrib — The sunset prayer: 3 raka’at

5. Isha’a — The night prayer: 4 raka’at

The Jumu’ah (Friday prayer) consists of 2 raka’at and is prayed in place of the Dhuhr prayer on Friday.

♣ WHAT IS FASTING?

It is obligatory to every Muslim to fast during the month of Ramadan. That is, abstain from eating, drinking (including water), having sex and anything against Islamic law from dawn to dusk.

​♣ WHAT IS ZAKAT?

Zakat is the fixed portion of one’s wealth should be given as the Charity to the needy. Zakat, however, is not obligatory for all the Muslims, except those who exceed the limit of wealth, which is prescribed by the Islamic Jurisprudence.

​​​♣ WHAT IS HAJJ?

Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam. It is the pilgrimage to holy city of Makka, Saudi Arabia during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Makka at least once in his or her lifetime. Rituals of the Hajj include walking seven times around the Kaaba, touching the black stone if possible, walking or running seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah and symbolically stoning the Devil in Mina.

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SHARIAH & AQEEDAH & TASAWWUF

These three concepts all together make the religion complete. In other words, these three concepts ​are the three aspects of Islam.

SHARIAH​​​ 

​​​​​​​​Shariah is referred to the sacred Islamic Law. Muslims believe that Sharia is the law of Allah Almighty. ​It teaches what are the “do’s and don’ts” in Islam and what is lawful for a Muslim and what is not.

In simply, the Shariah is an outer law concerned with actions.

AQEEDAH

Aqeedah is the theology of Islam. Islamic theology has been tied up with the six articles of belief. ​Hence, if a person’s theology (Aqeedah) deviates from the fundamental accepted Islamic theology, ​then that person will not be considered as a person who is in righteous path, that is a true Muslim.

​​​​​

For example; It is the basic theology of Islam​ that Allah Almighty does not resemble anything, HE does not have body or shape. HE should not be worshiped as the form of an Idol. But if a Muslim considers that Allah Almighty has body, then it is contradictory to basic Islamic belief on Allah Almighty. Then that person will not be considered as a righteous person but is in misguidance. 

TASAWWUF (SUFISM)​​

​Tasawwuf (Sufism) is referred to the Spirituality, its objective is purifying the heart and turning it away from all else but Allah. This helps to draw closer to Allah Almighty and to more fully embrace the Divine Presence in the life.

In simply, the Tasawwuf is an inner law concerned with the human heart.

​​​Therefore, all these three concepts i.e Shariah, Aqeedah and Tasawwuf can be interpreted simply as follows:

The Shariah is an outer law concerned with actions, Aqeedah is the law concerned with the beliefs of Islam and the Tasawwuf is an inner law concerned with the human heart.

​​The outer law consists of rules pertaining to worship, transactions, marriage, judicial rulings, and criminal law. The inner law consists of rules about repentance from sin, the purging of contemptible qualities and evil traits of character, and adornment with virtues and good character.

SIMPLE EXAMPLE FOR SHARIAH – AQEEDAH – TASAWWUF

Prayers are one of the five pillars in Islam. Shariah teaches about the outer law of the prayers, such as what are the words to be recited, where should the hands be placed and what are the actions to be done during the prayers. Sharia laws neither talk about your concentration during the prayer nor the benefits that will be gained due to the pure remembrance of Allah Almighty during the prayers.

On the other hand, Tasawwuf teaches about the inner law of prayers such as how to pray with purified heart and how to have concentration on remembrance of Allah Almighty during the prayer. Tasawwuf teaches that the complete prayer is the prayer that is performed with purified heart and the pure concentration on remembrance of Allah Almighty.

Then again, Aqeedah teaches that how the belief of a person should be at the time of prayers. That is, his belief must be that he prays Allah Almighty, one & only God, HE neither have body nor shape. HE does not resemble anything. HE should never be formed as an idol. Likewise, all the matters of belief can be defined as the Aqeedah.

It can be said that these 3 concepts were arrived through a famous hadith:

​​​Hazrat Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) said:

“While we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him), one day a man came up to us whose clothes were extremely white, whose hair was extremely black, upon whom traces of travelling could not be seen, and whom none of us knew, until he sat down close to the Prophet (Peace be upon him), so that he rested his knees upon his knees and placed his two hands upon his thighs and said, ‘Muhammad, tell me about Islam.’ The Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said, ‘Islam is that you witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and you establish the prayer, and you give the Zakat, and you fast Ramadan, and you perform the hajj of the House if you are able to take a way to it.’ He said, ‘You have told the truth,’ and we were amazed at him asking him and [then] telling him that he told the truth. He said, ‘tell me about Imaan.’ He said, ‘That you affirm Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day, and that you affirm the Decree, the good of it and the bad of it.’ He said, ‘You have told the truth.’ He said, ‘Tell me about Ihsaan.’ He said, ‘That you worship Allah as if you see Him, for if you don’t see Him then truly He sees you.’

The hadith continues and finally the beloved Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said to Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) that the man who asked all these questions was Jibril (Gabriel), the angel.

(Related by Imam Muslim in his book – Sahih Muslim​)

According to the above hadith,

Islam, in other words Shariah, was interpreted through the practices of Islam. Imaan, in other words Aqeedah, was interpreted through the beliefs of Islam. Ihsaan, in other words Tasawwuf, was interpreted through the subject of Divine presence.

Hence, these three concepts together make the religion complete. So every action of a Muslim should be performed based on all these three concepts. For example, when a Muslim prays, he performed all the outer actions according to the Islamic shariah, but he did not remember Allah Almighty during the prayer. Even though according to Shariah, his prayers are valid, but it is not valid according to Tasawwuf, since there is no spirituality in his prayer. The main purpose of the prayer is remembering Allah Almighty. If he does not fulfill that purpose, then, there is no essence in his prayer. That is why, Tasawwuf is called as the Essence of Islam.

​Therefore, when a Muslim prays, he should properly perform all his actions according to the Islamic Shariah, same time, his heart and mind should be in the remembrance of Allah Almighty according to Tasawwuf. Then his prayers will be considered as perfect.

SOURCES OF SHARIAH (ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE)

Muslims follow the Shariah (Islamic Law) from two primary sources and two secondary sources.

(a) Primary sources:

1. Al Quran – The sacred scripture revealed from Allah Almighty to Beloved Prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings be upon him).

2. Al Hadith – The books containing “the words, actions and practices of Beloved Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and his tacit approval of something said or done in his presence.”

​(b) Secondray sources:

1. Ijma – The consensus of the scholars of Islam

2. Qiyas – The process of analogical reasoning

WHAT IS AL QURAN?

The sacred scripture revealed from Allah Almighty to Beloved Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) through Angel Gabriel (Peace be upon him) over a period of 23 years. It contains 114 chapters and approximately 6666 verses which explain the power of Allah, guidance for humanity and the historical events. This is the Holy Scripture for Muslims. This is not only the guidance for Muslims, but also for Non-Muslims too. When these verses were revealed, most of the companions memorized them and wrote down. Later it was compiled as a book in the governing period of Uthman ibn Affan (May Allah be pleased with him). Therefore, it does not contain any words of human like in other religious scriptures. It contains purely words of Almighty Allah. Neither scribal errors nor scientific errors could be found in Al Quran.

WHAT IS AL HADITH

“Al Hadith means the words, actions and practices of Beloved Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and his tacit approval of something said or done in his presence.”

Al Hadith is the second source for Islamic Jurisprudence. The Beloved Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) life is the practical explanation for the Divine Law. A person can not obey the religion without follow the path of our beloved Prophet Peace and blessings be upon him).

Simple example: It has been mentioned in Al Quran that the prayers are compulsory for every Muslim. However, how to pray, what are rules pertaining to the prayers, what are the benefits can be achieved through the prayers and what are the punishments for missing the prayers were not mentioned in Al Quran. Answers for all these questions can only be obtained from Al Hadith, that is, through the practices of beloved Prophet (Peace be upon him). Hence, following Al Hadith is the compulsory for a Muslim.

​There are six Hadith collections which are considered as the most authenticated books by Muslims.

(a) Sahih Al Bukhari

(b) Sahih Al Muslim

(c) Sunan Abu Dawood

(d) Sunan Al Tirmidhi

(e) Sunan Al Nasai

(f) Sunan Ibn Majah

However, there are many more hadith books available with the authenticated hadith of the Beloved Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him)

​WHAT IS IJMA

The great scholar Imam al-Shafi`i defines the ijma` thus in his Risala:

​The adherence of the congregation (jama`a) of Muslims to the conclusions of a given ruling pertaining to what is permitted and what is forbidden after the passing of the Prophet, Peace be upon him.

By “congregation of Muslims” he actually means the experts of independent reasoning (ahl al-ijtihad) and legal answers in the obscure matters which require insight and investigation, as well as the agreement of the Community of Muslims concerning what is obligatorily known of the religion with its decisive proofs.

Imam Shafi`i continues (Risala p. 253): “The Prophet’s order that men should follow the Muslim community is a proof that the Ijma` of the Muslims is binding.” Later on (p. 286) he quotes the hadith whereby the Prophet said: “Believe my Companions, then those who succeed them, and after that those who succeed the Successors. But after them falsehood will prevail when people will swear to the truth without having been asked to swear, and testify without having been asked to testify. Only those who seek the pleasures of Paradise will keep to the Congregation…” Shafi`i comments: “He who holds what the Muslim Congregation (jama`a) holds shall be regarded as following the Congregation, and he who holds differently shall be regarded as opposing the Congregation he was ordered to follow. So the error comes from separation; but in the Congregation as a whole there is no error concerning the meaning of the Qur’an, the Sunna, and analogy (qiyas).”

Beloved Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said:

“My community (ummah) will not agree on an error.”

Books – Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Musnad Ahmad

​WHAT IS QIYAS

It refers the process of analogical reasoning in which the teachings of the Hadith are compared and contrasted with those of the Qur’an, i.e., in order to make an analogy with a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. As a result of this method, the ruling of the Sunnah and the Qur’an may be used as a means to solve or provide a response to a new problem that may arise.

For example, Qiyas is applied to the injunction against drinking wine to create an injunction against cocaine use.

1. Identification of a clear, known thing or action that might bear a resemblance to the modern situation, such as the wine drinking.

2. Identification of the ruling on the known thing. Wine drinking is haraam, prohibited.

3. Identification of the reason behind the known ruling (‘illah). For example, wine drinking is haraam because it intoxicates. Intoxication is bad because it removes Muslims from mindfulness of God. This reason behind the reason is termed hikmah.

4. The reason behind the known ruling is applied to the unknown thing. For instance cocaine use intoxicates the user, removing the user from mindfulness of God. It is therefore prohibited.

 

 

SCHOOLS IN ISLAM

Schools referred to the teachings and opinions of various Islamic scholars on the matters of Islamic laws, spirituality and theology based on Al Quran and Al Hadith. In other words, the different view of various Islamic scholars on the various subject matters of Islam in the light of Al Quran and Al Hadith.

​DO SCHOOLS DIVIDE MUSLIM COMMUNITY?

​​No. Some people misunderstand that the schools divide the unity of our Muslim community. In fact, it is not. It should be understood that Division and Difference are two different terms. Division means one party tries to eradicate another party and claiming that others are in misguidance except themselves. But Difference is another term. A same subject can be viewed in different angles by different persons. But still each respects other’s point of view. This is called differences of opinions.

Differences among the schools in Islam are actually of enormous benefit to the Islamic world, rather than being damaging to it. Each scholar of different schools taught his own ijtihad (decision), but they never attempted to eradicate one another out of mutual hostility. Each scholar respected others.

Imam Abu Hanifah (May Allah be pleased with him) said: “Our thoughts consist of an opinion and are the best opinion we have. If someone else proposes a better opinion, then that one should be followed, rather than ours.”

As stated in the hadith, it is clear that a disagreement based on mutual respect will be a mercy and history confirms that this is indeed the case. The school’s disagreements were constructive, rather than destructive.

It was said that the beloved Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said:

“Difference of opinion in my Community is a mercy for people”

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​​♣ SCHOOLS OF JURISPRUDENCE (MADHAB)

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​WHAT IS MADHAB?​

​Madhab are the schools of Islamic Jurisprudence which are the opinions of great scholars of Islam based on Al Quran and Al Hadith. It is impossible for an illiterate to obtain the laws directly from Al Quran and Al Hadith for the critical issues or any new issues on Islamic jurisprudence. Since he does not possess that knowledge to do so. Thus, the Madhab are the explanations and laws written by the great scholars to resolve those issues.​

There are four Madhab followed by Muslims worldwide. Those are :

​​​1) The Hanafi school  – Founded by Imam Abu Hanifah (May Allah be pleased with him)

2) The Maliki school   – Founded by Imam Malik (May Allah be pleased with him)

3)The Shafi`i school    – Founded by Imam al-Shafi`i (May Allah be pleased with him)

4) The Hanbali school – Founded by Imam Hanbal (May Allah be pleased with him)

WHICH MADHAB DO I WANT TO FOLLOW?

There is no compulsory in selecting a particular madhab. Generally a person can follow one out of the above mentioned madhabs. It is a personal choice. Generally, Muslims prefer to follow the madhab which is largely followed in their region. For example, the people who live in North India, Pakistan, Egypt and some part of Arab world follow Hanafi Madhab. While Shafi’i madhab is followed in South India, Sri Lanka, Yemen, Palestine, Syria, Malaysia and Indonesia. Maliki Madhab is followed in North Africa, West Africa, UAE and Kuwait. Hanbali madhab is followed in Saudi Arabia, Qatar and some communities in Syria and Iraq.

Hence, there is no compulsory in selection. But if a person decides to follow a particular madhab, he should restrict to follow it alone. He should not change it time to time as he wants as he plays. Once he selected, he should start to learn the teachings (Islamic laws) of that madhab.

♣ SCHOOLS OF THEOLOGY (AQEEDAH)

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​​WHAT IS ISLAMIC THEOLOGY?​​

When the time of our beloved Prophet (peace be upon him), there was no need of any schools for the theology. Every one followed the same theology of our beloved Prophet (peace be upon him). After the time of Prophet (peace be upon him), lot of new groups were established with different and misguided theologies which were against to the accepted mainstream Islamic theologies.

Each of these misguided groups called themselves as Muslims and propagated their deviant theologies in the name of Islam. Then there was the need for the Muslims to establish the correct and accepted Islamic theologies and to instruct the illiterate Muslims about these deviant groups. As a true Muslim, it is our duty to know about these deviants and protect our Imaan (Faith) and Aqeedah (Theology)

The below mentioned misguided groups are presently active worldwide and real threaten to Islam. Therefore, Muslims should take extra precautions from falling in their trap.

1. Shia

2. Wahabi/Salafi

3. Khwarijite

4. Qadiyani

Holy Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said:

The Banu Isra’il divided into seventy-two sects and my ummah (nation) will divide into seventy-three sects. All of them will go into the Fire except one millat (sect). “The companions of Prophet asked (him), “Who are they, O Messenger of Allah”. He said, “(Who follow) what I am on and my companions (are on).

Book: Tirmidi – 2650

That one and only righteous sect is called, Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jam’ah. “Ahlus Sunnah” means the followers of the beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) and the the “Jama’ah” means congregation, that is, followers of the congregation of companions of Prophet. Both words were adopted from the above Prophetic hadith.

The followers of the righteous “Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jam’ah” sect are called “Sunni Muslims” or “mainstream Muslims”. They are the majority of Muslims in the world, representing 87% of total Muslim population.

Holy Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said:

Without doubt, my Ummah (nation) will never be gathered in misguidance. Whenever you see disagreement and then hold fast to the greater majority.”

Book: Ibn Majah

​​In terms of theology, there are two schools: 

1. The Maturidi school – Founded by Imam Maturidi (May Allah be pleased with him)

2. The Ash`ariyyah school – Founded by Imam Ash`ari (May Allah be pleased with him)

​These two schools are essentially one. However, they differ in terms of about forty matters. These differences, however, consist only matters of detail.

Therefore, the righteous Sunni Muslims follow the theology of Maturidi and Ash`ariyyah schools. Other theologies like Shia, Wahabism, Salafism, Khwarijitte are considered as misguided theology by Sunni Muslims.​

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♣ SCHOOLS OF SPIRITUALITY (SUFISM)​

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WHAT IS SUFISM?​

The schools of spirituality in Islam are called as “Tariqa” (The way). The main purpose of Tariqa is to attain Divine Presence through mystical learning from a spiritual teacher, spiritual practices and purifying the hearts.

One of the most famous companions of the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him), Hazrat Abu Huraira (May Allah be pleased with him) said:

“I have memorized two kinds of knowledge from Allah’s Apostle. I have propagated one of them to you and if I propagated the second, then my pharynx (throat) would be cut (i.e. killed).”

Book: Sahih al Bukhari Book 3, Number 121

From the above hadith, it can be understood that there are two types of knowledge which the beloved Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) has taught to his companions. One is explicit. That is, the teachings of Shariah (Islamic Jurisprudence). Another one is secret knowledge or implicit knowledge. It cannot be taught or learned through the books or materials. It is the knowledge from heart to heart. It is called the Spiritual Knowledge.

This spiritual knowledge was taught by the beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) to his companions personally or secretly. Then this knowledge was transmitted to the people of next generation from the companions through the spiritual teachings.

All the Tariqas have silsilas (chain, lineage). Almost all Tariqas except the Naqshbandi Tariqa has a silsila that leads back to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) through Sayyiduna Ali (May Allah be pleased with him). The Naqshbandi Silsila goes back to Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) through Hazrat Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with him)

Each Tariqa has a Murshid (guide or teacher) who is the spiritual teacher. The student or follower of a Tariqa is known as Murid. The student would take baiyat (oath of allegiance) in the hands of his teacher. Then, the teacher would guide the student through spiritual practices such as Dhikr (remembrance of Allah Almighty), teachings of spiritual knowledge and guiding him in the ethical disciplines. Through the guidance of his Murshid, a Murid should come more and more close to Almighty Allah by submitting his heart, soul and deed.

In terms of Spirituality, there are many schools. However, the most famous schools are: 

1. Qadriya – Founded by Seyyaduna Abdul Qadir Gilani

2. Rifa’iyya – Founded by Seyyaduna Ahmed Kabeer Rifai

3. Chistiyya – Founded by Seyyaduna Abu Ishaq Shami

4. Mehlavi – Founded by Seyyaduna Jalaluddin Rumi​

4. Naqshbandiyya – Founded by Seyyaduna Muhammad Baha ad-din an-Naqshabandi

5. Suhrawardiyya – Founded by Seyyaduna Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi

6. Shadhiliyya – Founded by Seyyaduna Abu-l-Hassan ash-Shadhili

WHICH TARIQA DO I WANT TO FOLLOW?

There is no compulsory in selecting a particular Tariqa. It is a personal choice of a person to choose any of these Tariqa. Generally, Muslims follow the same Tariqa of their forefathers. However, if a person finds a good spiritual teacher, then he can take baiyat (oath of allegiance) in the hands of that teacher and can follow his teachings in order to attain Divine closeness.

♣ WHO IS A PERFECT MUSLIM?

A perfect Muslim is a person who should be a complete and perfect follower of Shariah, Aqeedah and Tasawwuf together. In other words, he is the practicing Muslim who obeys and follows the words of Allah Almighty and beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) practically and spiritually.

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FUNDAMENTALS OF ISLAM BASIC TESTIMONIES 

It is in Hadith – Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said,  “the Faith (Iman)  is to believe in Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی ), His angels, (the) meeting with Him, His Apostles, and to believe in Resurrection.”(Bukhari). 

While teaching the fundamentals of Islam, people are generally taught(i) Iman-e-Mujmal (Abstract Declaration of Faith) (ii) Iman-e-Mufassil, (Detailed Declaration of Faith) and (iii)  Six Kalimas (Islamic Testimonies).  These were compiled by early Ahle Sunnah Scholars to facilitate easy memorization and learning of Islamic beliefs by students. 

 

Iman-e-Mujmal  (Abstract Declaration of Faith) 

امَنْتُ بِاللهِ كَمَا هُوَ بِاَسْمَائِه وَصِفَاتِه وَقَبِلْتُ جَمِيْعَ اَحْكَامِه   

Aamantu Billahe kama huwa be-Asmaaehi wa sifaatehi wa qabiltu jameeya ahkaamehi

(Meaning – I have faith in Allah سبحانہ و تعا لی  ), as He is known by His names and attributes, and I accept all His Commands.

Iman-e-Mufassil (Detailed Declaration of Faith)  

امَنْتُ بِاللهِ وَمَلئِكَتِه وَكُتُبِه وَرُسُوْلِه وَالْيَوْمِ الْاخِرِ وَالْقَدْرِ خَيْرِه وَشَرِّه مِنَ اللهِ تَعَالى وَالْبَعْثِ بَعْدَالْمَوْتِ  

Aamantu Billahe wa malaaekatehi wa kutubehi wa rusulehi walyawme al-aakheri wal-qadri khayrehi wa sharrehi min-Allahe Ta’ala wa al-ba’se ba’d al-mawt

(Meaning – I have faith in Allah سبحانہ و تعا لی )His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Day of Judgment, Fate and that all good and (apparent) Evil is from Allah ( سبحانہ و تعا لی) and it is sure that there will be Resurrection after death. 

      

1-SIX TESTIMONIES 

 

(1) Kalima-e-Tayyabah (Testimony of Purification)
 لا اله الا الله محمد رسول الله
La Ilaha Ill-Allahu Muhammed-ur-Rasoolu-Allah
(Meaning – There is no real (worshipable) God except Allahسبحانہ و تعا لی ) and Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is Allah’s Apostle.

 

 

(2) Kalima-e-Shahaadah (Testimony by Statement)
اشْهَدُ انْ لّآ اِلهَ اِلَّا اللّهُ وَحْدَه لَا شَرِيْكَ لَه، وَ اَشْهَدُ اَنَّ مُحَمَّدً اعَبْدُه وَرَسُولُه 
Ash-hadu al-laa ilaaha Ill-Allahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lahu, wa ash-hadu anna Muhammedan abduhoo wa Rasooluh
(Meaning – I testify that there is no real (worship-able) God except Allah سبحانہ و تعا لی ), the one only, without partner and I testify that Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is His servant and Apostle.
 
(3) Kalima-e-Tamjeed (Testimony of Glorification)
سُبْحَان اللهِ وَ الْحَمْدُ لِلّهِ وَ لآ اِلهَ اِلّا اللّهُ، وَ اللّهُ اَكْبَرُ  وَلا حَوْلَ وَلاَ قُوَّة ِ الَّا بِاللّهِ الْعَلِىّ الْعَظِيْم 
Subhaanallahe walHamdu lillahi wa laa ilaaha ill-Allahu wAllahu akbar; wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billah –ilAliy-ilAzeem
(Meaning – Glory be to Allah and praise to Allah  and there is no real god (worship-able) except Allah   and Allah  is the Greatest. And there is no might or power except with Allahthe Exalted, the Great One.
(4) Kalima-e-Tawheed (Testimony of Unification / monotheism)
 لا الهَ اِلَّا اللّهُ وَحْدَهُ لا شَرِيْكَ لَهْ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ  يُحْى وَ يُمِيْتُ  وَ هُوَحَىُّ  لَّا يَمُوْتُ اَبَدًا اَبَدًا  ذُو الْجَلَالِ وَ الْاِكْرَامِ   بِيَدِهِ الْخَيْرُ  وَهُوَ عَلى كُلِّ شَئ ٍ قَدِيْرٌ

La ilaaha ill-Allahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lahu, lah-ulMulk wa lah-ulHamdu yuhyee wa yumeetu wa huwa hayy ul-laa yamootu abadan abadaa; zulJalaali wal-Ikraami ; beyadehil-Khair; wa huwa alaa kulle shaeyin qadeer

(Meaning – There is no real god (worship-able) except Allahسبحانہ و تعا لی ). He is one and has no partner. To Him belongs the Kingdom and for Him is all praise.  He gives life and causes death, He is the exalted and most high. In His hand is all good and He has power over everything.)

 

(5) Kalima-e-Astaghfar (Testimony of Penitence)

 اسْتَغْفِرُ اللّهَ رَبِّىْ مِنْ كُلِّ ذَنْبٍ اَذْنَبْتُه عَمَدًا اَوْ خَطَاً سِرًّا اَوْ عَلَانِيَةً وَاَتُوْبُ اِلَيْهِ مِنْ الذَّنْبِ الَّذِىْ اَعْلَمُ وَ مِنْ الذَّنْبِ الَّذِىْ لا اَعْلَمُ اِنَّكَ اَنْتَ عَلَّامُ الغُيُبِ وَ سَتَّارُ الْعُيُوْبِ و َغَفَّارُ الذُّنُوْبِ وَ لا حَوْلَ وَلا قُوَّةَ اِلَّا بِاللّهِ الْعَلِىِّ العَظِيْم

Astaghferullaha rabbee min kulle zambin aznabtuhoo amadan aw khata-an sirran aw alaniyatan wa atoobu ilayhe min-azzambi-llazzee aalamu wa min-azzambi-llazzee laa aalamu innaka allaam-ulghuyoobi wa sattaar-uluyoobi wa ghaffaar-uzzunoobi wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billah-ilAliy-ilAzeem.

[Meaning – I seek forgiveness from my Lord, who is my Creator and Sustainer, from every sin I committed, knowingly or unknowingly, secretly or openly. I also seek His forgiveness for all sins which I am aware of or am not aware of. Certainly You (O’ Allah  سبحانہ و تعا لی ), are the Knowledgeable of the hidden and the Concealer of mistakes and the Forgiver of sins. And there is no power and no strength except with Allah, the Most High, the Most Great.)

 

(6) Kalima-e-Rud-e-Kuffr (Testimony of Rejecting Disbelief)

اَللّهُمَ اِنّىْ اَعُوْدُ بِكَ مِنْ انْ اُشْرِكَ بِكَ شَيئًا َّ وَاَنَا اَعْلَمُ بِه وَ اسْتَغْفِرُكَ لِمَا لا اَعْلَمُ بِه تُبْتُ عَنْهُ وَ تَبَرَّاْتُ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ وَ الشّرْكِ وَ الْكِذْبِ وَ الْغِيْبَةِ وَ الْبِدْعَةِ وَ النَّمِيْمَةِ وَ الْفَوَاحِشِ وَ الْبُهْتَانِ وَ الْمَعَاصِىْ كُلِّهَا وَ اَسْلَمْتُ وَ اَقُوْلُ لآ اِلهَ اِلَّا اللّهُ مُحَمَّدُ رَّسُوْلُ اللّهِ

Allahumma Innee aoozubeka min an ushreka beka shay-an wa ana aalamu behi wa astaghferuka lemaa laa aalamu behi tubtu anhu wa tabarra’tu minal-Kufri wash-shirki wal-Kizbi wal-geebati wal-bid’ati wan-nameemati wal-fawaheshi wal-buhtaani wal-ma’aasee kullihaa wa aslamtu wa aqoolu La Ilaha Ill-Allahu Muhammed-ur-Rasoolu-Allah

(Meaning – O’ Allah سبحانہ و تعا لی ! Certainly I seek your protection from that I associate partner with You anything and I know it. And I seek your forgiveness  for that I do not know it. I repent from it and I made myself free from disbelief and polytheism and the falsehood and the back-biting and the innovation and the tell-tales and the bad deeds and the blame and the disobedience, all of them. And I submit and I say there is no real (woshipable) god except Allah  سبحانہ و تعا لی and Mohammad صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم  is the Apostle of Allah.)

2-PRAYER (NAMAZ)

صلاح في ضوء الأحاديث

SALAH IN THE LIGHT OF AHADITH

Often a question is posed by Salafi Sky Idol God worshipers to Muslims: “Do you follow the Deen of Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.) or theDeen of Mohammad Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)?” “Obviously the Deen of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam),” comes the instant reply. The second question they pose  is: “Why then do you call yourself a Hanafi?”  The person who is not well versed in religious issues gets confused.  Then Salafis create doubts in the minds of innocent Muslims abandoning following of Imams of Fiqh viz., Imam Abu Hanifa (RA), Imam Shafi’e (RA), Imam Malik (RA) and Imam ahmad bin Hanbal (RA). Salafis try to create a misconception in the minds of the innocent Muslims.

The Following of Imams of Fiqh

The question that arises here is that why then should one follow any of the four Imams? This can be answered by posing a counter-question: “Do you know all the various laws of Deen? Are you capable of extracting and deriving the laws pertaining to wudu, salah, zakah, etc., directly from the Qur’an and Hadith? Do you have the ability to reconcile between the various Ahadith? If one does not have the knowledge of these aspects, then one definitely does not have the ability to derive the laws directly from the Qur’an and Hadith. In that case the following aayah applies directly to oneself: “Ask those of knowledge if you do not know.” (43:7) When we do not have the required amount of knowledge and expertise that is necessary to derive the laws directly from the Qur’an and Hadith, we have opted to follow one of those great people who had attained that distinguished mastery in this field, among whom is Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.).

Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.) is a Tabi’i (one who has seen a Sahabi). He attained the knowledge of Hadith from approximately 4000 teachers. His piety was such that for 40 years he performed fajr salah with thewudu of Isha salah (i.e. he did not sleep the entire night) [Tareekhul Baghdad]. His knowledge, brilliance and righteousness was such that all the great scholars of his time attested to his mastery. Thus one can be well assured that such a person is absolutely capable of deriving the laws directly from the Qur’an and Hadith.

Another reason for adopting one of the Imams as a guide is the following aayah of the Qur’an: Allah Ta’ala says: “And follow the path of those who turn to me” (31:15).  In order to “turn” to Allah Ta’ala, two aspects are basic requisites — knowledge and practicing according to that knowledge. In this regard the four Imams were in an extremely high category. Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.) was regarded by variousUlama of his time as being the most knowledgeable of the people of that era (footnotes of Tahdheebut Tahdheeb vol. 1 pg. 451). Makki bin Ibrahim, who was one of the renowned teachers of Imam Bukhari (R.A.), was a student of Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.). Imam Abu Hanifa (R.A.) compiled a book of Hadith entitled “Kitabul Aathaar” from among 40,000 Ahadith. Thus those who follow such a guide can be satisfied that they are strictly following the commands of Allah Ta’ala and His Rasul (sallallahu alaihi wasallam).

Differences of Opinions

At this point somebody may ask: “If all the Imams deduced the laws directly from the Qur’an and Hadith, how is it possible for them to differ on various aspects?” In order to understand the reality of these differences, we will have to go back in history right upto the time of the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhum).

Once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) had just returned from a battle when he ordered the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhum) to immediately proceed to the place of Banu Quraizah — a clan of Jews who lived on the outskirts of Madina Munawwarah. The purpose was to lay a siege upon them for having broken the pact that they had made with the Muslims. In order to impress the urgency of the matter upon the Sahaaba (R.A.), Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said to them: “None of you should perform your salah al-Asr except in Banu Quraizah.” While the Sahaaba (R.A.) were still en-route, the time of Asrarrived. Some Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhum) felt that they should perform their Asr immediately. They regarded the instruction of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) as actually being a command to proceed very swiftly to their destination. It did not imply that the Asr salah could not be performed en-route. They thus performed their salah there. Another group of Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhum.) viewed the instruction literally. They therefore continued and only performed their Asr salah after having reached Banu Quraizah. Later when Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) was informed about this, he did not rebuke either group. [Sahih Bukhaari]

Thus we find that the difference arose from a point of interpretation. However, this difference of interpretation is only entertained when it comes from a person who has in-depth knowledge of Deen and has attained a mastery in the Qur’an and Hadith and the other related aspects. At times a difference of opinion occurs due to the different narrations that are found with regards to a particular aspect. One Imam gives preference to one narration on the basis of various criteria while the other Imam, in the light of his knowledge, prefers the other narration. This is basically the manner in which these differences occur. However, just as Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) did not rebuke either of the two groups in the incident mentioned above, similarly since the Imams have attained the status of a mujtahid (one who is capable of deriving the laws directly from the Qur’an andHadith), they will not be blame worthy.

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: “When ahaakim (ruler) passes judgement, and after having exerted his utmost effort he arrives at the correct solution, he gets a double reward. And if he errs after having exerted his utmost ability, he gets one reward.” (Bukhari vol. 2 pg. 1092). Ibn al-Munzir (R.A.) while commenting on this Hadith writes that a ruler will only get this reward if he has thorough knowledge and in the light of his knowledge he passed judgement. (see footnotes of Sahih Bukhari). The four Imams had the ability and necessary knowledge to practice ijtihaad. Thus they fall under the ambit of this Hadith.

Following One Imam Only

Another point that often comes up is the following: Why is it necessary to follow one Imam only? Why can one not follow a certain Imam in one aspect and another Imam in another aspect? The simple answer to this is: On what basis will one pick and choose, especially since one does not have the knowledge required to derive the laws. Thus one will not be in a position to evaluate the deductions of each Imam. Hence it will obviously be on the basis of what suits one. This is nothing but following one’s desires — regarding which Allah Ta’ala has issued severe warnings in the Qur’an. Following one’s desires sometimes even leads a person to kufr. Thus great jurists of latter times, among them Shah Waliullah (R.A.), have reaffirmed that it is wajib for the masses to follow one Imam only.

Authenticity of Ahadith

Here one more point needs clarification with regards to the authenticity of Ahadith. The general masses are made to believe that aHadith is only authentic if it is related in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. This is a misconception. The authenticity of the Hadith is based on its chain of narrators, irrespective of whether it appears in any one of the Sihah Sitta (the famous six authentic compilations ofHadith) or in any other compilation besides these.   The Hanafi madhhabis derived directly from the Qur’an and Hadith, like all the othermadhhabs.

The differences between the Imams are based on the different narrations or the difference of interpretation. However, all the Imams have their proofs from the Qur’an and Sunnah. Thus it is the duty of every person, while strictly following his Imam, to respect and honor the other Imams and their followers.

 

WUDU

 

The Masnoon Method Of Wudu

Hazrat Usman (radhiallahu anhu) once asked: “Should I not show you the manner in which Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performed his wudhu?” Thereafter he performed wudhu in such a manner that he washed every limb thrice. [Sahih Muslim, ch. on wudhu, Hadith 23]

Masah (passing wet fingers) Over The Nape.

Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said: “Whoever performs wudu and makesmasah over his nape, he will be saved from wearing a necklace (of fire) around his neck on the the day of judgement”. The famous commentator of Sahih al-Bukhari, Allamah Ibn Hajar Asqalaani (R.A), writes in his book Talkheesul Habeer (vol. 1: p.92) that this narration isSahih. Allamah Shawkani (R.A.) has also affirmed this in Naylul Awtaar(vol. 1, p.204).

Performing Masah Over Ordinary Socks

It is not permissible to make masah over ordinary socks (cotton, woollen, nylon, etc. — i.e. all socks other than leather socks) in wudhu. There is no authentic narration sanctioning this practice. Even high ranking Salafi scholars (those who do not prescribe to taqleed) have refuted this practice and declared it as impermissible. (see fatawa Nazeeriah; 1:423).

 

 

 

SALAH

 

Prescribed Times For The Five Daily Salah

Hazrat Abu Huraira (radhiallahu anhu) narrates: “When the length of your shadow (from the sun) is equal to your height then perform thezuhr salah. When the length of your shadow becomes twice your height, perform the asr salah. Perform the maghrib salah when the sun has set. Perform the esha salah before one-third (1/3) of the night passes. And perform the fajr salah while it is still dark.” [Muwatta Imam Maalik vol.1, pg.8, Hadith 9]

Masnoon Time For Zuhr Salaah

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) has said: “When the heat becomes very intense (after mid-day), then delay the zuhr salah until it cools down, for verily the intensity of the heat is from the effects ofJahannam“. [Sahih MuslimHadith 615]

Masnoon Time For Asar

It was the noble habit of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) that he used to delay the performance of asar so long as the sun remained white and clear. [Abu Daud; Waqtul Asr]

Masnoon Time For Fajar

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: “Perform the fajar salah when the sky brightens at the time of dawn (i.e. before sunrise) since this is a means of earning greater reward. [Tirmidhi,Hadith 154]

Imam Tirmidhi explains that the majority of the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhum) used to perform fajar salah at this time (i.e. when the sky had brightened up).

Masnoon Method Of Iqaamah

Hazrat Bilal (radhiallahu anhu), Rasulullah’s (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)muazzin, used to call out the words of azaan and iqaamah twice. (ThisHadith is classified as Sahih — Musannaf Abdur Razzaak; see Aathaarus Sunan v.1, pg. 53)

The muazzins of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), Abu Mahzoora (radhiallahu anhu) and Thaubaan (radhiallahu anhu) also used to call out the azaan and iqaamah in the above mentioned manner (i.e. by saying the words twice). Allama Shawkani (R.A.) has affirmed the authenticity of the above narrations in Naylul Autaar, (vol.2. pg.24.)

Covering of the Head During Salaah

Ibn Umar (R.A.) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) wore a white hat. (Tabarani — Allama Suyuti has classified this Hadith as highly authentic: see Sirajul Muneer; v.4, pg.112). It is written inFataawa Thunaaiyya vol. 1, pg. 525), and in the Fatawaa of the Ahle Hadith Scholars (vol. 4 pg.291) that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) always used to keep his mubarak head covered during salah. In the same books it is also mentioned that to intentionally remove the headgear (hat) and perform salah bare-headed is contrary to the sunnah. (vol. 1, pg.523.)

To Raise the Hands upto the Earlobes

Hazrat Qataada (radhiallahu anhu) relates that he saw Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performing his salah. He relates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to lift his hands until they were in line with his earlobes. [Sahih Muslim, ch. on Istihbaabur Raf’, Hadith 391]

To Tie the Hands Beneath the Navel

Hazrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) relates that the sunnah of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is to place one hand over the other below the navel. [Abu Daud, ch. on Wad’ul Yumna, Hadith 756]

The above-mentioned method of tying the hands is also related by Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu).

Reciting Bismillah Softly

Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) states, “I have performed congregationalsalah behind Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam), Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthmaan (radhiallahu anhum) and I did not hear any one of them reciteBismillahir rahmaan nir raheem” [Sahih Muslim, Hadith 399]

Imam Tirmidhi (R.A.) states that the majority of the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) also used to recite Bismillah softly.

The Muqtadi (follower) Should Listen and Remain Silent

Allah Ta’aala says: “When the Qur’an is being recited then listen attentively and remain silent so that mercy will be showered upon you“.

Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud, Abu Hurairah, Abdullah Ibn Abbas and Abdullah Ibn Mughaffal (radhiallahu anhum) state that this verse of the Quran was revealed with regards to the Khutba (of Juma’ah) and with regards to Salah. [Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. 1 pg. 281]

The dictates of this verse of the Holy Qur’an is that when the Imamrecites the Qur’an aloud, the followers should listen attentively, and when he recites softly, the followers should remain silent.

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: “When you begin your congregational prayers, straighten your rows. Thereafter when the Imam says the takbeer (i.e. when he says Allahu Akbar aloud) you must also say the takbeer. However, when he begins the recital of the Qur’an, you must remain silent. And when he reciteswalad daalleen then you should say Ameen“. By performing your salah in this manner Allah Ta’ala will love you.” [Muslim; ch. on tashahhud]

(A similar Hadith has been narrated by Abu Hurairah (radhiallahu anhu)-Imam Muslim has attested to its authenticity; ibid).

The muqtadi Must Not Recite Surah Fatiha

It is reported from Hazrat Ataa Ibn Yasaar (radhiallahu anhu) that he questioned Hazrat Zaid Ibn Thaabit (radhiallahu anhu) concerning reciting Qira’at with the Imam. Hazrat Zaid (radhiallahu anhu) answered: “There is no recitation of the Glorious Qur’an in any salahbehind the Imam“. [Sahih Muslim, chapter on Sujood-ut-Tilaawah, Hadith 577]

The Qiraat of the Imam SUFFICES for the Muqtadi

Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) used to repeatedly say: “Whoever performs salah behind the Imam, the Imam’s qiraat suffices for him”. (Sunan Baihaqi; chapter on not reciting qiraat behind the Imam — Imam Baihaqi (R.A.) has stated that this Hadith is Sahih.)

The Person Performing salah Individually Must Recite Surah Fatiha, Not the Muqtadi

Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) was asked: “Must themuqtadi recite behind the Imam?” He replied that the qiraat of the Imamis sufficient for the muqtadi. But if he performs salah individually, then he must recite qiraat. It was the practice of Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) also that he would not recite surah fatiha behind theImam. (In Aathaarus Sunan (Vol. 1 pg.89) this Hadith has been classified as sahih).

Hazrat Jaabir (radhiallahu anhu) narrates that the one who does not recite sura fatiha even in one rakat, his salah is not valid. However, if he is behind an Imam he must not recite surah fatiha. (This Hadith has been classified as hasan — Tirmizi – ch. on not reciting behind the Imam). It is on the basis of this Hadith that Imam Tirmidhi (R.A.) has narrated from Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal (R.A.) [who was the teacher of the ustad of Imam Bukhari (R.A.)] that the narration “Whoever does not recite surah fatiha his salah is not complete” refers to one who performs his salahalone. It does not include the muqtadi (Jami’ Tirmidhi). In the aboveHadith it is very clearly mentioned that the muqtadi must not recite sura fatiha.

“Aameen” Must be said softly

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: “Do not hasten before the Imam! When he says the takbeer, then you should do the same. When he recites Walad daalleen, then you should say Aameen. When he makes ruku’ then you should make ruku’. And when he sayssami’-Allahu liman hamidah then you should say Allahumma Rabbana wa lakal hamd“. [Sahih Muslim, Hadith 415]

With regards to the saying of Ameen this narration is very clear and explicit. Like in the case where the Imam says Allahu Akbar and sami’-Allahu liman hamidah aloud, but all the followers say “Allahu Akbar“and “Rabbana lakal hamd” softly. In the same manner when the Imam recites “walad daalleen” aloud, the followers should say Aameen softly. It is also reported from Abu Ma’mar that Umar (radhiallahu anhu) used to say: “The Imam will recite four things softly-Ta’awwuz, Bismillah, Aameen and Rabbana Lakalhamd” (Aini Vol. 1 pg. 620)

Raising the Hands (upto the shoulders) During Salaah

Hazrat Jaabir Ibn Samurah (radhiallahu anhu) relates that once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) came out of his house towards us and said: “Why is it that I see you all raising your hands as though they are the tails of stubborn horses. Be tranquil in salah“. [Sahih Muslim, Hadith 430]

This hadith alone makes it clear that those narrations which mention the raising of the hands (during the salah) were narrated prior to the prohibition of this practice.

Proof from the PRACTICE of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)

Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (radhiallahu anhu) said: “Shall I not show you the manner in which Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performed his salah?” Thereafter he performed the salah but he did not raise his hands except at the beginning (of his salah). [Tirmidhi, Hadith no.257] This Hadith is classified Hasan. Ibn Hazm (R.A.) has declared it as sahih. Ahmed Shakir (R.A.) has also declared it as sahih.

Proof from the Practice of the Sahaabah (radhiallahu anhum)

It is related that Hazrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) used to raise his hands at the time of the first Takbeer (during his salah). Thereafter he did not raise them. [Sunanal Bayhaqi]

(The commentator of Bukhari Shareef, Allama Ibn Hajar, Allama Zayla’i and Allama ‘Aini (R.A.) have said that this narration and its chain of narrators is Sahih)

One should take note of the fact that the practice of Hazrat Umar, the remaining Khulafa-e-Raashideen, Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud and many more Sahaabah (radhiallahu anhu) was the same, that they only raised their hands at the time of the first takbeer. Imam Tirmidhi (R.A.) also states that this was the practice of a great number of the Sahabah (radhiallahu anhum).

 

Jalsatul Istiraaha – Sitting briefly After The 2nd Sajdah Of The First Or Third Rakaat

In a narration from the ibn Sahl (radhiallahu anhu) it is mentioned that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said the takbeer and simultaneously went into sajdah. Then he said the takbeer and simultaneously stood up erect without sitting. [Abu Daud, Hadith no. 966]

Imam Bayhaqi (R.A.) has recorded in his Sunan that this was the practice of Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (radhiallahu anhu). Allama Zayla’i (R.A.) has recorded in Nasabur Raayah that the same procedure was the practice of Hazrat Umar, Ali, Abdullah Ibn Zubeir and Abdullah Ibn Abbaas (radhiallahu anhu). (vol. 1, pg. 289)

Likewise Turkumani has recorded in Jauharun Naqi regarding several Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) that it was their practice that after the first and third rakat they would stand up straight from sajdah without sitting. (vol. 1, pg. 125)

Tashahhud

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: “When you sit during salah (for Qa’dah Akheerah, the last Qa’dah) read the following:-

“All oral, physical and monetary worship is due to Allah alone. Salutations to you ‘O Nabi (Ya Nabi), and the mercy and blessings of Allah be upon you. Peace be upon us and upon all the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that none is worthy of worship besides Allah and that Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is his servant and messenger.)

Thereafter he would choose from the supplications whatever he wished.”

[Sahih Muslim, Hadith no. 402; Sahih Bukhari, chapter on Tashahhud].

Rasing the Index Finger During Tashahhud

It is narrated that when Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to sit down to supplicate, (to recite tashahhud) he used to place his right hand on his right thigh and his left hand on his left thigh. He would indicate at the time of reciting the shahadah by raising his index finger. He would also join the ends of his thumb and middle finger (thereby forming a circle). [Sahih Muslim, chapter on the description of sitting-Hadith no.579]

Darood Sharif

The Sahaabah-e-Kiraam (radhiallahu anhum) inquired from Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) as to which durood should they recite (duringsalah). Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) replied: “Recite the following durood– Allahuma salli `ala Muhammadin wa `ala ali Muhammadin kama sallata `ala Ibrahim wa `ala ali Ibrahim. Innaka hameedun majeed.  wa barik Allahuma `ala Muhammadin wa `ala ali Muhammadin kama barakta `ala Ibrahim wa `ala ali Ibrahim. Innaka hameedun majeed.

(trans: O Allah shower your mercy upon Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and the family of Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) as you have showered your mercy upon Ibrahim (A.S.) and the family of Ibrahim (A.S.). Behold, you are Praiseworthy, Glorious. O Allah shower your blessings upon Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and the family of Muhammad (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) as you have showered your blessings upon Ibrahim (A.S.) and the family of Ibrahim (A.S.). Behold, you are Praiseworthy, Glorious.

Raising Both the Hands and Making Dua

It is narrated that Abdullah Ibn Zubair (radhiallahu anhu) saw a man raising his hands and making dua before completing his salah. When the person had completed his salah, Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Zubair (radhiallahu anhu) went up to him and said: “Verily, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to only raise his hands and make duaafter completing his salah” (the narrators of this Hadith are all trustworthy — Majmauz Zawaaid, vol. 1, pg. 169).

It is also mentioned in the Fataawa of Ahle Hadith (vol. 1, pg.190) as well as in Fatawa Nazeeriyya (vol. 1, pg. 566) that in the light of the Sharia, the dua after salah is an authentically established practice and it ismustahab to do so.

Sunnats BEFORE Salaat al-Zuhr

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) has said: “Whoever performs fourrakats before the fardh of zuhr and four rakats after it, Allah Ta’aala will make him haraam upon the fire of Jahannam“. [Tirmidhi, Hadith no. 428]

Sunnats BEFORE Salaat al-Asr

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) has said: “May Allah show mercy upon that person who performs four rakats before the fard of `asr“. [Tirmidhi, chapter on the narrations regarding the four rakats, Hadith no. 430]

Sunnats of Salaat al-Maghrib

Hazrat Abu Ma’mar (radhiallahu anhu) has said that the Sahaabah (radhiallahu anhum) used to consider 4 rakats after the Fardh of maghribto be mustahab. [Qiyaamul-Layl of Marwazi pg.58]

4 Rakaats Before Salaat al-Isha

Hazrat Sa’eed Ibn Jubair (radhiallahu anhu) narrates that the Sahaabah (radhiallahu anhum) used to regard the performing of four rakats before the fardh of isha as mustahab. [ibid. pg.58]

Three Rakaats of Witr

Hazrat A’yesha (radhiallahu anha) is reported to have said (with regards to the tahajjud salah of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam): “He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) never used to perform more than elevenrakats, whether in Ramadhan or out of Ramadhaan. Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) would perform long rakats in two units of four rakats each with such excellence and devotion which cannot be described. Thereafter he would perform three rakats of witr salah“. [Sahih Muslim, chapter on salatul layl, Hadith 738]

Reciting Qunoot Before Ruku’

Hazrat Aasim (radhiallahu anhu) narrates: “I inquired from Hazrat Anas Ibn Malik (radhiallahu anhu) concerning the qunoot of witr. He affirmed its occurrence in the witr salah. Then I asked whether it should be recited before the ruku or after it. He replied: “It should be recited before the ruku“. I then informed him of a certain person who had heard him (Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) saying that it should be recited after ruku. Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) most vehemently denied this”. Furthermore he said: “Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) recited the qunoot after the ruku for only one month.(referring to the qunootun naazilah)” [Sahih Bukhari, chapter on qunoot before ruku].

In Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah it is mentioned that for this very reason the Sahaaba-e-Kiraam (radhiallahu anhum) used to recite the qunootbefore ruku.

Allaama Ibn Hajar (R.A.) writes in his commentary on Bukhari, Fath al-Bari that after analysing all these narrations we learn that it was the normal practice to recite the qunoot before ruku.

However on certain occasions (such as the befalling of a calamity, etc.) the qunoot would be recited after ruku. (vol. 1, pg. 291)

Salaam Should Be Made at the End of the Witr salah

Hazrat A’yesha (radhiallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to perform three rakats witr without making salamin between (i.e. after two rakats.) [Zadul Ma’aad, pg.110]

Allama Ibn Hajar (R.A.) writes in Fathul Baari, the commentary onSahih Bukhari, that Hazrat Ubay Ibn Ka’b, Hazrat Umar, Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud and Anas Ibn Malik (radhiallahu anhum) used to make salam at the end of three rakats witr, not in between. (vol. 1, pg. 291)

Two Rakaats Sunnah of Fajr

It is narrated that once Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (radhiallahu anhu) reached the masjid whilst the Imam was leading the salah of fajr with the congregation. Hence, since he had not as yet performed the tworakats sunnah of fajr, he stood behind one of the pillars of the masjid and performed it (while the jama’ah was in progress). Thereafter he joined the jamaat. [Majmauz-Zawaaid, vol. 1, pg. 75]

This was also the practice of Abdullah Ibn Abbas, Abu Dardaa and Uthmaan (radhiallahu anhum).

Qada of the Two Rakaats Sunnah of Salaat al-Fajr

Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) is reported to have said: “Whoever did not perform the sunnah of fajr should perform it after the sun rises”. [Tirmidhi, Hadith no. 423]

In the Muwwatta of Imam Malik (R.A.) it is narrated that this was also the practice of Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu).

 

Salaat al-Tarawih During The Lifetime Of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam)

It is narrated that one night during Ramadhaan Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) performed salat al-tarawih in the masjid. A group of Sahaabah joined him during his salah. The following night the same happened as the previous night except that the number of followers had increased considerably. Hence on the third (or fourth) night Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) did not come out to the masjid to perform salat al-tarawih with the people. The following morning he said to them: “Indeed I had seen your eagerness (to perform the tarawihbehind me), but for the fear that this salah will be made fardh(compulsory) upon you during Ramadhaan, I did not come out to join you in the tarawih“. [Muslim, Hadith no.761]

Salaat al-Tarawih During the Period of the Rightly-Guided Khulafa’ (TWENTY RAKAATS)

Hazrat Yazeed Ibn Ruman (radhiallahu anhu) narrates that during thekhilaafah of Hazrat Umar (radhiallahu anhu) the Sahaabah used to perform twenty rakats tarawih and three rakats witr salah (with jama`at). [Muwwatta Imam Maalik, chapter concerning standing in salah duringRamadhaan]

During the khilafah of Abu Bakr (radhiallahu anhutarawih with jamaatwas not in vogue. The practice of performing twenty rakats with jamaat in every night of Ramadhaan and the completion of the entire Quraan began only during the the khilafat of Hazrat Umar (radhiallahu anhu). All the Sahaabah present had agreed upon this practice. From then onwards including the Khilafah of both Hazrat Uthmaan and Hazrat Ali (radhiallahu anhu) upto this day the Muslim Ummah has followed this practice.

Twenty rakats tarawih is also performed in both the Masjids of Makkah and Madinah upto the present time. However, it is tragic that in recent times Salafis and their like minded groups have conflicted with the consensus of the Sahaabah (radhiallahu anhum) and the rest of the Ummah with regards to the number of rakats in Tarawih salah.

The Takbeers Of Salaat al-Eid

Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari (radhiallahu anhu) was asked regarding the number of takbeers that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say in both the Eid salahs. He replied: “He (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) used to say four takbeers (in every rakat), in the same way as he used to say the takbeers in the salat al-Janaaza“. Hazrat Hudhaifa (radhiallahu anhu) also confirmed this practice of Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam). [Abu Dawud, Hadith no. 1153]

Imam Tirmidhi (R.A.) has also recorded several narrations of similar meaning from Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud and other Sahaabah-e-Kiraam (radhiallahu anhum).

Distance Of Shar’i Safar (Travel in the Shariah)

It is narrated that Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar and Abdullah Ibn Abbas (radhiallahu anhu) would perform Qasr salah and that they would also make iftaar (i.e. they would not fast) whenever they travelled the distance of four burud. Four burud is sixteen farsakh i.e. 48 miles. [Bukhari, chapter regarding the distance upon which one will performQasr salah].

It is mentioned in Fatawa Thunaiyya that the majority of theMuhadditheen say that 48 miles is the correct distance of Shar’i travel (safar). Nine miles is incorrect. (vol.1, pg.482)

The Duration Of Time Pertaining To Qasr

Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiallahu anhu) stated that whoever intends to stopover at any place along his journey for fifteen days (or more), he should perform his salah fully (i.e. he should not performQasr salah.) [Tirmidhi, Hadith no. 548]

Manner of standing in the rows of the jama`ah

It is established from several ahadith that the row should be absolutely straight and no gaps should be left between the worshippers. However, some people insist on spreading their feet and standing in such a manner that their ankles touch the ankles of their neighbour. What is the reality of standing in this fashion?

Those who stand in this way base their practice upon a hadith narrated by Nu’maan bin Basheer (radhiallahu anhu). He says: “Once Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) faced us and said: “Straighten your rows”. He repeated this thrice. He then said: “By Allah, you must most certainly straighten your rows or else Allah Ta’ala will disunite your hearts”. Hazrat Nu’maan bin Basheer (radhiallahu anhu) says: “I then saw the people joining together their shoulders and ankles”. [Abu DawoodSahih ibn Khuzaima]

The concluding statement of Hazrat Nu’maan (radhiallahu anhu) is also reported in Sahih Bukhari.

However, upon analysing this hadith, several points come to light:Firstly, Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) never commanded the joining of the ankles. No hadith has yet been found wherein Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) himself instructed the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) to join their ankles. The Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) had themselves adopted this manner in order to fulfil the command of straightening the saffSecondly, this hadith clearly mentions that Nu’maan bin Basheer (radhiallahu anhu) saw the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) doing this PRIOR to the commencement of the salah. There is no mention of this position being maintained even after the salah had commenced. Therefore we find that great muhadditheen such as Hafiz ibn Hajar (R.A.) and Allama Shawkani (R.A.) have regarded this as an extreme measure which was occasionally adopted by the Sahaaba (radhiallahu anhu) to ensure that the row is straight.

In fact, a hadith of Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) makes it absolutely clear that this practice was merely a measure adopted BEFORE thesalah to ensure the straightening of the row. He says: “If I had to do that (join the ankles) with anyone of them (the tabi’een) today, they would run like wild mules”. [Fath al-Bari, vol.2, pg.176]

This simply means that the taabi’een severely disliked that anybody should join their ankles with them. Several points are understood from this: Firstly, Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) had stopped doing this completely. Had this been a sunnah and not just a manner of ensuring that the saff was straight, it is impossible that Hazrat Anas (radhiallahu anhu) would have left it out merely upon somebody disliking it.

Secondly, the taabi’een would never have disliked it if they had observed many of the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) continuously practicing upon this. It was only due to the fact that they had not generally observed the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) adopting this procedure that they disliked it. Hence this makes it crystal clear that the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) had only occasionally adopted this practice to ensure the straightening of the saff. It was not a sunnah in itself, otherwise they would never have left it out.

It has already been made clear that Rasulullah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) never himself instructed the joining of the ankles, nor is there any mention of the Sahaba (radhiallahu anhum) having maintained this position even IN salah. However, if for a moment we do accept that this position must be adopted during the course of the salah as well, the question is: In which posture of salah must this position be maintained? Must it be maintained during qiyam, ruku, sajdah and qada or in only some of these postures? If one says that the ankles should be joined only in the qiyam posture, on what basis were the other postures excluded? If it is argued that it is difficult to do so in ruku and sajdah, the same could be said for qiyam, since to stand with one’s feet spread apart is naturally awkward and hence it presents a certain amount of difficulty and uneasiness for many people. In short, this practice is not established as a sunnah of salah. It was merely adopted initially by the Sahaba (radiallahu anhumBEFORE the commencement of salah to ensure that the rows are straight.

 

 

When beginning salaat, men raise both hands. The tips of thumbs must touch the earlobes. Palms must be turned towards the Qibla. Saying of Allahu Akbar (Takbir) begins as the hands leave the ears and finish as they are folded under the navel.
NOTE: Women raise their both hands as high as their shoulders and say the takbir of beginning. Then they put their hands on their chest.

There are seven conditions for a salaat to be corrected.

1-Niyyat (intention)
2-Tahrima (To say Allah Akbar)
3-Qiyam (Standing)
4-Qiraat (Recitation of Quran by mouth gently)
5-Ruku (To bow)
6-Sajda (Prostration)
7-Qai’da-e- Akhira (Last sitting)

NIYYAT (intention) is made while saying the takbir at the beggining. It is permissible to make niyyat before that, too.
(I) To make niyyat for salaat means to intend in the heart to perform a particular Salaat – Its name, time, qibla, to wish to follow the imam (when performing salaat in jama’at) etc. Such as saying, “I pray two rakat (or as many required for that time) Fard (if its Fard or say Sunnat if its Sunnat or say Wajib if its Wajib or Say Nafil if its Nafil) of Fajr (or whichever Salaat it is) for Allah Ta’ala and facing towards the Ka’aba.”
(ii) Knowledge only, that is, knowing what is to be done will not be niyyat.

(iii) The niyyat made after the takbir of beginning is not correct and that salaat is not acceptable.

(iv) When making niyyat for prayers that are fard or wajib, it is necessary to know which fard or wajib they are. For example, it is necessary to know the name of the fard and to say for instance, “To perform today’s early afternoon prayer (Zuhr),” or, the time’s fard.” When performing the salaat of Eid or witr, it is necessary to think of its being wajib and its name.

(v) It is good (mustahab) but not necessary to make niyyat for the number of rak’ats (cycles).

(vi) When performing a sunnat the niyyat “To perform salaat will suffice.”

(vii) When beginning to worship, saying orally only is not called niyyat. Worships done without niyyat are not acceptable in all four Madhhabs (Hanfi, Shaafi, Maliki and Hambali). Thus niyyat is done from the heart.

TAHRIMA means to say “Allahu Akbar”

When beginning salaat it is Fard to say Tahrima. No other word to replace it is acceptable. If the takbir is said too long, like AAllah (with AA instead of one A) in the beginning or Akbaar (with aa instead of one a) at the end, salaat will not be accepted. If ‘Takbir’ is said before the Imam, salaat will not have started.

QIYAM means to stand.

(I) When standing, the two feet must be four finger’s width apart from each other.

(ii) In Fards,Wajibs and in the sunnat of Fajr salaat Qiyam is Fard. It means a person who is healthy but performs the above mentioned salaat while sitting, is not acceptable, He must perform all of the mentioned Salaats with qiyam for his salaat to be accepted.

(iii) He who is too ill to stand should perform salaat sitting, and if too ill to sit he should lie down on his back and performs it with his head (by moving,nodding his head,etc,). A pillow must be put under his head so that his face will be towards the qibla instead of towards the sky. He bends his knees, so that he will not stretch his legs towards the qibla.

(iii) As qirat is wajib to recite Surah Fatiha and to also recite a sura or three ayats in every rak’at of sunnats and of witr prayer and in the first two rak’ats of the fard.
(iv) In the fard (prayers of salaat that are obligatory), it is wajib to say the Fatiha and the other sura at the two first rak’ats. Additionally, it is wajib to say Surah Fatiha before the sura. Furthermore, it is wajib to say the fatiha once in every rak’at. If one of these five wajibs is forgotten, it is necessary to make sajda-e-sahw.
(v) In the third and the fourth rak’ats of the fard, it is sunnat for the Imam as well as for a person who performs salaat individually to say the Fatiha. [Ibni Abidin shami, p 343].
(vi) A settled (resident) person who follows a traveling one stands up when the imam makes the salam after the second rak’at,and performs two more rak’ats,but he does not make the qirat. That is, he does not say the Fatiha or the other sura. He does not say any prayer as if he were praying salaat behind the imam.
(vii) In every prayer of salaat except Friday prayer and Eid prayer, it is sunnat for the imam that the sura he says in the first rak’at (after the Fatiha) be twice as long as the one he says in the second rak’at.
(viii) It is makruh to say a sura in the second rak’at three ayats longer than the sura said in the first rak’at.It is always wajib to read the suras or ayats from the Qur’an.
(xi) A person who is too ill to stand, or feels dizzy or has a headache or toothache or pain in some other part of his body or can not control wind or bleeding when he stands should perform salaat sitting.
QIRAT: Means to read (recite) by mouth gently. Reading gently means to read only as loud as can hear yourself. (I) The recitation is called Jahri, that is, loud if its heard by people who stand on each side of the recitor. (ii) It is fard to say an ayat (verse) of the Quran while in Qiyam (standing) in every Rakat and it must be in the order as they are written in the Quran. For example one cannot recite Surah Naas in first rakaat and Surah Ikhlas in second.
RUKU: After the sura you bend for Ruku whilst saying takbir. (I) In ruku men open their fingers and put them on their knees. They keep their back and head leveled in ruku. Also the arms and legs must be straight and then you say, “Subhana Rabbiyel Azeem” at least thrice. (ii) If the imam raises his head before you have said it three times you must raise your head too.  You must not wait to complete the recitation thrice. In Ruku women do not open their fingers, they do not keep their head and back level, nor their arms and legs straight.
It is sunnat, for the imam as well as a person who is performing salaat alone, to say ‘Sami Allahu liman hamidah’ while straightening up from Ruku. The Jama’at does not say it. Right after saying it (if praying alone) or upon hearing the imam recite it (if with jama’at), you must say ‘Rab’bana lakal hamd’, and stand upright. Then, saying takbir (Allahu Akbar) start to kneel down for the Sajdah. First place the right knee and then the left knee, followed by the right and then left hand on the floor. Finally, the nose and the forehead bones are placed put on ground.
SAJDAH (prostration)
(i) In Sajdah, fingers must be closed (no gap in between fingers), pointing towards the qibla in line with the ears, and the head must be between hands. It is fard to put the forehead on something clean, such a clean stone, clean ground, clean wood or clean cloth and it is wajib to put the nose down too. It is not permissible to put only the nose on the ground without a good excuse. It is makruh to put only the forehead on the ground. Thr nose should be pressured enough so that the bone of nose feel the ground, its very important to keep in account when perfoming salat on a soft carpet.
(ii) In sajda, you say, ‘Subhana Rabbiyal A’la’ at least thrice.
 
(iii) It is fard to put two feet or at least one finger of any foot on the ground. If both the feet are not placed on ground, salaat will be annulled and not be accepted.
 
(iv) It is sunnat to bend the toes and turn them towards the qibla. (v) Men must keep their arms and thighs away from their abdomen.
 
(vi) Sajda must be done on the ground on condition that you will press on them until you feel their hardness, that is until your forehead cannot move downward any more. Same applies for the nose. Special precaution is required on this issue when peroforming salat on a carpet.
(vii) It is written in ‘Halabi’: “When going into sajda it is Makruh-e-Tehrimi to pull up the skirts of your loose long robe or your trousers, and it is Makruh-e-Tehrimi to fold them before beginning salaat. It is Makruh-e-Tehrimi to perform salaat with folded sleeves, cuffs or skirt.” Special attention is needed on this issue for the people of India and Pakistan who wear Shalwar and Kurta. If pulled or folded one must repeat the Salat.
(viii) It is Makruh to perform salaat with a bare head because of laziness or without realizing the importance of performing salaat with a covered head. For, not to cover one’s head means to disobey the ayat: “Take your ornamented clothes and cover yourself for salaat!”
(xi) It is sunnat to wrap a turban (Imama) around the head whether in white or black color as Rasulullah Salallahu Alaihi Wasallam used these colours or any other color.
 
(x) Allama Ibne Abidin Shami Rehmatullahi Ta’ala Alaih said, “Direction towards qibla is fard for salaat. That is, salaat is performed by turning towards the direction of the Ka’aba. Salaat is performed for Allah. Sajda is done for Allah Ta’ala only, not for the Ka’aba. One who makes sajdah for the Ka’aba becomes a disbeliever.”
QAI’DA-I-AKHIRA
Means sitting in the last rak’at. it is fard to sit as long as it takes to say the Athiyyat, “Atthayyato Lillahe Wassalawato Wat Tayyebato Assalamu Alaika Ayyohan Nabiyo Wa Rehmatullahe Wa Barakatoh Assalamu Alaina Wa Ala Ibadillahis Sualaiheen Ashadu An La ilaah illal Laho Wa Ashadu Anna Mohammadan Abdohoo Wa Rasooloohoo” When sitting, men put their left foot flat on the ground with it toes pointing towards the right. They sit on this foot. The right foot should be upright, with the toes touching the ground and bent and pointing towards the qibla.
 
NOTE 1: Women sit by Tawarruk. That is, they sit with their buttocks on the ground. Their thighs should be close to each other. Their feet should jut out from the right.
 
NOTE 2: When you reach at Ashadu An La raise your index finger of your right hand upward facing about 45 degrees by closing the fist, and drop it back and spread the hand to its original position at illal Laho.
KHUROOJ BI SUN’EEHI 
To signify the completion of prayer by word or action. It means to finish out prayer by saying or doing something. Salaat is completed by saying, “Assalamo Alaikum Wa Rehmatullah” First by moving head towards right and saying it, then towards left and saying it.
PRAYER AFTER THE SALAAT 
(i) It is mustahab (good) for the imam to turn right or left or towards the jama’at.
 
(ii) It is stated in a hadith, ‘If a person says, “Astaghfirullah Al’azim-il-llazi La ilaha illa Huw-al-hayy-ul-qayyuma Wa Atubu ilayh”, after every prayer of salaat, all his sins will be forgiven.
 
(iii) Imam and the followers raise their hands as high as their chest and pray (Dua) for themselves and for all muslims. A hadith declares, ‘Prayers (Dua) sent after the five daily fard will be accepted.’ (Tirmidhi). But the prayers (Dua) must be done with a vigilant heart. Not with fingers turned towards the qibla, arms not opened apart in the right-left direction, arms too close to each other, too far forward etc.
 
(iv) While saying Dua, the fact is that it is mustahab (good) to say salaat and salaam upon RasoolAllah (sallallahu alaihi wasallam),
 
(v) After making your Prayers (Dua), it is sunnat to rub the hands gently on the face.
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN PERFORMING SALAAT
(i) When beginning to perform salaat, a woman raises both hands up to the level of her shoulders. While standing she puts her right hand on the left hand. However, she does not grasp her left wrist the fingers of her right hand. She puts her hands on her breast. While making ruku, her hands are placed on the knees, but do not grasp them. She keeps her fingers close together. She does not keep her legs straight, nor her back level. While making sajda, she lowers herself, bringing her arms to her side while she keeps her abdomen placed over her thighs. She sits on the buttocks, her legs inclined towards right.
(ii) A woman cannot be imam for men. If they follow a man as imam, they should be in last line of the jama’at.
(iii) While performing salaat in jama’at, if a woman stands besides or in front of a man, the man salaat will be Fasid (nullified).
PAINFUL TORMENT AT THE TIME OF DEATH, IN GRAVE, ON THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT AND IN HELL
A hadith shareef, quoted in the book ‘Qurratul’uyun,’ declares, “If a person does not perform salaat though he has no good excuse, Allah ta’ala will give him fifteen kinds of punishment. Six of them will come in the world, three will come at the time of death, three will come in the grave, and three will come when rising from the grave. The six plagues in the world are:
1-Person who does not perform salaat will not have barakat {blessings} in his life.
 
2-He will not have the beauty afforded to those who are loved by Allah ta’ala.

3-He will not be given reward for any good he does.

4-His supplications (duas) will not be accepted.

5-No one will like him.

6-Supplications that (other) Muslims invoke for him will do him no good.

Kinds of torment he will suffer when dying are:

1-He will expire in an abhorrent, unsightly, repugnant manner.

2-He will die hungry.

3-No matter how much water he has, he will die with painful thirst.

Kind of torment he will suffer in the grave are:

1-The grave will squeeze him. His bones will intertwine.

2-His grave will be filled with fire, which will scorch him day and night.

3-Allah Ta’ala will send a huge snake to his grave. It is not like terrestrial serpents. It will sting him at every prayer time each day. It will never leave him alone any moment.

Kinds of torment he will suffer after rising are:

1-Angels of torment will drag him to hell will never leave him alone.

2-Allah Ta’ala will meet him with wrath.

3-His accounts will be settled in a very vehement manner, and he will be flung into hell. (May Allah save us) On the other hand, we see that one who performs salaat five times a day his sins are forgiven. As it is stated in the hadith, RasoolAllah (salallahu alaihi wasallam) asked his companions: “If there were a river in front of one’s house and if he washed himself in this river five times every day, would there be any dirt left on him?” We (Jabir bin Abdullah and other sahaba present there) said, “No, O Rasulallah.” Allah’s most beloved Prophet (salallahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Likewise minor sins of those who perform the five daily prayers are forgiven.” Ibn Jawzi (may Allah be pleased with him) wrote in his tafsir Elmugni: Abu Bakr Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with him) said that, “When the time of a daily prayer of salaat comes, Angels say, ‘O the sons of Adam, stand up! Extinguish the fire prepared to burn human beings by performing salaat.
Method of praying Qaza Salahs Quickly
If someone has missed Salahs in their account. Either one time’s or of many years, they must pray their Qaza as soon as possible. Salah is a Fard and not forgiven. On the day of judgement Salah will be the first thing asked about.
For the people who have many years of missed Salahs. There is a way to pray them quickly. Following instructions have four exceptions and has all Fards and Wajibs for a complete Salat. Please pray your Qaza as soon as possible. Even of you could pray one days Qaza Salahs every day which are only 20 rakahs (3 wajib witr), please do it. It only takes few mins to perform 20 rakahs according to the following instructions.
1) In Ruku and Sajdah instead of reciting “Subhaana Rabbiyal Azeem” and “Subhaana Rabbiyal A’la” three times, say it only once. But make sure do not leave Ruku posture untill the Meem (M) of Azeem has been said properly. Similarly do not leave the posture of Sajdah until Ala has been said completely. Just make sure to say these Tasbeehaat properly and do not rush.
 
2) In third and four Rakah of Fard Salah instead of reciting the whole Soorah Fatiha say “Subhan Allah” three times and go to Ruku, . Make sure “Subhan Allah” has been recited three times properly, do not rush. This exeption is only for Fard. In third rakah of Witr it’s a must to recite full Soorah Fatiha followed by at least three ayahs of Quran or a soorah (as we usually do in first and second rakah).
 
3) In last Qaidah (when we sit for Attahyyat) before Salam, after Attahyyat instead of full Durood and Dua just say, “Allah Humma Salle Ala Sayedena Mohammad Wa Aalihi”, then finish the Salat with Salam. Dua is not a must here.
 
4) In Witr, instead of full Dua-e-Qunoot just say “Rabbigh Fir Lee” one or three times.

(Fatawa Rizvia, Part 3, Page 622)

Salatul Tasbih – For forgiveness of All Sins


Benefits of Salat-Ul-Tasbih

Our Beloved Prophet Mohammed (Sallallaho Alihiwa Sallam) said to his uncle Sayyiduna Abbass (may Allah be pleased with him), “Oh uncle, Shall I not give you? Shall I not grant you? Shall I not award you? Shall I not do mercy on you? When you do 10 things Allah will forgive your sins: of the future and of the past; new and old; those you have forgotten and those you did knowingly; big and small; hidden and revealed.”
 
Then he (Sallallaho Alihiwassallam) explained the taught the way to pray Salatul Tasbih and then said if you can pray this salah once a day, if you can not pray once a day then every Friday, and even if this is not possible then once a month and even if this is not possible then once a year and even if this is not possible then at least once in a lifetime (Abu Dawood & Tirimzi)
How to perform Salatul Tasbih
This salaat (namaz) is offered in four rakat at a time and can be read in any part of the day and night besides Zawal and Sunrise and Sunset makrooh times, keeping in mind the forbidden times for performing Salat (namaaz). But is is preferred before Zuhr (Fatawa Alamgeeri)
The Tasbih to be read in Salaat-Ul-Tasbeeh
” Subhaan Allahi Wal Hamdulillahi Wa Laa ilaha illal Laahu Wallahu Akbar “
Goal is to recite above Tasbih 300 times in Four Rakah with the following method.
 
In the first rakaat, after reading Sana “Subhaana Kallahumma…”, read the tasbih 15 times.
 
Now recite “Aoozubillah…”, “Bismillah…”, Then read sura Fatiha and a Surah or minimum of three small Ayayhs then read the tasbih 10 times again.
 
Go to ruku saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar), after reciting “Subhaana Rabbiyal Azeem” minimum of three times read the tasbih 10 times in Ruku.
 
Saying “Samee Allahu Liman Hamidah Rabbana Lakal Hamdh” get up from ruku to qiyam position. Now read the tasbih 10 times.
 
Go to Sajdah saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar) and after reciting “Subhaana Rabbiyal A’la” minimum of three times read the tasbih 10 times in Sajdah.
 
Now go after first Sajdah go to Jalsa (sitting position) saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar). Sitting in Jalsa read tasbih 10 times.
 
Go to sajda again saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar) and after reciting “Subhaana Rabbiyal A’la” minimum of three times read the tasbih 10 times in Sajdah again.
 
Get up to begin 2nd rakat saying Takbeer (Allah Hoo Akbar).
 
Do rakah #2 in same fashion, but before reading Bismillah “Bismillah…”, and Surah Fatiha, read the tasbih 15 times. Follow the rest as you did in first Rakat.
 
After second Sajdah of Second Rakat sit in Qaidah Oola (first sitting) read Attahiyat, Durood and Dua then get up for 3rd rakaat without saying Salam.
 
Begin third Rakat, just like the first Rakat, with Sana “Subhaana Kallahumma…”, read the above tasbih 15 times.
 
Follow the rest as you did in first Rakat untill you sit for Qaidah Akihra (last sitting) after second sajdah of fourth Rakah.
 
In Qaidah Akihra Attahiyat, Durood, Dua finish Salah with Salam.
Special notes for Salat-Ul-Tasbih
1) Do not count loudly. It will break Salah
 
2) Do not count on fingers or by holding a Bead Tasbih in hand. It is Makruh.
 
3) You may count by pressing the fingers as a reminder. For example if you are in Ruku. You me press pinky of your right hand first for the first count, then the finger next to it for second count, then the middle finger for third count, following this method untill you reach the pinky of left hand will give you an exact count of ten. Use the same method in Qayam, Sajdah and Jalsa.
 
4) If missed a count then make it up in the next posture. For example if forgot to recite Tasbih after Surah in Qayam. Then you may recite Tasbish 20 times instead of 10 in Rukuh after “Subhaana Rabbiyal Azeem”. Missed Tasbih cannot be recited in Qayam after ruku and Jalsa between Sajdah. If you missed the Tasbih in Ruku then recite 20 in the first Sajdah instead of the Qayam after rukuh. Similarly if missed the Tasbih in first Sajdah then do not make it up in Jalsa. Instead recite missed tasbih in the second Sajdah. If Tasbih has been missed in last sajdah of second or fourth Rakah then you can recite the missed ones before Attahiyat in Qaidah.
 
5) If you miss a wajib in Salah and have to do Sajdah Sahaw. You dont have to recite Tasbih in Sajdah sahoo, since the 300 count has been estalished. But if you had missed Tasbih in any of the postures and remeber it now. Then you may recite the missed Tasbih in Sajdah Sahaw now.
 
6) It is preferable to recite after Surah Fatiha Sura Takathuur in the first raka’, Surah Wal A’sr in the second raka’, Surah Kaferoon (qul ya aiyuhal Kafiroon) in the third and Surah Akhlas (Qul hu Allah-hu ahd) in the fourth raka’. If one does not remember these surah they can recite the ones they prefer.
May Allah accept this dua’ (supplication) for the sake of the trustworthy PROPHET MOHAMMED (Allah’s Grace & Peace be upon him)

كتاب الصلاة

 THE BOOK OF PRAYER

I N D E X

CHAPTER 1

What is Prayer?

The Importance of Prayer

The Sin Of Letting The Prayer Lapse
The Blessings Of Prayer
The Excellence Of Offering Prayer In Congregation
The Importance Of Reverence And Humility
Prayer Makes One Pious
Being Certain That The Prayer Has Been Accepted
The Prayers Of The Pious
 
CHAPTER 2

Cleanliness (Taharat)

The Water To Be Used
Ablution (Wuzu)

                    The Obligations In Ablution (Wuzu)

Things That Break The Ablution
Excellence of Using Miswaak 
Bathing (Ghusl)
The Obligations In Bathing
Bathing According To Sunnah
Things That Make Bathing Compulsory
TayammumThe Time For Tayammum
Method And Important Rules Regarding Tayammum
Purifying Impure Clothes

CHAPTER 3

The Call For Prayer (Azaan)

The Number Of Rakaats In Each Prayer

The Conditions Of Prayer

Times When Prayer Is Prohibited

CHAPTER 4

Offering Prayer According To Sunnah

Obligatory (Farz) Acts In Prayer

The Essentials (Wajibaat) Of Prayer

Sajdah Sahv

The Sunnah Acts In Prayer

What Invalidates The Prayer

Undesirable / Disliked Acts (Makrooh) In Prayer

Rules Regarding Crossing Someone Involved In Prayer

Etiquette Of The Mosque

Rules Of Congregational Prayer

The Witr Prayer And Qunoot Supplication

The Friday Prayer

Prayer Of The 2 Eids

Offering The Eid Prayer
The Funeral Prayer
The Method Of Funeral Prayer
The Taraweeh Prayer In Ramadan

CHAPTER 5

The Lapsed (Qada) Prayer

Prayers Of The Sick

Prayers On A Journey

CHAPTER 6

The Voluntary Prayers

Tahiyyat ul WuzuTahiyyat ul Masjid

The Tahajjud Prayer

The Ishraaq Prayer

The Chaasht Prayer

The Awwaabeen Prayer

The Journey Prayer

The Prayer of Repentance

The Tasbeeh Prayer

The Need Prayer (Salaat ulHaajat)

The Istikharah Prayer (for knowing what is suitable)

 

CHAPTER 7

Recitation Of The Qur’an

The Prostration For Qur’an Recitation. CHAPTER 8

The Night Vigil

CHAPTER 9

The Pure Words (Kalemaate Tayyebaat)

CHAPTER 10

Some Sunnah Supplications

 

GLOSSARY  OF TERMS

For easier comprehension of the subject, please remember the following glossary of terms. 

Salaat or Namaaz  – The customary Prayer of Muslims.

Imaam  – Leader of the congregation in Prayer.

Azaan  – The call to Prayer

Muazzin  – One who calls the “Azaan”

Iqamah  – Announcement that the congregational Prayer is starting. 

Khutbah  – The sermon.

Niyah –  Intention.

Farz – Essential, mandatory. 

Wajib – Obligatory.

Sunnah – The tradition of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)

Sunnat-e-Muakkadah –  Sunnah heavily Emphasised.

Sunnat-e-Ghair Muakkadah – Sunnah less emphasised.

Nafil – Voluntary or additional.

Wuzu – Ablution (with water.)

Ghusl  – A bath (with water)

Masah  – To wipe or rub gently over.

Miswaak – A small branch or stem, used for brushing teeth.

Khilaal – Act of removing dirt or particles stuck between teeth, toes

Tayammum – Alternate to ablution/bath using soil or like matter.

Makrooh – An act that is disliked / disapproved.

Makrooh Tahreemi – An act strongly disliked, close to forbidden.

Haraam  – Forbidden / prohibited.

Kalima – Any meaningful phrase.

Tayyeb or Tayyebah – Pure

Janabah – State of greater impurity due to sexual defilement.

Mustahab – Recommended, better

Rakaat – A single round / cycle of all bodily actions within a Prayer.

Taawuz –  Seeking Allah’s refuge

Tasmiyah – Reciting Bismillah 

Tasmeey – A remembrance during Prayer, while rising from the bow.

Tasbeeh – A remembrance proclaiming Allah’s purity.

Dua – Supplication.

Tahmeed – A remembrance praising Allah.

Important Note : Arabic text from Qur’an and “Sunnah” have been transliterated into English, in italic form. However it is not possible to pronounce the words correctly from transliteration (especially similar sounding alphabets) and readers are advised to learn these from the Arabic text.

 

    

CHAPTER 1

WHAT IS SALAAT (PRAYER)?

The Prayer is:

The coolness of the eyes of the Holy Prophet Mohammed (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)

A pillar of religion

The key to paradise

The spiritual ascent of the faithful believer.

The greater Jihad (holy war)

A sign of faith

Light of the heart

The radiance of the face

The nourishment of the soul.

The Prayer is:

A cause of blessings in the house

A cause of abundance in provision

Cure for ailments of the body and soul

A light in the gloom of the grave

A canopy in the hot sun on the Day of Resurrection

The Prayer is:

An entertainer of the heart amidst the fear of the grave

A swift carrier across the thin bridge on the Day of Resurrection

A means of attaining forgiveness from sins

A barrier between hell and the offerer of Prayers

A repeller of the devil

A bestower of Allah’s proximity and His favour.

After proper acceptance of faith and its inherent beliefs, i.e. the recitation of the Pure Words (Kalemah Tayyebah), the most important duty is that of offering the Prayer.

The Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) has stated: “The first duty that Allah, the Supreme, has ordained upon my nation is that of offering Prayer, and indeed Prayer is the first thing that will be taken account of on the Day of Resurrection.”

It is also reported in the Hadith that, “Whoever keeps the Prayer established, has kept his religion established – and whoever leaves Prayer has demolished religion”.

It is reported by Syedna Abu Hurairah (may Allah be well pleased with him) that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Allah the Supreme states, ‘O the son of Adam! Free yourself for My worship, I shall fill your heart with content – and if you do not do so, I shall make you busy in several affairs but not remove your poverty.’ ” (Mishkaat ul Masabeeh, Ibn Majah)

“Be content with five things before (the advent of) the other five: Youth before old age, good health before sickness, prosperity before poverty, spare time before indulgence in affairs, and life before death.” (Hadith reported in Tirmizi)

Regrettably, the Muslims of this age have forgotten Prayer. Most people simply do not have the time for it, whereas some people do offer their Prayers but do not know the proper way of offering it. It is imperative to learn the correct way of offering the Prayer, and to offer all the 5 Obligatory Prayers with the congregation.

This concise book attempts to highlight the importance, excellence, mode and rules of Prayer from the Holy Qur’an, Hadith, books of Hanafi Jurisprudence, Fatawa Razvia and Bahaare Shariat. May Allah grant all Muslims the guidance to seek religious knowledge and to act upon it – Aameen (and through the supplications of the Holy Prophet – peace and blessings be upon him).

THE IMPORTANCE OF PRAYER (SALAAT)

The importance of establishing Prayer has been mentioned in the Holy Qur’an and Hadith, on several occasions:-

Allah the Supreme states in the Holy Qur’an: “And keep the Prayer established, and pay the charity, and bow your heads with those who bow (in Prayer).”(Surah Baqarah)

On another occasion, it is stated: “Guard all your Prayers, and the middle Prayer; and stand with reverence before Allah.” (Surah Baqarah)

On yet another occasion, it is stated: “And keep the Prayer established at the two ends of the day and in some parts of the night.” (Surah Hud)

The “two ends of the day” mean the morning and evening. The time before noon is classified as morning and the time after it is classified as evening. The Morning Prayer is the Dawn (Fajr) Prayer, and the Prayers of the evening are the Afternoon (Zohr) and the Evening (Asr) Prayers. The Prayers for the night are the Sunset (Maghrib) and the Night (Isha) Prayers. (Tafseer Khazain ul Irfan)

The Holy Qur’an classifies Prayer as an act that is opposite to the habits of polytheists. It states, “Inclining towards Him – and fear Him, and keep the Prayer established, and never be of the polytheists.” (Surah Ruum)

In other words, not offering the Prayer is to be like the polytheists. This is further confirmed by the words of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) “The entity that lies between a bondman and disbelief, is the abandonment of Prayer.” (Saheeh Muslim)

The Holy Qur’an warns those who abandon Prayer, in the following words: “And after them came the unworthy successors who squandered Prayer and pursued their own desires, so they will soon encounter the forest of Gai in hell.” (Surah Maryam)

“Gai” is a well in the lowest part of hell, in which accumulates the pus of its inhabitants. It is also mentioned that “Gai” is the hottest and deepest part of hell. This is the well which Allah opens up whenever the heat of hell lessens, causing the fire of hell to rage again. This well is the destination of those who abandon Prayer – and adulterers, drunkards, usurers and those who hurt their parents.

The Holy Qur’an has mentioned a trait of the hypocrites, that they are lazy in offering Prayers, and that they deem it to be a burden. It therefore states: “Undoubtedly the hypocrites, in their fancy, seek to deceive Allah whereas He will extinguish them while making them oblivious; and when they stand up for Prayer, they do it unwillingly and for others to see, and they do not remember Allah except a little.” (Surah Nisaa)

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said the following about the hypocrites: “The most burdensome Prayers for the hypocrites are the Night Prayer and the Dawn Prayer. If they were to know the blessings they have in store, they would have come to them, even slithering.” (Saheeh Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim)

The Holy Qur’an also explains that offering the Prayer is not at all a burden for those who believe in Allah and the Last Day. It says: “And seek help in patience and Prayer; and truly it is hard except for those who prostrate before Me with sincerity – Who know that they have to meet their Lord, and that it is to Him they are to return.” (Surah Baqarah)

We therefore know from the Holy Qur’an, and from the Hadith, that it is obligatory on all Muslims to offer Prayers 5 times daily. To be lazy in Prayer, and especially not to offer the Night and Dawn Prayers, are the traits of hypocrites. We also know that not offering Prayer is the way of the disbelievers – this is why the Sahabah (the Companions of the Holy Prophet) did not deem the abandonment of any deed as disbelief, except the abandonment of Prayer.

The importance of Prayer can be gauged from the fact that it has been emphasised right from childhood. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “Command your children to pray when they become seven years old, and beat them for it (Prayer) when they become ten years old; and arrange their beds (to sleep) separately.

The Sin Of Letting The Prayer Lapse.

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “Whoever lets the Prayer lapse, and then offers it after its due time, will burn in hell for not praying on time, for a period of one “Haqab”.”

One “Haqab” equals 80 years, and one year has 360 days, and the Day of Resurrection will equal a thousand years. Which means that one who lets just one Prayer lapse, will burn in hell for a period of 28,800,000 years! (May Allah protect us – Aameen).

Allamah Amjad Ali Aazmi (may Allah have mercy on him) mentions that abandoning Prayer is terrible in itself, but see what Allah the Supreme says about those who let it lapse: “So “vail” (or ruin) is to those offerers of Prayer – Those who are neglectful of their Prayer.” (Surah Maoon)

“Vail” is the name of a dreadful valley in hell, from which hell also seeks refuge. This will be the destination of those who let their Prayers lapse. (Bahaare Shariat)

The Blessings Of Prayer

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “If there was a river at the door of anyone of you and he took a bath in it five times a day, would you notice any dirt on him?” The Companions said: “Not a trace of dirt would be left.” The Prophet added, “That is the example of the five Prayers with which Allah annuls evil deeds.” (Saheeh Bukhari & Saheeh Muslim)

Here “evil deeds” mean the lesser sins. The cardinal sins are forgiven only after repentance and giving the people their due rights.

It is recorded in Mishkaat Shareef that once during the winter season, the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) caught hold of a tree branch and shook it, causing its leaves to fall. He then said: “When a Muslim offers Prayer, seeking Allah’s pleasure, his sins fall off like these leaves did.”

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has also said: “For the one who is regular in his Prayer, the Prayer will become a light, a guide and the cause of his salvation on the Day of Resurrection. Whereas the one who is not regular in his Prayers, will not have any light, guide or salvation – and on the Day of Resurrection, he will be along with Qaroon, Firaun, Hamaan, Ubai bin Khalaf” – i.e. with the major infidels. (Mishkaat)

Another blessing of Prayer is that all hardships are resolved through it, and the offerer gains solace from it. Hazrat Huzaifah (may Allah be well pleased with him) says that whenever the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) was faced with any difficulty, he used to turn his attention towards Prayer. (Abu Dawood)

The Excellence Of Offering Prayer In Congregation (With Jamaat)

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “The Prayer in congregation is twenty seven times superior to the Prayer offered by a person alone.” (Bukhari & Muslim)

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) found some people absenting themselves from certain Prayers and he said: “I intend to order someone to lead people in Prayer, and then go to the persons who do not join the (congregational) Prayer and then order their houses to be burnt by the bundles of fuel. If one amongst them were to know that he would find a fat fleshy bone he would attend the Night Prayer.” (Muslim & Abu Dawood)

Abu Huraira (may Allah be well pleased with him) reported that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “A man’s Prayer in congregation is more valuable by twenty degrees and some above them as compared with his Prayer in his house and his market, for when he performs ablution doing it well, then goes out to the mosque, and he is impelled (to do so) only by (the love of congregational) Prayer, he has no other objective before him but Prayer. He does not take a step without being raised a degree for it and having a sin remitted for it, till he enters the mosque, and when he is busy in Prayer after having entered the mosque, the angels continue to invoke blessing on him as long as he is in his place of worship saying: O Allah, show him mercy, and pardon him! Accept his repentance (and the angels continue this supplication for him) so long as he does not do any harm in it, or as long as his ablution is not broken.” (Saheeh Muslim)

Abdullah ibn Abbas (may Allah be well pleased with him) reported that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “If anyone hears him who makes the call to Prayer and is not prevented from joining the congregation by any excuse (he was asked what an excuse consisted of and replied that it was fear or illness) the Prayer he offers will not be accepted from him.” (Abu Dawood)

If the one who misses the congregational Prayer knew what reward lay in it for him, he would come to it slithering. (Tibrani)

The Importance Of Reverence And Humility

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) states: “Worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you cannot do this, then you must at least be certain that He is looking at you.” (Saheeh Bukhari)

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) states: “Whoever offers all his Prayers on time after a perfect ablution, stands with humility and reverence, prostrates and bows with calm, and offers the entire Prayer in good manner – so that Prayer becomes a radiating one and prays for him thus: O the offerer of Prayer! May Allah guard you the way you have guarded me. And as regards the one who offers the Prayer poorly – that is without proper ablution, and not even prostrating and bowing correctly – then the Prayer curses him thus: May Allah ruin you the way you have ruined me. Then the Prayer is folded and thrown back at his face like a used (dirty) cloth.” (Tibrani).

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) once said: “The worst thief is one who steals during the Prayer.” The companions therefore asked “O the Messenger of Allah! How does he steal in Prayer?” He answered “He does not prostrate or bow correctly.” (Musnad Imaam Ahmed & Tibrani)

In yet another Hadith, glad tidings of salvation have been given to those who regularly offer their Prayers with humility and reverence. (Abu Dawood).

Hazrat Abdullah Ibn Abbas (may Allah be well pleased with him) states: “The reverent ones are those who fear Allah and offer their Prayers with calm.”

It is clear from the above that Prayer must be offered with reverence, humility and calm, keeping in mind all its requirements.

Prayer Makes One Pious

Allah the Supreme states in the Holy Qur’an: “O dear Prophet(Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him), recite from the Book which has been sent down to you, and establish the Prayer; indeed the Prayer stops from indecency and evil; and indeed the remembrance of Allah is the greatest; and Allah knows all what you do.” (Surah Ankabut)

The above verse reveals that Prayer stops from indecency and evil matters – which means that if one offers the Prayer regularly and properly, he shuns indecent matters in due course, and becomes pious.

A young man from the Ansar used to pray along with the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), and was simultaneously also given to involving himself in cardinal sins. The matter was reported to the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) who said: “His Prayer will some day prevent him from these evil acts”. Very soon, he therefore repented and his state became better.

Hazrat Anas (may Allah be well pleased with him) said: “If the Prayer does not prevent one from indecency and evil, then that is not Prayer.” (Tafseer Khazain ul Irfaan)

Being Certain That The Prayer Has Been Accepted

Do not ever get distracted by the worldly affairs that come to mind while offering Prayer. Rather do not care about them, and pay attention to the meanings of the words that are being said during the Prayer.

Some people question as to how they can be sure whether Allah has accepted the Prayer that they have offered. As an answer, just reflect upon the following Hadith: “Allah will deal with His bondman on the Day of Resurrection in the same manner as the bondman had thought about his Lord”. It is therefore imperative, along with the fear of Allah, to have the good belief that our worship has been accepted.

Scholars say that if you have offered the Dawn Prayer and then later offered the Afternoon Prayer, then be well convinced that Allah has accepted your Dawn Prayer. Further, when you have offered the Evening Prayer, be convinced that the Afternoon Prayer has been accepted. Similarly, after each Prayer, be sure that the previous Prayer has been accepted – because if Allah had not accepted your Dawn Prayer, he would not guide you to offer the Afternoon Prayer. The Beneficent Lord’s guidance to you to offer the next Prayer is a proof of His having accepted your previous one.

The Prayers Of The Pious

Every Prayer should be offered like a person who is certain that it is the last Prayer of his life. Hazrat Hatim Balkhi (may Allah have mercy upon him) was once questioned as to how he offered his Prayers. He answered, “When it is time for Prayer, I do a proper ablution and stand calmly on the prayer-mat. I imagine that the Holy Kaaba is in front of me, Paradise on my right, hell on my left, and that I am standing on the thin bridge (of the Day of Resurrection) – and that the angel of death is above me and that this is the last Prayer of my life. Then with utmost humility I proclaim “Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Greatest)” and keeping the meanings in mind, I recite the Holy Qur’an – and with extreme reverence and humility I complete the Prayers. I then hope that Allah will accept it by His mercy, and fear that it may be rejected because of the shortcomings of my deeds.”

Such is the Prayer of the Friends of Allah! May Allah guide us to follow the footsteps of His friends. Aameen.

 

 

CHAPTER 2

 

CLEANLINESS (TAHARAT)

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has stated “The key to paradise is Prayer (Salaat), and the key to Prayer is cleanliness.” (Saheeh Muslim). Here cleanliness means that the place of Prayer and the person’s clothes, should be clean. Furthermore, the person should be clean from the greater and smaller impurities – i.e. he should not be in need of a bath (Ghusl) and should be with ablution (Wuzu).

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “The angels of mercy do not enter a house in which there is an image, a dog or a person in a state of greater impurity (Janabah).” (Abu Dawood).

The Water To Be Used

Water used for bathing or for ablution must be in its natural state – i.e. free from colour, smell and taste. Furthermore, it must be unused. If the body is free from impurities, the water once used for bathing or ablution still remains pure, but cannot be used again for bathing or ablution. Similarly if one is in need of ablution or bath, and he dips or touches the water with any unwashed (un-purified) part of his body (finger, nail, hand etc), it will render the water as used – and therefore not useful for ablution or bathing. Using such water for drinking or cooking is disliked (Makrooh). However this water can be used for washing clothes.

In order to make “used” water capable of being used for bathing or ablution, add clean unused water in greater quantity to it – or simply pour more clean unused water in the utensil so that the utensil begins to overflow. This will make the entire water usable for bathing or ablution.

ABLUTION (WUZU)

The Obligations In Ablution (Wuzu)

The following four (4) acts are obligatory in ablution:

  1. Washing the entire face: that is from the top of the forehead to the bottom of the chin and from ear to ear. Water must flow over the entire skin area at least once. If the moustache or eyebrows have thick hair, it is obligatory only to wash the hair. If the hair is sparse, the skin must also be washed. Similarly, if hair in the beard is not thick, the inner skin must be washed. The area around the lips which remains exposed in the natural state when the mouth is closed, must also be washed.
  2. Washing both hands, up to and including the elbows. Washing any body part means that at least two drops of water must have flowed over each and every spot of it (not leaving out any spot equal to the breadth of a hair). Simply wetting the body part or spreading water over it like oil, or the flowing of just drop is not classified as “washing” – and will not complete the ablution or bath. All types of ornaments which are tight to the skin must be removed and the skin below it washed, as described above. If nail polish has been applied, ablution or bath cannot be complete without removing it. However, ablution or bath will be complete in cases where the thing remaining on the skin is such that it is continuously or sometimes required and to remove it causes a burden – whether such a thing is above or below the nails or on any other part of the body – or whether such a thing is hard and water does not reach the skin below it – such as dough on the hands of kneaders, paint on the hands of a painter, henna for women, ink for the writer, sand or mud for the labourer and kohl under the eyelids or ordinary dirt for the common man.
  3. “Masah” (Stroking with wet hands) of one fourth of the head: Hands should be wet for performing the “Masah” whether due to water remaining from washing the hands, or by wetting them with fresh water. If the hands remain wet after “Masah”, it will not suffice for “Masah” of any other body part.
  4. Washing both feet: It is necessary to wash both feet fully – i.e. all sides of toes, inner parts of the toes, top part of the toes, heels, soles and the entire ankles. If water does not reach between the toes naturally, it is necessary to do “Khilaal”, i.e. pass the little finger between them to make the water reach there.

The Sunnah (Prophet’s Traditions) In Ablution (Wuzu)

The following acts are Sunnah (Prophet’s traditions) in ablution:

Making an intention (Niyah) for obeying Allah and for the gaining of reward.

    • Performing ablution while sitting in a clean place.
    • Reciting “Bismillah Shareef” at the beginning of ablution.
    • Washing both hands up to the wrists.
    • Brushing the teeth with “Miswaak”
    • Rinsing the mouth thrice with water from the hand.
    • Rinsing the nose thrice by inhaling water up to the nose bone.
    • Using the right hand for inhaling water into the nose.
    • Cleaning the nose with the little finger of the left hand.
    • Inserting fingers between the spaces in the fingers and toes (to make sure that water passes through it).
    • Running all fingers through the beard.
    • Performing “Masah” of the entire head.
    • Performing “Masah” of the ears.
    • Maintaining proper order of washing of the different body parts.
    • Washing three times each body part that needs to be washed.
    • Washing the next body part before the previous one dries.
Method Of Performing Ablution (Wuzu)

Make an intention (Niyah) for obeying Allah and for gaining of reward, and after reciting “Bismillah Shareef”, wash both hands up to the wrists. Then brush the teeth with “Miswaak”. Hold the “Miswaak” in your right hand – little finger at the bottom, three middle fingers at the centre, and the thumb at the top bottom side of the “Miswaak”. Begin with the right upper teeth, followed by the left upper teeth. Then brush the right lower teeth followed by the left lower teeth. Brushing should be in horizontal movements.

Then taking water from the cup of the hand, rinse the mouth thrice. Then inhale water into the nose thrice and clean the nose with the little finger of the left hand.

Then wash the entire face – that is from the top of the forehead (where the hair begins) to the bottom of the chin and from ear to ear, without leaving any spot equal to the breadth of a hair unwashed. If the person is bearded, he should then run his fingers through the beard.

After this, wash both hands, up to and including the elbows (right hand first, followed by the left).

Then wet both hands and perform “Masah” of the entire head, as follows: Join the tips of the three fingers of both hands (i.e. other than the thumb and the little finger), and keeping them on the forehead pass them over the entire head till the nape of the neck, while keeping the palms away from the head. Pass the palms over the nape of the neck and bring them forward. Then use the upper phalanx of the index finger to rub the inner part of the ears and the thumb for the back of the ears. Then use the back of the fingers to do “Masah” of the sides of the neck.

Then wash both feet up to and including the ankles, beginning with the right foot. Use the left hand for washing the feet. Insert the left hand little finger between the spaces of all toes, starting from the small toe (moving right to left) in case of the right foot, and starting from the big toe (moving right to left) in case of the left foot.

Upon completing ablution, make it a habit of reciting the “Kalemah Shahadat” (The words of bearing witness) as in the Hadith there are glad tidings of paradise for such a person.

Things That Break (Nullify) Ablution (Wuzu)

The following acts (or incidents) break the ablution:

  • Excretion of any matter from the frontal or posterior excretory organs.
  • Vomiting in mouthful quantity.
  • Discharge of blood, pus or yellowish liquid from the body – which makes the discharge flow.
  • Sleeping while taking support from any object.
  • Flow of water from an infected eye.
  • Laughing out loud whilst in Prayer.
  • Loss of consciousness, or onset of insanity.

 

THE EXCELLENCE OF MISWAAK

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “If I had not found it hard for my followers or the people, I would have ordered them to clean their teeth with Siwak for every Prayer.”

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “Make the (brushing with) “Miswaak” a must – for it cleans the mouth, and the Lord also gets pleased. (Musnad Ahmed)

Scholars say that using the “Miswaak” has 70 benefits, of which one is the remembrance of the “Kalemah Tayyebah” (the Pure Words) at the time of death and ease in death.

Using the “Miswaak” is a Sunnah in ablution. The “Miswaak” should neither be very hard nor very soft. It is better to use “Miswaak” made from branches of the olive, “pilu” or “neem” trees. The “Miswaak” should be as thick as the little finger, and a maximum of one span in length. It should also not be very short so as to make it difficult to use.

Hold the “Miswaak” in your right hand – little finger at the bottom, three middle fingers at the centre, and the thumb at the top bottom side of the “Miswaak”. Do not close the fist. In this way, the user remains protected from “haemorrhoids” (piles). Brushing should be done in ‘horizontal’ movements, not in the vertical. Begin with the right upper teeth, followed by the left upper teeth. Then brush the right lower teeth followed by the left lower teeth. All these should be done thrice, and the “Miswaak” be rinsed every time.

BATHING

The 3 Obligations In Bathing (Ghusl)

  1. Gargling: Water must reach right from the lips up to the base of the throat.
  2. Inhaling water up to the nose bone: Water must reach through both nostrils and wet the entire area, up to the nose bone.
  3. Washing the entire body in such a manner that water flows over every part of the body, not leaving dry any spot equal to the breadth of a hair.

If any food particles are stuck in the teeth, these must be removed. Likewise the nose must be cleaned from any dust stuck inside it, and then the nose washed with water up to the beginning of the nose bone. However, care must be exercised during fasting so as not to overdo it. 
   

Bathing (Ghusl) According To Sunnah

Make an intention (Niyah) for bathing and at first wash both hands up to and including the wrists. Then wash the excretory organs even if there is no impurity. Then cleanse the body area that has any impurity and perform the ablution, without washing the feet. If having a bath on a stand (high area) you may wash the feet too. Next, rub water (like applying oil) on the body to wet it. Then pour water thrice over the right shoulder followed by thrice over left shoulder. After this, pour water over the head thrice and then thrice properly over the entire body. Rub the hands over the entire body to ensure that no spot equal to the breadth of a hair remains dry. If the feet had not been washed at ablution, wash them after moving away from the bathing spot.

While bathing take care that you should not be facing the “Qiblah”, nor speak nor recite any supplications. Also bathe in a place where there is no exposure.

Things That Make Bathing Compulsory

  • Discharge of semen in state of sexual excitement.
  • Ejaculation while asleep.
  • Intercourse, whether semen is discharged or not.
  • Woman completing her menses.
  • Stoppage of impurity for a woman after childbirth (or miscarriage etc.).
  •  
TAYAMMUM (PURIFICATION WITH SOIL)

The Time For Tayammum (When can one do Tayammum?)

A person in need of bathing or ablution must do “Tayammum” if he is incapable of using water. Some important conditions of performing “Tayammum” are as follows:

  • There should be no sign (or knowledge) of water being available for a distance of at least one mile, in all the four directions.
  • An illness which would get severely aggravated or get prolonged upon using water. This could be the person’s own judgement from experience or the opinion of a pious reliable doctor.
  • Extreme cold which could cause the person to die or fall ill if he takes a bath, and no warm blankets are available to keep out the cold after bathing.
  • Danger of missing the train or bus etc., if he alights from it in order to use water.
  • Danger of missing the Fajr (Dawn) Prayer or the congregational Prayers of Eid.

Method And Some Important Rules Regarding Tayammum

Three things are obligatory in “Tayammum”

  1. Making an intention (Niyah) that the particular “Tayammum” is for ablution or for bath or for both.
  2. Passing soiled palms over the entire face, not leaving out a single spot equal to the breadth of a hair.
  3. Passing soiled palms over both arms up to and including the elbows, not leaving out a single spot equal to the breadth of a hair.

At first, make an intention and after reciting “Bismillah Shareef”, strike the hands on any solid matter which is related to the earth i.e. soil, mud, stones, marble or any such thing upon which is considerable dust. If the hands get soiled with too much dust, strike the base of one thumb upon the base of the other to loosen it. Then pass both hands over the entire face, not leaving out even a single spot equal to the breadth of a hair. The area around the lips which remains exposed in the natural state when the mouth is closed, should also be covered in this “Masah”. If the person is bearded, he should then run his fingers through the beard.

Strike the hands again on the soil. Now perform “Masah” of the right arm, by placing the inner portion of all fingers, except the thumb, on the outer portion of the right arm. Pass the left hand fingers over the finger tips of the right arm up to the elbow. Coming back from the elbow pass the palm over the inner side of the right arm up to the wrist. Then do “Masah” of the right thumb using the inner side of the left thumb. Similarly, repeat the entire process for the left arm.

While striking the palms on the soil or mud, the fingers must be kept open. If dust has reached between the fingers, “Khilaal” should be done (by rubbing other fingers between them). If the palm had been struck on stone or other such thing by which dust does not reach between the fingers, then “Khilaal” becomes obligatory.

Women should take extra care during “Tayammum” by moving ornaments (such as rings) in order not to leave the area below them – whereas nail polish should be totally removed.

If cold water is harmful in sickness, warm water should be used if available. If warm water is unavailable, “Tayammum” should be done.

If any portion is covered by a bandage (or plaster) because of an injury, then “Masah” with wet hands should be done over such bandage – and the rest of the body washed as usual with water. If pouring water does not cause harm, water should be poured over such bandage. In due course if it is not harmful to do “Masah” over the injured part, “Masah” should be adopted immediately. Later when washing the injured portion will not cause harm, it will become obligatory to wash it. It should therefore be understood that when the ability exists, the superior act must be performed and the lesser act will no more suffice.

If very little time is left for offering Prayer, and it is feared that the time will lapse if one takes a bath or performs ablution, one must perform the “Tayammum” and offer the Prayer. It is however incumbent to repeat such Prayer after proper bathing or ablution.

If the excuse due to which “Tayammum” was done does not remain any more, it will make the “Tayammum” invalid. The occurrence of anything that breaks the ablution will also break the “Tayammum” which was done in place of ablution. Similarly the occurrence of anything which makes bathing compulsory will break the “Tayammum” which was done in place of bathing.

PURIFYING IMPURE CLOTHES

To purify an impure cloth, first wash it properly and then squeeze it with full strength until water does not drip from it any more, even if further strength is applied. Then wash the hands, and again wash the cloth, squeezing it with full strength until water does not drip from it any more even if further strength is applied. Wash the hands again and wash the cloth for a third time – then squeeze it with full strength until water does not drip from it any more even if further strength is applied. The cloth has now become pure.

If a person has applied full strength to squeeze out water from the cloth, it will be pure for him – but if another person having more strength squeezes it and some more water drips from it, then the cloth will be pure only for the former and not for the latter.

This rule should be remembered well. Every person should purify his / her own clothes or else purify them in running water. The method of doing this is to at first wash the clothes with soap or in a washing machine, and then put them in a utensil (e.g. bucket) and pour water into the utensil until the cloth gets covered in the water and the utensil starts overflowing. The flowing water will render the cloth pure.

Fine clothes, shoes, carpets etc., which get damaged due to wringing / squeezing, must be washed and dried until water does not drip from it any more. Then wash again and let it dry a second time. Then wash again and let it dry for a third time. This will make it pure.

 

CHAPTER 3

THE CALL FOR PRAYER (AZAAN)

Yahya narrated it on the authority of his uncle that he had been sitting in the company of Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan (may Allah be well pleased with them) when the “Muazzin” called (Muslims) to Prayer. Muawiya said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) saying The “Muazzin”s will have the longest necks on the Day of Resurrection. (They will be the more deserving of Allah’s mercy and reward) (Sunan Abu Dawood)

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “Whoever proclaims the “Azaan” for 7 years, for the sake of reward, Allah keeps him secure from the fire of hell.” (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah)

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “The one who proclaims the “Azaan” only seeking reward, is like the blood stained martyr – and when he dies, his body will be safe from insects.” (Bahaare Shariat from Tibrani)

It is an Emphasised Sunnah (Muakkadah) to proclaim the “Azaan” for offering Obligatory Prayers in the mosque. This command is like an Essential (Wajib) in the sense that if the “Azaan” is not proclaimed, the entire community residing there will be offenders. It is undesirable (Makrooh) to proclaim the “Azaan” without ablution. The “Azaan” for each Obligatory Prayer can be proclaimed after the time starts for each respective Prayer. An “Azaan” proclaimed prior to its time must be repeated in its due time.

Islamic Law (Shariah) has some specific words for the “Azaan” (the Call for Prayer), which are as follows:

Allahu Akbar: Allahu Akbar: Allahu Akbar : Allahu AkbarAsh-hadu al-laa ilaaha illAllah: Ash-hadu al-laa ilaaha illAllah

Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah:Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah

Hayya alas-Salaah: Hayya alas-Salaah

Hayya alal-Falaah: Hayya alal-Falaah

Allahu Akbar: Allahu Akbar

Laa ilaaha illAllah

 

Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest;

I bear witness that there is no God except Allah, I bear witness that there is no God except Allah:

I bear witness that Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah, I bear witness that Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah:

Come towards Prayer, come towards Prayer; Come towards Success, come towards Success;

Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest; There is no God except Allah!

 

While saying “Hayya alas-Salaah Hayya alal-Falaah” in the “Azaan” or in the “Iqamah”, one must face right and left respectively. Upon hearing the “Azaan”, it is commanded to reply to it – i.e. to repeat the words which the Caller (Muazzin) is saying, except for the words “Hayya alas-Salaah Hayya alal-Falaah”, for which one must say “Laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa Billah” (There is neither power nor strength, except with Allah).

In the “Azaan” for the Dawn Prayer, the Caller must say the following words twice after “Hayya alas-Salaah Hayya alal-Falaah” – “AsSalaatu Khairum-minun-Naum” (Prayer is better than sleep). The response to these words is “Sadaqta wa bararta, wa bilHaqqi Nataqta” (You have confirmed the truth and you did well – and you have spoken a fact.)

While the “Azaan” is being said, one must not indulge in any talk, recite Qur’an etc., nor indulge in other activities. Listen to the “Azaan” attentively and reply to it. The same applies to the “Iqamah”. For the one who stays engrossed in talk while the “Azaan” is being proclaimed, there is a danger of him dying an evil death. (We seek Allah’s refuge)

When the Caller proclaims “Ash-hadu anna Muhammadar-Rasoolullah“, one must respond by sending peace and blessings upon the Holy Prophet – “SallAllahu alayka yaa Rasool Allah” (Allah’s blessings be upon you, O the Messenger of Allah). It is recommended (Mustahab) to kiss one’s thumbnails and touch them on one’s eyes while saying, “Qurratu ayni beka yaa Rasool-Allah – Allahumma Matteyni Bis-Samye wal-Basar” (The coolness of my eyes is due to you, O the Messenger of Allah! O Allah, grant me the usage of the ears and the eyes). The one who does this will be taken by the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) to Paradise.

The words proclaimed to announce the beginning of the congregational Prayers (with Jamaat), are called “Iqamah”. All words are the same as in the “Azaan”, except that after the second “Hayya alal-Falaah“, the following words are said twice – “Qad QamatisSalaah” (The Prayer has been established). In response to this, one should say“AqamahAllah wa adamaha maa damatiSamawate walArd” (May Allah keep it established, and grant it permanence as long as the skies and the earth remain.)

It is undesirable (Makrooh) for a person who comes in at the time of “Iqamah” to remain standing and wait – he should sit down and stand up only when the Proclaimer (Mukabbir) has announced “Hayya alal-Falaah“. Likewise those who are already present in the mosque must stand up at this moment. The same applies to the “Imaam”.

If several “Azaans” are heard, the listener must reply to the first one, and it is better if he replies to all. The “Azaan” for the Sermon (Khutbah) must not be replied to by those who pray behind the “Imaam” in congregation. (The follower is called Muqtadi).

After the “Azaan”, one must send blessings upon the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and then supplicate as follows:

Allahumma rabba haazihi-daawatit-taammate was-salaatil-qaaemate aate sayyedenaa Muhammadan-ilWaseelata walFadeelata wad-darajatar-rafeeata wabas-hoo maqaamam-mahmoodanil-lazee wa-attahoo warzuqnaa shafaatahoo yawm-alqiyaamate, innaka laa tukhleful-meeaaad.(O Allah, the Lord of this perfect call and of the Prayer to be established! Grant our leader Hazrat Mohammed, the highest point in Paradise, and Excellence, and the highest rank, and install him on the praiseworthy position which You have promised him – and grant us his intercession on the Day of Resurrection. Indeed You do not go against Your promise.) 

THE RAKAATS IN PRAYER

(A single round of bodily actions within a Prayer, is called a “Rakaat”. )

Dawn (Fajr) Prayer: Total of 4 “Rakaats” – in the following order: 2 Emphasised Sunnah (Muakkadah), 2 Obligatory (Farz).

Afternoon (Zohr) Prayer: Total of 12 “Rakaats” – in the following order: 4 Emphasised Sunnah (Muakkadah), 4 Obligatory (Farz), 2 Emphasised Sunnah (Muakkadah), 2 Voluntary (Nafil).

Evening (Asr) Prayer: Total of 8 “Rakaats” – in the following order: 4 Non-Emphasised Sunnah (Ghair Muakkadah), 4 Obligatory (Farz).

Sunset (Maghrib) Prayer: Total of 7 “Rakaats” – in the following order: 3 Obligatory (Farz), 2 Emphasised Sunnah (Muakkadah), 2 Voluntary (Nafil).

Night (Isha) Prayer: Total of 17 “Rakaats” – in the following order: 4 Non-Emphasised Sunnah (Ghair Muakkadah), 4 Obligatory (Farz), 2 Emphasised Sunnah (Muakkadah), 2 Voluntary (Nafil), 3 Essential (Wajib Witr), 2 Voluntary (Nafil).

Some Sunnah Prayers are Emphasised (Muakkadah ) – for which Shariah has stressed upon. Leaving it without proper excuse makes one liable for censure, and abandoning it makes one a sinner, disqualified from giving witness and deserving of fire. (These should not be purposely abandoned even during travel.) Some Imaams have said that one who abandons these will be deemed astray, and a sinner although his sin less than that of leaving an Essential (Wajib). Leaving the Sunnah habitually is close to forbidden (Haraam) and it is feared that (We seek Allah’s refuge) such a person may remain deprived of the Holy Prophet’s intercession. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has proclaimed: “Whoever abandons the Sunnah will not obtain my intercession.”

THE CONDITIONS OF PRAYER (SHARAAET)

The 6 conditions of Prayer are as follows:

    1. Purity – The body and the clothes of the one offering Prayer must be pure. Further, the place of worship must be clean. One must either have a bath (if the bath is compulsory) or else just the ablution (which is a must).
    2. Concealing the body – This is also called Satr-e-Aurat. That is to conceal / cover the necessary parts of the body. For men, this consists of the body between the navel up to and including the knees. For women this consists of the entire body, except the face, hands and soles of the feet. Women must hide their faces from strangers whilst not in Prayers. Wearing clothes that are so thin that body colour is exposed will make the Prayer void. Similar is the case of the head scarf if the shine of hair is revealed. In fact, wearing such clothes is prohibited even outside Prayer.
    3. Direction towards the “Qiblah” (Kaaba) – this is called “Istiqbaal-e-Qiblah”. The face and the chest must be directed towards the “Qiblah”, whilst offering Prayer.
    4. The Time of Prayer – proper timing is the fourth condition of Prayer. The time for Dawn Prayer starts from actual dawn and ends at the beginning of sunrise. It should be offered within this period. The time for Afternoon Prayer starts from the time the sun crosses its zenith until the shadow of any object becomes double its actual length. (The actual length means the length of a shadow when the sun is at the meridian – i.e. half distance between sunrise and zenith).

The time for Evening (Asr) Prayer starts from the time the Afternoon (Zohr) Prayer ends, and finishes at sunset. The period of 20 minutes before sunset is undesirable (Makrooh), therefore one should complete the Evening Prayer before this. If the Prayer could not be offered before this due to some reason, then one should offer it during this period before sunset. The time for the Sunset (Maghrib) Prayer starts immediately after the setting of the sun, and ends upon the disappearance of twilight. The period for Night (Isha) Prayer begins upon the disappearance of twilight and lasts up to dawn. However, delaying it after midnight (half time between sunset and sunrise) is Disliked (Makrooh).

    1. Intention (Niyah) – This is the fifth condition of Prayer. Shariah classifies “Niyah” as the firm intention within the heart. The lowest rank of such resolve is that when a person is asked about which Prayer he is offering, he should be able to answer the question promptly. If he answers after some consideration, the Prayer is void.

It is better (Mustahab) to declare the “Niyah” in a soft voice. There is no condition as to the language in which this should be said. It is better to have the intention in mind while proclaiming the “Takbeer Oola” (the first declaration of Allah’s greatness, at beginning of Prayer).

  1. “Takbeer Tahreemah” (declaration of Allah’s greatness, which prohibits other actions except the Prayer.) – This is the sixth condition of Prayer. This means to recite aloud “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is the Greatest) to begin the Prayer.

Prayer becomes void if the word “Allah” is pronounced as “Aaallah” or if the word “Akbar” is pronounced as “Akbaar”. Rather the person will become an infidel if the words are purposely pronounced this way whilst knowing their derogatory meanings. TIMES WHEN PRAYER IS PROHIBITED

The following are the times when Prayer is regarded Disliked (Makrooh).

  • From sunrise until 20 minutes have elapsed.
  • From 20 minutes before sunset, until sunset.
  • Mid morning (meridian noon) until sun reaches the zenith.

Within these periods Prayer of any type or the Prostration (for Qur’an recitation etc.) is not permitted. Except within these periods, all the lapsed Prayers and the Voluntary Prayers can be offered at any time. However, Voluntary Prayers are not permitted after dawn until sunrise and after one has offered the Evening Prayer until sunset. Both Sunnah and Nafil Prayers are prohibited during the time of the Sermon. 
  
  

 

CHAPTER 4

OFFERING PRAYER ACCORDING TO SUNNAH

The Qiyam (The standing posture)

In a state of ablution, stand facing the “Qiblah” keeping the feet apart with a distance of just 4 fingers between them. Then raise the hands up to the ears, touching the thumb on the lower part of the ear, palms facing the “Qiblah” and the fingers in the natural state – neither stuck together nor wide open. Then make the intention (Niyah), and proclaiming “Allahu Akbar” bring the hands downwards folding them below the navel. Keep the right hand above the left, with the middle three fingers resting on the left wrist, and with the thumb and little finger encircling the left wrist. Now recite the “Sanaa” (the Glorification) as follows:-

Sanaa (the Glorification)

Subhaanakal-laahumma wa bihamdika wa tabaarakasmuka wa ta-alaa jadduka wa laa Ilaaha gayruk.

“Purity is to You, O Allah! And I Praise You, Most Auspicious is Your name and Supreme is Your majesty; and there is no God except You.”

Then after reciting the “Taawuz” and “Tasmiyah”, recite the Surah alFatehah.

Taawuz (seeking Allah’s refuge)

Aoozu bilLaahi minash-shaytaanir-rajeem

“I seek the refuge of Allah from Satan, the accursed.”

Tasmiyah (mentioning the name of Allah)

Bismillaahir-Rahmaanir-Raheem.

Allah – beginning with the name of – the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Surah al-Fatehah

Al-Hamdu lillahe rabbil-alameen – ArRahmaani-Raheem – Maliki Yaumid-Deen – Iyyaka Nabudu Wa Iyyaka Nastayeen – Ihdenas-Siraatal-Mustaqeem – Siraat-allazeena anamta alayhim – Ghairil-maghdhoobe alayhim wa lad-dhaalleen – (Aameen)

All praise is to Allah, the Lord Of The Creation. The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

Owner of the Day of Recompense. You alone we worship and from You alone we seek help (and may we always).

Guide us on the Straight Path. The path of those whom You have favoured –

Not the path of those who earned Your anger – nor of those who are astray.

(Amen – So be it)

After Surah al-Fatehah, say “Aameen” in a soft voice. Then recite any Surah or any three consecutive Ayaat (verses) or any single verse that equals three verses.

Surah Ikhlaas

Qul huwAllahu Ahad – Allahus-Samad – lam yalid – wa lam yoolad,

wa lam yakullahoo kufuwan ahad.

“Proclaim (O’ Prophet Muhammed – peace and blessings be upon him), “He is Allah, He is One (Unique). “Allah is the Un-wanting.” (Perfect, does not require anything.) He has no offspring, nor is He born from anything. And there is none equal to Him.” 

Ruku (Bowing)

Then proclaiming “Allahu Akbar”, move towards the bowing position. Spread the fingers and catch the knees firmly, and bow down to the extent that the back and the head are in a straight line horizontal to the ground. One must look towards the place of prostration while standing and towards the heels of the feet while bowing.

While bowing recite the following, at least three times:

Subhaana Rabbiyal-Azeem. (Pure is my Lord, the Great)

Then while proclaiming the “Tasmeey” (as follows), move from the bowing position to stand upright.- Same-Allahu leman hamedah(Allah has heard the one who has praised Him.)

Qawmah (Standing upright – for a short while)

Now while standing, say the Tahmeed (the praise), as follows:-

Rabbanaa lakal-Hamd (O our Lord! All praise belongs to You)

Sajdah (Prostration) & Jalsah (Sitting between the two prostrations)

Then proclaiming “Allahu Akbar”, proceed to prostrate, first placing the knees on the ground, followed by both palms. Then place the nose and the forehead firmly on the ground, keeping the face between the two palms.

Take care to ensure the following in prostration: The nose bone should properly touch the ground and one must look at the tip of the nose. All toes of both feet should be firmly pressed on the ground, and pointing towards the “Qiblah”. The palms should be well placed on the ground with the fingers pointing towards the “Qiblah”. Arms should be away from the body sides, the abdomen away from the thighs and the thighs away from the calves.

While in prostration recite the following, at least three times:-

Subhaana Rabbiyal Aalaa. (Pure is my Lord, the Supreme)

Get up from the prostration while saying the “Allahu Akbar”, spread the left foot on its nape and sit upon it. Keep the right foot upright, with toes pressed on the ground and the toes pointing towards the “Qiblah”. Simultaneously rest the palms on the thighs close to the knees with the fingers pointing towards the “Qiblah”. Again recite “Allahu Akbar” and perform the second prostration, as in the first one. Get up from the second prostration by first raising the forehead and then the nose from the ground, followed by the hands and then knees. Raise yourself up while holding the knees with your hands, whilst putting your entire weight again on the feet. Now come back to the same standing position (Qiyam) with the hands folded below the navel.

The Second Rakaat.

After reciting only Bismillah Shareef, begin the recitation of Surah alFatehah (followed by other Surah or Ayaat). Offer the entire second “Rakaat” as the first one, but do not stand up after the second prostration.

Qaadah (Sitting)

Rise from the second prostration and sit in the same position as between two prostrations and recite the “Tashahhud”, as follows:-

At-tahiyyaatu lillaahi was-Salawaatu wat-tayyibaat — as-Salaamu alayka ayyuhan-nabiyyu wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh, as-Salaamu alaynaa wa alaa ibaadi-laahis-Saaliheen, ash-hadu allaa ilaaha IlAllahu wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan abduhoo wa Rasooluh.

“All types of worship through speech, all types of worship through actions and all types of worship through wealth are for Allah alone. Peace be on you, O the Holy Prophet, and Allah’s Mercy and Blessings. Peace be upon us and upon the virtuous bondmen of Allah. I testify that there is no God except Allah, and I testify that Mohammed is the bondman of Allah, and His Messenger”.

When reciting the “Tashahhud”, upon reaching the words “Ash-hadu Al-laa”, raise the index finger of the right hand while making a circle with the thumb and the middle finger and resting the tips of the last two fingers on the palm. Raise the index finger upon saying “Laa” and bring it down upon saying “Illa-“. At the same time, bring all the fingers and the palm to the normal position. During the Qa’adah, the sight should be directed towards one’s lap.

If the Prayer is an Obligatory one, and one has to offer more than 2 Cycles (Rakaats), stand up for the third “Rakaat” and recite Surah alFatehah. Do not add another Surah or Ayah to the recitation, and continue with the bowing etc, and complete the count of “Rakaats”.

In the last Qaadah, recite the “Tashahhud” and then send blessings upon the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) as follows: –

Darood (Salutation of Blessings and peace)

Allahumma Salle alaa Muhammadin wa alaa aale Muhammadin kamaa Sallayta alaa Ibraaheema wa alaa aale lbraaheema innaka Hameed-umMajeed. Allahumma baarik alaa Muhammadin wa alaa aale Muhammadin kamaa baarakta alaa Ibraaheema wa alaa aale lbraaheema Innaka Hameed-umMajeed.

“O Allah! Send blessings on Muhammad and the progeny of Muhammad the way You showered Your blessings on Ibraaheem and the progeny of Ibraaheem. Indeed, You alone are worthy of all praise and are the Glorious. O Allah! Bless Muhammad and the progeny of Muhammad the way You blessed Ibraaheem and the progeny of Ibraaheem. Indeed, You alone are worthy of praise and are the Glorious.”

Then supplicate with these words (or any other Masoorah supplication):

Du’aa Masoorah (Supplication)

Allahumma Rabbij-alanee muqeemas-Salaati wa min zuriyyatee, Rabbanaa wataqabbal duaa, Rabbanaghfir-lee waliwaalidaiyya wa lil-mumineena yawma yaqoomul-hisaab.

“O our Allah! O my Lord! Make me regular in Prayer and also my progeny. O our Lord! Grant my invocation. O our Lord! Forgive me, and my parents, and all other Muslims on the Day when the account will be established.”

Salaam (The salutation of peace)

This is the final act of the Prayer, in order to finish and exit from it. First turn the face towards the right shoulder to say the “Salaam” and then repeat towards the left shoulder.

The words of Salaam are:

AsSalaamu Alaykum wa Rahmatullah (Peace be upon you, and Allah’s Mercy)

After completion of the Prayer, raise the hands up to the chest and supplicate with sincerity and humility. After supplicating, wipe your hands on your face. For a collection of supplications, refer to the book “Sunnah Supplications” (Masnoon Dauen), compiled by the humble author.

Note: For Sunnah and Voluntary Prayers, add a small Surah or equivalent verses after the Surah alFatehah, in the third and fourth Cycle (Rakaat). In Non Emphasised Sunnah (Ghair Muakkadah) and Voluntary (Nafil) Prayers, read the entire Darood (salutation on the Prophet) and the Dua Masoora (supplication) in the first Qaadah also, and in the beginning of the third Cycle recite the “Sanaa”.

Note: In congregational Prayer, the follower (Muqtadi) should recite only the “Sanaa” in the first Qiyam (standing position), and then remain silent while standing. Similarly, the follower should remain silent in the Qiyam(s) that follow. When rising up from the bow, the “Imaam” will recite the “Tasmeey” and the follower should recite only the Tahmeed.

THE OBLIGATORY (FARZ) ACTS IN PRAYER:

An obligatory act is one that cannot be left out from Prayer, as it renders the Prayer void. There is no expiation for forgetting an obligatory act. The only solution is to offer the entire Prayer again.

There are seven Obligations in Prayer:

  1. The “Takbeer-e-Tahreemah” i.e. pronouncing “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is the Greatest). This is in fact one of the conditions of Prayer, but it has such a close relation with the actions of Prayer that it is also considered one of the Obligations of Prayer. If any of the conditions of Prayer are absent at the time of pronouncing “Takbeer-e-Tahreemah”, the Prayer will become void. If the Follower (Muqtadi) pronounces “Allah” along with the “Imaam”, but finishes saying “Akbar” before the “Imaam” does, then his Prayer will be void. If the follower finds the “Imaam” in bowing position, he must first say the “Takbeer-e-Tahreemah”, then again pronounce “Takbeer” and join the “Imaam” in bow. If a person secures the bow in the first “Rakaat”, he will get the reward of the “Takbeer Oola”.
  2. Qiyaam (standing upright) is obligatory in Prayer. The person must remain standing as long as the Qur’an is being recited. Qiyaam will only be excused if the person cannot stand, or is unable to prostrate, or the illness may get aggravated or if the pain is unbearable. It is not permitted to forego standing due to ordinary fever or bearable pain. Its importance can be understood from the fact that if the patient can stand in Prayer with the help of a stick, or a servant or by leaning next to a wall, it becomes obligatory to do so. Further, if the patient can stand for a little while it becomes obligatory to stand and say “Allahu Akbar” and then complete the rest of the Prayer while seated.
  3. Recitation of Qur’an. It is obligatory to properly pronounce each alphabet and vowel in such a manner that each one becomes distinct from another, and to recite it in such a way that the reciter can hear it. Just moving the lips does not suffice for recitation. Recitation means to recite with a voice loud enough to be heard at least by oneself. If there is no noise around (such as rain, moving machinery) and yet one cannot hear one’s own recitation, then it will make the Prayer void. It is obligatory to recite one complete verse in the first two Cycles (Rakaats) of Obligatory (Farz) Prayer, and in every Rak’aat of Witr and Voluntary (Nafil) Prayers. Since the recitation by the “Imaam” suffices for all, it is prohibited for the follower to recite behind the “Imaam”, whether the “Imaam” is reciting audibly or softly (inaudible to others).
  4. Ruku or bowing. The minimum requirement for Ruku is to bend at least to the extent that if one extends the hands they would reach the knees. The best is to straighten the back horizontally to the ground with the head in line, and the hands holding the knees.
  5. Sujood i.e two prostations in each “Rakaat”. The essence of prostration is that the forehead and the nose bone must touch the ground. Keeping the under portion of one toe of each foot upon the ground is a condition in prostration. If the feet are lifted from the ground or if only the tip of the toes touch the ground during the entire prostration, the Prayer will become void.
  6. Qaadah Akhirah or the Last Sitting Position. It is obligatory to sit in this position after completing all Cycles (Rakaats) for a period during which one can recite the entire “Tashahhud”. If one offers Sajdah Sahv (the prostrations upon forgetting an Essential act) it becomes obligatory to again remain seated for the same length of time in which one can recite the entire “Tashahhud”.
  7. Khurooj bisun’ihi – that is to proclaim “Salaam” (peace) towards both sides, to end and exit from Prayer.

It is obligatory to maintain the chronological order in offering Qiyam, Ruku, Sujood, Qirat, and Qaadah Akhirah. Further it is obligatory to follow the “Imaam” in all obligatory matters. 
 

THE ESSENTIALS (WAAJIBAAT) OF PRAYER:

A “Wajib” is an act that is considered Essential in Prayer. Forgetting an Essential renders the Prayer void but there is an expiation for it, called the Sajdah Sahv (two prostrations upon forgetting). Abandoning an Essential on purpose will also render the Prayer void for which the only solution is to offer the entire Prayer again.

The following are Essential (Wajib) in Prayer:

  • Pronouncing “Allahu Akbar” for the “Takbeer Tahreemah”
  • Reciting the complete Surah alFatehah in the first two Cycles (Rakaats) of the Obligatory Prayer and in every “Rakaat” of other Prayers.
  • Reciting at least a small Surah or one or two verses which are equal to three small verses, in the first two Cycles (Rakaats) of the Obligatory Prayer and in every “Rakaat” of other Prayers.
  • Offering the Ruku only once in every “Rakaat”.
  • Offering the Sajdah only twice in every “Rakaat”
  • Offering the Qawmah (standing upright after the bow).
  • Offering the Jalsah (sitting upright between the two prostrations)
  • Resting the nose bone and the forehead both together on the ground, during prostration.
  • Resting the under portion of three toes (big toe and two adjacent toes) of each foot on the ground, during prostration.
  • Waiting during Ruku, Qawmah, Sajdah and Jalsa for at least the period in which one can recite “SubhaanAllah” once.
  • Offering “Qaadah Oola” – that is to sit after two “Rakaats” in the Prayer that has three or four “Rakaats”.
  • Reciting the “Tahiyyaat” and “Tashahhud” in both Qaadahs (sitting).
  • Not reciting anything after reciting “Tashahhud” in the first Qaadah.
  • Not offering Qaadah after the first “Rakaat” and not to offer Qaadah in the third “Rakaat” of any Prayer which has two or four “Rakaats”. (Please note Qaadah will be offered at end of third “Rakaat” in a Prayer having three “Rakaat”).
  • For the “Imaam” to recite the Qur’an audibly (in the first 2 “Rakaats” only) in the Dawn, Sunset and Night Prayers (in congregation) – and for Friday and Eid Prayers.
  • For the “Imaam” not recite the Qur’an aloud (but only softly) in the Afternoon and Evening Prayers (in congregation).
  • For the followers to remain silent when the “Imaam” is reciting the Qur’an, whether audibly or softly.
  • For the followers to emulate the “Imaam” in all matters except in reciting the Qur’an.
  • Not to have an unnecessary time gap between the offering of two Obligations, or between two Essentials or between an Obligation and an Essential. Gap is defined as the time in which one can recite “Subhaanallah” thrice.
  • Saying the word “Salaam” on both sides when offering the Salaam to exit from Prayer.
  • Reciting “Duae-Qunoot” (The supplication in reverence) in the Witr Prayer, and to say “Takbeer” (Allahu Akbar) before this supplication.
  • Offering six “Takbeer” (Allahu Akbar) for the Prayers of the two Eids, and to offer “Takbeer” before proceeding to bow in the second “Rakaat” of Eid Prayers.
  • Offering the Sajdah Tilawat (prostration in Qur’an recitation) upon reciting a verse having such a command.
  • Offering each Obligation and Essential at its proper assigned position
  • Offering all the components of Prayer with calm and confidence.

Sajdah Sahav

It becomes Essential (Wajib) to offer 2 (additional) prostrations, upon forgetting any of the Essential (Wajib) acts, or upon repeating any Essential act or upon delaying the offer of an Obligatory (Farz) act. Sajdah Sahav is offered in the last Qaadah after reciting the “Tashahhud”, by first saying the “Salaam” towards the right shoulder and then offering 2 prostrations, after which the entire Qaadah should be completed (including Tahiyyat, “Tashahhud”, Durood and Supplication) and ending with “Salaam” on both sides.

If a person remains silent between the recitation of an additional Surah (or equivalent) after having read the Surah alFatehah for a time in which one can recite “SubhaanAllah” thrice, it will become “Wajib” to offer Sajdah Sahav. In the first Qaadah of the Obligatory (Farz), Essential (Wajib) or Emphasised Sunnah (Muakkadah) Prayers, if one recites the following words by mistake – “Allahumma Salle Ala Muhammad” or “Allahumma Salle Ala Syedna” – it will become Essential (Wajib) to offer Sajdah Sahav.

THE SUNNAH ACTS OF PRAYER:

  • Raising both hands up to the ears while saying the “Takbeer Tahreemah” (Allahu Akbar).
  • Keeping the palms facing the “Qiblah” while saying the “Takbeer Tahreemah”.
  • Keeping the face directed towards the “Qiblah”, while saying the “Takbeer Tahreemah”.
  • Folding the hands below the navel, by catching the wrist of the left hand with the right.
  • Softly reciting “Sanaa”, “Taawuz” and “Tasmiyah” and “Aameen” after Surah alFatehah.
  • Reciting “Tasmiyah” softly, at the beginning of each “Rakaat”.
  • Announcing “Takbeer” while moving from one position of Prayer, to another
  • For the “Imaam” to pronounce all “Takbeers”, “Tasmeey” and “Salaam” as audibly as required.
  • Reciting only Surah alFatehah in the third and the fourth Cycle of the Obligatory Prayer.
  • Reciting “Tasbeeh” (Purity) thrice during the bow (Ruku) and in the prostrations (Sujood).
  • Catching hold of the knees while bowing (Ruku), whilst keeping the fingers wide open.
  • Whilst in Ruku, to keep the legs straightened and the head and the back in a horizontal line.
  • For the “Imaam” to say the “Tasmeey” while rising up from the bow (Ruku) and the follower to say “Rabbanaa lakal-Hamd” after rising up from the bow.
  • For a person offering Prayer alone, to say both “Tasmeey” and “Rabbanaa lakal-Hamd” upon rising from the bow.
  • While proceeding for prostration, to first place the knees onto the ground, followed by the hands, the nose and lastly the forehead.
  • While getting up from prostration, to first lift the forehead, then the nose, followed by the hands and lastly the knees.
  • While in prostration, to keep the arms apart from the sides and the belly away from the thighs.
  • While in prostration, to keep all toes of both feet firmly pressed on the ground, and pointing towards the “Qiblah”.
  • To rise up for the 2nd (or following) Cycle by placing the hands on the knees and transferring the weight onto the feet.
  • In between the two prostrations, keeping the right foot erect, the left foot spread out and to sit upon it.
  • While sitting, to keep the hands on the thighs with the fingers in their natural position.
  • Raising the index finger when reciting “Tashahhud”, upon reaching the word “laa” and to put it down at bring all fingers back to normal position when reaching the word “Illa”.
  • Reciting “Durood Shareef” and any “Masura” supplication in the last Qaadah.
  • Saying “Salaam” first towards the right and then towards the left.

The acts listed above are the Sunnah (traditions) of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). If any of them are missed out by mistake or left out on purpose, it will not invalidate the Prayer. However it is not permitted to deliberately abandon the Sunnah.

WOMEN’S MODE OF PRAYER.

Women’s Prayer differs from that of men in the following respects:-

  • Before beginning Prayer the woman should make sure that (other than her face, palms and the soles of her feet) her entire body is properly covered with opaque clothes. If she offers Prayer in thin clothes which reveal the colour of the skin or the shine of her hair, it will render the Prayer void. It is obligatory to also hide the neck, ears, hair-locks hanging from the head, and the wrists.
  • If any part of the body (other than her face, palms and the soles of her feet) is exposed up to one fourth of its area, and she proclaims the “Takbeer” without hiding it, then the Prayer will be deemed to have not started at all. If one fourth or more of it gets exposed during the Prayer for a time in which “Subhaanallah” can be recited thrice, it will render the Prayer void.
  • While saying “Takbeer” Tahreemah (Allahu Akbar) a woman should raise her hands only up to her shoulders (and not up to the ears) and should not take them out of her cloak.
  • In the Qiyaam, she should place her left palm on the middle of her chest and the right palm over the left.
  • While bowing, she should only bow a little, enough for her hands to touch her knees, without holding them. The fingers should be kept straight. She should stand with her knees slightly bent, and her arms close to her body.
  • She should perform the prostration with her body drawn together i.e. she should keep the abdomen joined with the thighs, the thighs with the calves, the shins with the ground, the arms to the sides and the wrists spread on the ground. Further, instead of keeping the feet upright, both feet should be spread out towards the right.
  • While in Qaadah, instead of keeping the right foot upright, both feet should be slid out towards the right, with her sitting on the left foot.
  • For women, praying in a room is better than praying out in the courtyard, and praying in a basement is better than praying in a room. (Abu Dawud)

WHAT INVALIDATES OR BREAKS THE PRAYER.

The following actions break the Prayer, and the Prayer must be offered afresh:-

  • Talking to anyone, on purpose or by mistake.
  • Saluting anyone or replying to a greeting.
  • Coughing or clearing the throat, without a valid excuse.
  • Replying to someone’s sneezing.
  • Eating or drinking whilst in Prayer.
  • Turning the chest away from the direction of the “Qiblah”, without a valid excuse.
  • Crying (or exclaiming) because of some pain or trouble.
  • Breaking of the ablution.
  • Reading the Qur’an while looking at it.
  • Making a serious mistake in Qur’an recitation or in the remembrances.
  • Committing an action with both hands which leads others to believe that the person is not in Prayer.
  • Performing an unrelated action thrice, in any one position of the Prayer, will invalidate it. For example to scratch by lifting the hand once and let it down, then again lift up the hand and let it down and then do it a third time – all this whilst in one position , would break the Prayer. If the hand is lifted just once and the person scratches more than once, it will be counted as only one action.
  • Clearing the throat without valid excuse or proper reason, where at least two syllables are heard (For example Aah) will make the Prayer invalid. If there is an excuse (such as body’s urge to clear the throat) or if there is a proper reason (such as to clear his voice, or to remind the “Imaam” of his mistake, or to inform others that one is in Prayer) it would not invalidate the Prayer.

MAKROOH (DISLIKED/ UNDESIRABLE) ACTS DURING PRAYER

  • Playing with ones clothes, beard or body.
  • Wrapping up the clothes, e.g. lifting the clothes from front or behind while proceeding for prostration.
  • Letting the clothes hang – e.g. placing a handkerchief or cloak over the head or shoulder in such a way that their edges are hanging down.
  • Having sleeves rolled up more than half way beyond the wrists.
  • Offering the Prayer while in acute need of relieving oneself of stool, urine, or needing to break wind.
  • Gazing upwards, or turning the face looking here and there.
  • Cracking the finger joints or inserting the fingers of one hand into the fingers of another.
  • Placing the hand on the waist. (This must be avoided even outside Prayer).
  • Laying the wrists flat on the ground while in prostration – this rule applies to men only.
  • Offering Prayer while someone is facing you.
  • Yawning purposely during Prayer.
  • Praying in clothes that have images of living objects on them.
  • Lifting up the lower garment – i.e. “Shalwar” (by folding and inserting its upper portion) or the pants (by folding its lower end).
  • Not tying the buttons of the upper garment, thereby exposing the chest.
  • The presence of an image (of living objects) in the front, right, left or above the head of the person offering Prayer.
  • Offering the bow or prostration, or rising from the prostration before the “Imaam” does.
  • Reciting the Qur’an in any position, except while in Qiyaam (standing).
  • Ending the Qur’an recitation in the bowing position.
  • Resting the hands on the ground before touching the knees while proceeding for prostration, without a valid reason. Similarly, raising the knees from the ground before the hands are raised from the ground, while rising from prostration.
  • Offering Prayer in front of a grave, without a barrier in between.
  • Not offering a “Wajib” (Essential act) properly. For example not straightening the back during the bow and prostrations, or proceeding for the next position before straightening up in the “Qawmah” or “Jalsah”.
  • Reciting the Qur’an in an improper sequence. For example reciting Surah Kafiroon in the first “Rakaat” (Cycle) and Surah Kausar in the second. This is “Makrooh” since it is against the sequence.
  • Praying with eyes closed. However, it is better to do so if this increases one’s reverence and devotion.

A “Makrooh” act makes the Prayer flawed. Such a Prayer should be offered again.

Praying without the head covered is against the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). Praying without the head covered because one deems wearing a cap as a burden, or due to heat, is a lesser “Makrooh” (tanzeehi). However, if it is done in contempt of Prayer (e.g. deeming that Prayer is not important enough to merit wearing a cap for it), it is Kufr (blasphemy). If it is done to increase one’s reverence and devotion, it is “Mustahab” (recommended).  

RULES REGARDING CROSSING SOMEONE INVOLVED PRAYER

It is a grave sin to pass in front of someone who is involved in Prayer. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “If the one who passes in front of someone involved in Prayer knew what sin it entails, he would prefer to stand for a hundred years rather than taking that single step.” In another Hadith it is reported “He would deem it good to be driven into the ground, but would not pass in front of someone involved in Prayer.”

If someone passes in front, it does not break the Prayer, but the one who passes will earn a great sin. Similarly one should avoid praying in a place where it becomes difficult for others who need to cross.

If a Sutrah (a thing which can act as a barrier) is placed in front of the worshipper, then there is no harm in crossing from a point beyond it. The barrier should be at least one arm in height and at least one finger in thickness.

In congregation, the barrier for the “Imaam” suffices for the followers. Therefore if one has to cross in front of a Follower (Muqtadi), there is no sin in it – provided one does not cross in front of the “Imaam”.

ETIQUETTES OF THE MOSQUE

The Mosque is a house of Allah. It is imperative for everyone – old or young – to have proper regard for it. One should wear clean clothes to the mosque. It is not permissible to enter the mosque when one’s breath smells after having eaten raw onions or garlic. Similarly, the mosque should be kept clean from all smelly things.

It is forbidden to discuss worldly affairs or talk loudly in the mosque. It is reported in the Hadith that discussing worldly affairs in the mosque destroys good deeds the way a fire burns up dry wood-sticks. In another hadith it is reported “Do not sit with those who discuss worldly affairs in the mosque, for they have no concern with Allah.”

It is not permitted for anyone – except the Mu’taqif (one in seclusion) – to eat, drink or sleep there. Therefore if one intends to do these, one must make the intention of Seclusion (I’tiqaf) before entering the mosque, and offer Prayer or do some Zikr (remembrance). It will now become legal for him to eat or drink due to necessity. It is forbidden to beg in the mosque. It is also prohibited to give alms to beggars inside a mosque or to search for lost property.

It is prohibited to defile the walls, ground, carpets etc., of the mosque with any dirt, saliva or nose refuse etc. Entering the mosque in a state of greater impurity (requiring a bath) is a severe crime. The etiquette of the mosque is so important that one must take care not to let water remaining on the body after ablution to drop inside it – nor should one run inside the mosque in order to join the congregation.

Conditions For Leadership In Prayer (Who Can Be An “Imaam”?)

The following are the 6 conditions for leadership in Prayer: The leader must (1) be a Muslim, (2) be Sane, (3) be an Adult, (4) be Male, (5) know Qur’an recitation and (6) not be disabled.

The person who deserves leadership (to be an “Imaam”) is one who:

  1. Holds proper faith of Ahle Sunnah walJamaah
  2. Is pious
  3. Has most knowledge of the rules of cleanliness and Prayer
  4. Remembers Qur’an sufficiently to recite according to Sunnah
  5. Correctly pronounces the alphabets of the Qur’an.

It is a sin to appoint an astray person whose beliefs have not reached blasphemy, or persons who openly commit grave sins (e.g. adulterers, drunkards, gamblers, usurers, perons who remove their beards or trim the beard to less than a fist long etc.,) as leaders in Prayer. Prayer behind such persons is “Makrooh” Tahreemi (makes the Prayer highly defective) and must be re-offered.

Prayer cannot be offered behind any astray person whose beliefs have reached blasphemy. For example (a) Rafidi Shia – even if he only denies the Caliphate of Syedna Abu Bakr (may Allah be well pleased with him) or curses the first 2 Caliphs, or (b) One who denies pre-ordained destiny, or (c) One who denies intercession by the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), or (d) One who denies the Vision of Allah, or (e) One who denies punishment of the grave, or (f) One who denies existence of the 2 recording angels, and (g) Worse than those listed above are those who call themselves Muslims and pretend to be following the Sunnah whilst denying the tenets of Islam, and are insolent towards Allah and His Holy Prophet, or those who deem such insolent people as Muslims – Prayer is invalid behind all these.  

The Importance Of Prayer In Congregation.

It is Essential (Wajib) upon every sane, adult and capable person to offer the Prayer along with the congregation. One who leaves it without a valid excuse even once, is an offender and deserves punishment. One who leaves it several times is a proclaimed sinner and disqualified from giving witness, and will be punished severely.

The Holy Prophet Mohammed (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “My heart desires that I should command some young men to gather a lot of fuel (firewood), and then I may go to those who pray in their homes without an excuse, and burn their houses.” (Muslim)

The importance of praying in congregation has already been mentioned at the beginning of the book. The following circumstances exempt one from attending Prayer in congregation:-

  • A patient who faces difficulty in going to the mosque.
  • An invalid person whose leg is cut off, is paralyzed or blind.
  • One who is too old and incapable of going to the mosque.
  • Torrential rain, severe sludge, extreme darkness or storm on the way.
  • Fear of losing property or food.
  • A person who cannot repay his debts, fearing the creditor.
  • Fear of an oppressor
  • A person in urgent need to relieve himself of stool, urine or to break wind.
  • Fear of losing conveyance.
  • Presence of food whilst having the dire urge to eat.
  • Attending a sick person, whilst fearing that going for congregation will cause difficulty for the patient or make the patient nervous.

RULES OF CONGREGATIONAL PRAYER

When the time for congregational Prayer approaches, the Caller (Muazzin) should announce the “Iqamah” – and the “Imaam” and the followers should get up and make proper rows, when the “Muazzin” reaches words “Hayya alas-Salaah Hayya alal-Falaah”. The “Imaam” must advise the followers to maintain proper rows. If the followers keep their heels in line with each other, the row will be set straight.

It is obligatory for the follower to have the intention in his heart, that he is offering Prayer in the leadership of the particular “Imaam”. The follower must finish his “Takbeer Tahreemah” after the “Imaam” has finished saying it. All that is Obligatory (Farz) in Prayer, must be compulsorily carried out in the leadership of the “Imaam”. If a follower performs an obligatory act and finishes it before the “Imaam” has started it – and does not offer it again with or after the “Imaam” – it will render the Prayer void. For example, if a follower offers prostration before the “Imaam” and the “Imaam” has not yet come into prostration while the follower lifts up his head – and if he does not (again) offer the prostration with the “Imaam” or after the “Imaam” – it will render his Prayer void.

If the “Imaam” forgets to offer the first Qaadah, and starts getting up, the followers should remind him (give “Luqmah”) only if he is nearer to the sitting position so that the “Imaam” may revert to the Qaadah. If the “Imaam” is nearer to standing upright or has already stood up fully, the followers must not remind him, for it will invalidate the Prayer of the person who gives the reminder. If the “Imaam” pays heed to such a reminder, his Prayer will also become void, resulting in the invalidation of Prayer of all the followers too.

If there are two or more followers, they should stand behind the “Imaam”. If there is only one follower, he should stand next to the “Imaam”, on the right. Standing next to the “Imaam” implies that the follower’s ankles should not be ahead of that of the “Imaam”. If only one follower was praying with the “Imaam”, and another one joins, the “Imaam” should take a step forward and the newcomer should stand next to the follower. Alternatively, the follower may step backwards by himself or the newcomer may pull him back – both ways are permitted.

It is Undesirable (Makrooh) to stand in the back rows if there is space available in the front rows. Therefore if one sees that there is space in the front rows, while the back rows are full, he should cleave through the back rows to join the front rows. It has been observed that some persons leave the front rows and purposely sit in the back rows. How good or bad is this deed of theirs? Note what the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said about this: “If people knew what is the reward for the “Azaan” and the first row, everyone would crave for it – to the extent that they would draw lots for it.” (Bukhari & Muslim)

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) also said: “People will always keep going back from the first row to the extent that Allah the Supreme will drive them away from mercy, and throw them in the fire.”

Rules regarding the Masbook (The late joiner)

A person who joins the congregational Prayer after the first or more Cycles (Rakaats) have already been offered, is called Masbook. The Masbook must not end his Prayer with the Salaam said by the “Imaam” but continue and offer the “Rakaats” which he had missed out.

If the late comer finds the “Imaam” in the bowing position (Ruku), he should first offer the “Takbeer Tahreemah” while standing, and then while proclaiming another “Takbeer” proceed towards the bow. If he proceeds towards the bow while proclaiming the first “Takbeer”, his Prayer is void. If he joins with the “Imaam” in the bow, he is deemed to have attained that Cycle (Rakaat). (So if he joins the “Imaam” in the first bow, he is no longer a Masbook).

If a person joins the Prayer after the bow of the first Cycle (Rakaat), or at the beginning of the second Cycle, he should get up after the “Imaam” says the “Salaam” – and after reciting the “Sanaa”, “Taawuz”, “Tasmiyah”, Surah alFatehah etc, complete the first Cycle and then sit for the Qaadah to complete his Prayer. If a person joins the Prayer in the third Cycle (of a four Cycle Prayer), he should offer 2 more “Rakaats” fully, to complete his Prayer i.e. he must recite the Surah alFatehah and a small Surah (or equivalent) after it, in each Cycle.

If he joins during the third Cycle after the bow, but before the bow of the fourth Cycle, he has to offer 3 Cycles more. He should get up after the “Imaam” says the “Salaam” – and the after reciting the “Sana”, “Tawuz”, “Tasmiyah”, Surah alFatehah plus a small Surah (or equivalent), complete the first Cycle which is in fact his second Cycle in counting – so he must then sit for the Qaadah to complete this Cycle. In the Qaadah he should recite only the “Tahiyyaat” and “Tashahhud”, and get up for the third Cycle. In this third Cycle he should recite the “Tasmiyah”, Surah alFatehah a small Surah (or equivalent) and complete it, and without offering Qaadah get up for the fourth Cycle. In this fourth Cycle he should recite “Tasmiyah” and only Surah alFatehah in his standing position (Qiyaam) – and then complete the Prayer ending with Salaam in the Qaadah.

The Masbook should not get up immediately upon the Imaam’s proclamation of the first Salaam. He should wait to listen to the second Salaam and then get up in order to be sure that the “Imaam” will not offer the Sajdah Sahv (extra prostratons upon forgetting). (If the “Imaam” has to offer the Sajdah Sahv, the Masbook should follow the “Imaam” until the next Salaam).

If the Masbook unintentionally says the Salaam along with the “Imaam”, he need not offer Sajdah Sahv for this mistake. If he offers the Salaam after the “Imaam” has, Sajdah Sahv will become Essential upon him. He must complete his Prayer and offer the Sajdah Sahv at its end.

THE WITR PRAYER & QUNOOT SUPPLICATION

It is reported in Saheeh Muslim by Abdullah ibn Abbas (may Allah be well pleased with him) that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) offered 3 Cycles (Rakaats) in the Witr Prayer. It is also reported in Abu Dawood and Tirmidhi hadith collections, by Hazrat Ayesha (may Allah be well pleased with her) that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to offer 3 Cycles in the Witr Prayer.

The Witr Prayer is Essential (Wajib) in the Night (Isha) Prayer.

At first complete 2 Cycles as normal, and get up for the 3rd Cycle immediately after reciting the “Tashahhud” in the Qaadah. In the 3rdCycle, do not recite the “Sana” or “Tawuz”. Recite Surah alFatehah plus a small Surah (or equivalent), and then proclaiming “Allahu Akbar”, raise both hands to the ears and then fold them again below the navel. Now recite the Qunoot Supplication, as under:-

Allahuma innaa nastaeenuka wa nastaghfiruka wa numinu bika wa natawakkalu alayka wa nusnee alaykal-khayra, wa nashkuruka wa laa nakfuruka wa nakhlaoo wa natruku maiy- yafjuruk, Allaahumma iyyaka nabudu wa laka nusallee wa nasjudu wa ilayka nasaa wa nahfidu wa narjoo rahmataka wa nakhshaa azaabaka inna azaabaka bilkuffari mulhiq.

“O Allah! We seek Your help and seek Your forgiveness – and we believe in You and rely on You – and we praise You with all goodness – and we are thankful to You and not ungrateful to You – and we separate from and forsake whoever offends You. O Allah! You alone we worship and for You only we offer the Prayer and the prostration. And towards You only do we rush, and present ourselves for service. And we hope for Your mercy and fear Your punishment. Indeed Your punishment will grasp the disbelievers.”

Reciting the Qunoot Supplication and proclaiming the “Takbeer” for it – both these are Essential (Wajib). If one forgets to recite the Qunoot Supplication and proceeds for the bow, he should not return to it but should offer Sajdah Sahv at the end.

Those who are unable to recite Qunoot Supplication should recite the following supplication:

Rab-banaa Aatinaa Fid-dunyaa Hasanatan Wa Fil Aakhirati Hasanatan Wa Qinaa’Azaaban Naar.

“O our Rabb! We seek of You good in this world and good in the Hereafter and safety from the torment of Hell.” Or they should recite “Allahummaghfirlana” thrice. 

THE FRIDAY PRAYER

Abu Huraira (may Allah be well pleased with him) reported that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “He who performed ablution well, then came to Friday Prayer, listened (to the sermon), kept silence all (his sins) between that time and the next Friday would be forgiven with three days extra, and he who touched pebbles caused an interruption.” (Saheeh Muslim)

Whoever leaves the Friday Prayer intentionally due to lazyness three times, Allah will set a seal upon his heart (and he will become of the neglectful). (Abu Dawood, Tirmizi)

Whoever leaves the Friday Prayer thrice without a valid excuse is a hypocrite. (Ibn Khuzaimah).

The Friday Prayer is a principal obligation and its command more mandatory than the Afternoon Prayer, and one who denies it is a disbeliever. This Prayer is obligatory upon every Muslim male who is adult, healthy, free and not on a journey. Going early to the mosque for Prayers, brushing with “Miswaak”, adorning good clothes, applying perfume and sitting in the first row are recommended, and taking a bath before the Prayer is Sunnah.

Actions which are prohibited during the Prayer such as talking, eating, drinking etc. are also prohibited during the sermon (Khutbah). However the Preacher (Khateeb) can command towards good and forbid evil during the sermon. It is obligatory upon all those present to listen to the sermon while it is being delivered and to remain completely silent. It is Essential (Wajib) even for those to whom the voice of the “Imaam” does not reach, to remain silent. It is allowed to gesture by hand or head upon seeing someone doing wrong, but to utter something is disallowed.  

THE PRAYER OF THE 2 EIDS.

The Eid Prayer is Essential (Wajib) only upon those for whom the Friday Prayer is obligatory. The sermon is a condition for the Friday Prayer, whereas it is a Sunnah for the Eid Prayer. There is niether an “Azaan” nor an Iqaamah before the Eid Prayer. It is undesirable (Makrooh) to offer Voluntary Prayers before the Eid Prayer whether offered in the house, mosque or the Eid prayer-grounds – even if the Eid Prayer is not Essential upon such a person.

It is better to shake hands and embrace each other after the Eid Prayers, as is prevalent among Muslims, because it is an expression of happiness. The following acts are Recommended (Mustahab) on the day of Eid:

  • Having a hair cut
  • Cutting of finger nails & toe nails
  • Taking a bath
  • Brushing teeth with “Miswaak”
  • Adorning good clothes
  • Applying perfume
  • Going to the Eid prayer-ground, on foot.
  • Proclaiming “Takbeer” along the way
  • Coming back using a different route
  • Expressing happiness
  • Giving alms in plenty
  • Greeting & congratulating each other
  • Paying the Sadaqah Fitr prior to the Eid ulFitr Prayer
  • Eating an odd number of dates prior to the Eid ulFitr Prayer
  • Not eating anything before the Eid ulAdha Prayer, and proclaiming “Takbeer” with a loud voice along the way.

If one intends to offer sacrifice on Eid ulAdha, it is recommended (Mustahab) not to cut hair or nails from 1st of Zil Hajj to the 10th of Zil Hajj. From the Dawn Prayer on the 9th of Zil Hajj to the Evening Prayer on the 13th of Zil Hajj, it is Essential (Wajib) to recite the following “Takbeer Tashreeq” at least once (and better to recite thrice) after every congregational Prayer:

Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Laa Ilaaha ill-Allahu, WAllahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Wa Lillah-ilHamd.

“Allah is the Greatest Allah is the Greatest, There is none worthy of worship (God) except Allah – and Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, and for Allah only is all Praise.”  

Offering The Eid Prayer

Prayers for both Eids are offered in the same manner. Make an intention (Niyah) to offer the Essential (Wajib) Eid ul Adha or Eid ulFitr Prayer and raising your hands up to the ears, proclaim the “Takbeer”. Bring down the hands and fold them below the navel. Recite the Sana, raise your hands up to the ears, proclaim the “Takbeer”, and bring back the hands down by the sides. Again raise your hands up to the ears, proclaim the “Takbeer”, and bring back the hands down by the sides. For the third time raise your hands up to the ears, proclaim the “Takbeer”, but now bring them down and fold them below the navel. The “Imaam” will now recite the Surah alFatehah and any small Surah (or equivalent) and proceed for the bow (Ruku).

In the second Cycle (Rakaat), after recitation of Surah alFatehah and any small Surah (or equivalent), but before proceeding for the bow (Ruku), raise your hands up to the ears, proclaim the “Takbeer”, and bring back the hands down by the sides. Again raise your hands up to the ears, proclaim the “Takbeer”, and bring back the hands down by the sides. For the third time raise your hands up to the ears, proclaim the “Takbeer”, bring back the hands down by the sides. For the fourth time, proclaim another “Takbeer” without raising the hands, and proceed for the Ruku. Then complete the Prayer as usual.

It is Essential to wait between two “Takbeer”s for a short while, equal to that of reciting “SubhaanAllah” 3 times.

THE FUNERAL PRAYER

Funeral Prayer is a “Sufficing Obligation” (Farz Kifayah) i.e. if one person offers it, it will suffice on behalf of the entire community (everyone will be freed from this obligation). If not, then all those who were informed and did not offer the Funeral Prayer will have sinned. To offer the Funeral Prayer, the corpse must be present in front. Offering Funeral Prayer without the corpse in front (Ghaaebana) is not permissible. Corpse or dead body refers to one who is born alive and then dies. Funeral Prayers are not to be offered for the still-born.

If the Funeral Prayer is ready, and there is a danger of missing it by going for a bath / ablution, one must join it after doing “Tayammum”. It is observed that some people offer the Funeral Prayer with their shoes on, or while standing atop their shoes. In the first instance, the shoes as well as the ground must be clean – and in the second instance, the shoes must be clean.

The Funeral Prayer consists of two main Obligations:-

  • Offering it while standing
  • Proclaiming “Allahu Akbar” 4 times.

The following three are Emphasised Sunnah (Muakkadah) in the Funeral Prayer:-

  • Glorifying Allah – by reciting “Sanaa”
  • Offering salutations and greetings upon the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him).
  • Praying for the deceased.

It is better to have three (or an odd number) of rows in the Funeral Prayer.

The Method of Funeral Prayer

At first make a proper intention (Niyah) and proclaiming “Allahu Akbar”, fold the hands below the navel, and recite the following “Sanaa”:-

Subhaanakal-laahumma wa bihamdika wa tabaarakasmuka wa ta-alaa jadduka wa jalla sanaa-uka wa laa Ilaaha gayruk.

“Purity is to You, O Allah! And I Praise You, Most Auspicious is Your name and Supreme is Your majesty; and most high is Your glory, and there is no God except You.”

Then proclaim “Allahu Akbar” without raising the hands and recite the Salutation upon the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). It is better to recite the same one as in the Qaadah of normal Prayer. Reciting any other Salutation is also permitted.

Then proclaim “Allahu Akbar” without raising the hands and recite the following supplication:

If the deceased is an adult male or femaleAllahummaghfir Le-hayyinaa wa mayyetenaa, wa shaahedenaa wa ghaaebenaa, wa sagherenaa wa kabeerenaa, wa zakarenaa wa unsaanaa; Allahumma man ahyaytahoo minnaa fa-ahyehi alal-islaame wa man tawaffaytuhoo minnaa fatawaffahoo alal-imaan.

“O our Allah! Forgive our living and our dead, and our present and our absent ones, and our young and our old, and our males and our females; O our Allah – those among us whom You keep alive, keep them alive upon Islam – and to those among us whom You give death, cause them to die upon faith.”

If the deceased is a minor boy

Allahumm-ajalhu lanaa Fartaw-wajalhu lanaa ajraw-wa zukhraw-wajalhu lanaa shafeyaw-wa mushaffaa.

“O our Allah! Make him our forerunner, and make him a reward and a provision for us, and make him our intercessor and one whose intercession is accepted.”

If the deceased is a minor girl

Allahumm-ajalha lanaa Fartaw-wajalha lanaa ajraw-wa zukhraw-wajalha lanaa shafeyataw-wa mushaffa-ah.

“O our Allah! Make her our forerunner, and make her a reward and a provision for us, and make her our intercessor and one whose intercession is accepted.”

Then proclaim “Allahu Akbar” and release the hands and recite the Salaam on both sides. After this break the ranks and recite Surah alFatehah once, Surah Ikhlaas thrice, and send salutations on the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) thrice – and offer its reward to the deceased, and supplicate for the deceased’s salvation.

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said “After offering the Funeral Prayer for the deceased, supplicate especially for the deceased.” (Mishkaat – from Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah and Baihaqi).  

Taraweeh Prayers (In Ramadan)

Taraweeh Prayers are an emphasised Sunnah (Muakkadah) for both men and women. There is a consensus among the Ulema that this Prayer consists of 20 Cycles (Rakaats), and this is proven from several ahadith.

Imam Baihaqi has reported through proper testimonies (Saheeh Asnad) from Saeb bin Yazeed (may Allah be pleased with him) that people used to offer 20 Cycles (Rakaats) for the Taraweeh Prayer during the caliphate of Syedna Umar Farouk and this was the norm even during the caliphates of Syedna Osman and Syedna Ali (may Allah be pleased with them).

Reciting the entire Qur’an in the Taraweeh is an emphasised Sunnah (Muakkadah). Completeing it twice is better and thrice is best. It is obligatory upon the “Imaam” or the Memoriser (Hafiz) to recite the Qur’an with proper pronunciation. Charging money or fixing wages for leading Taraweeh Prayers is also not permitted – the payer and the receiver of such compensation, both are sinners.

The time for Taraweeh is after the Obligatory (Farz) Night (Isha) Prayers and lasts up to dawn. If one does not offer the Night Prayer with the congregation, he must offer it alone and then join the Taraweeh congregation. However he must offer the Witr Prayer alone, without congregation. It is better to offer the Taraweeh in the mosque, along with the congregation.

The Taraweeh should be offered in Cycles (Rakaats) of two each. After every 4 Cycles, it is recommended to sit for approximately the time it take to offer 4 Cycles. While sitting, one may keep quiet or recite the Kalemah, or the Salutations or recite the following “Tasbeeh”:-

Subhaana zi alMulk wa alMalakoot; Subhaana zi alIzzate wa alAzmate wa alHaybate wa alQudrate wa alKibraaye wa alJabaroot; Subhaana alMaleke alHayye alLazzi la yanamu wa laa yamoot; Subboohun Quddoosun Rabbanaa wa Rabbu alMalaakate wa alRooh; Allahumma ajirna min alNaare ya Mujeeru ya Mujeeru ya Mujeer.

“Pure is He (Allah), the Owner of the Kingdom and the Sovereignity; Pure is He, the Owner of Honour, and Greatness, and Reverence, and Power, and Superiority, and Might; Pure is the Real King Who is Alive – there is niether sleep nor death for Him; He is the Utmost Pure, and the Holy, the Master of all Angels and of the Spirit; O Allah! Save us from the fire – O Saviour, O Emancipator, O Protector!” 


 

CHAPTER 5

 

THE LAPSED (QADA) PRAYERS

To let the Prayer lapse without a valid legal reason is a grave sin. It is obligatory to offer such Prayers and also necessary to repent from such sins. True repentance will wipe out the sin of letting the Prayer lapse, but repentance is proper only if the lapsed Prayer is offered. If the lapsed Prayer is not offered, such a repentance will not be accepted.

If the Prayer lapses due to forgetting or due to sleeping, it is still obligatory to offer the Qada (recapture) for it, although there is no sin for such a lapse. As soon as one remembers or gets up, the lapsed Prayer should be offered provided it is not an undesirable (Makrooh) time. Delaying it further without reason is disliked. If one is sleeping or has forgotten to offer Prayers, it is incumbent upon others to awaken or remind such a person. If one fears not being able to get up for the Dawn Prayer, such a person is not permitted to stay awake till late night without a valid legal reason.

If the “Takbeer Tahreemah” is offered within the time for any Prayer, then such Prayer has not lapsed but has been offered within time. However, the Dawn, Friday and Eid Prayers must be completed before the time for such Prayer ends – if the Salaam for these Prayer is said after the time has expired, such Prayer becomes invalid.

There is no fixed time of offering the lapsed Prayers – they can be offered at any time during one’s life. Whenever offered, it will free the person from this obligation.

A person who has lapsed Prayers for several years still unoffered, must calculate the number of Obligatory / Essential Prayers pending right from the time of attaining puberty to the time of regularly offering Prayers. And whenever one has spare time, these must be offered. Since offering the Lapsed Prayers is more important than Voluntary (Nawafil) Prayers, it is better to offer them instead of the Non-Emphasised Sunnah (Ghair Muakkadah) and Voluntary (Nawafil) Prayers. However, the Taraweeh Prayers and the Emphasised Sunnah (Muakkadah) Prayers must not be left out. The intention (Niyah) for offering the lapsed Prayers can also be made like this – for example “I offer the first Dawn Prayer which was missed”. So the next time when offering another lapsed Dawn Prayer, the same intention (Niyah) can be made, as this has now become the first one still pending. Likewise, the intention can be made for other lapsed Prayers.

THE PRAYER OF THE SICK

It is allowed to offer Prayers while sitting only if the sick person cannot stand on his own or feels giddy or the pain is unbearable or it will aggravate the illness or delay the cure. Standing (Qiyaam) is obligatory in Prayer, therefore it not allowed to forego it without a valid legal reason. If the sick person can stand with someone’s help or lean on a staff or against a wall, it is obligatory to offer the Prayer standing – even if he starts the Prayer standing for a short while and completes the rest of it while sitting – otherwise the Prayer will become void.

If one cannot sit on his own but someone else can help him up sit upright, it is necessary to offer the Prayer while sitting. If sitting is not possible, he can lean back on a pillow, wall etc. for support. If sitting is possible, Prayer will be void if offered while reclining.

If the patient can stand but cannot bend to offer the bow or prostration, it is better to offer the Prayer standing and offer the bow or prostration by gesturing. For the prostration, he must bow his head as far as possible and for the bow a little bit less than that.

If one cannot offer the prostration on the ground, but can offer it by keeping something on the ground (provided other conditions for prostrations are met), it becomes impermissible for such person to offer prostrations by only a gesture.

If the patient is incapable of sitting, the Prayer must be offered while lying down whether reclining on the left or right side but facing the “Qiblah” – or even with the body stretched out towards the “Qiblah” but with the knees folded. A pillow should be tucked under the head so that the face is towards the “Qiblah”.

PRAYERS ON A JOURNEY

Islam has created ease for the travellers that during the journey they must reduce their Prayers. This reduction is called “Qasr”. That is, the Obligatory (Farz) Prayer consisiting of 4 Cycles (Rakaats) should be reduced to two Cycles (Rakaats) only.

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “This is a favour (Sadaqah) which Allah has bestowed upon you, therefore you must accept His favour.”

It is Essential (Wajib) upon the traveller to reduce the Obligatory Prayers. One who offers 4 Cycles on purpose will be sinning and must repent.

There is no reduction in Sunnah Prayers during travel, and they must be offered in full. It is reported that the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to offer the non-obligatory Prayers whilst sitting on his mount (Saheeh Bukhari & Saheeh Muslim).

In Islamic law, the traveller is one who has proceeded at least 57.375 miles (92.33 kilometers) out of his dwelling place, with the intention of travel. Till the time he does not return to his dwelling place, he must keep offering reduced obligatory Prayers. However, if he intends to stop at any place for 15 days or more during the journey, he will offer full Prayers at such place – even if due to some reason he later on stays there for less than 15 days. Likewise if the intention is to stay at a certain place for less than 15 days but stays on for 15 days or more, the traveller will offer reduced (Qasr) Prayers at such place.

If a traveller offers Prayers behind a Resident (Muqeem) “Imaam”, the traveller will offer full Prayers. However if residents offer their Prayers behind an “Imaam” who is a traveller, the “Imaam” must first inform the followers that he will offer only 2 Cycles (Rakaats). After 2 Cycles, the “Imaam” will say the Salaam, after which the followers must get up and complete the remaining two Cycles. However, in the 3rd and 4th Cycles, the followers need not recite Surah alFatehah or any other Surah, and remain silent during the Qiyaam.

Obligatory and Essential Prayers cannot be offered on a moving vehicle. However, if one fears that the time will lapse, it is better to offer them on time and then later re-offer them. Reduced Prayers that are missed out / lapsed or improperly offered during journeys should at the time of re-offering be offered with reduction (Qasr).

 

CHAPTER 6




THE VOLUNTARY / ADDITIONAL (NAWAFIL) PRAYERS.

Besides the Obligatory and Essential Prayers, the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to make arrangements for the Voluntary (Nawafil) Prayers too. It is mentioned in the Hadith that Voluntary Worship is a means of attaining proximity to Allah.

It is better to offer Sunnah and Voluntary Prayers at home – however it is better to offer Taraweeh, Tahiyat ulMasjid (Prayers offered as a mark of respect upon entering the mosque), and the Voluntary Prayers upon returning from a journey, in a mosque. If preoccupation or lack of interest or laziness prevents one from offering these Prayers at home, then these should be offered in the mosque.

A brief summary of some of the Voluntary Prayers, which the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) stressed upon is mentioned hereunder.

Tahiyyat ulWuzu (Mark of respect after performing ablution)

It is recommended to offer 2 Cycles (Rakaats) Voluntary Prayer immediately after performing ablution, before the water on the body dries up. Similarly it is after taking a bath. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has stated: “Anyone who performs a good ablution and offers 2 Cycles of Prayer with proper external and internal concentration i.e. with complete sincerity – Paradise becomes mandatory for him.”

Tahiyyat ulMasjid

It is Sunnah to offer 2 Cycles of Prayer upon entering the mosque, and to offer 4 Cycles is recommended. If one offers the Obligatory, Essential or Sunnah Prayers, he is deemed to have offered the Tahiyyat ulMasjid Prayer also, even if he did not make an intention for it.

If one enters the mosque at a time when Prayers are prohibited, he must make Remembrance (Zikr) of Allah, or recite Salutations – the rights of the mosque will have been offered.

The Tahajjud Prayers

Voluntary Prayers offered after the Night (Isha) Prayers are called “Salaat ul-Layl” (The Night-time Prayers). Voluntary Prayers offered during the night are better than those offered during the day. The Tahajjud Prayer is a kind of Salaat ul-Layl. The Tahajjud consists of a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 8 Cycles. When a person sleeps after offering Isha and gets up at any time during the night, it is the time for Tahajjud – and the best time for this is the final third part of the night.

The Ishraaq Prayer

The Ishraaq Prayer consists of 2 Cycles. It is better to wait after offering the Dawn Prayer and remain engrossed in the Remembrance of Allah or Salutations on the Holy Prophet, and offer this at least 20 minutes after sunrise. The Hadith gives glad tidings of a reward equal to one Hajj and one Umrah to whoever offers this Prayer.

The Chaasht Prayer

The Chaasht Prayer consist of a minimum of 2 Cycles and a maximum of 12 Cycles, and 12 Cycles are best. The time for this starts from the sun’s ascent in the morning till the beginning of the meridian period (at Zawaal or beginning of Zohv Kubra). The Hadith gives glad tidings of a reward of Forgiveness and a golden palace in Paradise to whoever offers this Prayer regularly.

The Awwaabeen Prayer

Offering 6 Cycles Prayer is recommended after the Sunset (Maghrib) Prayer, and better to offer it in groups of 2 Cycles each. This is called the Awwaabeen Prayer. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has also encouraged performing this Prayer.

All Voluntary (Nawafil) Prayers can be offered while sitting, even without a valid excuse, but the reward of offering them while standing is double.

The Journey Prayer

Before starting out on a journey, it is recommended to offer 2 Cycles of Voluntary Prayer at home. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has stated: “No person leaves among his household anything better than the 2 Cycles of Prayer which he offers there prior to going on a journey.” While on the journey, one must offer 2 Cycles at the place where he stayed, and upon returning go home after offering 2 Cycles in the local mosque. This was the practice of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings upon him).

The Prayer of Repentance

Humans are prone to committing errors, but whenever one commits a sin, one should immediately turn towards his Compassionate and Merciful Lord, and with a remorseful conscience in order to seek forgiveness from Him, offer 2 Cycles of Prayer. This is recommended (Mustahab). The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “When one commits a sin, one must do an ablution and offer 2 Cycles of Voluntary Prayers and seek forgiveness of one’s sins from one’s Compassionate Lord. His Lord will forgive him.”

The “Tasbeeh” Prayer

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) taught this Prayer to his uncle, Syedna Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him).

In the 1st Cycle (Rakaat) after the “Sanaa” (but in the 2nd Cycle before the “Tasmiyah”) recite the following “Tasbeeh” 15 times:

Subhaana Allahe wa alHamdu lillahe wa laa ilaaha illa Allahu wa Allahu Akbar.

Pure is Allah, and all Praise is for Allah, and there is no God except Allah, and Allah is Great

(It is better to recite the entire 3rd Kalemah). Then after reciting the “Taawuz”, “Tasmiyah”, Surah alFatehah and any small Surah (or equivalent) recite the above “Tasbeeh” 10 times. Then in the bow (Ruku) recite it 10 times after the normal “Tasbeeh”. Then in the Qawmah recite it 10 times after having recited the “Tasmeey” and Tahmeed. Then 10 times after the normal “Tasbeeh” in the prostration. Then 10 times in the Jalsah and another 10 times after the normal “Tasbeeh” in the second prostration. Continue in the same manner for all the 4 Cycles. In this way the “Tasbeeh” will have been recited a total of 300 times.

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “If possible, offer this Prayer every day or else offer it every Friday. If unable to do this, then once a month or else once a year. If unable to do even this, then offer it at least once in a lifetime. Due to its blessedness, Allah the Supreme will forgive all (minor) sins – the earlier and the latter, the old and the new, whether committed on purpose or by mistake.” (Sunan Tirmizi).

The Need Prayer (Salaat ulHaajat)

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Whoever has some need to be fulfilled from Allah or any bondman, must offer 2 Cycles of Prayer after a good ablution, then should praise & glorify Allah and send salutations upon me and then recite the following supplication:

Laa ilaaha illa Allahu alHaleemu alKareemu Subhaana Allahe Rabbe alArshe alAzeem; wa alHamdu Lillahe Rabbe alAlameen; asaluka moojibate rahmateka wa azaaema maghfirateka wa alganeemata min kulle birrin wa alSalaamata min kulle ismin laa tad’a lee zamban illa gafartahoo wa laa hamman illa farrajtahoo wa laa haajatan heya laka ridhan illa qadhaytaha yaa arhama alRahemeen.”

“There is no God except Allah, Who is Most Forbearing, Most Generous – Pure is Allah the Lord of the Great Throne; and all praise is to Allah, the Lord of the Creation; O Lord! I seek from you the means of Your mercy, and the means of Your forgiveness – and I seek a share in every good deed and shelter from every sin; O Lord! Forgive every sin of mine and remove all my sorrows; and fufill my need which conforms with Your pleasure, O the Most Merciful of all!” (Tirmizi, Ibn Majah)

A blind Companion (Sahabi) requested the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) to supplicate for his cure. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) replied: “If you wish I shall supplicate for you – or you may patiently bear, and this is better for you.” He submitted, “Kindly supplicate for me.” The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) commanded him to make a good ablution and offer 2 Cycles of Prayer and then supplicate as follows:-

Allahumma innee asaluka wa atawajjahu ilayka benabiyyeka Muhammadin nabiyyi alRahmahte -Yaa Rasool Allahe innee qad tawajjahtu beka ilaa rabbee fee hajatee hazehee letuqdaa lee – Allahumma faShaffeyhu fee.

“O Allah! I seek from You and incline towards You through the means of Your Prophet Muhammed – the Merciful Prophet; O the Noble Messenger of Allah – I have, through you, inclined towards my Lord for this need of mine in order that it may be fulfilled! O Allah – accept his intercession for me.”

When the blind man had completed his supplication, Allah restored him his eyesight as if he had never been blind. (Hakim, Tirmizi, Nasai, Ibn Majah, Tibrani, Baihaqi).  

The Istikharah Prayer (for knowing what is suitable).

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to teach his Companions the Istikharah supplication with great care and emphasis, just like a verse of the Holy Qur’an. He has said: “Whenever you intend any matter, offer 2 Cycles of Voluntary Prayer, and then supplicate as follows:

Allahumma innee astakheeroka be-ilmeka wa astaqderoka be-qudrateka wa as-aluka min fadleka al-Azeeme fa-innaka taqderu wa laa aqderu wa ta-lamu wa laa aa-lamu wa anta allamu al-guyoob. Allahumma in kunta ta-lamu anna haza al-amra khairun lee fee deenee wa ma-aashee wa aa-qebate amree faqdurhu lee wa yasserhu lee summa barek lee feehe wa in kunta ta-lamu anna haza al-amra sharrun lee fee deenee wa ma-aashee wa aa-qebate amree fasrifhu annee wasrifnee anhu waqdur leya al-khaira haysu kaana summa ardhinee behe.”

“O Allah! I seek to know the suitability by Your knowledge, and by Your Power seek power from You, and seek Your great Munificence from You – for You are All-Powerful and I am weak, and You are All-Knowing and I do not know, and You also know the defects. O Allah if, as per Your knowledge, this matter of mine is better for me religion-wise, money-wise and in the hereafter – then destine it for me and make it easy for me, and then place blessings in it for me. And if, as per Your knowledge, this matter of mine is harmful for me religion-wise, money-wise and in the hereafter – then turn it away from me and turn me away from it, and destine good for me wherever it may be and make me happy with it.” (Bukhari)

In this supplication instead of the words “haza al-amru” mention your need or just think about it. It is better to perform Istikharah seven times, for it is mentioned in one Hadith: “O Anas! When you intend any matter, seek to know its suitability from your Lord seven times – then reflect upon what transpires in your heart, indeed that only is better.”

Some Shuyukh have said that after this supplication, one should go to sleep, with ablution facing the “Qiblah”. If he sees green or white colour in a dream, then the matter is good for him – and if one sees black or red colour, then the matter is harmful for him, and he must avoid it.

The time for Istkharah lasts up to the time one’s heart gets convinced upon one decision.

 

CHAPTER 7

RECITATION OF THE QUR’AN

Allah the Supreme states, “Recite from the Qur’an as much as you can achieve.”

And on another occasion He states: “And when the Qur’an is recited, listen to it attentively and keep silent, so that you receive mercy.”

Memorizing one Ayah (verse) of the Holy Qur’an is a principal obligation upon every duty-bound Muslim, and memorizing the entire Holy Qur’an is a “Sufficing Obligation” (Farz Kifayah). Memorizing Surah alFatehah and one small Surah (or three small verses or one large verse equal to one small Surah) is Essential.

Learning the rulings of Islamic Jurisprudence (fiqh) is also a principal obligation and learning it more than what is needed is better than memorizing the entire Holy Qur’an.

Reading the Qur’an whilst looking at it is better than reciting from memory, for this entails reciting it plus looking at it plus touching it – and all these are acts of worship. It is recommended to read it with ablution, while facing the “Qiblah” and wearing clean clothes. It is also recommended to recite “Taawuz” and “Tasmiyah” prior to beginning reading the Qur’an. If it is the beginning of a Surah, reciting the “Tasmiyah” is Sunnah. During recitation if one stops to attend any worldly matter, the “Taawuz” and the “Tasmiyah” should be recited again.

Reciting the Qur’an whilst lying on the back is permitted, provided the knees are folded up. Likewise reciting it whilst walking or working is also permitted provided the heart is not distracted or else it is undesirable (Makrooh).

When the Qur’an is being recited audibly, it is obligatory for all those present to be quiet and to listen to it attentively. Listening to the Qur’an is better than reciting it or offering Voluntary Prayers.

In a gathering, it is forbidden for everyone to read the Qur’an audibly at the same time. In some “Qur’an Completion” (Qur’an Khwani) gatherings everyone reads it aloud at the same time – such collective loud reading is forbidden (haraam). When there are several people reading the Qur’an, each one of them must keep a low voice which is not audible to others but at least audible to the reader (provided there is no noise interference from other sources).

Each alphabet must be pronounced correctly. Special care should be taken for similar sounding alphabets e.g. Alif, Ain – Qaf, Kaf – Daad, Daal etc. This is very important because changing the pronunciation could corrupt its meaning, leading to the invalidation of Prayer.

It is a grave sin to forget the Qur’an after having memorized it or having learnt how to read it. It is mentioned in the Hadith that a person who forgets the Qur’an after having read it will come as a leper on the Day of Resurrection – whilst it is mentioned in the Qur’an that he will come blind.

Not only will those who memorize the Holy Qur’an and act upon it accordingly be awarded Paradise, but Allah the Supreme will accept their intercession for 10 such relatives of theirs, upon whom hell had become mandatory.

The Prostration For Qur’an Recitation.

There are 14 verses in the Holy Qur’an which when read or heard, make it Essential to offer prostration. Its method according to Sunnah is to at first say “Allahu Akbar” while standing upright, then proceed for the prostration in which “Subhaana Rabbi al-Aala” should be recited 3 times, and then get up again while saying “Allahu Akbar”. The prostration is correctly offered even if one does not stand up before or after such prostration. Do not raise your hands to the ears nor proclaim Salaam for this prostration.

If such a verse is recited during the Prayer, it becomes Essential (Wajib) to offer the prostration within the particular Prayer itself. The entire verse need not have been recited. The prostration will become Essential even if just the word mentioning the command of prostration along with another word (before or after) is recited from such a verse. To offer this, just making an intention for the Recitation Prostration is enough – it is not necessary to make an intention that the prostration is for such and such particular verse.

If one reads or hears one such verse several times over in a single sitting, only one prostration is Essential- even if heard from more than one person. Similarly if the same verse is repeated several times in a single Cycle (Rakaat), only one prostration is Essential – even if the person offers the prostration after reading it once or then reads it several times again, still the one prostration is enough. It is strongly disliked (Makrooh Tahreemi) to recite an entire Surah and leave out a verse containing the command of prostration.

If one reads all the 14 commands of prostration and offers the prostrations, Allah will fulfil the purpose for which these were offered. The prostrations can be offered after reciting each verse or all together at the end.

It is recommended (Mustahab) to offer a prostration of gratitude towards Allah upon receiving any blessing such as a child, wealth, restoration of health etc. Cleanliness (Taharah) is a condition for the prostration of gratitude and its method is similar to the prostration for recitation.

 

CHAPTER 8

THE NIGHT VIGIL

It is recommended (Mustahab) to maintain the Night Vigil (stay awake for worship) during the following nights – 15th night of Sha’baan (Shab-e-Baraat or the Night of Deliverance), the nights of Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Adha, the last 10 nights of Ramadhan, and the first 10 nights of ZilHajj.

The Night Vigil does not mean merely spending the night staying awake, but to spend it in worship. If one has some lapsed Prayers pending, one should offer them or else offer Voluntary (Nawafil) Prayers alone, or read or listen to the Holy Qur’an or Ahadith, or send Salutations upon the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) – all these are acts of worship and one should engross oneself in them. In these special sacred nights, if one gets the chance to attend a gathering where one can obtain religious knowledge, this is still better as obtaining such knowledge is an obligation upon all Muslims.

Among these, the Night Vigil for the nights of the two Eids means offering the Night (Isha) Prayer as well as the Dawn (Fajr) Prayer along with the first congregations. It is mentioned in the Hadith: “The one who offers the Night Prayer with the congregation has spent half the night in worship, and the one who also offers the Dawn Prayer with the congregation has spent the full night in worship.” (Muslim)

If one wishes to spend one third of the night in worship, it is better to sleep for the first one third and do worship in the middle one third of the night. If one wishes to spend half the night in worship, it is better to do worship in the second half of the night.

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has stated: “Every night when a third of it remains, Allah the Supreme directs His special attention to the sky of the world and says: “Is there anyone who invokes Me, so that I may accept his invocation? Is there anyone who seeks something from Me so that I may bestow to him? Is there anyone who seeks forgiveness so that I may forgive him?” (Bukhari & Muslim)


 

CHAPTER 9

THE PURE WORDS (KALEMAAT E TAYYEBAAT)

The Concise Faith (Imaaan Mujmal)

Aamantu Billahe kama huwa be-Asmaaehi wa sifaatehi wa qabiltu jameeya ahkaamehi iqraarun billisaani wa tasdeequn bil-qalb

“I accept faith in Allah – the way He is as per His names and His attributes – and I accept all His commands with verbal acknowledgement and heart’s testimony.” 

The Descriptive Faith (Imaan Mufassal)

Aamantu Billahe wa malaaekatehi wa kutubehi wa rusulehi wa alyawme al-aakheri wa al-qadre khayrehi wa sharrehi min-Allahe Ta’ala wa al-ba’se ba’d al-mawt.

“I accept faith in Allah, and His angels, and His books, and His apostles, and the last day (of resurrection), and the fact that good and evil destiny is from Allah the Supreme, and in resurrection after death.”

The First Declaration – of Purity (Kalemah Tayyeb)

La Ilaha Ill-Allahu Muhammed-ur-Rasoolu-Allah

“There is none worthy of worship (God) except Allah, Mohammed (peace and blessings be upon him) is the Messenger of Allah.” 

The Second Declaration – of Testimony (Kalemah Shahadah)

Ash-hadu alaa ilaaha Ill-Allahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lah – wa ash-hadu anna Muhammedan abduhoo wa Rasooluh.

“I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship (God) except Allah, He is One, He has no partner – and I also bear witness that Mohammed (peace and blessings be upon him) is His bondman and His Messenger.” 

The Third Declaration – of Honoring (Kalemah Tamjeed)

Subhaanallahe walHamdu lillahe wa laa ilaaha ill-Allahu wAllahu akbar; wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billah –ilAliy-ilAzeem

“Allah is Pure, and all praise is for Allah, and there is none worthy of worship (God) except Allah, and Allah is Most Great; and the power to resist evil and the strength to do good is only from Allah, the Supreme, the Greatest.” 

The Fourth Declaration – of Oneness (Kalemah Tawheed)

La ilaaha ill-Allahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lah – lah-ulMulk wa lah-ulHamdu yuhyee wa yumeetu wa huwa hayy ul-laa yamootu abadan abadaa; zulJalaale wal-Ikraame ; beyadehil-Khair; wa huwa alaa kulle shaeyin qadeer.

“There is none worthy of worship (God) except Allah, He is One, He has no partner – for Him is the kingdom and all praise – it is He Who gives life and it is He Who gives death, and He is Alive by Himself, He will never ever die; the Owner of great majesty and superiority; in His Hands lies all goodness and He is Able to do all things.” 

The Fifth Declaration – of seeking Forgiveness (Kalemah Isteghfaar)

Astaghferullaha rabbee min kulle zambin aznabtuhoo amadan aw khata-an sirran aw alaniyatan wa atoobu ilayhe min-azzambi-llazzee aalamu wa min-azzambi-llazzee laa aalamu innaka allaam-ulghuyoobe wa sattaar-uluyoobe wa ghaffaar-uzzunoobe wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billah-ilAliy-ilAzeem.

“I seek forgiveness from Allah my Lord, for all my sins which I committed purposely or by mistake, secretly or openly – I incline in repentance towards Him – and also for the sins I know and the sins I do not know; O Allah! Indeed You are All Knowing of all the secrets, and it is You Who hides the shortcomings and You Who forgives the sins – and the power to resist evil and the strength to do good is only from Allah, the Supreme, the Greatest.” 

The Sixth Declaration – rejecting disbelief (Kalemah Radd-e Kufr)

Allahumma Innee aoozubeka min an ushreka beka shay-an wa ana aalamu behi wa astaghferuka lemaa laa aalamu behi tubtu anhu wa tabarra’tu minal-Kufre wash-shirke wal-Kizbe wal-geebate wal-bidate wan-nameemate wal-fawaheshe wal-buhtaane wal-maaasee kullehaa wa aslamtu wa aqoolu La Ilaha Ill-Allahu Muhammed-ur-Rasoolu-Allah

“O Allah! I seek Your refuge from knowingly associating anyone with You and I seek Your forgiveness from unknowingly associating (anyone with You) and I repent from it – and I am unconcerned with disbelief, association, falsehood, backbiting, innovating, spreading spite, lewdness, slander and all sins – and have accepted Islam and I declare that “There is none worthy of worship (God) except Allah, Mohammed (peace and blessings be upon him) is the Messenger of Allah’ ” 

 

CHAPTER 10

SOME SUNNAH SUPPLICATIONS

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) has said: “Supplication is the core of worship.” The author’s book named “Masnoon Dua-en” (Sunnah Supplications) is a collection of 180 such supplications plus other remembrances (azkaar) and has been published several times. Below listed are a few such supplications – for more, please refer to the above-named collection.

The Morning and Evening Supplication

Bismillah-illazee laa yadurru ma-Ismehee shay-un fil-arde wa laa fi-ssamaae wa huwa-sSameey-ulAleem

With Allah’s name (I witness the morning / evening) – with Whose name nothing in the earth nor in the sky can cause any harm – and He only is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing. 

When entering one’s home

Allaahumma innee as-aluka khair-alMawlije wa khair-alMakhrije – Bismillahe wa lajjenaa wa alallahe rabbenaa tawakkalnaa

“O Allah! I seek goodness from you for entering into and exiting from the house; we enter with the name of Allah, and have relied only upon Allah the Supreme, our Lord.” 

When stepping out of one’s home:

Bismillaahe tawakkaltu alallaahe wa laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billaah.

“With Allah’s name (I go forth), I put my trust in Allah, and the power to resist evil and the strength to do good is only from Allah, the Supreme, the Greatest.”

When entering a mosque:

Bismillaahe was-salaatu was-Salaamu alaa Rasoolillaah – rabbigfirlee zunoobee waftah lee abwaaba rahmateka

“With Allah’s name (I enter the mosque) and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah. O Allah! Open for me the gates of Your mercy.”

When stepping out of a mosque:

Bismillaahi was-salaatu was-Salaamu alaa Rasoolillaah – Allaahumma inee as-aluka min fadleka.

“With Allah’s name (I exit from the mosque) and blessings and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah. O Allah! I seek from You Your grace.”

.

While performing Ablution

Allaahummaghfirlee zambee wa wassey lee fee daaree wa baarek lee fee rizqee.

“O Allah! Forgive me my sins and bestow spaciousness and improvement in my house, and bestow abundance in my livelihood.”

Before beginning a meal

Bismillah-illazee laa yadurru ma-Ismehee shay-un fil-arde wa laa fi-ssamaae yaa Hayyu yaa Qayyoom

“With Allah’s name (I begin my meal) – with Whose name nothing in the earth nor in the sky can cause any harm. O the Eternally Alive, the Sustainer.”

Bismillaahi wa alaa barkatillah

“With Allah’s name, and with abundance from Allah (I begin my meal).”

Upon finishing the meal:

Alhamdu lillaahillazee, atamanaa wa saqaanaa wa jaalanaa min-almuslimeen.

“All praise is for Allah who fed us and gave us drink and made us Muslims.” (Tirmizi)

If one forgets to say Bismillah before beginning the meal

Bismillaahi awwalahoo wa aakherahoo

“With Allah’s name, in the beginning and also at the end.” (Tirmizi) 

Upon going to bed

Allaahumma bismeka amootu wa ahyaa.

O Allah! Upon Your name only will I die and live! (Bukhari) 

Upon getting up from sleep:

Alhamdu lillaahillazee ahyaanaa bada maa amaatanaa wa ilayhin-nushoor

“All praise is for Allah who gave us life after death (sleep), and it is to Him we have to return.” 

Before entering the toilet:

Allahumma innee aoozu bika minal khubusi wal khabaa-es.

“O Allah! I seek refuge with You from all wicked male and female jinns.” 

Upon coming out of the toilet:

Gufranaka – AlHamdu lillaahillazee azhaba annil azaa wa aafaanee.

“All praise is due to Allah alone, who has removed the distress from me and given me comfort.”

When removing one’s clothes

Recite “Bismillah” Shareef when taking off the clothes, as this creates a veil from humans and devils.

When putting on a new dress:

AlHamdu lillaahil-lazee kasaanee maa uwaariya bihi auraatee wa atajam-malu bihi fee hayaatee.

“All praise is due to Allah, who has clothed me so that I may hide my nakedness and so that I may adorn myself while I am alive.” 

On looking into the mirror:

AIlaahumma hassanta khalqee fa hassin khuluqee.

“O Allah! You have made me good-looking; make my characater good too.” 

When seated on a mount or a vehicle:

AlHamdu lillah – Subhaanallazee sakh-khara lanaa haaza wa maa kun-naa lahoo muqrineena wa innaa ilaa rabbenaa lamunqaliboon.

“All Praise is for Allah – Pure is He Who has put this (mount) in our control whereas we could not have subjugated it, and indeed we are to return to our Lord.”
 

When visiting a market:

Laa ilaaha Ill-Allahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lah – lahul-mulku wa lahul-hamdu yuhyee wa yumeetu wa huwa hayyul-laa yamootu beyadehil-Khair; wa huwa alaa kulle shaeyin qadeer.

“There is none worthy of worship (God) except Allah, He is One, He has no partner – for Him is the kingdom and all praise – it is He Who gives life and it is He Who gives death, and He is Alive by Himself, He will never die; in His Hands lies all goodness and He is Able to do all things.” 

When in fear or anxiety:

Hasbun-Allahu wa neamal wakeel

“Allah is Sufficient for us, and what an excellent Trustee He is!” 

To remove the effect of evil eyes:

Aoozu be-kalemaat-illahe-ttaamate min kulle shaytaani-wwahaammatin wa min kulle ayni-llaammah.

I seek refuge through the entire words of Allah from the evil of every devil, and every harmful animal and every harmful eye.

To free oneself from pain:

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “If a patient puts the hand at the place of pain and recites “Bismillah” thrice and then recites the following supplication 7 times, the pain will, Allah willing, go away.” (Saheeh Muslim)

Aoozu be-izzatillahe wa qudratehi min sharre maa ajedu wa uhaaziru.

I seek refuge of Allah the Supreme’s Honour and Power from the evil of the suffering I am experiencing and I seek refuge from this suffering.

For abandunce in provisions and repayment of debt:

Allahumma akfenee be-halaaleka an haraameka wa agninee be-fadleka amman sewaka.

O Allah! Suffice me with lawful provision and save me from the forbidden, and by Your Munificence make me independent of everyone except You. 

For freedom from sorrow and for the attainment of blessings:

The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said:

“Sending blessings (upon me) removes sorrow and annuls sins.” (Tirmizi Shareef)

“Whoever sends one blessing upon me – Allah sends ten blessings upon him.” (Saheeh Muslim)

SallAllahu alanabbiyy-illummiyye wa aalehi sallAllahu alayhe wa sallam salaata-wwa-salaaman alayka yaa RasoolAllah.

“Allahs’s blessings be upon the untaught Herald of the Hidden and his progeny, Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him – blessings and peace be upon you, O the Messenger of Allah!”

All Praise to Allah the Supreme, and abundant blessings and peace be upon His Messenger Mohammed, the leader of the creation.
 

Courtesy – Sayed Shah Turab ul Haque Qadri 

English Translation by Muhammed Aqib Farid)

THE SALAH OF WOMEN

Q: What are the differences between the salat of a woman and that of a man?

 

Ans: These are as follows:

  1. A woman, before starting salat, raises her hands up to her shoulders. She does not make a circle round the wrist of her left hand using the fingers of her right hand. She places her hands on her breast with the palm of her right hand on the back of her left hand.

    2.When bowing for ruku, she does not join her left foot to her right foot. She bends her waist a little. She does not keep her head level with her back. She bends her knees and puts her hands on them. She does not grasp her knees or spread her fingers over them.

    3. In sajda (prostration) position, she should place her arms on the floor in a manner close to her abdomen and keep her abdomen over her thighs.

    4. In the sitting position (tashahhud), she sits on the floor sticking out her feet to the right. She keeps her fingers close together.

    5. A woman does not stretch her hands forward while making du’a, but she keeps them inclined toward her face.

    6. It is not mustahab for her to perform Salat al-Fajr late within its time. It is better for her to perform it as soon as the time for it starts.

    7. She does not recite in a loud tone during salat. She recites in a low voice the Takbir of Tashrik, which is said after fard salats during Eid al-Adha(Radd-ul-mukhtar, Tahtawi)

    Q 2: 
    It is written in the books Halabi and Radd-ul-mukhtar that it is sunnat to bring the feet together when one is bowing for ruku. Does this ruling apply to women as well?

Ans: No, women do not bring their feet together. It applies only to men.

Q 3: Sometimes my hair is accidentally uncovered during salat. I cover it some time later. Does my salat become invalid?

Ans: Hair is awrah (the part to be covered) for a woman. If her awrah part remains open for a time during which one can say “Subhanallah” three times, her salat will become nullified. If she covers it immediately by using one hand, her salat will not be nullified. It is written in some fiqh books that her salat will be invalid if she covers it by using both hands. For this reason, she should try to cover it with one hand.

Q 4: 
Is it permissible for women to perform Salat az-Zuhr before men exit the mosque after Salat al-Jumu’ah?
Ans: Yes, they can perform it.

Q 5:  If my hair remains open as long as one rukn, will my salatbecome invalid? How long does a rukn continue?

Ans:  The duration of a rukn is important in matters concerning a salat’s becoming invalid and sajda-i sahw. Therefore, one should know it well.

The fards (obligatory elements) within salat are termed a rukn each. There are five ruknsqiyam (standing), qiraat (recitation from the Qur’an al-karim), ruku (bowing), sujud (prostration), and sitting in the final tashahhud.

If the hair of a woman is opened during any of these rukns, her salatwill be nullified if she cannot cover it in a time in which she can recite one verse or say “Subhanallah” three times. The standard duration for one rukn is to say “Subhanallah” three times at a normal pace.

If a person, getting confused on how many rak’ats of salat he has performed, thinks and thus extends one rukn by one additional ruknand hence delays the next rukn for a time during which one can say “Subhanallah” three times, he has to make sajda-i sahw, even if he said some verses or tasbihat in the interim.

Q 6 : Is it makruh if a woman’s head covering moves downward on her forehead when she is making prostration?

Ans: Yes, it is makruh. The forehead must touch the place of sajdanakedly. 

Q 7: Physically able women perform salat sitting where it is likely that non-mahram men will see them, such as on farms and in mosques. Is it not fard (obligatory) to perform salat standing? Is it permissible to perform it sitting lest non-mahram men see them?

Ans: It is not permissible. It is fard to perform a fard salat standing. Only a sick person who cannot stand is allowed to perform it sitting. It is not permissible for women to perform salat sitting lest non-mahram men see them. (Radd-ul-mukhtar, Hindiyya) 

Q 8 : Is it permissible for a woman to perform salat barefoot?

Ans: There is nothing wrong with it if she wears a long skirt that covers her feet.

Q 9 : 
If a woman has missed salats for years, should she work out the number of them by deducting the number of salats missed due to menstruation?

Ans : Yes, she should.

Q 10 : When a woman is performing salat, is there anything wrong with her jewels being visible?

Ans : It is better if they are not.

Q 11: Is it better for a woman to perform salat in jama’at with her husband or her mahram relatives at home than to perform it individually? 

Ans : Yes, it is better.

Q 12 : Will a woman’s salat be invalid if one-fourth of her area between her knee and foot is uncovered accidentally?

Ans : Yes, her salat will be invalid.

Q 13 : Is it permissible for a woman to perform salat by covering her face with a thin cloth?

Ans : No, it is not permissible.

Q 14 : I have a skirt that I wear during salat. There is a cross picture on it. Is it makruh to perform salat in it, just as it is makruh to perform salat in a skirt with pictures?

Ans : Yes, it is makruh.

Q 15 : I have heard from some people who work in the production of lipstick and nail polish that they contain placenta. Is there anything wrong with performing salat when a woman is wearing lipstick or nail polish?

Ans : Nail polish does not let water reach the nails. Therefore, even if it is not made from placenta, one’s wudu will not be valid if one performs it when having nail polish on one’s nails.

Q 16 : Will a woman’s salat become nullified if her wig appears under her headscarf?

Ans : No, it will not become nullified.

Q 17 :  If a woman follows one of the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab out of necessity, should she undo her braid before performing wudu’or ghusl?

Ans : In the Maliki Madhhab, a woman does not have to undo her braid before performing wudu’. She applies masah over her hair, together with her braid.

Similarly, it is not necessary to undo the braid for ghusl if water reaches the scalp. The ruling of the Hanafi Madhhab is the same. That is, when a woman wets the skin of her braided hair, it suffices to wet the braid without undoing it. If the water cannot reach the scalp, then it will be necessary to undo the braid. It is fard to wash all parts of the hair that is not plaited. In the Maliki Madhhab, it is also necessary to do khilal of hair (passing of fingers through hair) in ghusl.

Q 18 :  Some people say that a woman’s salat will not be valid if she does not use kursuf (a piece of cloth or cotton placed at the vaginal opening). Is it true?

Ans : It does not have any basis. A woman’s salats are valid even if she does not use kursuf. If she does not use it, her underwear may be soiled (by vaginal discharge). In this case, she must change into a clean one and perform salat in it. If she uses kursuf, her underwear will not become dirty. Alternatively, if she follows the ruling of the Maliki Madhhab, neither her wudu’ nor her salat will become nullified even if her vaginal discharge comes out of her vagina during salat.

Q 19 : Can a woman perform salat while having menstrual or postnatal bleeding?

Ans : No, she cannot. It is in Hadith – “A woman is not allowed to perform salat while menstruating”. (Bukhari, Muslim)

[A woman experiencing non-menstrual bleeding [istihaza] takes a bath when her menstrual bleeding ends. Then she performs salat and fasts.] (Darimi)

Q 20 :  One of our neighbors said, “If a woman performs salat without wearing a jilbab, that is, a chador, her salat will not be acceptable.” Is it true?

Ans : It does not have any basis. Jilbab means a dress or a shirt worn by men and women. As a matter of fact, it is stated in hadith-i sharif:
(The salats of a man wearing a jilbab [shirt] obtained throughharam means will not be acceptable.) [Bazzar]

(It would not be backbiting to tell [negatively] about a person who took off the jilbab [covering] of bashfulness.) [Bayhaqi]

Jilbab is a cloth larger than a headscarf and smaller than a shirt. Any garment that covers the body is called a jilbab(Tafsir-i Abussuud, Tafsir-i Ruh-ul-bayan)

Ummul Momineen 
Ummu Salama (ru),  narrates: I asked the Apostle of Allah (saws), “Can a woman offer salat wearing only a shawl and shirt without an izar?” He answered, “She can if the dır’ [a long shirt] she is wearing covers her entire body together with the tops of her feet” [Abu Dawud].

In other Ahadith it is mentioned that  (A woman is considered to have complied with the Islamic dress code and her salat is accepted only when she performs salat in clothes that covers her head and her entire body.) [Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi]

(Perform salat in izar and rida.)
 [Ibn Adiy]

Izar is a garment covering the lower half of the body. Rida is a garment covering the upper half of the body. Similarly, the lower part of ihram is called izar, and the upper part of it is called ridaIzar is a kind of waist cloth, and rida is a kind of shirt.

It is written in the book Bahr-ur-raiq: A husband has to buy these things for his wife: Kiswa (clothes) is two dirs, two khimars, and two milhafas yearly. Milhafa is a piece of clothing that a woman wears as she goes out. [Today people call it farajasaya, or overcoat. Khimar is a head covering.] The dir’ is a long shirt with an openable collar. The qamis (chemise) is a long robe openable on the shoulder.

The 31st verse of Surat an-Nur says: “Let women wear theirkhimars [head coverings] over their necklines.” Women did not wear chadors. If the opposite were true, they would not have been told that they had to wear their khimars, that is, their head coverings, over their necklines.

It is fard upon women to cover themselves with any garment that does not highlight their body contours [the shapes and colors of their qaba-awrah parts]. Our religion commands women to cover their bodies, but it does not stipulate specific clothes for them. (Durar-ul-multakita)

All above-mentioned proof show that women do not have to wear chadors. There is no report that Ummahatul Momineen or the wives of  the blessed companions ever wore a chador. The clothes that should be given by a husband to his wife are listed in fiqh books, but there is no mention of chadors in them.

Chadors were first introduced into Turkey from Iranians by those who went on a pilgrimage to Mecca during the Ottoman Reform Period. They did not initially become popular and fashionable, and wearing them was even considered bid’at. Then they became widespread in 1870. Afterwards, they were banned by Abd Al-Hamid II Khan through a written command dated Ramadan 4, 1309 (April 2, 1892). (İslam Ansiklopedisi Diyanet Vakfı)

Those who emigrated to Turkey from the Balkan States in 1913 came wearing black chadors that were being used by Jewish and Orthodox Christian women in Rumelia. They became widespread in Istanbul as well with time. (Osmanlı Tarih Deyimleri Sözlüğü)

Q 21 :  
Is there a madhhab saying that it is fard (obligatory) upon women to perform Salat al-Eid and Salat al-Jumu’ah?

Ans : Salat al Eid is Sunnah in the Madhabs of Shafi’i and Maliki andwajib in the Hanafi Madhhab. It is stated in hadith-i sharif that Salat al-Jumu’ah is fard only upon men. Two of them are as follows:

(Salat al-Jumu’ah is fard upon every Muslim except a slave, a woman, a child, and a patient.) [Abu Dawud, Hakim]

(I thought, “I wish I appointed a man to lead people in salat and then I went to demolish the houses of those who do not attend Salat al-Jumu’ah.”) [Bukhari]

The conditions of Salat al-Eid are similar to the conditions of Salat al-Jumu’ah. Therefore, just as a woman does not have to attend Salat al-Jumu’ah, so she does not have to attend Salat al-Eid.

It is stated in hadith-i sharifs that men’s performing salat in jama’at in a mosque is 27 times as rewarding as their performing it individually at home while women’s performing salat at home is more rewarding than their performing it in a mosque. 

Q 22 :  Is it permissible for a woman to lead men in salat?

Ans : It is written in all of the fiqh books that being a male is one of the requirements one needs to fulfill in order to act as an imam. A woman cannot lead men in salat(Halabi)

hadith-i sharif written in Durar says:
(Women’s being placed ahead [as an imam in salatis not permissible.) [Razin]

If a woman performs salat in jama’at among men, the salats of the three men, two of them on her either side, and one right behind her, becomes nullified. (Radd-ul-mukhtar)

Q 23 :   Why is it impermissible for women to perform salat among men? We are brothers and sisters in Islam. What is wrong if we perform salat with men shoulder to shoulder?

Ans : It is certain that no man among jama’at does any harm to women during salat. Then why is it impermissible for women to mix with men? Every woman is the mother or sister or wife or daughter or aunt of one of us.

Yes, a man cannot even perform salat with his mother side by side injama’at. Her salat will not become nullified, but the man’s salat will be nullified. One of the female readers said to us that what harm men may do to her. Yes, men will not do any harm neither to her nor to us. Nevertheless, the man’s salat is nullified when a man and a woman perform salat side by side in jama’at. Why is it nullified? The reason for it is that Allah prescribed it this way.

It is permissible for a man to marry his aunt’s daughter, but why is it not permissible for him to marry his sister? The reason for it is that it is a law laid down by Allahu ta’ala. If He had ordered us otherwise, we would marry our sisters or brothers now. Why is a woman not allowed to marry two men at the same time? The answer is the same. This is Allahu ta’ala’s law. That is, there is not a specific answer to these questions. For example, it is haram for men to wear silk. Why is itharam? The answer is the same. This is Allahu ta’ala’s order.

Q 23 :  
What is the purpose of the female imam in leading men in Salat al-Jumu’ah in a church in the USA? Was it done out of feminist feelings, or are there other ulterior motives?

Ans : Of course, it was not done aimlessly, but we do not know the main purpose. She emphasizes these issues in her discourses and statements:

“A woman must do what a man does. For example, the woman cannot be punished for committing adultery. She has the right to commit adultery and to conceal it. Mine is a reformist movement, rather than a feminist one. The rules of Islam must change. It is my desire to lead men in salat in the Blue Mosque in Turkey as well.”

An Iranian female professor and a male theologian approved of the act of that American woman by saying, “It is not important whether theimam is male or female. The imam must be the one who is more deserving of it.” We also heard nonsense comments from many other people. Their purpose is not feminism or a reformist movement, but to demolish Islam from within on the pretext of a reformist movement.

Many deviant thoughts were brought forward. First, it was argued that women had to attend Salat al-Jumu’ah. Then it was said that women could perform salat while having menstrual or postnatal bleeding, and they were encouraged to perform Salat al-Janaza when they were menstruating. Then it was claimed that a woman could lead other women in salat. Now it is said that a woman is allowed to lead men insalat. They try to demolish the rules of Islam in stages. These efforts are one of the signs of Doomsday.

In such a time, the importance of adhering to the books of Sunni scholars is growing bigger and bigger.

Q 24 :  It is written in the book Büyük İslam İlmihâli“It is permissible for a woman to lead other women in salat.” Why do you say that it is makruh?

Ans : It is not written in any of Ilmihal books that it is permissible. We have also referred to the book you mentioned. It is written in it, “A woman’s leading other women in salat is permissible with karaahat[reprehensibility].” We cannot understand why you have not mentioned the phrase with karaahat.

That is, it is makruh for a woman to lead another woman in salat. When used alone, the word makruh means makruh tahrimiMakruh tahrimi means a makruh close to haram, which eradicates the rewards (thawab) of salat. Such women will be considered to have paid the debt of salat, but they will not be able to earn rewards.

Has Islam been sent very recently? Are the rules of our religion unknown? What is the point of trying to distort one of the rules of Islam every day?

Q 25 : Is it fard for women to attend funerals, to perform Salat al-Janaza, to carry coffins, and to bury corpses?

Ans : No, they are not fard for womenA hadith-i sharif says:
(Women do not attend funerals.) [Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud]

Q 26 :  A person who does not follow any madhhab says, “According to popular opinion, a woman, when menstruating, is not allowed to perform salat, fast, touch the Mus-haf, or enter a mosque. But there is neither a hadith nor any other proof prohibiting women from these acts.” Then is what is written in all of the fiqh books wrong?
Ans : What is written in fiqh books is true. It is based on proof.

A woman cannot do the following acts during her monthly period:

1. She is not allowed to perform salat. A hadith-i sharif says:
(A woman cannot perform salat while menstruating.) [Abu Dawud]

Ummu Bussa radiy-Allahu anha narrates: “I asked Ummu Salama radiy-Allahu anha during the time of hajj: ‘O the mother of Believers! Is it necessary to make up the salats that are missed during menstruation?’
‘No, they are not made up. One of women did not perform salat for 40 days because of postnatal bleeding. The Messenger of Allah did not order her to make up those salats she missed because of postnatal bleeding’” (Abu Dawud).

It is stated this way because the ruling regarding menstrual bleeding is similar to that regarding postnatal bleeding.

2. She is not allowed to read or recite the Qur’an. It is stated in ahadith-i sharif:  (A menstruating woman and a junub cannot read the Qur’an.)[Tirmidhi]

3. She is not allowed to fast. Once a woman asked our mother Aisha (ra) : “Why does a menstruating woman make up her missed fasts but not make up her missed salats?”

Our mother  Aisha (ra) asked the woman: “Are you a Kharijite?”

“I am not a Kharijite. I asked it only to learn.” (replied the woman)then Aisha (ru) said “Our monthly periods used to coincide with Ramadan. We did not use to fast, but we used to be ordered to make them up. We did not use to be ordered to make up salats” (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Nasai). 

In the time of the Apostle of Allah (saws), one of women did not use to fast in Ramadan because of menstrual or postnatal bleeding, and she did not use to make them up until the month of Shaban with the Apostle of Allah. (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Nasai)

4. 
She is not allowed to touch the Mus-haf. A hadith-i sharif says:
(Only a person who is in a state of purity can touch the Qur’an.)[Nasai]

5. She is not allowed to enter a mosque. A hadith-i sharif says:
(It is not lawful [halal] for a junub or a menstruating woman to enter a mosque.) [Ibn Majah]

6. She is not allowed to circumambulate the Ka’ba. A hadith-i sharifsays: (Circumambulating the House of Allah is similar to performingsalat. That is, one has to be in a state of wudu’.) [Tirmidhi]

7. She is not allowed to have sexual intercourse with her husband (Al-Baqarah 222). A hadith-i sharif says: (A woman who conceals the beginning and the termination of her menstruation from her husband is accursed.) [Jawhara]

As sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman is haram, she becomes sinful if she conceals from her husband the fact that she is menstruating.

Q 27 :  
Do women have to cover their feet or outer parts of their hands for salat?

Ans : It is written in Endless Bliss:  All parts of women, except their palms and faces, including their wrists, outer parts of their hands, hanging parts of their hair and under their feet are awrah for salat in the Hanafi Madhhab. There are also many scholars saying that the outer parts of their hands are not awrah. According to them, it is permissible for women to perform salat while outer parts of their hands up to wrists are bare. But, for having followed all the scholars, it is better for women to perform salatwearing a gown with sleeves long enough, or a head cover large enough, to cover their hands. There are (scholars) who said that women’s feet are not awrah in salat, but those same scholars said that it was sunnat to cover and makruh to open them when performingsalat.

The ruling on hanging parts of hair is similar to the ruling on feet.(Qadihan)

Q 28 :  
Should a woman, when making du’a, stretch her hands forward just as a man does?

Ans : No, she should not. She does not stretch her hands forward while making du’a, but she keeps them inclined toward her face. (Endless Bliss)

Q 29 :  If the part of a woman’s hair hanging down from ear level is uncovered during salat, will her salat become nullified?

Ans : The part of her hair hanging down over her ears is awrah. According to the majority of scholars, the part of her hair hanging down from her ear level is awrah, too. For this reason, her salat will be nullified if it is uncovered. According to some scholars, the part of her hair hanging down from ear level is not awrah for salat, but it is not permissible for non-mahram men to look at it. (Halabi al-kabir)

Q 30 :  How should a woman sit in between two sajdas?

Ans : She should sit in the same way as she sits during sitting posture in salat(Radd-ul-mukhtar)

Q 31 : It is said that if a woman performs Salat al-Jumu’ah it will be considered valid. Does its being valid not prove that Salat al-Jumu’ah is fard upon women, too?

Ans : No, it does not. Salat al-Jumu’ah is not fard upon women. Salat al-Jumu’ah is not fard upon a woman and a traveler. (Fatawa-i Hindiyya)

When a traveler performs Salat al-Jumu’ah, it will be valid. Similarly, it is not fard for a traveler to fast in the month of Ramadan, but he is considered to have performed it within its prescribed time if he fasts. It is not fard to perform any of the five daily salats as soon as the prescribed time for it starts. Performing a salat becomes fard upon one when it gets very close to the end of the time for it. The case is the same with sacrificing an animal (qurban) during Eid al-Adha. Sacrificing it becomes wajib on a well-off adult on the third day of Eid al-Adha. However, if it is sacrificed on the first day of it, it is considered to have been performed within its prescribed time. (Radd-ul-mukhtar)

Though Salat al-Jumu’ah is not fard upon a traveler, it will be valid if he performs it. The same thing applies to a woman offering Salat al-Jumu’ah. It becomes valid when she performs it, but it does mean thatSalat al-Jumu’ah is fard upon women.

Salat al-Jumu’ah
 depends on two groups of conditions for being fard: conditions related to its becoming obligatory and conditions related to the performance of it.

If a person does not fulfill one or a few of the conditions related to its becoming fardSalat al-Jumu’ah will still be valid if performed. If he does not perform it, he will not be sinful because the conditions related to its being fard are not present.

If a person performs Salat al-Jumu’ah even though these conditions are not present, he will still be considered to have performed it.

طريقة صلاة النساء

 THE MODE OF WOMEN PRAYER

Prayer to be offered by women differs from that of men only in the practical manner of its offering and not in the spiritual sense. The Prayer times, the supplications, the number of prostrations, bows, etc., do not differ. The difference in the physical aspects of Prayer arise from the fact that women’s physique differs from that of men, and follow from the commands which Allah (The Supreme) has stipulated for them in the Holy Quran and through the Hadith of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

Most differences relate to clothing, concealment of body, posture and concealment of voice.  Prior to listing the differences in women’s mode of Prayer, we provide references from the Holy Quran and Hadith which are the PROOFS of, and form the main bases of these differences:

A. From The Holy Quran – Regarding Concealment Of The Body

  1. [Surah Noor Verse 31] And command the Muslim women to keep their gaze low and to protect their chastity, and not to reveal their adornment except what is apparent, and to keep the cover wrapped over their bosoms; and not to reveal their adornment except to their own husbands or fathers or husbands’ fathers, or their sons or their husbands’ sons, or their brothers or their brothers’ sons or sisters’ sons, or women of their religion, or the bondwomen they possess, or male servants provided they do not have manliness, or such children who do not know of women’s nakedness, and not to stamp their feet on the ground in order that their hidden adornment be known; and O Muslims, all of you turn in repentance together towards Allah, in the hope of attaining success.
  2. [Surah Ahzab Verse 59] O Prophet! Command your wives and your daughters and the women of the Muslims to cover their faces with a part of their cloaks; this is closer to their being recognised and not being harassed; and Allah is Oft Forgiving, Most Merciful.

B. From The Holy Quran – Regarding Concealment Of Voice

  1. [Surah Ahzab Verses 32 – 33] O the wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women – if you really fear Allah, then do not speak softly lest the one in whose heart is a disease have any inclination, and speak fairly. And remain in your houses and do not unveil yourselves like the unveiling prevalent in the times of ignorance, and keep the prayer established, and pay the charity, and obey Allah and His Noble Messenger; Allah only wills to remove all impurity from you, O the People of the Household, and by cleansing you make you utterly pure.

C. From The Hadith – Regarding Difference In Prayer Positions

  1. Abdullah ibn Umar (may Allah be well pleased with him) narrates that the Holy Prophet(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)said, ‘When a woman sits inSajdah by putting one thigh upon the other (i.e. close to one another) and at the time of Sajdah (prostration) her stomach touches her thighs and she also takes full consideration of Hijaab, then Allah Taãla looks at her and says to the angels, ‘Bear witness that I have forgiven her.’ (Baihaqi, Kanzul Ummaal)
  2. Once the Holy Prophet(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)saw two women offering Prayer and he said, ‘When you (women) make Sajdah (prostrate) then let the limbs of your body touch one another and make them touch the ground.’ Surely in this (prostration posture) women are not similar to men.’ (Masaail Abu Dawood)
  3. Wail ibn Hajar (may Allah be well pleased with him) said that the Holy Prophet(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)taught him to offer Prayer and he said, ‘O ibn Hajar! When you begin your Prayer then lift your hands up to your ears and show the women that they should lift up to their chests.’ (Tabarrani)
  4. Abdullah ibn Umar (may Allah be well pleased with him) was once asked on how women used to offer Prayer during the time of the Holy Prophet(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). He replied, ‘First they used to read Prayer cross-legged, then they were commanded to cling to themselves,’ (Jaami al-Masanid).

D. From Hadith – Regarding Concealment Of Voice During Prayer

  1. Narrated Abu Huraira (May Allah be well pleased with him), The Holy Prophet(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)once said: “The saying ‘Sub Han Allah‘ is for men and clapping is for women.” (If something happens in the prayer, the men can invite the attention of the Imam by saying “Sub Han Allah“. And women, by clapping their hands). (Bukhari)

 

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN’S AND WOMEN’S PRAYER

Concealing the body (Satr-e-Aurat) – that is to conceal/cover the necessary parts of the body. For men, this consists of the body between the navel up to and including the knees. For women this consists of the entire body, except the face, hands and soles of the feet. Women must hide their faces from strangers whilst not in Prayers. Wearing clothes that are so thin that body colour is exposed will make the Prayer void. Similar is the case of the head scarf if the shine of hair is revealed. In fact, wearing such clothes is prohibited even outside Prayer. Before beginning Prayer the woman should make sure that (other than her face, palms and the soles of her feet) her entire body is properly covered with opaque clothes. If she offers Prayer in thin clothes which reveal the color of the skin or the shine of her hair, it will render the Prayer void. It is obligatory to also hide the neck, ears, hair-locks hanging from the head, and the wrists.

 

If any part of the body (other than her face, palms, soles of her feet) is exposed up to one fourth of its area, and she proclaims the “Takbeer Tahreemah” (“Allahu Akbar”) without hiding it, then the Prayer will be deemed not started. If one fourth or more of it gets exposed during the Prayer for a time in which “Subhaan-Allah” can be recited thrice, it will render the Prayer void.

 

 

 

While saying “Takbeer Tahreemah” (Allahu Akbar) a woman should raise her hands only up to her shoulders (and not up to the ears) and should not take them out of her cloak.

 

 

In the Qiyaam (standing position), she should place her left palm on the middle of her chest and the right palm over the left.

 

 

 

While bowing, she should only bow a little, enough for her hands to touch her knees, without holding them. The fingers should be kept straight. She should stand with her knees slightly bent, and her arms close to her body.

 

 

 

 

 

She should perform the prostration with her body drawn together i.e. she should keep the abdomen joined with the thighs, the thighs with the calves, the shins with the ground, the arms to the sides and the wrists spread on the ground. Further, instead of keeping the feet upright, both feet should be spread out towards the right.

 

 

 

 

 

While in Qaadah (sitting position), instead of keeping the right foot upright, both feet should be slid out towards the right, with her sitting on the left foot.  For women, praying in a room is better than praying out in the courtyard, and praying in a basement is better than praying in a room. (Abu Dawood).

 

 

OTHER IMPORTANT POINTS

  1. Women are exempted from offering Prayer whilst in state of impurity (due to menses or childbirth).
  2. Women should take extra care during “Wuzu and Tayammum” by moving ornaments (such as rings) in order not to leave the area below them – whereas nail polish should be totally removed.
  3. If several persons are praying in the same room, women should pray behind the men. They should not stand in line with the men.
  4. Women should offer their five daily Prayers, Taraweeh and Witrindividually. It is Makrooh Tahreemi for them to offer Prayer with congregation. (Shaami Vol.1). A woman cannot be a leader (Imam) in any congregational Prayer.
  5. CONGREGATION SALAH

    WHEN TO STAND UP DURING IQAMA-TIS-SALAH 

     

    Some people say that it is not necessary to stand up during the time of Iqaamat when the Mukabbir says “Hayyalas Salaah” or “Hayyalal Falaah”, rather one can stand at the beginning of the Iqaamat. However, it is the belief of the Ahle Sunna Wal Jama’a that one should stand up only after the Mukabbir has uttered “Hayyalas Salaah” or “Hayyalal Falaah” and not at the beginning of the Iqaamat. 

    The Ulama of Islam have explained  three different ways of standing up during the Iqaamah for the purpose of following the Jamaat (congregation). These are: 

    (1) When the Imam enters the Masjid from the side of Mihraab;

    (2) When the Imam enters the Masjid from the back or from the sides; and 

    (3) When both the Imam and Muqtadis are present in the Masjid at the time of Iqaamah.

    As far as the first two methods are concerned; there are no differences of opinions.  

    Allama Abu Bakr Bin Masood (radi Allahu anhu) writes in “Badai’us Sanaai”: “If the Imam is outside the Masjid, the Muqtadis will not stand until the Imam does not arrive. If the Imam enters the Masjid from the front of the Safs (lines) and when the Muqtadis see the Imam, they should stand up because when Imam enters the Masjid, it is regarded as if he has reached the place of Imaamat. If the Imam enters the Masjid from the back of the Safs, according to correct saying, from whichever Saf that the Imam passes, the people of that Saf should stand up.” (Kitaabus Salaat) 

    Allama Zainuddin Ashaheer Ibn Nojaim (radi Allahu anhu), writes in “Bahrur Raa’iq”: “If the Imam is not in the Mihraab, then the people of every Saf should stand when the Imam reaches them. If the Imam enters the Masjid from the front, the people should stand up when they see the Imam.”  

    When the Imam and the Muqtadis all are present in the Masjid, then it is Mustahab (recommended) for all of them to stand up for Jamaat when Mu’ezzin says “Hayyalas Salaah” or “Hayyalal Falah”. 

    The great Jurists and scholars of Islam have explained this issue in detail as follows:

    Allama Abu Bakr bin Masood (radi Allahu anhu) writes: “If the Imam and the Muqtadis are present in the Masjid, then it is Mustahab for all of them to stand when the Mu’ezzin says ‘Hayyalal Falah’.” (Badai’us Sanaai) 

    It is mentioned in “Tanveerul Absaar”: “If the Imam is near the Mihraab, then Imam and the Muqtadi should both stand up at the time of ‘Hayyalal Falah’.” (Kitaabus Salaat) 

    Allama Shami (radi Allahu anhu) has given 13 references of authentic books that people should stand up at the time of “Hayyalas Salaah” or “Hayyalal Falah.” 

    It is mentioned in “Tabyinul Haqaa’iq”: “When the Mu’ezzin says ‘Hayyalal Falah’ he in fact has commanded for Qiyaam (standing). Therefore, it is Mustahab to hurry towards it.” (Kitaabus Salaat) 

    It is mentioned in “Durar Sharah Ghorar”: “Standing up is in that time when it is said ‘Hayyalal Falah’. The meaning of ‘Hayyalal Falah’ is ‘come, be attentive’. Therefore, it is Mustahab to hurry towards it.” (Kitaabus Salaat) 

    Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Muhammad said that people should stand in Safs when the Mu’ezzin says “Hayyalas Salaah”. (Umdatul Qari Sharah Bukhari) 

    Allama Ahmad Asqalaani (radi Allahu anhu) writes in “Irshaadus-sari Sharah Bukhari”: “It is reported from Imam Abu Hanifah that people should stand at the time of ‘Hayyalal Falah’.” 

    Thus, it has been made clear with many quotations of Fiqh and commentaries of Ahadith that when the Imam is near the Mihraab in the Masjid it is Mustahab to stand at the time of “Hayyalas Salaah” or “Hayyalal Falaah”. 

    If one stands up at the beginning of the Iqaamat, then it is Makrooh: 

    Mullah Nizaamuddin (radi Allahu anhu) writes in “Fataawa Alamgiri”,which is a very authentic Fatawa Kitaab in Hanafi Fiqah, that: “It is Makrooh (undesirable act in Shari’ah) to stand and wait. In fact, one should sit down and when the Mu’ezzin says ‘Hayyalal Falah’ then stand up.” 

    Allama Sayyed Ahmad Tahtaavi (radi Allahu anhu) writes: “When the Mu’ezzin starts the Iqaamat and a person entered the Masjid at that time, he should sit down. He must not stand and wait because it is Makrooh as it is mentioned in ‘Muzmiraat’ of Qahstaani. It is known from here that to stand in the beginning of Iqaamat is Makrooh, and many people are unaware of this fact”. (At Tahaavi Ala Marraqiyil Falah)

    Mufti Shareeful Haq Amjadi, the Mufti of Jamia Ashrafiya Mubarakpur mentions 21 books of Hanafi Fiqah to prove that it is Makrooh to stand at Iqamaah, that it should be heard sitting and that people should stand at the time of “Hayyalas Salaah” or “Hayyalal Falah”. 

    Allama Abdur Rahmaan Al Jazeeri (ru) writes: “According to Madhab Shaf’ee it is Sunnah to stand for Salaah when the Mu’ezzin completes the Iqaamah.” (Kitaabul Fiqh Alal Mazahibil Arba) If a Shafi’i person stands in the beginning of the Iqaamah, then he loses the reward of the Sunnah. 

    Some people say that it is difficult to straighten the Safs (lines) if people stand at “Hayyalas Salaah” or at “Hayyalal Falah”, therefore, it is better to stand up in the beginning of the Iqaamat. In reply to this: Could the Sahabah, Taabi’een and great Jurists not understand this reason? In that period there were neither lines made in the Masjid nor were there carpets and mats. Nowadays, in every Masjid, all the necessary arrangements are made to keep the Safs straight. The reason for not having the Safs straight in good time is not that the people stand at the time of “Hayyalas Salaah”. In fact, the real reason for not having the Safs straight in good time is that people come into the Masjid and sit here and there. When the Iqaamat begins, they hesitate to come in front quickly. This evil should be stopped. 

    Some people say that in “Sharah Waqaya” and in some other books it is said that the people should stand up at the time of “Hayyalas Salaah” and in”Fatawa Hindia” and in some other books it is said that people should stand up at the time of “Hayyalal Falah”. Which one of these two sayings should one practice? In reply to this, Ahmad Raza Khan (r) says: “In my view, there is no contradiction in the sayings of Sharah Waqaya and Fatawa Hindia because the first saying is attributed to the end of “Hayyalas Salaah” and the second saying is attributed to the beginning of “Hayyalal Falah”. In fact, both the sayings are practiced together. It means that people should start standing when the Mu’ezzin is ending “Hayyalas Salaah” and they should be upright when he is at “Hayyalal Falah”. (Fatawa Radhavia)

    SALAT AT-TARAVEEH 20 RAKAH

    It is related from Hadhrat Ibn Abbas : ‘The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) would pray 20 Rakats and then witr in the month of Ramadhan.’(Musnad ibn Abi Shaybah vol 2, p294/ Sunan Baihaqi vol 2, p496/ Tibraani Kabir vol  11, p393/ Musnad ibn Hameed p218)
    Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani related from Imam Rafi : The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) prayed 20 Rakat in Taraweeh on two consecutive nights with a congregation in Ramdhan. On the third night many more people gathered (to join the congregation).  However, the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) did not appear before them. In the morning the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )  stated : ‘It occurred to me that this prayer (20 Rakat in Ramadhan) could become compulsory (Fard) upon you, and you would not be able to bear it.’  Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalani, said it is ( متفق على صحته ) and there is a consensus among all the Muhadditheen that this narration is sound (Sahih).’ (Talkeesul Habeer Fe Takhreej Ahadith Rafi ul Kabeer – Vol 1, P 119)
     
    Hadhrat Abu Dhar Ghifari ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) related: ‘We ( Companions) observed fasts of Ramadhan with the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ). In the whole month the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) did not lead us in prayer, until there were 7 days left in the month. The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) then led us in prayer on the 23rd, 25th and 27th night. (Abu Dawood vol 1, p195)

    Ummul Momineen Aisha ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ) related: ‘After these nights (23, 25 and 27th) the congregation grew to a very large number on the 29th night. The Masjid of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) had become filled to capacity. On this night the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) only came out to lead the people for the Fajr prayer. After the Fajr prayer, the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) stated: ‘I knew that you had gathered for the night prayer (Taraweeh) but I feared that this prayer would become compulsory (Fard) upon you and you would find it difficult to fulfill. (Bukhari vol 1, p269/ Muslim vol 1, p259)

    Even in the days in which the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) did not pray in congregation, Ibn Abbas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) has related: Verily in the month of Ramadhan, The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) used to pray 20 Rakats and Witr independent from any congregation. (Baihaqi As-Sunan al-Kubra Vol 2, P 496)

    Allamah Subqi Shafi’  stated: ‘Our belief is that the 20 Rakats Taraweeh is a Sunnah, which is proven from a sound chain.’ (Sharahul Minhaaj)


    The soundness and correctness of the above narrations is supported by the very actions of the Sahabah. It was the nature of the Sahabah  that without the order and permission of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) they would not perform any religious action.   It is this very same 20 Rakats Taraweeh that has been performed from the time of the Sahabah to the present day in congregation in the month of Ramadhan. This  Salah has been passed down from generation to generation and safeguarded to this day. The strength of these Ahadith is established from the Khulafa Rashideen and Sahabah, Scholars of Hadith, Jurists and Mujtahideen of this Ummah, as well as the very practice of the Ummah itself.
     
    Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) then acted upon these narrations and ordered the Ummah to perform 20 Rakats Taraweeh.  The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) stated: ‘After my time, people will see much differences occurring. In such a condition, it is compulsory upon you that you hold firmly to my Sunnah and the rightly guided path of the Khulafa Rashideen.’ (Mishkaat Masabih P 30).
     
    It is related from Huzaifa ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) : The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) stated: ‘I do not know how long I will remain among you. After me, follow Abu Bakr ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) .(Mishkaat Masabih P 560).
     
    Abu Rahman bin Abdul Qari ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) related: I left one night in Ramadhan with Sayyidina Umar bin Khattab ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and we headed towards the Masjid of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ). In the Masjid we saw various groups of people praying alone or behind an Imam and they were scattered over the Masjid. Umar bin Khattab ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه) made a decision to congregate all the people behind Ubay Ibn Ka’ab ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ). (Bukhari Vol 1, P 269)
     
    Yazid bin Ruman  related: In the time of the Khalifah of Sayyidina Umar bin Khattab ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) people would pray 23 Rakats behind an Imam (20 Taraweeh, 3 Witr). (Muwatta Imam Malik Vol 1, P 98 / Sunan Kabeer Baihaqi Vol 2, P 496).
     
    Abi Abdur Rahman Salmi related: In the nights of Ramadhan, Sayyidina Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) called upon the reciters of the Qur’an (Huffaz/Qura) and ordered one among them to lead the people in 20 Rakats of Taraweeh. Sayyidina Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) would lead the people himself in the Witr Salah. (Sunan Kabeer Baihaqi Vol 2, P 496 / Fathul Bari Vol  4, P  219)
     
    Salafi scholar Ibn Taymiyya wrote in his Fatawa: ‘Verily it has been proven that Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) made Ubay ibn Ka’ab ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) lead the people in 20 Rakats of Taraweeh and 3 Witr in Ramadhan. This is the way of the scholars of this Ummah and this is the Sunnah. This is due to the fact that  Ubay Ibn Ka’ab ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) performed 20 Rakats Taraweeh in a large congregation of the Muhajireen and Ansar of the Sahabah and none among them objected to this practice.’ (Fatawa Ibn Taymiyyah Vol  1, P 191 / Al-Mughni Vol  1,  P 803)
     
    Ibn Taymiyya also wrote  ‘If Umar Farooq ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) by establishing 20 Rakats of Taraweeh had been deemed to adopt a bad practice, then Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) would have put an end to this in his Khilafat. However, in the Khilafat of Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), he too performed 20 Rakats Taraweeh prayer in Kufa. In the month of Ramadhan, Hadhrat Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) would state: ‘May Allah enlighten the grave of Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ), just as he has enlightened our Masaajid for us.’  (Minhaaj  as-Sunnah Vol 2, P 224)
     
    The practice of 20 Rakats Taraveeh continued throughout the Khilafat of Uthman ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and Ali ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) and remained unaltered in the entire world until today.  This  practice is continued in all three important mosques of Islam, Masjid Haram Makkah, Masjid Nabwi in Madina and Masjid al-Aqsa in Palestine.
     
    Asad bin Amr related from Qazi Imam Abu Yusuf : ‘I asked Imam Abu Hanifa  about the matter of Taraweeh and what Sayyidina Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) had done in this respect. The Imam replied: ‘20 Rakats of Taraweeh is Sunnah Muakkadah.
     
    Sayyidina Umar ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) did not establish this from his own accord. It was the sunnah of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) which was established in Islam.  
     
    Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal stated: ‘It has reached me that Umar bin Khattab ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) would do 20 Rakats of Taraweeh.’ (Al Mughni Vol 2, p 168/ Baihaqi Vol  1, P 296 / Muwatta Imam Malik P 40)
     
    Salafis have misunderstood the Hadith of Ummul Momineen Aisha ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ) mentioned in Bukhari.    Abu Salma related that he asked Aisha ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها )  : ‘How was the prayer of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) in Ramadhan?’ She  replied: ‘The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) would not pray more than 11 Rakats in Ramadhan or outside of it.’ (Sahih Bukhari Vol 1, P154)
    In this narration, the words clearly state that the prayer of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) throughout the whole year (in and outside of Ramadhan) would be no more than 11 Rakats. Therefore, this Hadith indicates the Prophet’s ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) practice in respect of Tahajud, as Taraweeh is connected only to the nights of Ramadhan.
     
    It is recorded in the Hadith that in the time of Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ), He only prayed as Imam 3 nights in Ramadhan with the congregation of the Companions. On the three nights when The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) performed Taraweeh Salaah in congregation, He performed Tahajud Salaah alone on one of those nights. Anas ( رضئ الله تعالی عنه ) related that the Prophet  ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم )  ‘In (one night of) Ramadhan was praying (Taraweeh) Salaah. A number of us including myself joined the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) in Salaah forming one Jamaat. Afterwards the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) upon completing the Salaah went to his room and performed that Salaah (Tahajud) alone which He did not perform with us. (Sahih Muslim Vol  1, P 352)
     
    The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) would pray Tahajud (Qiyam ul Layl) the whole year round, but never was there the same congregation as was found in the 3 days of Ramadhan (as mentioned above). Nor did the Khulafa Rashideen gather and perform their own congregation. The Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) never led the congregation of the Companions in Tahajud (Qiyam ul Layl). (Fatawa Rahimiyah Vol 1, P 331).
     
     
    The Ulama of Salaf-us-Saliheen رحمهم الله have left the Ummah rules/regulations on how best to interpret Ahadith: if in any narration the message is not completely understood or there are a number of conflicting opinions regarding the same topic it is essential to refer to the practices and recommendations of the Sahabah رضى الله عنهم , especially the actions of the Khulafa Rashideen – رضى الله عنهم ‘for you that is the true path’. (Fathul Bari Sharah Bukhari vol 2, p269 / Abu Dawood vol 1, p263 / Tareekh Baghdad vol 2, p247/ Ahkamul Qur’an vol 1, p17)
     
    Allamah Abu Bakr ibn Arabi wrote: ‘the 11 Rakats (8 Rakats Nafl, 3 Witr) narration related by Aisha  ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ) refers to the Qiyam ul Layl (Tahajud) of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم (Aridatul Ah’wadhi Shara Tirmidhi Vol 4, p19)
     
    Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani  also refers to this narration as referring to the Tahajud (8 Rakats) with Witr (3 Rakats). (Fathul Bari Sharah Bukhari Vol 3,  P 328)
     
    Qazi Ayaz Maliki  has taken all of Aisha  narrations as referring to the Tahajud prayer of the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) , which He would perform in Her house. (Sharah Muslim Nawawi Vol 1, P 253)
     
    Qazi Mohammad Shawqani, a Salafi scholar wrote: ‘The narration of Aisha ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها ) in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim referring to the 11 Rakats in and outside of Ramadhan is in respect of Tahajud Qiyam ul Layl. (Naylul Awtar Vol 3, P 39)
     
    Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddith Dehlawi  states: ‘the narration of Aisha ( رضئ الله تعالی عنها) is,  in regard to Tahajud,  that was performed by the Prophet ( صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) throughout the year, including Ramadhan. (Fatawa Azizia  P 125)
     
    Shah Waliullah Muhaddith Dehlawi writes: ‘The 20 Rakats of Taraweeh is an ‘established continuous Sunnah’ (Sunnat Qai’mah Mutawatira) which has been practiced in its current form since the time of the 1st generation of Muslims in a united manner. Specifically, for the view of the 4 Imams to agree upon a matter is one of the greatest proofs of it being an established Sunnah.’ (Hujatulahil Baligha Vol  1,  P 412-3)
     
    Verily 20 Rakats Taraweeh is Sunnah Muakkadah (an emphasized Sunnah) on both men and women. (Ad-Durrul Mukhtar. Vol 1,  P 520)
     اخطاء السلفية في الصلاة

    SALAFI BLUNDERS IN SALAH

     

    Difference in salah between men and women

    Wahabis ( so called “salafis”’) are of the view that all the laws of salah are common to both men and women, and that there is no difference between them. They also claim that the hadeeth ‘Pray as you have seen me praying’ is general and, therefore, should be applied equally to both men and women. It should be realised, however, that our own interpretation and logical inference of this hadeeth cannot compare with the other ahadeelh of the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) and the verdicts and practice of the Sahabah and Tabi’un ( رضئ الله عنهم ) quoted below.The Shariah has ordained distinct rules for men and women in many important questions of salah. For example:

    Jumuah is fardh upon men but not on women, and the Eid prayer is wajib for men but again not for women.Sayyiduna Tariq bin Shthab ( رضئ الله عنه ) reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ), said, ‘Jumuah in congregation is an obligatory duty upon every Muslim except four people: a slave, a woman, a child, and one who is sick.  538 Sayyidatuna  Umm Atiyyah . says as part of a longer hadeeth, ‘We have been forbidden from following funerals and there is no Jumuah upon us. 539•

    The reward of congregational prayer for men is twenty seven times more than an individual prayer. Contrary to this, the more rewarding prayer of a woman is that which is most concealed and performed within the confines of her innermost living quarters.

    Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud ( رضئ الله عنه ) reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, ‘The prayer of a woman in her makhda’ (partition) is better than her prayer in her hujrah (chamber), and her prayer in her hujrah is better than her prayer in her bait (house).’540Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah ( رضئ الله عنه ) narrates that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, The most beloved salah to Allah of a woman is one that she performs in the darkest spot of her home.’541•

    Unlike men women should not give adhan or say the iqamah.Sayyidatuna Asmaa (R) narrates as part of a longer hadeeth that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, ‘There is no adhan iqamah or Jumuah upon women.’542Sayyidatuna Ibn Umar (R) says ‘There is no adhan or iqamah upon women.’543•

    There is a great difference in the awrah of a man and that of a woman in salah. Women must cover their entire body including the hair, leaving only the face, hands and feet exposed.Ummul Mu’mineen Aisha (R) reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, ‘Allah does not accept the salah of a mature female without a scarf.’544• Women cannot lead men in salah.Abu Bakrah (رضئ الله عنه ) reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said ‘Never will those people succeed who have appointed a woman over them.’545Jabir bin Abdullah (رضئ الله عنه ) reports as part of a longer hadeeth that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, Know that a woman should not lead a man in salah.’546•

    For the purpose of correcting or deterring someone in salah men should say ‘subhanallah’ loudly, whilst women are only allowed to clap their hands.Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah (رضئ الله عنه ) reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, ‘Tasbeeh is for men, and clapping is for women.’547The different postures, positions and rulings concerning the prayers of the female are not the invention of a group or an individual but teaching of the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) himself. He was the very first person differentiate between the prayer of a man and a woman.Yazid bin Abi Habib reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) passed by two women who were praying salah. He said, ‘When you prostrate, let part of your body cling to the earth, for women are unlike men in this regard’.548Sayyiduna Ibn Umar (رضئ الله عنه ) narrates that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, ‘When a woman sits in salah she should place one thigh over the other, and when she prostrates she should press her stomach to her thighs in a manner that is the most concealing for her. Indeed Allah looks at her saying, “Oh my angels! I make you witness that I have forgiven her.”549Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr ( رضئ الله عنه ) reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, ‘Oh Ibn Hujr! When you pray make your hands level with your ears. And the woman shall raise her hands close to her bosom.’550We derive some very important and fundamental principles about the prayer of a woman from all the above ahadeeth.• The laws of salah are not always the same for men and women.•

    The sunnah posture of a female in any position of salah is that which is the most concealing for her.Imam Baihaqi says,’All of the laws of salah in which a woman differs from a man are based on the principle of satr (concealment). This means that the woman is instructed to do all that which is more concealing for her.

    The following chapters of hadeeth explain this meaning in detail.’551

    As mentioned earlier, this variation in the salah of a woman has been prescribed by none other than the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) himself. It has remained the practice of the whole ummah till this day and is also reflected in the rulings of the Sahabah and Tabi’un.

    The ulama and fuqaha of all four schools have always recognised this difference and, as is evident in their books of fiqh, have always observed the above principles whenever making a ruling about the salah of a woman. Following are a few narrations detailing the verdicts and practice of the Sahabah & together with the verdicts of some of the Tabi ‘un and the ulama of the different schools of fiqh:Verdicts and practice of the Sahabah ( رضئ الله عنهم )Khalid bin al Lajlaaj reports as part of a longer hadeeth that women were ordered to do tarabb’u 552 when sitting in salah.553

    Nafi’ narrates that Safiyyah ( رضئ الله عنها ) would pray and do tarabb’u.554Nafi’ also narrates that the womenfolk of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar’s (رضئ الله عنه ) family would do tarabb’u.555

    Sayyiduna Ibn Umar (رضئ الله عنه ) was once asked, ‘How did women pray their salah during the time of the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) ‘ He replied, ‘They used to sit cross legged until they were told to practice ihtifaz556Sayyiduna Ali (رضئ الله عنه ) says, ‘When a woman prostrates she should do ihtifaz and press her thighs together.’, and in Abdul Razzaq’s narration ‘press her thighs against her stomach.’557

    Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas ( رضئ الله عنه ) was asked about the prayer of a woman. He replied, ‘She should pull herself close together and do ihtifaz.’558

    Verdicts of the Tabi’un and other ulama.Ibn Jurayj reports, ‘I asked Ataa: “Should a woman motion with her hands at the time of takbeer as a man does?” he replied, “She should not raise her hands with takbeer in the manner of men.” Ataa then demonstrated (the way in which she should.) He placed his hands very low and then pulled them towards him. He then said, “The posture of a woman in salah is not that of a man.”559

    Ataa also says, ‘A woman should pull herself together when she bows down into ruk’u: she should bring up her arms to her stomach and pull herself together as much as possible. When she prostrates she should bring up her arms close to her and press her bosom and stomach against her thighs: she should pull herself together as much as possible.560

    Hasan al Basri says, ‘A woman should pull herself close together in sujud.’ 561

    Hasan and Qatadah both say, ‘When a woman prostrates she should pull herself together as much as possible. She should not allow for any space between her limbs so that her posterior is not raised.’562

    One certain author has argued that all the descriptions of the Prophet’s ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) prayer are equally applicable to both men and women and there is nothing in the sunnah that excludes women from any of them. Insha Allah the contents of this chapter will answer that claim. The author then goes on to say that this is the view of Ibrahim al Nakhai who said, ‘A woman’s actions in the prayer are the same as a man’s.’ – transmitted by Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/75/2), with a saheeh sanad from him.This is not what Ibrahim al Nakhai said at all nor is it his view. His narration transmitted by Ibn Abi Shaibah actually reads, ‘A woman will sit in salah just as a man does.’563

    This somehow has been misquoted as ‘A woman’s actions in the prayer are the same as a man’s.’!In fact, Ibrahim al Nakhai’s other narrations quite clearly contradict the above report. His view about the prayer of a woman as reported by Ibn Abi Shaibah and others is as follows:Ibrahim al Nakhai says, ‘When a woman prostrates she should press her stomach against her thighs. She should not raise her posterior nor should she allow for any space or distance between the limbs of her body as a man does.’564

    He also says, ‘When a woman prostrates she should bring her thighs together and press her abdomen to them.’565

    He also says, ‘A woman should sit to one side in salah.’566Imam Baihaqi says,’All of the laws of salah in which a woman differs from a man are based on the principle of satr (concealment). This means that the woman is instructed to do all that which is more concealing for her. The following chapters of hadeeth explain this meaning in detail.’567

    Ibn Qudamah al Maqdisi al Hanbali quotes Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal in his al Mughni as saying, ‘I consider sadl 56S to be better for a woman.’ He also qoutes the narration of Sayyiduna Ali ( رضئ الله عنه ) who says, ‘When a woman prays salah she should do ihtifaz and press her thighs together.’569

    Imam Ahmad was asked about how a woman should prostrate and sit for tashahhud. He replied, ‘She should do whatever is more concealing for her.’ He added, ‘She should do tarabb’u in tashahhud and draw her legs to one side (sadl).’570

    According to the narration of Abu Dawood, Imam Ahmad was asked about how a woman should sit in salah. He replied, ‘She should press her thighs together.’571

    Qadhi Iyadh has also quoted from some Salaf that the sunnah for women is tarabb’u.512

    All the above quite clearly demonstrates that the prayer of a woman is different in some aspects from that of a man, and that this distinction was first made by none other than the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ), and then maintained by the prominent Sahabah and Tabi’un. Furthermore, as can be seen in their works, there is almost universal agreement amongst the scholars of all schools of fiqh on this issue.List of differences between the prayer of a man and a woman.Some of the differences as mentioned in the Hanafi books of fiqh are listed below.In all the postures and movements of salah, including qiyam, ruk’u, sajdah, and tashahhud a woman should adopt that which is the most modest and concealing for her.At the beginning of salah a woman should not raise her hands to her ears but only to her shoulders or close to her bosom.573

    In qiyam, women are to place their hands on their bosoms. They can fasten them in any one of the different ways ‘akdh’ (grasping) or ‘wadh’ (placing) described in part two, or they can simply rest the right palm on the left one.Unlike men, in ruk’u, women should tuck their arms into the body and not spread them outward. They should also merely place their hands over their knees with closed fingers, and not grasp them with the fingers spread wide open.574

    In fact, women should try to keep their fingers close together in all the postures of salah.During prostration men should allow for some space and distance between their stomachs and thighs, and arms and the side of the body, whilst women should press these limbs together.Again in prostration, men should raise their arms off the ground and allow for some distance but women should let them cling to the ground.During the sitting of tashahhud, men are to rest on their legs and raise their right foot with the toes facing qiblah, whereas women are to take out both their legs towards the right hand side of the body and rest on the posterior without raising their right foot.——————————————————————————–The Salah of a Believer in the Quran and SunnahShaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul HaqPurchase link AL-Rashad Bookstore [USA] Alkawthar Academy [United Kingdom]
    538 Abu Dawood 1067 and Hakim 1062. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
    539 Ibn Khuzaimah 1722
    540 Abu Dawood
    570 and Ibn Khuzaimah 1690.
    541 Ibn Khuzaimah 1691, and Tabarani in al M’ujam al Kabeer as mentioned by Hafidh Haithami 2/35. Hafidh Haithami also says that its narrators are authentic.
    542 Baihaqi 1921.
    543 Baihaqi 1920.
    544 Ahmad 24012, Ibn Majah 655, Abu Dawood 641, Tirmidhi 377, Ibn Khuzaiir 775, Hakim 917 and Baihaqi 3254. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
    545 Ahmad 19507, Bukhari 4163, Tirmidhi 2262 and Nasai 5388.
    546 Ibn Majah 1081 and Baihaqi 5131.
    547 Bukhari 1145.
    548 Abu Dawood in his al Maraseel pl8 (Muassasah al Risalah edition), and Baiha 3201
    .549 Baihaqi 3199. He also declared it dhaeef.
    550 Tabarani in al M’ujam al Kabeer 22/19 no.28. Hafidh Haithami says 2/103, ‘Tabarani has narrated it as part of a long hadeeth on the virtue of Wail bin Hujr 4fc with a chain of Maimoonah bint Hujr narrating from her auntie Umm Yahya bint Abdul Jabbar. I have not identified her but the rest of the narrators are reliable.’
    551 Baihaqi 2/314.
    552 i.e., to draw out one’s right leg towards the right side of the body and to place the left leg beneath the right leg.
    553 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2783.
    554 Abdul Razzaq 5074 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2784.
    555 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2789.
    556 Narrated by all three, Abu Muhammad al Bukhari, Qadhi Umar bin al Hasan Ashnani, and Ibn Khusruw in their Musnads of Imam Abu Hanifah’s ahadeeth Ihtifaz is to lean to one side and rest on the posterior. It is more or less the same a sadl.
    557 Abdul Razzaq 5072 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2777. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani 3/32 has declared it hasan.
    558 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2778.
    559 Abdul Razzaq 5066 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2474.
    560 Abdul Razzaq 5069.
    561 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2781.
    562 Abdul Razzaq 5068.
    563 Ibn Abi Shaibah 1/242, no 2788.
    564 Abdul Razzaq 5071 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2782.
    565 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2779.
    566 Abdul Razzaq 5077 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2792.
    567 Baihaqi 2/314.
    568 To draw out the right leg to one side of the body and place the left leg beneath one’s right thigh. In this way the posterior will come to rest on the ground rather than on the left leg. She would, therefore, not be resting on her legs, but on her posterior as mentioned in the narration of Sayyiduna Ali
    (رضئ الله عنه )569 Ibn Qudamah in al Mughni 2/135.
    570 Masaail of Imam Ahmad narrated by his son Abdullah 373.
    571 Masaail of Imam Ahmad narrated by Abu Dawood p51.
    572 Awjaz al Masalik 2/119.
    573 Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal also says that she should raise them slightly and, according to one narration, she should not raise them at all.
    574 In some books of Hanafi fiqh it has been suggested that in ruk’u they should also bend their backs and knees slightly. The Hanbali scholar Imam Khirqi also says as part of a longer statement, ‘The woman should gather herself in ruk’u and sujud.’ (al Mughni 1/134.)

    [United Kingdom]

    538 Abu Dawood 1067 and Hakim 1062. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
    539 Ibn Khuzaimah 1722
    540 Abu Dawood 570 and Ibn Khuzaimah 1690.
    541 Ibn Khuzaimah 1691, and Tabarani in al M’ujam al Kabeer as mentioned by Hafidh Haithami 2/35. Hafidh Haithami also says that its narrators are authentic.
    542 Baihaqi 1921. 543 Baihaqi 1920.
    544 Ahmad 24012, Ibn Majah 655, Abu Dawood 641, Tirmidhi 377, Ibn Khuzaiir 775, Hakim 917 and Baihaqi 3254. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
    545 Ahmad 19507, Bukhari 4163, Tirmidhi 2262 and Nasai 5388.
    546 Ibn Majah 1081 and Baihaqi 5131.
    547 Bukhari 1145.
    548 Abu Dawood in his al Maraseel pl8 (Muassasah al Risalah edition), and Baiha 3201.
    549 Baihaqi 3199. He also declared it dhaeef.
    550 Tabarani in al M’ujam al Kabeer 22/19 no.28. Hafidh Haithami says 2/103, ‘Tabarani has narrated it as part of a long hadeeth on the virtue of Wail bin Hujr 4fc with a chain of Maimoonah bint Hujr narrating from her auntie Umm Yahya bint Abdul Jabbar. I have not identified her but the rest of the narrators are reliable.’
    551 Baihaqi 2/314.
    552 i.e., to draw out one’s right leg towards the right side of the body and to place the left leg beneath the right leg.
    553 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2783.
    554 Abdul Razzaq 5074 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2784.
    555 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2789.
    556 Narrated by all three, Abu Muhammad al Bukhari, Qadhi Umar bin al Hasan Ashnani, and Ibn Khusruw in their Musnads of Imam Abu Hanifah’s ahadeeth Ihtifaz is to lean to one side and rest on the posterior. It is more or less the same a sadl.
    557 Abdul Razzaq 5072 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2777. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani 3/32 has declared it hasan.
    558 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2778.
    559 Abdul Razzaq 5066 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2474.
    560 Abdul Razzaq 5069.
    561 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2781.
    562 Abdul Razzaq 5068.
    563 Ibn Abi Shaibah 1/242, no 2788.
    564 Abdul Razzaq 5071 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2782.
    565 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2779.
    566 Abdul Razzaq 5077 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2792.
    567 Baihaqi 2/314.
    568 To draw out the right leg to one side of the body and place the left leg beneath one’s right thigh. In this way the posterior will come to rest on the ground rather than on the left leg. She would, therefore, not be resting on her legs, but on her posterior as mentioned in the narration of Sayyiduna Ali (ÑÖÆ Çááå Úäå )
    569 Ibn Qudamah in al Mughni 2/135.
    570 Masaail of Imam Ahmad narrated by his son Abdullah 373.
    571 Masaail of Imam Ahmad narrated by Abu Dawood p51.
    572 Awjaz al Masalik 2/119.
    573 Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal also says that she should raise them slightly and, according to one narration, she should not raise them at all.
    574 In some books of Hanafi fiqh it has been suggested that in ruk’u they should also bend their backs and knees slightly. The Hanbali scholar Imam Khirqi also says as part of a longer statement, ‘The woman should gather herself in ruk’u and sujud.’ (al Mughni 1/134.)

    There are some differences between how women and men’s way of performing Salat.

    1) Men raise there hands all the way to the ear for Takbeer while women raise their hands only up to their shoulders
    In Qayam (the standing posture) Men place their hands below Navel while women place their hands on their chest.

    3) Men grasp their wrist while women do not. They only place right hand on the top of left with fingers intact together.

    4 ) In Ruku (the bowing posture) Men’s back is horizontal while women suppose to bend their back only far enough to touch their knees. Looking from far it will look like a bow arc. They won’t flatten their back.

    5 ) In Sajdah men’s back portion is raised from ground and hands apart from body and fingers of feet twisted while women suppose to be gathered in a way so that all their body parts are close together and abdomen placed over her thighs.Both feet and ankles sticking out to the right. Lower portion of back touching the ground.

    6 ) During Jalsa and Qaida (sitting between Sajdah and during Attahyat) men sit on their left ankle and their right foot’s fingers are twisted while women sit on floor and their both ankles and feet sticking out towards right hand side

    Sheikh M. S. Al-Munajjid, a prominent Saudi Muslim lecturer and author, states:

    “The general principle is that women are equal to men in all religious rulings, because of the Hadith: “Women are counterparts of men.” (Reported by Ahmad), except when there is evidence of a specific ruling which applies only to women. One of the cases in which the scholars mention specific rules for women is Prayer, as follows:
    1. Women do not have to give Adhan (call to Prayer) or Iqamah (second call to Prayer). Ibn Qudamah, may Allah have mercy on him, said: “We don’t know any difference between Muslim scholars (on this point).” (Al-Mughni ma`a Ash-Sharh Al-Kabir, 1/438).

    2. All of the woman’s body must be covered during Prayer, except for her face and hands, because the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “No prayer will be accepted from an adult woman unless she wears a Khimar.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari) There is some dispute as to whether her heels and feet should be covered.

    3. The woman should keep her limbs close to her body during bowing and prostration, and not spread them out, because this is more modest and covering. (Al-Mughni, 2/258) Al-Nawawi said: “In his Al-Mukhtasar, Ash-Shafi`i said that there is no difference between men and women in Prayer, except that women should keep the parts of their bodies close to one another, and they should make their stomachs touch their thighs during prostration. This is more covering and preferable in bowing and the rest of the Prayer as well.” (Al-Majmu`, 3/429) 4. It is preferable for women to pray in congregation, led by another woman, because the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, told Umm Waraqah to lead the women of her household in Prayer.

    There is some difference among scholars on this matter. (See Al-Mughni, 2/202 and Al-Majmu`, 4/84-85) The woman leading the Prayer should read aloud as long as no non-mahram man can hear her. It is permissible for women to go out and pray in the mosque with men, although their Prayer at home is better, because the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “Do not prevent the women from going out to the mosques, even though their homes are better for them.”

    Imam An-Nawawi, may Allah have mercy on him, said: “Women differ from men in congregational Prayer in some ways:

    a) Congregational Prayer is not required of them in the same way as it is of men.

    b) In case a woman leads a group of women in Prayer, she stands in the middle of the (first) row.
    c) If one woman led by a man, she should stand behind him, not next to him.

    d) If women are praying in rows behind men, the back rows are better for them than the front rows.” (Al-Majmu`, 3/455)” Excerpted, with slight modifications, from: www.islam-qa.com

    Moreover, the following are some other differences: “1. When the Imam makes a mistake in a congregational Prayer, men would correct him by saying, “Subhanallah”, while women would correct him by clapping (some describe it as clapping the palm of one hand against the back of the other). This is confirmed in a well-known Hadith.

    2. The Friday Prayer is not obligatory upon women. If a woman performs the Friday Prayer, then she doesn’t have to pray the Zuhr Prayer.”

    Differences Between The Way Men And Women PrayYes, there are minor differences between the physical actions of a man’s prayer in comparison to a woman’s prayer. Al-Hajjawi and Al-Buhuti write that

    A woman prays like a man except that she bunches herself together and sits with her legs slightly slid underneath her to her right. (b: If there is a non-mahram male who can hear her, it is obligatory for her to conceal her recitation so that only she hears it.) (Al-Raud al-murbi`, p74)
    M ar`i bin Yusuf writes the same, though a bit clearer and with a few additional details
    Women are like men in all that was previously mention–even concerning raising the hands. However, she bunches herself together when bowing and prostrating and does not unbunch herself [like a man]; she sits with her legs slightly slid underneath her on the right–and this is best–or cross-legged; and she must conceal her recitation when non-marhman men hear it, and otherwise there is no harm in making it audible. (Ghayat al-muntaha, 1.132-33)

    P lease note that the only obligatory difference concerns recitation, and that even though it would be unlawful for a woman to raise her recitation where non-mahram men hear it, the prayer would still be valid.

    The other differences fall under the category of recommended actions during prayer.The general topic of general related differences associated to prayer is found in hadith literature known as the musannafat. The musannafat include accounts from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), his Companions (Allah be pleased with them), and the first few generations of Successors. The discussion is in the Musannaf of Abu Bakr `Abd al-Razzaq bin Hammam al-San`ani right before the chapter on Friday Prayer, or more precisely 3.126-51.And Allah knows best.

    WAHABI VIEW

    Sheikh Albani says in his book ‘The Prophet’s Prayer’:

    All that has been mentioned of the description of the Prophet’s prayer (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) applies equally to men and women, for there is nothing in the Sunnah to necessitate the exception of women from any of these descriptions; in fact, the generality of his statement (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam), “Pray as you have seen me praying”, includes women.

    This is the view of Ibraaheem an-Nakh’i, who said, “A woman’s actions in the prayer are the same as a man’s” – transmitted by Ibn AbiShaibah(1/75/2), with a saheeh sanad from him.

    Also, Bukhaari reported in at-Taareekh as-Sagheer (p.95) with a saheeh sanad from Umm ad-Dardaa’, “that she used to sit in her prayer just as a man sits, and she was a woman of understanding. ”

    The hadeeth about the indimaam (tucking up) of a woman in prostration, and that she is in that regard not like a man, is mursal and not authentic. Abu Daawood transmitted it in al-Maraaseel on the authority of Yazeed ibn Abi Habeeb.

    As for what Imaam Ahmad has reported, as in his son ‘Abdullaah’s Masaa’il, from Ibn ‘Umar, that he used to instruct his wives to sit cross-legged in prayer, its sanad is not authentic, for it contains ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar al-‘Amri, who is a da’eef (weak) narrator.

    REPLY

    As for those who claim there is no difference in the salah of males and females, they have absolutely no evidence – neither from the Qur’aan nor the Ahaadith. However, if they use the practice of Umm ud-Dardaa, their proof is unsubstantiated for several reasons.

    Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates:

    “Makhul reports that Umm ud-Dardaa used to sit like males in salaah. ”
    (al-Musannafli-Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p 270)

    (Imam Bukhari has also quoted this statement. However, he has not mentioned any chain of narrators for it. It is for this reason I have quoted the work of Ibn Abi Shaybah)
    It is incorrect to use this athar for the following reasons:

    1. Hafizh Jamaal ud-Din Yusuf al-Mizzi has mentioned her among the Taabi’in. (Tahzheeb al-Kamaal fi-Asmaa ir-Rijaal: vol.22 p 464).The practice of a lone tabi’i is incorrect to adopt even if it may not be contrary to the principles. Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalaani states in Fath ul-Baari:
    “The practice of a lone Tabi’i, even though it may not contradict any principle, will not be used as proof. ” (Fath ul-Baari: vol. 2 p 243)

    Hafizh Ibn Hajar has only counted her among the Taabi’in. He says:

    “It can be realised from the narration of Makhul that that narration refers to the younder Umm ud-Dardaa, the Tabi’iyyah, not the elder sahabiyyah because Makhulmet the former not the latter. ” (Ibid)

    2. Even if it accepted that she was a Sahabiyyah, then the narration becomes munqati’ and will not be acceptable according to the principles of the Muhaddithin. It will also be regarded as her opinion. She did not encourage anyone else to follow her practice . Neither did she present any action or statement of Rasulullah nor the fatwa of any Khalifah.

    Accordingly, with regard to the salah of women, the position of this opinion in the face of the practically adopted method of the ummah (tawaatur) is like the position of shaazqira’a has opposed to mutawaatir qira’ah. It is very clear that no muslim leaves the mutawaatir qira’ah for the shaazqira’ah.

    3. Furthermore, if one examines the words of this narration carefully, it supports the view of the majority. The sitting posture of Umm ud-Dardaa has been compared to the posture of males in this narration which infers that the posture of the other Sahaabiyyaat was different as mentioned previously.

    4. Imam Abu Ja’far at-Tahaawi rahimahullah has narrated the following hadith:
    “Ibrahim Abi Abalah reports that he saw Umm ud-Dardaa performing salaah cross-legged”

    (Tuhfat al-Akhyaarbi-Tarteebi SharhMushkil al-Aathaar li-Abi Ja’farat-Tahaawi: vol. 2 p 338, and Hafizh Mizzi has narrated this atharin Tahzheeb al-Kamaal: vol. 22 p 468)

    This narration contradicts the one mentioned by Ibn Abi Shaybah rahimahullah. It will accordingly not remain worthy of substantiating any Shar’i law. .. . in another narration of Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (vol. 1 p270), one finds the following words:
    Ibrahim said: “A woman should sit in salah as a man does. ” This quotation indicates permissibility. However, Naasir ud-Din al-Albaani has interpolated the words of this narration thus:

    “A woman should so as a man does in salah. ”
    (Sifatu Salatin-Nabiy p 207)

    This interpolation has clearly changed the meaning of the words and is a misleading act.
    (Taken from THE SALAH OF WOMEN

    published by Madrasah Arabiyyah Islamiyah Aazadville)

    Chapter 4 – Proofs from Prophetic Hadiths

    Imam Bayhaqi has mentioned a principle which is the basis of the differences found in the salah of males and females.

    He says:

    “The separating factor between the laws of salah of males and females is that of concealment . A woman is commanded to do all those actions which are more concealing for her. ” (as-Sunan al-Kubra alil-Bayhaqi: vol. 2 p 222)

    RAISING THE HANDS

    Hafidh Nur ud-Din Haythami states:

    Wa’il ibn Hujr states that Rasulullah said to him, “O Ibn Hujr, when you perform salah, raise your hands till your ears while a woman should raise her hands till her chest . ”
    (Majma’ uz-Zawaa’id: vol. 2 p 103, and I’laa us-Sunan: vol. 2 p 156)
    Imam Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates:

    “Abd Rabbih Ibn Zaytun said that he saw Umm ud-Dardaa raising her hands parallel to her shoulders when beginning salah. ”

    (al-Musannaf li-Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p 239)
    Ibn Abi Shaybah has also narrated:

    “`Ataa was asked how a woman should raise her hands in salah. He replied that she should raise them till her breast ” (Ibid)

    Based at Makkah, Ataa [the great Follower (tabi`i) and imam] used to issue this fatwa.
    Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates:

    “Hammad ibn Salamah al-Basri used to say that a woman should raise her hands parallel to her breast when beginning salah. ”
    (Ibid)
    Hammad was based at Kufa and he used to issue this fatwa.

    The narration of Ibn Jurayj has been mentioned as follows:

    Ibn Jurayj said, “I asked Ataa whether a woman should gesture with her hands like a male when making takbir. Ataa replied that she should not raise her hands like a male. Then he practically indicated with his hands how it should be done by lowering his hands and drawing them very close to his body. Then he said, “In the raising of the hands, a woman is unlike a man . And if she leaves that, there is no harm. “”

    The Muslim Ummah continued this practice over the centuries. Imam Zuhri used to issue the same fatwa in Madinah.

    PLACING THE HANDS

    Allamah Abdul-Hayy Luckhnawi writes:
    “As for women, the jurists are unanimous that it is sunnah for them to place their hands on their bosoms. ”
    (as-Si’aayah: vol. 2 p 152)

    There is ijmaa’ on this mas’alah.

    SAJDAH

    Imam Abu Dawud has narrated the following hadith in his Maraaseel:
    (Arabic text)
    Translation:

    “Yazid ibn Abi Habib states that Rasulullah passed by two women who were performing their salah. He said to them, “When you prostrate, then make the parts of your body touch the ground because a woman is unlike a man in these aspects. ” (Maraaseel Abi Dawud p 118; and its like in as-Sunan al-Kubra alil- Bayhaqi: vol. 2 p 223)

    Imam Bayhaqi narrates the following hadith:

    Abdullah Ibn Umar reports that Rasulullah said, “When a woman sits during salah, she should place her one thigh over the other and when she prostrates, she must attach the stomach to her thighs so that is more concealing for her. Indeed, Allah looks at her and tells the angels, “O My angels! Bear witness hat I have forgiven her. “”

    (as-Sunan al-Kubra alil-Bayhaqi: vol. 2 p 223)

    Imam Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates the following statement of Ali:
    “It is reported that Ali said: “When a woman performs salah, she must practise ihtifaaz and keep her thighs close together. “”

    (al-Musannaf li-Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p 270, and it has been taken many ways, Abdur-Razzaq has taken it from Isra’il from Abu Is’haq from Harith from Ali and Ibn Abi Shaybah took it from Abul-Ahwas from Abu Is’haq and Bayhaqi took it from Abul-Ahwas, with the mentioned sanad)
    Imam Abdur-Razzaq has quoted the following hadith in his Musannaf:

    Ali says, “When a woman prostrates, she must practise ihtifaz and keep her thighs close to her stomach. ”

    (al-Musannaf li-Abdir-Razzaq: vol. 3 p 138)

    “Ihtifaaz”: to lean on one side and rest on the posterior.
    (See Lugaat al-Hadith: vol. 1 p 98)

    The following narration has been quoted by Bayhaqi:

    “Ali said: ” When a woman performs sajdah she must keep her thighs close together. “”
    (as-Sunan al-Kubra alil-Bayhaqi: vol. 2 p 222)
    The following narration appears in Kanz ul-Ummal:

    “Ibn Umar states that when a woman prostrates, she must let her stomach touch her thighs in order to make herself completely concealed. ”
    (Kanz ul-Ummal: vol. 4 p 117)

    Imam Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates:
    “Ibrahim says that when a woman prostrates she should join her thighs to her stomach without raising her posterior and without stretching her limbs out like a male. ”

    (al-Musannaf li-Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p 270)

    The following words have been narrated by Ibrahim Nakha’i:
    “Ibrahim said that when a woman prostrates she must draw her thighs inwards and place her stomach on them. ” (Ibid)
    Mujaahid:

    “Muhaahid used to dislike that a man attach his stomach to his thighs as a woman does. ”
    (Ibid)

    Hasan al-Basri:

    “Hishaam reports from Hasan who says that woman should draw herself closely together in sajdah. ”
    (Ibid)

    Imam Abdur-Razzaq narrates:

    Ibrahim says, “A woman used to be commanded to place her arm and her stomach on her thigh when she goes into sajdah and not to spread her limbs out as a male does so that her buttocks are not raised. ”
    (al-Musannaf li-Abdir-Razzaq: vol. 3 p 138)

    Allamah Muhammad Taahir al-Gujaraati narrates:

    “When a lady performs salah, she must contract herself when she sits down and when she goes into sajdah and she must not spread her limbs out. ”
    (Majma’ Bihar l-Anwaar: vol. 1 p 521)

    Based on these narrations, the Fuqahaa have issued the following ruling:
    “A woman should contract herself in sajdah and join her stomach to her thighs because this is more concealing for her. ”
    (al-Hidaayah: vol. 1 p 53)

    THE SITTING POSITION

    It is mentioned in the Musnad of Imam Abu Hanifah rahimahullah:
    “Abdullah ibn Umar was asked how women performed their salah during the era of Rasulullah. He replied that initially they performed tarabbu’. Then they were ordered to themselves close together ad lean onto one side by resting on their left buttocks and completely contracting themselves. ”

    (Jaami’ ul-Masaaneed: vol. 1 p 400)

    Taraabu’ is to sit cross legged. This narration indicates that initially the women sat in the position of tarabbu’ but this command was later abrogated and they were ordered to draw themselves close together and lean onto one side by resting on their left buttocks and completely contracting themselves.
    Sheikh Abu’l-Wafaa Afghaani writes:

    “This is the most authentic narration of this chapter i.e. the sitting position of women . It is for this reason that Imam Abu Hanifah has made it the basis of his madh’hab. ”
    (Ta’leeqash-Sheikh Abul-Wafaa Afghaani ala Kitab il-Aathaar lil-Imam Muhammad ash-Shaybaani: vol. 1 p 208)

    Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates:

    When Ibn Abbas was asked about the salaah of a woman, he replied, “She must draw herself close together and lean onto one side by resting on her left buttock. ”
    (al-Musannaf li-Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p270)
    in another narration of Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (vol . 1 p270), one finds the following words: (Arabic text)

    Translation: Ibrahim said: “A woman should sit in salah as a man does. ”
    This quotation indicates permissibility. However, Naasir ud-Din al-Albaani has interpolated the words of this narration thus:

    “A woman should so as a man does in salah. ”
    (Sifatu Salatin-Nabiy p 207)

    This interpolation has clearly changed the meaning of the words and is a misleading act.
    The following narration is also quoted by Ibn Abi Shaybah:
    Khalid ibn Lajlaaj said that women were commanded with tarabbu’ when they sat in salah and they should not sit like men on their buttocks. That is in order that nothing happens. ”
    (al-Musannaf li-Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p 270)

    The Fuqahaa took these narrations into consideration and delivered
    the following ruling:

    “A woman should sit on her left buttock and position her legs out on her right hand side because that is more concealing for her. ”
    (al-Hidaayah: vol. 1 p 55)

    The above narrations indicate that Ibrahim Nakha’i used to issue the fatwa in Kufain accordance with this practise, while in Madinah Mujhaahiddid likewise as did Hasan Basri in Basrah.

    These ahaadith and aathaar clearly indicate that the salah of females differs from that of males

    Chapter 5 – What the Fuqaha Say

    The Hanafi Madh-hab

    Allaamah Muhammad Amin Ibn Abidin as-Shami rahimahullah:

    “A woman should not raise her hands till her shoulders. She should not take her hands out of her sleeves. She should place one palm over the other on her breast . She should bend only slightly in ruku’. She will not spread her fingers out in ruku’ but rather keep them close together and place her palms on her knees without clasping them. She should bend her knees slightly. She should contract herself in ruku’ and sajdah. She should place her arms flat on the ground. She should sit with her legs out and resting on her posterior in tashahhud. In tashahud she should keep her fingers close together. If any mistake occurs in salah, she should clap her hands without uttering anything. She cannot make imamah of a male. It is makruh to have a female only congregation. The female imam will stand in their midst. It is makruh for her to attend the congregation. In a mixed congregation the females will stand at the rear. Jumu’ah is not obligatory for her, but if she attends it, she will be absolved of responsibility. Neither is Eid compulsory on her nor the takbir of tashriq. It is not mustahab for her to perform Fajr when it brightens up. In the loud salahs she will not raise her voice. ”

    (Radd al-Mukhtaar: vol. 1 p 504; see al-Bahr ar-Raa’iq: vol. 1 320)
    He says in another place:

    “A woman should bend slightly in ruku; without spreading her fingers out completely. However, she must contract herself and place her palms on her knees and bend them slightly . She must not spread out her arms as this is more concealing for her. ”
    (Ibid p 494)

    Mulla Ali Qaari rahimahullah:

    “A woman will raise her hands till her shoulder (when performing takbir tahrimah). ”
    (Fath bab al-`Inayah bi-sharh an-niqayah: vol. 1 p 239, see p 242, 262 and 265; and al-Fataawaa al-Aalamkiriyyah: vol. 1 p 73

    Allaamah Badr ud-Din al-Ayni:

    “According to Umm ud-Dardaam Ataa, Zuhri and Hammaad and others, a woman should raise her hands till her breasts. ”

    (al-Binayah fi sharh al-Hidaayah: vol. 2 p 187)

    Muhammad ibn Muqaatil narrates the same verdict from the Hanafi jurists. (Ibid)
    Burhanud-Din al-Marghinaani rahimahullah, the author of al-Hidaayah states that this is the correct and accepted version.
    (al-Hidaayah: vol. 1 p 50)

    It is stated in the Fataawaa Aalamgiriyyah:

    “As for a female she must bend slightly in ruku’ without spreading her fingers out. She must keep them together on her knees by merely placing the palms. She must bend her knees slightly and not spread her arms out.

    A female should not spread out in ruku’ and sajdah while she will sit on her legs. In sajdah she will make her stomach rest on her thighs .
    A woman will sit on her left buttock and position her legs out to the right side. ”
    (al-Fataawaa al-Alamkiriyyah: vol. 1 p 75)

    Imam Abu Ja’far at-Tahaawi rahimahullah:
    “As for a woman, our scholars (Hanafi) state that she should sit in a manner that is most concealing. ”

    (Mukhtasar ikhtilaaf al-ulamaa’: vol. 1 p212)

    Sheikh Muhammad Zakariyya al-Kaandhlawi rahimahullah:
    “It is unconditionally preferable according to us (Hanafi jurists) for a woman to sit on her buttocks with her legs positioned out to the right hand side. ”
    (Awjaz al-Masaalik: vol. 1 p 258)

    Allaamah Abd ul-Hayy al-Lukhnawi rahimahullah:

    “A woman differs from a man in many of the actions of salah…”(as-Si’aayah: vol.2 p 205)
    He then goes on to list the differences as mentioned by the other jurists.

    The Salah as offered by women differs from that of men in the following aspects. Women should be careful about what is required of them:

    1. Before they begin their Salah, women should make sure that their whole body, except the face, the hands and the feet, is covered with clothes.Some women offer their Salah with the hair on their head remaining uncovered. Some have their wrists left uncovered. Some women use scarfs so thin or small that their hair tresses are visible dangling down underneath. If, during the Salah, any part of the body, even if it be equal to one-fourth, remains uncovered for a time during which one could say (Subhana Rabbi-al-Azim) three times, the Salah itself would not be valid. However, should the uncovered portion be less than that, Salah would take place but the sin shall stay.

    2. For women, making Salah in the room is better than doing it in the verandah and doing it in the verandah is better than doing it in the courtyard.

    3. While starting the Salah, women should not raise their hands upto their ears, instead, they should raise them upto their shoulders, and that too, from within the scarf or other outer wrap being used. Hands should not be taken out of this cover.

    4. When women fold their hands on the chest, they should simply place the palm of their right hand on the back of the left forehand. They should not fold their hands on the navel like men.

    5. In Ruku’, women are not required to straighten their backs fully like men. Women should bend less as compared to men.

    6. In the position of Ruku’, men should open up their fingers while placing them on the knees, but women are required that they place their hands on the knees with fingers close together, that is, there be on space between fingers.

    7. Women should not stand on legs absolutely straight, instead, they should stand with knees slightly bent forward.

    8. In Ruku’, men are required to keep their arms stretched, away from the sides. But, women should stand with their arms close to their sides.

    9. Women should stand with both feet close together. Specially, both their knees should just about be joined together. Let their be no separating distance between legs.

    10. While doing Sajdah, the method prescribed for men is that they should not lower their chest until such time that their knees come to rest on the floor. But this method is not for women. They can, right from the start, lower their chest and go for Sajdah.

    11. Women should do their Salah in a manner that the stomach-wall come to rest against the thighs and the arms stay close to the sides. In addition to that, omen do have to position their feet, upright, they should spread them on the floor sliding them out towards the right.

    12. Men are prohibited to place their elbows on the floor while making Salah. But, women should place the whole arm, including the elbows, on the floor.

    13. When sitting between Sajdah and when reciting (at-Tahiyyaat), sit on the left hip, side both feet out to the side and let the left foot reset on the right calf of the leg.

    14. Men are required that they be careful about keeping their finger upon when bending for Ruku’, and keeping then close together in Sajdah, and then, leave them as they are during the rest of the Salah, when they make no effort either to close or open them. But, it required of women, under all conditions, that they keep fingers close together, that is leave no space between them. This is required all along in Ruku’, in Sajdah, between two Sajdah and in the Qa’dahs.

    15. It is makruh (reprehensible) for women to make a jama’ah (congregation) The very act of offering their Salah alone is better for them. However, should mahram-members of the family be making their Salah with jama’ah within the house, there is no harm if they join in with them in the jama’ah. But, in a situation like this, it is necessary that they stand exactly behind men. They should never stand next to them in the same row.

    NOTE

    The Salafis claim that it is Sunnah to stretch the legs wide apart and for a musalli’s toes to touch the toes of the musalli standing alongside him in the saff. This ludicrous position is imposed by the Salafis on even women who are obliged to stand with their legs wide open. What an ugly, miserable and immodest stance for a woman to adopt? A woman is an object of concealment according to the statement of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). When she has to stretch her legs wide open, she adopts the stance of lewd and shameless women. Throughout Salaat, a woman’s postures are to be constricted — made small and drawn in, not asserted like a man asserts and expresses his actions during Salaat.

    اخطاء السلفية في الصلاة

    SALAFI BLUNDERS IN SALAH

     

    Difference in salah between men and women

    Wahabis ( so called “salafis”’) are of the view that all the laws of salah are common to both men and women, and that there is no difference between them. They also claim that the hadeeth ‘Pray as you have seen me praying’ is general and, therefore, should be applied equally to both men and women. It should be realised, however, that our own interpretation and logical inference of this hadeeth cannot compare with the other ahadeelh of the Messenger of Allah ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) and the verdicts and practice of the Sahabah and Tabi’un ( رضئ الله عنهم ) quoted below.The Shariah has ordained distinct rules for men and women in many important questions of salah. For example:

    Jumuah is fardh upon men but not on women, and the Eid prayer is wajib for men but again not for women.Sayyiduna Tariq bin Shthab ( رضئ الله عنه ) reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ), said, ‘Jumuah in congregation is an obligatory duty upon every Muslim except four people: a slave, a woman, a child, and one who is sick.  538 Sayyidatuna  Umm Atiyyah . says as part of a longer hadeeth, ‘We have been forbidden from following funerals and there is no Jumuah upon us. 539•

    The reward of congregational prayer for men is twenty seven times more than an individual prayer. Contrary to this, the more rewarding prayer of a woman is that which is most concealed and performed within the confines of her innermost living quarters.

    Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Mas’ud ( رضئ الله عنه ) reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, ‘The prayer of a woman in her makhda’ (partition) is better than her prayer in her hujrah (chamber), and her prayer in her hujrah is better than her prayer in her bait (house).’540Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah ( رضئ الله عنه ) narrates that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, The most beloved salah to Allah of a woman is one that she performs in the darkest spot of her home.’541•

    Unlike men women should not give adhan or say the iqamah.Sayyidatuna Asmaa (R) narrates as part of a longer hadeeth that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, ‘There is no adhan iqamah or Jumuah upon women.’542Sayyidatuna Ibn Umar (R) says ‘There is no adhan or iqamah upon women.’543•

    There is a great difference in the awrah of a man and that of a woman in salah. Women must cover their entire body including the hair, leaving only the face, hands and feet exposed.Ummul Mu’mineen Aisha (R) reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, ‘Allah does not accept the salah of a mature female without a scarf.’544• Women cannot lead men in salah.Abu Bakrah (رضئ الله عنه ) reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said ‘Never will those people succeed who have appointed a woman over them.’545Jabir bin Abdullah (رضئ الله عنه ) reports as part of a longer hadeeth that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, Know that a woman should not lead a man in salah.’546•

    For the purpose of correcting or deterring someone in salah men should say ‘subhanallah’ loudly, whilst women are only allowed to clap their hands.Sayyiduna Abu Hurairah (رضئ الله عنه ) reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, ‘Tasbeeh is for men, and clapping is for women.’547The different postures, positions and rulings concerning the prayers of the female are not the invention of a group or an individual but teaching of the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) himself. He was the very first person differentiate between the prayer of a man and a woman.Yazid bin Abi Habib reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) passed by two women who were praying salah. He said, ‘When you prostrate, let part of your body cling to the earth, for women are unlike men in this regard’.548Sayyiduna Ibn Umar (رضئ الله عنه ) narrates that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, ‘When a woman sits in salah she should place one thigh over the other, and when she prostrates she should press her stomach to her thighs in a manner that is the most concealing for her. Indeed Allah looks at her saying, “Oh my angels! I make you witness that I have forgiven her.”549Sayyiduna Wail bin Hujr ( رضئ الله عنه ) reports that the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) said, ‘Oh Ibn Hujr! When you pray make your hands level with your ears. And the woman shall raise her hands close to her bosom.’550We derive some very important and fundamental principles about the prayer of a woman from all the above ahadeeth.• The laws of salah are not always the same for men and women.•

    The sunnah posture of a female in any position of salah is that which is the most concealing for her.Imam Baihaqi says,’All of the laws of salah in which a woman differs from a man are based on the principle of satr (concealment). This means that the woman is instructed to do all that which is more concealing for her.

    The following chapters of hadeeth explain this meaning in detail.’551

    As mentioned earlier, this variation in the salah of a woman has been prescribed by none other than the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) himself. It has remained the practice of the whole ummah till this day and is also reflected in the rulings of the Sahabah and Tabi’un.

    The ulama and fuqaha of all four schools have always recognised this difference and, as is evident in their books of fiqh, have always observed the above principles whenever making a ruling about the salah of a woman. Following are a few narrations detailing the verdicts and practice of the Sahabah & together with the verdicts of some of the Tabi ‘un and the ulama of the different schools of fiqh:Verdicts and practice of the Sahabah ( رضئ الله عنهم )Khalid bin al Lajlaaj reports as part of a longer hadeeth that women were ordered to do tarabb’u 552 when sitting in salah.553

    Nafi’ narrates that Safiyyah ( رضئ الله عنها ) would pray and do tarabb’u.554Nafi’ also narrates that the womenfolk of Sayyiduna Abdullah bin Umar’s (رضئ الله عنه ) family would do tarabb’u.555

    Sayyiduna Ibn Umar (رضئ الله عنه ) was once asked, ‘How did women pray their salah during the time of the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) ‘ He replied, ‘They used to sit cross legged until they were told to practice ihtifaz556Sayyiduna Ali (رضئ الله عنه ) says, ‘When a woman prostrates she should do ihtifaz and press her thighs together.’, and in Abdul Razzaq’s narration ‘press her thighs against her stomach.’557

    Sayyiduna Ibn Abbas ( رضئ الله عنه ) was asked about the prayer of a woman. He replied, ‘She should pull herself close together and do ihtifaz.’558

    Verdicts of the Tabi’un and other ulama.Ibn Jurayj reports, ‘I asked Ataa: “Should a woman motion with her hands at the time of takbeer as a man does?” he replied, “She should not raise her hands with takbeer in the manner of men.” Ataa then demonstrated (the way in which she should.) He placed his hands very low and then pulled them towards him. He then said, “The posture of a woman in salah is not that of a man.”559

    Ataa also says, ‘A woman should pull herself together when she bows down into ruk’u: she should bring up her arms to her stomach and pull herself together as much as possible. When she prostrates she should bring up her arms close to her and press her bosom and stomach against her thighs: she should pull herself together as much as possible.560

    Hasan al Basri says, ‘A woman should pull herself close together in sujud.’ 561

    Hasan and Qatadah both say, ‘When a woman prostrates she should pull herself together as much as possible. She should not allow for any space between her limbs so that her posterior is not raised.’562

    One certain author has argued that all the descriptions of the Prophet’s ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ) prayer are equally applicable to both men and women and there is nothing in the sunnah that excludes women from any of them. Insha Allah the contents of this chapter will answer that claim. The author then goes on to say that this is the view of Ibrahim al Nakhai who said, ‘A woman’s actions in the prayer are the same as a man’s.’ – transmitted by Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/75/2), with a saheeh sanad from him.This is not what Ibrahim al Nakhai said at all nor is it his view. His narration transmitted by Ibn Abi Shaibah actually reads, ‘A woman will sit in salah just as a man does.’563

    This somehow has been misquoted as ‘A woman’s actions in the prayer are the same as a man’s.’!In fact, Ibrahim al Nakhai’s other narrations quite clearly contradict the above report. His view about the prayer of a woman as reported by Ibn Abi Shaibah and others is as follows:Ibrahim al Nakhai says, ‘When a woman prostrates she should press her stomach against her thighs. She should not raise her posterior nor should she allow for any space or distance between the limbs of her body as a man does.’564

    He also says, ‘When a woman prostrates she should bring her thighs together and press her abdomen to them.’565

    He also says, ‘A woman should sit to one side in salah.’566Imam Baihaqi says,’All of the laws of salah in which a woman differs from a man are based on the principle of satr (concealment). This means that the woman is instructed to do all that which is more concealing for her. The following chapters of hadeeth explain this meaning in detail.’567

    Ibn Qudamah al Maqdisi al Hanbali quotes Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal in his al Mughni as saying, ‘I consider sadl 56S to be better for a woman.’ He also qoutes the narration of Sayyiduna Ali ( رضئ الله عنه ) who says, ‘When a woman prays salah she should do ihtifaz and press her thighs together.’569

    Imam Ahmad was asked about how a woman should prostrate and sit for tashahhud. He replied, ‘She should do whatever is more concealing for her.’ He added, ‘She should do tarabb’u in tashahhud and draw her legs to one side (sadl).’570

    According to the narration of Abu Dawood, Imam Ahmad was asked about how a woman should sit in salah. He replied, ‘She should press her thighs together.’571

    Qadhi Iyadh has also quoted from some Salaf that the sunnah for women is tarabb’u.512

    All the above quite clearly demonstrates that the prayer of a woman is different in some aspects from that of a man, and that this distinction was first made by none other than the Prophet ( صلى الله عايه وسالم ), and then maintained by the prominent Sahabah and Tabi’un. Furthermore, as can be seen in their works, there is almost universal agreement amongst the scholars of all schools of fiqh on this issue.List of differences between the prayer of a man and a woman.Some of the differences as mentioned in the Hanafi books of fiqh are listed below.In all the postures and movements of salah, including qiyam, ruk’u, sajdah, and tashahhud a woman should adopt that which is the most modest and concealing for her.At the beginning of salah a woman should not raise her hands to her ears but only to her shoulders or close to her bosom.573

    In qiyam, women are to place their hands on their bosoms. They can fasten them in any one of the different ways ‘akdh’ (grasping) or ‘wadh’ (placing) described in part two, or they can simply rest the right palm on the left one.Unlike men, in ruk’u, women should tuck their arms into the body and not spread them outward. They should also merely place their hands over their knees with closed fingers, and not grasp them with the fingers spread wide open.574

    In fact, women should try to keep their fingers close together in all the postures of salah.During prostration men should allow for some space and distance between their stomachs and thighs, and arms and the side of the body, whilst women should press these limbs together.Again in prostration, men should raise their arms off the ground and allow for some distance but women should let them cling to the ground.During the sitting of tashahhud, men are to rest on their legs and raise their right foot with the toes facing qiblah, whereas women are to take out both their legs towards the right hand side of the body and rest on the posterior without raising their right foot.——————————————————————————–The Salah of a Believer in the Quran and SunnahShaykh Abu Yusuf Riyadh ul HaqPurchase link AL-Rashad Bookstore [USA] Alkawthar Academy [United Kingdom]
    538 Abu Dawood 1067 and Hakim 1062. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
    539 Ibn Khuzaimah 1722
    540 Abu Dawood
    570 and Ibn Khuzaimah 1690.
    541 Ibn Khuzaimah 1691, and Tabarani in al M’ujam al Kabeer as mentioned by Hafidh Haithami 2/35. Hafidh Haithami also says that its narrators are authentic.
    542 Baihaqi 1921.
    543 Baihaqi 1920.
    544 Ahmad 24012, Ibn Majah 655, Abu Dawood 641, Tirmidhi 377, Ibn Khuzaiir 775, Hakim 917 and Baihaqi 3254. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
    545 Ahmad 19507, Bukhari 4163, Tirmidhi 2262 and Nasai 5388.
    546 Ibn Majah 1081 and Baihaqi 5131.
    547 Bukhari 1145.
    548 Abu Dawood in his al Maraseel pl8 (Muassasah al Risalah edition), and Baiha 3201
    .549 Baihaqi 3199. He also declared it dhaeef.
    550 Tabarani in al M’ujam al Kabeer 22/19 no.28. Hafidh Haithami says 2/103, ‘Tabarani has narrated it as part of a long hadeeth on the virtue of Wail bin Hujr 4fc with a chain of Maimoonah bint Hujr narrating from her auntie Umm Yahya bint Abdul Jabbar. I have not identified her but the rest of the narrators are reliable.’
    551 Baihaqi 2/314.
    552 i.e., to draw out one’s right leg towards the right side of the body and to place the left leg beneath the right leg.
    553 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2783.
    554 Abdul Razzaq 5074 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2784.
    555 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2789.
    556 Narrated by all three, Abu Muhammad al Bukhari, Qadhi Umar bin al Hasan Ashnani, and Ibn Khusruw in their Musnads of Imam Abu Hanifah’s ahadeeth Ihtifaz is to lean to one side and rest on the posterior. It is more or less the same a sadl.
    557 Abdul Razzaq 5072 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2777. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani 3/32 has declared it hasan.
    558 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2778.
    559 Abdul Razzaq 5066 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2474.
    560 Abdul Razzaq 5069.
    561 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2781.
    562 Abdul Razzaq 5068.
    563 Ibn Abi Shaibah 1/242, no 2788.
    564 Abdul Razzaq 5071 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2782.
    565 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2779.
    566 Abdul Razzaq 5077 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2792.
    567 Baihaqi 2/314.
    568 To draw out the right leg to one side of the body and place the left leg beneath one’s right thigh. In this way the posterior will come to rest on the ground rather than on the left leg. She would, therefore, not be resting on her legs, but on her posterior as mentioned in the narration of Sayyiduna Ali
    (رضئ الله عنه )569 Ibn Qudamah in al Mughni 2/135.
    570 Masaail of Imam Ahmad narrated by his son Abdullah 373.
    571 Masaail of Imam Ahmad narrated by Abu Dawood p51.
    572 Awjaz al Masalik 2/119.
    573 Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal also says that she should raise them slightly and, according to one narration, she should not raise them at all.
    574 In some books of Hanafi fiqh it has been suggested that in ruk’u they should also bend their backs and knees slightly. The Hanbali scholar Imam Khirqi also says as part of a longer statement, ‘The woman should gather herself in ruk’u and sujud.’ (al Mughni 1/134.)

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    538 Abu Dawood 1067 and Hakim 1062. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
    539 Ibn Khuzaimah 1722
    540 Abu Dawood 570 and Ibn Khuzaimah 1690.
    541 Ibn Khuzaimah 1691, and Tabarani in al M’ujam al Kabeer as mentioned by Hafidh Haithami 2/35. Hafidh Haithami also says that its narrators are authentic.
    542 Baihaqi 1921. 543 Baihaqi 1920.
    544 Ahmad 24012, Ibn Majah 655, Abu Dawood 641, Tirmidhi 377, Ibn Khuzaiir 775, Hakim 917 and Baihaqi 3254. Hakim declared it saheeh and Dhahabi agreed.
    545 Ahmad 19507, Bukhari 4163, Tirmidhi 2262 and Nasai 5388.
    546 Ibn Majah 1081 and Baihaqi 5131.
    547 Bukhari 1145.
    548 Abu Dawood in his al Maraseel pl8 (Muassasah al Risalah edition), and Baiha 3201.
    549 Baihaqi 3199. He also declared it dhaeef.
    550 Tabarani in al M’ujam al Kabeer 22/19 no.28. Hafidh Haithami says 2/103, ‘Tabarani has narrated it as part of a long hadeeth on the virtue of Wail bin Hujr 4fc with a chain of Maimoonah bint Hujr narrating from her auntie Umm Yahya bint Abdul Jabbar. I have not identified her but the rest of the narrators are reliable.’
    551 Baihaqi 2/314.
    552 i.e., to draw out one’s right leg towards the right side of the body and to place the left leg beneath the right leg.
    553 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2783.
    554 Abdul Razzaq 5074 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2784.
    555 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2789.
    556 Narrated by all three, Abu Muhammad al Bukhari, Qadhi Umar bin al Hasan Ashnani, and Ibn Khusruw in their Musnads of Imam Abu Hanifah’s ahadeeth Ihtifaz is to lean to one side and rest on the posterior. It is more or less the same a sadl.
    557 Abdul Razzaq 5072 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2777. Muhaddith Dhafar Ahmad Uthmani 3/32 has declared it hasan.
    558 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2778.
    559 Abdul Razzaq 5066 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2474.
    560 Abdul Razzaq 5069.
    561 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2781.
    562 Abdul Razzaq 5068.
    563 Ibn Abi Shaibah 1/242, no 2788.
    564 Abdul Razzaq 5071 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2782.
    565 Ibn Abi Shaibah 2779.
    566 Abdul Razzaq 5077 and Ibn Abi Shaibah 2792.
    567 Baihaqi 2/314.
    568 To draw out the right leg to one side of the body and place the left leg beneath one’s right thigh. In this way the posterior will come to rest on the ground rather than on the left leg. She would, therefore, not be resting on her legs, but on her posterior as mentioned in the narration of Sayyiduna Ali (ÑÖÆ Çááå Úäå )
    569 Ibn Qudamah in al Mughni 2/135.
    570 Masaail of Imam Ahmad narrated by his son Abdullah 373.
    571 Masaail of Imam Ahmad narrated by Abu Dawood p51.
    572 Awjaz al Masalik 2/119.
    573 Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal also says that she should raise them slightly and, according to one narration, she should not raise them at all.
    574 In some books of Hanafi fiqh it has been suggested that in ruk’u they should also bend their backs and knees slightly. The Hanbali scholar Imam Khirqi also says as part of a longer statement, ‘The woman should gather herself in ruk’u and sujud.’ (al Mughni 1/134.)

    There are some differences between how women and men’s way of performing Salat.

    1) Men raise there hands all the way to the ear for Takbeer while women raise their hands only up to their shoulders
    In Qayam (the standing posture) Men place their hands below Navel while women place their hands on their chest.

    3) Men grasp their wrist while women do not. They only place right hand on the top of left with fingers intact together.

    4 ) In Ruku (the bowing posture) Men’s back is horizontal while women suppose to bend their back only far enough to touch their knees. Looking from far it will look like a bow arc. They won’t flatten their back.

    5 ) In Sajdah men’s back portion is raised from ground and hands apart from body and fingers of feet twisted while women suppose to be gathered in a way so that all their body parts are close together and abdomen placed over her thighs.Both feet and ankles sticking out to the right. Lower portion of back touching the ground.

    6 ) During Jalsa and Qaida (sitting between Sajdah and during Attahyat) men sit on their left ankle and their right foot’s fingers are twisted while women sit on floor and their both ankles and feet sticking out towards right hand side

    Sheikh M. S. Al-Munajjid, a prominent Saudi Muslim lecturer and author, states:

    “The general principle is that women are equal to men in all religious rulings, because of the Hadith: “Women are counterparts of men.” (Reported by Ahmad), except when there is evidence of a specific ruling which applies only to women. One of the cases in which the scholars mention specific rules for women is Prayer, as follows:
    1. Women do not have to give Adhan (call to Prayer) or Iqamah (second call to Prayer). Ibn Qudamah, may Allah have mercy on him, said: “We don’t know any difference between Muslim scholars (on this point).” (Al-Mughni ma`a Ash-Sharh Al-Kabir, 1/438).

    2. All of the woman’s body must be covered during Prayer, except for her face and hands, because the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “No prayer will be accepted from an adult woman unless she wears a Khimar.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari) There is some dispute as to whether her heels and feet should be covered.

    3. The woman should keep her limbs close to her body during bowing and prostration, and not spread them out, because this is more modest and covering. (Al-Mughni, 2/258) Al-Nawawi said: “In his Al-Mukhtasar, Ash-Shafi`i said that there is no difference between men and women in Prayer, except that women should keep the parts of their bodies close to one another, and they should make their stomachs touch their thighs during prostration. This is more covering and preferable in bowing and the rest of the Prayer as well.” (Al-Majmu`, 3/429) 4. It is preferable for women to pray in congregation, led by another woman, because the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, told Umm Waraqah to lead the women of her household in Prayer.

    There is some difference among scholars on this matter. (See Al-Mughni, 2/202 and Al-Majmu`, 4/84-85) The woman leading the Prayer should read aloud as long as no non-mahram man can hear her. It is permissible for women to go out and pray in the mosque with men, although their Prayer at home is better, because the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said: “Do not prevent the women from going out to the mosques, even though their homes are better for them.”

    Imam An-Nawawi, may Allah have mercy on him, said: “Women differ from men in congregational Prayer in some ways:

    a) Congregational Prayer is not required of them in the same way as it is of men.

    b) In case a woman leads a group of women in Prayer, she stands in the middle of the (first) row.
    c) If one woman led by a man, she should stand behind him, not next to him.

    d) If women are praying in rows behind men, the back rows are better for them than the front rows.” (Al-Majmu`, 3/455)” Excerpted, with slight modifications, from: www.islam-qa.com

    Moreover, the following are some other differences: “1. When the Imam makes a mistake in a congregational Prayer, men would correct him by saying, “Subhanallah”, while women would correct him by clapping (some describe it as clapping the palm of one hand against the back of the other). This is confirmed in a well-known Hadith.

    2. The Friday Prayer is not obligatory upon women. If a woman performs the Friday Prayer, then she doesn’t have to pray the Zuhr Prayer.”

    Differences Between The Way Men And Women PrayYes, there are minor differences between the physical actions of a man’s prayer in comparison to a woman’s prayer. Al-Hajjawi and Al-Buhuti write that

    A woman prays like a man except that she bunches herself together and sits with her legs slightly slid underneath her to her right. (b: If there is a non-mahram male who can hear her, it is obligatory for her to conceal her recitation so that only she hears it.) (Al-Raud al-murbi`, p74)
    M ar`i bin Yusuf writes the same, though a bit clearer and with a few additional details
    Women are like men in all that was previously mention–even concerning raising the hands. However, she bunches herself together when bowing and prostrating and does not unbunch herself [like a man]; she sits with her legs slightly slid underneath her on the right–and this is best–or cross-legged; and she must conceal her recitation when non-marhman men hear it, and otherwise there is no harm in making it audible. (Ghayat al-muntaha, 1.132-33)

    P lease note that the only obligatory difference concerns recitation, and that even though it would be unlawful for a woman to raise her recitation where non-mahram men hear it, the prayer would still be valid.

    The other differences fall under the category of recommended actions during prayer.The general topic of general related differences associated to prayer is found in hadith literature known as the musannafat. The musannafat include accounts from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace), his Companions (Allah be pleased with them), and the first few generations of Successors. The discussion is in the Musannaf of Abu Bakr `Abd al-Razzaq bin Hammam al-San`ani right before the chapter on Friday Prayer, or more precisely 3.126-51.And Allah knows best.

    WAHABI VIEW

    Sheikh Albani says in his book ‘The Prophet’s Prayer’:

    All that has been mentioned of the description of the Prophet’s prayer (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) applies equally to men and women, for there is nothing in the Sunnah to necessitate the exception of women from any of these descriptions; in fact, the generality of his statement (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam), “Pray as you have seen me praying”, includes women.

    This is the view of Ibraaheem an-Nakh’i, who said, “A woman’s actions in the prayer are the same as a man’s” – transmitted by Ibn AbiShaibah(1/75/2), with a saheeh sanad from him.

    Also, Bukhaari reported in at-Taareekh as-Sagheer (p.95) with a saheeh sanad from Umm ad-Dardaa’, “that she used to sit in her prayer just as a man sits, and she was a woman of understanding. ”

    The hadeeth about the indimaam (tucking up) of a woman in prostration, and that she is in that regard not like a man, is mursal and not authentic. Abu Daawood transmitted it in al-Maraaseel on the authority of Yazeed ibn Abi Habeeb.

    As for what Imaam Ahmad has reported, as in his son ‘Abdullaah’s Masaa’il, from Ibn ‘Umar, that he used to instruct his wives to sit cross-legged in prayer, its sanad is not authentic, for it contains ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar al-‘Amri, who is a da’eef (weak) narrator.

    REPLY

    As for those who claim there is no difference in the salah of males and females, they have absolutely no evidence – neither from the Qur’aan nor the Ahaadith. However, if they use the practice of Umm ud-Dardaa, their proof is unsubstantiated for several reasons.

    Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates:

    “Makhul reports that Umm ud-Dardaa used to sit like males in salaah. ”
    (al-Musannafli-Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p 270)

    (Imam Bukhari has also quoted this statement. However, he has not mentioned any chain of narrators for it. It is for this reason I have quoted the work of Ibn Abi Shaybah)
    It is incorrect to use this athar for the following reasons:

    1. Hafizh Jamaal ud-Din Yusuf al-Mizzi has mentioned her among the Taabi’in. (Tahzheeb al-Kamaal fi-Asmaa ir-Rijaal: vol.22 p 464).The practice of a lone tabi’i is incorrect to adopt even if it may not be contrary to the principles. Hafiz Ibn Hajar Asqalaani states in Fath ul-Baari:
    “The practice of a lone Tabi’i, even though it may not contradict any principle, will not be used as proof. ” (Fath ul-Baari: vol. 2 p 243)

    Hafizh Ibn Hajar has only counted her among the Taabi’in. He says:

    “It can be realised from the narration of Makhul that that narration refers to the younder Umm ud-Dardaa, the Tabi’iyyah, not the elder sahabiyyah because Makhulmet the former not the latter. ” (Ibid)

    2. Even if it accepted that she was a Sahabiyyah, then the narration becomes munqati’ and will not be acceptable according to the principles of the Muhaddithin. It will also be regarded as her opinion. She did not encourage anyone else to follow her practice . Neither did she present any action or statement of Rasulullah nor the fatwa of any Khalifah.

    Accordingly, with regard to the salah of women, the position of this opinion in the face of the practically adopted method of the ummah (tawaatur) is like the position of shaazqira’a has opposed to mutawaatir qira’ah. It is very clear that no muslim leaves the mutawaatir qira’ah for the shaazqira’ah.

    3. Furthermore, if one examines the words of this narration carefully, it supports the view of the majority. The sitting posture of Umm ud-Dardaa has been compared to the posture of males in this narration which infers that the posture of the other Sahaabiyyaat was different as mentioned previously.

    4. Imam Abu Ja’far at-Tahaawi rahimahullah has narrated the following hadith:
    “Ibrahim Abi Abalah reports that he saw Umm ud-Dardaa performing salaah cross-legged”

    (Tuhfat al-Akhyaarbi-Tarteebi SharhMushkil al-Aathaar li-Abi Ja’farat-Tahaawi: vol. 2 p 338, and Hafizh Mizzi has narrated this atharin Tahzheeb al-Kamaal: vol. 22 p 468)

    This narration contradicts the one mentioned by Ibn Abi Shaybah rahimahullah. It will accordingly not remain worthy of substantiating any Shar’i law. .. . in another narration of Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (vol. 1 p270), one finds the following words:
    Ibrahim said: “A woman should sit in salah as a man does. ” This quotation indicates permissibility. However, Naasir ud-Din al-Albaani has interpolated the words of this narration thus:

    “A woman should so as a man does in salah. ”
    (Sifatu Salatin-Nabiy p 207)

    This interpolation has clearly changed the meaning of the words and is a misleading act.
    (Taken from THE SALAH OF WOMEN

    published by Madrasah Arabiyyah Islamiyah Aazadville)

    Chapter 4 – Proofs from Prophetic Hadiths

    Imam Bayhaqi has mentioned a principle which is the basis of the differences found in the salah of males and females.

    He says:

    “The separating factor between the laws of salah of males and females is that of concealment . A woman is commanded to do all those actions which are more concealing for her. ” (as-Sunan al-Kubra alil-Bayhaqi: vol. 2 p 222)

    RAISING THE HANDS

    Hafidh Nur ud-Din Haythami states:

    Wa’il ibn Hujr states that Rasulullah said to him, “O Ibn Hujr, when you perform salah, raise your hands till your ears while a woman should raise her hands till her chest . ”
    (Majma’ uz-Zawaa’id: vol. 2 p 103, and I’laa us-Sunan: vol. 2 p 156)
    Imam Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates:

    “Abd Rabbih Ibn Zaytun said that he saw Umm ud-Dardaa raising her hands parallel to her shoulders when beginning salah. ”

    (al-Musannaf li-Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p 239)
    Ibn Abi Shaybah has also narrated:

    “`Ataa was asked how a woman should raise her hands in salah. He replied that she should raise them till her breast ” (Ibid)

    Based at Makkah, Ataa [the great Follower (tabi`i) and imam] used to issue this fatwa.
    Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates:

    “Hammad ibn Salamah al-Basri used to say that a woman should raise her hands parallel to her breast when beginning salah. ”
    (Ibid)
    Hammad was based at Kufa and he used to issue this fatwa.

    The narration of Ibn Jurayj has been mentioned as follows:

    Ibn Jurayj said, “I asked Ataa whether a woman should gesture with her hands like a male when making takbir. Ataa replied that she should not raise her hands like a male. Then he practically indicated with his hands how it should be done by lowering his hands and drawing them very close to his body. Then he said, “In the raising of the hands, a woman is unlike a man . And if she leaves that, there is no harm. “”

    The Muslim Ummah continued this practice over the centuries. Imam Zuhri used to issue the same fatwa in Madinah.

    PLACING THE HANDS

    Allamah Abdul-Hayy Luckhnawi writes:
    “As for women, the jurists are unanimous that it is sunnah for them to place their hands on their bosoms. ”
    (as-Si’aayah: vol. 2 p 152)

    There is ijmaa’ on this mas’alah.

    SAJDAH

    Imam Abu Dawud has narrated the following hadith in his Maraaseel:
    (Arabic text)
    Translation:

    “Yazid ibn Abi Habib states that Rasulullah passed by two women who were performing their salah. He said to them, “When you prostrate, then make the parts of your body touch the ground because a woman is unlike a man in these aspects. ” (Maraaseel Abi Dawud p 118; and its like in as-Sunan al-Kubra alil- Bayhaqi: vol. 2 p 223)

    Imam Bayhaqi narrates the following hadith:

    Abdullah Ibn Umar reports that Rasulullah said, “When a woman sits during salah, she should place her one thigh over the other and when she prostrates, she must attach the stomach to her thighs so that is more concealing for her. Indeed, Allah looks at her and tells the angels, “O My angels! Bear witness hat I have forgiven her. “”

    (as-Sunan al-Kubra alil-Bayhaqi: vol. 2 p 223)

    Imam Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates the following statement of Ali:
    “It is reported that Ali said: “When a woman performs salah, she must practise ihtifaaz and keep her thighs close together. “”

    (al-Musannaf li-Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p 270, and it has been taken many ways, Abdur-Razzaq has taken it from Isra’il from Abu Is’haq from Harith from Ali and Ibn Abi Shaybah took it from Abul-Ahwas from Abu Is’haq and Bayhaqi took it from Abul-Ahwas, with the mentioned sanad)
    Imam Abdur-Razzaq has quoted the following hadith in his Musannaf:

    Ali says, “When a woman prostrates, she must practise ihtifaz and keep her thighs close to her stomach. ”

    (al-Musannaf li-Abdir-Razzaq: vol. 3 p 138)

    “Ihtifaaz”: to lean on one side and rest on the posterior.
    (See Lugaat al-Hadith: vol. 1 p 98)

    The following narration has been quoted by Bayhaqi:

    “Ali said: ” When a woman performs sajdah she must keep her thighs close together. “”
    (as-Sunan al-Kubra alil-Bayhaqi: vol. 2 p 222)
    The following narration appears in Kanz ul-Ummal:

    “Ibn Umar states that when a woman prostrates, she must let her stomach touch her thighs in order to make herself completely concealed. ”
    (Kanz ul-Ummal: vol. 4 p 117)

    Imam Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates:
    “Ibrahim says that when a woman prostrates she should join her thighs to her stomach without raising her posterior and without stretching her limbs out like a male. ”

    (al-Musannaf li-Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p 270)

    The following words have been narrated by Ibrahim Nakha’i:
    “Ibrahim said that when a woman prostrates she must draw her thighs inwards and place her stomach on them. ” (Ibid)
    Mujaahid:

    “Muhaahid used to dislike that a man attach his stomach to his thighs as a woman does. ”
    (Ibid)

    Hasan al-Basri:

    “Hishaam reports from Hasan who says that woman should draw herself closely together in sajdah. ”
    (Ibid)

    Imam Abdur-Razzaq narrates:

    Ibrahim says, “A woman used to be commanded to place her arm and her stomach on her thigh when she goes into sajdah and not to spread her limbs out as a male does so that her buttocks are not raised. ”
    (al-Musannaf li-Abdir-Razzaq: vol. 3 p 138)

    Allamah Muhammad Taahir al-Gujaraati narrates:

    “When a lady performs salah, she must contract herself when she sits down and when she goes into sajdah and she must not spread her limbs out. ”
    (Majma’ Bihar l-Anwaar: vol. 1 p 521)

    Based on these narrations, the Fuqahaa have issued the following ruling:
    “A woman should contract herself in sajdah and join her stomach to her thighs because this is more concealing for her. ”
    (al-Hidaayah: vol. 1 p 53)

    THE SITTING POSITION

    It is mentioned in the Musnad of Imam Abu Hanifah rahimahullah:
    “Abdullah ibn Umar was asked how women performed their salah during the era of Rasulullah. He replied that initially they performed tarabbu’. Then they were ordered to themselves close together ad lean onto one side by resting on their left buttocks and completely contracting themselves. ”

    (Jaami’ ul-Masaaneed: vol. 1 p 400)

    Taraabu’ is to sit cross legged. This narration indicates that initially the women sat in the position of tarabbu’ but this command was later abrogated and they were ordered to draw themselves close together and lean onto one side by resting on their left buttocks and completely contracting themselves.
    Sheikh Abu’l-Wafaa Afghaani writes:

    “This is the most authentic narration of this chapter i.e. the sitting position of women . It is for this reason that Imam Abu Hanifah has made it the basis of his madh’hab. ”
    (Ta’leeqash-Sheikh Abul-Wafaa Afghaani ala Kitab il-Aathaar lil-Imam Muhammad ash-Shaybaani: vol. 1 p 208)

    Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shaybah narrates:

    When Ibn Abbas was asked about the salaah of a woman, he replied, “She must draw herself close together and lean onto one side by resting on her left buttock. ”
    (al-Musannaf li-Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p270)
    in another narration of Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (vol . 1 p270), one finds the following words: (Arabic text)

    Translation: Ibrahim said: “A woman should sit in salah as a man does. ”
    This quotation indicates permissibility. However, Naasir ud-Din al-Albaani has interpolated the words of this narration thus:

    “A woman should so as a man does in salah. ”
    (Sifatu Salatin-Nabiy p 207)

    This interpolation has clearly changed the meaning of the words and is a misleading act.
    The following narration is also quoted by Ibn Abi Shaybah:
    Khalid ibn Lajlaaj said that women were commanded with tarabbu’ when they sat in salah and they should not sit like men on their buttocks. That is in order that nothing happens. ”
    (al-Musannaf li-Ibn Abi Shaybah: vol. 1 p 270)

    The Fuqahaa took these narrations into consideration and delivered
    the following ruling:

    “A woman should sit on her left buttock and position her legs out on her right hand side because that is more concealing for her. ”
    (al-Hidaayah: vol. 1 p 55)

    The above narrations indicate that Ibrahim Nakha’i used to issue the fatwa in Kufain accordance with this practise, while in Madinah Mujhaahiddid likewise as did Hasan Basri in Basrah.

    These ahaadith and aathaar clearly indicate that the salah of females differs from that of males

    Chapter 5 – What the Fuqaha Say

    The Hanafi Madh-hab

    Allaamah Muhammad Amin Ibn Abidin as-Shami rahimahullah:

    “A woman should not raise her hands till her shoulders. She should not take her hands out of her sleeves. She should place one palm over the other on her breast . She should bend only slightly in ruku’. She will not spread her fingers out in ruku’ but rather keep them close together and place her palms on her knees without clasping them. She should bend her knees slightly. She should contract herself in ruku’ and sajdah. She should place her arms flat on the ground. She should sit with her legs out and resting on her posterior in tashahhud. In tashahud she should keep her fingers close together. If any mistake occurs in salah, she should clap her hands without uttering anything. She cannot make imamah of a male. It is makruh to have a female only congregation. The female imam will stand in their midst. It is makruh for her to attend the congregation. In a mixed congregation the females will stand at the rear. Jumu’ah is not obligatory for her, but if she attends it, she will be absolved of responsibility. Neither is Eid compulsory on her nor the takbir of tashriq. It is not mustahab for her to perform Fajr when it brightens up. In the loud salahs she will not raise her voice. ”

    (Radd al-Mukhtaar: vol. 1 p 504; see al-Bahr ar-Raa’iq: vol. 1 320)
    He says in another place:

    “A woman should bend slightly in ruku; without spreading her fingers out completely. However, she must contract herself and place her palms on her knees and bend them slightly . She must not spread out her arms as this is more concealing for her. ”
    (Ibid p 494)

    Mulla Ali Qaari rahimahullah:

    “A woman will raise her hands till her shoulder (when performing takbir tahrimah). ”
    (Fath bab al-`Inayah bi-sharh an-niqayah: vol. 1 p 239, see p 242, 262 and 265; and al-Fataawaa al-Aalamkiriyyah: vol. 1 p 73

    Allaamah Badr ud-Din al-Ayni:

    “According to Umm ud-Dardaam Ataa, Zuhri and Hammaad and others, a woman should raise her hands till her breasts. ”

    (al-Binayah fi sharh al-Hidaayah: vol. 2 p 187)

    Muhammad ibn Muqaatil narrates the same verdict from the Hanafi jurists. (Ibid)
    Burhanud-Din al-Marghinaani rahimahullah, the author of al-Hidaayah states that this is the correct and accepted version.
    (al-Hidaayah: vol. 1 p 50)

    It is stated in the Fataawaa Aalamgiriyyah:

    “As for a female she must bend slightly in ruku’ without spreading her fingers out. She must keep them together on her knees by merely placing the palms. She must bend her knees slightly and not spread her arms out.

    A female should not spread out in ruku’ and sajdah while she will sit on her legs. In sajdah she will make her stomach rest on her thighs .
    A woman will sit on her left buttock and position her legs out to the right side. ”
    (al-Fataawaa al-Alamkiriyyah: vol. 1 p 75)

    Imam Abu Ja’far at-Tahaawi rahimahullah:
    “As for a woman, our scholars (Hanafi) state that she should sit in a manner that is most concealing. ”

    (Mukhtasar ikhtilaaf al-ulamaa’: vol. 1 p212)

    Sheikh Muhammad Zakariyya al-Kaandhlawi rahimahullah:
    “It is unconditionally preferable according to us (Hanafi jurists) for a woman to sit on her buttocks with her legs positioned out to the right hand side. ”
    (Awjaz al-Masaalik: vol. 1 p 258)

    Allaamah Abd ul-Hayy al-Lukhnawi rahimahullah:

    “A woman differs from a man in many of the actions of salah…”(as-Si’aayah: vol.2 p 205)
    He then goes on to list the differences as mentioned by the other jurists.

    The Salah as offered by women differs from that of men in the following aspects. Women should be careful about what is required of them:

    1. Before they begin their Salah, women should make sure that their whole body, except the face, the hands and the feet, is covered with clothes.Some women offer their Salah with the hair on their head remaining uncovered. Some have their wrists left uncovered. Some women use scarfs so thin or small that their hair tresses are visible dangling down underneath. If, during the Salah, any part of the body, even if it be equal to one-fourth, remains uncovered for a time during which one could say (Subhana Rabbi-al-Azim) three times, the Salah itself would not be valid. However, should the uncovered portion be less than that, Salah would take place but the sin shall stay.

    2. For women, making Salah in the room is better than doing it in the verandah and doing it in the verandah is better than doing it in the courtyard.

    3. While starting the Salah, women should not raise their hands upto their ears, instead, they should raise them upto their shoulders, and that too, from within the scarf or other outer wrap being used. Hands should not be taken out of this cover.

    4. When women fold their hands on the chest, they should simply place the palm of their right hand on the back of the left forehand. They should not fold their hands on the navel like men.

    5. In Ruku’, women are not required to straighten their backs fully like men. Women should bend less as compared to men.

    6. In the position of Ruku’, men should open up their fingers while placing them on the knees, but women are required that they place their hands on the knees with fingers close together, that is, there be on space between fingers.

    7. Women should not stand on legs absolutely straight, instead, they should stand with knees slightly bent forward.

    8. In Ruku’, men are required to keep their arms stretched, away from the sides. But, women should stand with their arms close to their sides.

    9. Women should stand with both feet close together. Specially, both their knees should just about be joined together. Let their be no separating distance between legs.

    10. While doing Sajdah, the method prescribed for men is that they should not lower their chest until such time that their knees come to rest on the floor. But this method is not for women. They can, right from the start, lower their chest and go for Sajdah.

    11. Women should do their Salah in a manner that the stomach-wall come to rest against the thighs and the arms stay close to the sides. In addition to that, omen do have to position their feet, upright, they should spread them on the floor sliding them out towards the right.

    12. Men are prohibited to place their elbows on the floor while making Salah. But, women should place the whole arm, including the elbows, on the floor.

    13. When sitting between Sajdah and when reciting (at-Tahiyyaat), sit on the left hip, side both feet out to the side and let the left foot reset on the right calf of the leg.

    14. Men are required that they be careful about keeping their finger upon when bending for Ruku’, and keeping then close together in Sajdah, and then, leave them as they are during the rest of the Salah, when they make no effort either to close or open them. But, it required of women, under all conditions, that they keep fingers close together, that is leave no space between them. This is required all along in Ruku’, in Sajdah, between two Sajdah and in the Qa’dahs.

    15. It is makruh (reprehensible) for women to make a jama’ah (congregation) The very act of offering their Salah alone is better for them. However, should mahram-members of the family be making their Salah with jama’ah within the house, there is no harm if they join in with them in the jama’ah. But, in a situation like this, it is necessary that they stand exactly behind men. They should never stand next to them in the same row.

    NOTE

    The Salafis claim that it is Sunnah to stretch the legs wide apart and for a musalli’s toes to touch the toes of the musalli standing alongside him in the saff. This ludicrous position is imposed by the Salafis on even women who are obliged to stand with their legs wide open. What an ugly, miserable and immodest stance for a woman to adopt? A woman is an object of concealment according to the statement of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). When she has to stretch her legs wide open, she adopts the stance of lewd and shameless women. Throughout Salaat, a woman’s postures are to be constricted — made small and drawn in, not asserted like a man asserts and expresses his actions during Salaat.

     

    كتاب الزكاة

     3  THE BOOK OF ZAKAT

    Zakat Calculator

    Allah Ta’ala has stated that ‘success is for those who give Zakat’. He has also stated ‘Whatever you give, Allah will replace it with even more and Allah is the best at giving wealth’. He has also stated ‘that those who are misers, then don’t think that whatever Allah has given them due to His virtue that it is a good thing for them but it is a bad thing for them, because that item will be wrapped around their necks and a lock put on it for those who are tight with their money’.

    Punishment and loss for not giving Zakat

    Allah has also stated ‘ those who collect silver and gold and do not spend it in the path of Allah then they will be given severe punishment and give them the good news that when they are heated in the fire of Hell and with that their foreheads and sides and backs will be marked and they will be told that this is that gold and silver which you gained for your desire and so taste what you had gained’. The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has reported that ‘the goods that are destroyed, are destroyed due to not giving Zakat’. He has also reported’ that ‘strengthen your possession by giving Zakat and heal your sick by giving Sadqa and pray to deter any difficulties and cry and perform worship’. He has also reported that ‘Allah Ta’ala has made four things obligatory and those who only perform three of them and miss one then it will be of no use to them until all four things are not performed. Namaz,Roza, Zakat and Hajj, and he stated that those who do not give Zakat, their Namaz is not accepted [Tibrani, Abu Da’ud, Imam Ahmad].

    • Rule: Zakat is Farz and those who reject it as Farz are infidels and those who do not give Zakat are wrongdoers and worthy of execution and those who delay and do not give Zakat on time are sinners and their testimony or oath will not be accepted [Alamgiri,Bahar]. According to Shariat, Zakat is defined as from your goods to take one part for Allah which has been fixed by Shariat and to make a Muslim poor person the owner of it.
    • Rule: To replace something is not giving Zakat, for example, to feed a poor person with the intention of giving Zakat as this would not be making the person the owner of the money. However, if food is given and whether he eats it or takes it with him then this will be counted as giving Zakat and in the same way if clothing is given with the intention of Zakat then the Zakat will be fulfilled [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: It is also a condition to make someone the owner that knows how to accept, it, meaning if someone throws it away or is easily fooled into giving it away then this is not counted as making someone the owner, for example if a small child or an insane person is given Zakat then it will not count. If the child does not have sense then the Zakat should be given to his father who should also be poor and then should be made the keeper or the child’s guardian or person looking after the child [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

    Conditions when Zakat would become necessary

    • Rule: There are a few conditions when Zakat would become necessary.
    1. To be a Muslim

      2. To be an adult

      3. To be sane

      4. To be free (i.e. not a slave)

      5. To be the owner of goods above Nisaab (threshold-where Zakat would become necessary)

      6. To be a complete owner of the goods

      7. To be free from any sort of loan

      8. To be free from any goods which are regarded as basic necessities of living

      9. The good have a value which will increase

      10. For a year to pass

    • Rule: Zakat is not necessary for an infidel. If an infidel became a Muslim then he would not be ordered to pay Zakat for goods from previous years when he was not a Muslim [All books].
    • Rule: Zakat is not necessary for a child [Hidava etc.].
    • Rule: Zakat is not necessary for a person who has been insane for a full year. If a person is sane at the beginning of the year and at the end of the year but was insane in the middle of then Zakat is still necessary. If a person is insane from birth and then after reaching adulthood he gains sanity then Zakat will become necessary from that year and not from the previous years [Johra, Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: Zakat is not necessary for possession of goods which are below the fixed threshold of Shariat, meaning if a person had goods but were less than the threshold of Nisaab then Zakat is not necessary for them.
    • Rule: You must have complete ownership of the goods, meaning if you had possession but was not an owner then Zakat is not necessary.
    • Rule: If goods are lost or have fallen in the sea or someone has robbed him and he has no witnesses for the robbery or have been buried in a field and you are not aware of where you have buried it or you gave some goods to a stranger for safe-keeping and then that person took off with them or you lent some money to someone and he refuses to pay the debt back and you have no witnesses and then after a period of time you got your goods or money back, then Zakat is not necessary for the time the goods were not in your possession [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. If you have loaned some goods to a person who says he will pay back but is delaying it or has become bankrupt or a Qazi has ordered that he is poor or is refusing to pay back and he has witnesses and then when you recover the goods back, then Zakat is also necessary for the time when it was not in your possession [Tanwir, Bahar].
    • Rule: If money or goods have been given as a deposit or guarantee, then Zakat is not necessary on the person giving the deposit or the person keeping the deposit nor is it necessary for the years that it was held when the deposit has been given back [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar etc.].
    • Rule: If a person has enough goods above the threshold of Nisaab but he owes so much that by paying the debt off he would go below the threshold of Nisaab then Zakat is not necessary on them whether the debt is of a worldly nature (such as a loan or repayment for lost goods or payment) or if it is of a religious nature (such as previous Zakats), for example, if a person has been above the threshold of Zakat for only one year and he has not given Zakat for two years then only the first year’s Zakat is necessary not for the second year, because after giving the first year’s Zakat from his goods the goods then fall below the threshold therefore the second year’s Zakat is not necessary [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

    A fixed time loan or Mehr does not stop you from giving Zakat

    • Rule: If you borrowed money and you did not have to pay anything until after a fixed time (for example, you borrowed some money and the owner said don’t pay me anything for five years and then pay the money back to me) then this will not stop you from giving Zakat [Radd-ul-Mohtar]. Also if the husband has to give so much money for Mehr, he still has to give Zakat because the wife does not ask for the Mehr [Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: A loan will stop you from giving Zakat when the loan is taken before the Zakat became Wajib and if money is borrowed after Zakat is due, then you will still have to give Zakat (for example, your year has finished and you are due to give £500 Zakat and then you take out a loan which takes you below the Nisaab threshold, the £500 Zakat will still have to be paid) [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar).

    Basic Necessities (Hajat-e-Asaliya)

    • Rule: Whatever goods are regarded as not the basic necessities and are above the threshold of Nisaab then Zakat is necessary. Hajat-e-Asaliya This means basic necessities that are required for living, such as, a house for living, clothes for wearing, goods for cooking and eating, animal/vehicle for transport, slave for helping, weapons for battle, tools for workmanship, books for knowledge and food stored for eating [Hidaya, Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

    Zakat for three types of goods

    The conclusion is that there are three types of goods which Zakat is necessary upon.

    1. Gold and Silver.

    2. Goods for business.

    3. Animals which are kept for production and who eat on free range land.

    • Rule: Zakat is not necessary on pearls and diamonds and other jewellery (except gold and silver) regardless of the amount, however, if they are purchased with the intention of doing business then Zakat is necessary [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: If a person has more than the threshold (Nisaab) and in the running year the goods increased then the new goods are not counted as a new year but when the year finishes for the old goods it will also finish for the new goods even if the new goods are acquired one minute before the year end.
    • Rule: When giving Zakat or separating money for Zakat it is necessary to make the intention of Zakat. Intention means if asked you can without doubt say it is Zakat [Alamgiri].
    • Rule: If you gave money voluntary all year and then finally made the intention that whatever given was Zakat, then this will not count [Alamgiri].
    • Rule: Zakat money was in your hand and the poor snatched it away then the Zakat will count and if it fell on the floor and a poor person picked it up and if you knew the person and was happy, then the Zakat will count [Alamgiri].
    • Rule: Zakat money cannot be used in assisting the dead (buying Kafan, burial etc.) or for building a Masjid because this would not make the person the owner. If you want to spend money on things like helping the dead or building the Masjid then the method of doing this is to give the money to a poor person and then the poor person spends the money for these causes as this would mean both parties would gain reward. It is stated in the Hadith that if the money of Sadqa passes through one hundred hands then every person would gain as much reward as the first person who gave the money and there would be no decrease in the reward [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar, Qazi Khan].
    • Rule: It is not necessary when giving Zakat to say to the poor that this is Zakat as only the intention is sufficient. If you gave the Zakat buy saying that this is a gift for you or it is a present for your children or Eid money and the intention is that you are giving Zakat, then the Zakat will count. The reason for this is because there are many poor people that feel ashamsd in taking Zakat and therefore you should not tell them that you are giving Zakat to them [Bahar].
    • Rule: If a person with Nisaab decides to give more than his Nisaab calculation of Zakat by giving the amount for two or three Nisaabs beforehand, and then at the end of the year he finds out that he had to give more than just one Nisaab and he had already done this by giving money before it’s due time then this will count. However, if he had given more than what was due from him with the intention for that year and then at the end of the year it was more than his Nisaab calculation was due then he cannot carry the excess amount to the next year (because the intention was for only to give that year) [Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: If a person owns one thousand pounds but he decides to give Zakat for two thousand pounds and makes the intention that if I have that much amount at the end of the year then this Zakat will be for this year and if not then the excess money will go towards next year, then this is allowed [Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: If you are in doubt that you have paid Zakat then you must pay again [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar, Siraajia, Behra-ul-Raiq].

    ZAKAT FOR GOLD. SILVER AND BUSINESS GOODS

    Nisaab for Gold and Silver

    The Nisaab (threshold) for gold is seven and a half Tola (88 grammes) and for silver it is fifty two and a half Tola (620 grammes). The Zakat for gold and silver is determined by it’s weight and not it’s value. For example, jewellery or utensils of gold is made but it’s making makes the value of the gold more than 200 Dirhams (which may be the price of 7.5 tolas of gold). Also nowadays the value of 7.5 tolas of gold makes many Nisaabs when compared with the 52.5 tolas of silver and therefore the Nisaab will be calculated on weight and not on the value. In the same way by giving silver as Zakat for gold then the value will not be counted but the weight will be counted even if because of work and craftsmanship the value has increased. For example, if you had £700 worth of silver and you gave £25 for Zakat because although the jewellery was worth £700, it actually cost another £300, making the total £1000, then the Zakat would need only be £20 and the other £5 would be extra as the Zakat is given on the weight and not the total value.

    • Rule: When it is referring that the weight is taken into consideration and not the value then this is when the Zakat is being given for like to like product. Such as gold for gold or silver for silver and if another product is being given for another product, for example gold is being given as Zakat for silver or vice versa, then the value will be taken into consideration. [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

    How much Zakat should be given ?

    • Rule: When you have enough gold or silver that goes above the Nisaab then one fortieth is given, i.e. 2.5%. Whether it be in it’s original form or in the form of coins or something has been made out of it (such as jewellery, utensils, watch etc.) then Zakat is necessary on it. For example if you have 88 grammes of gold then 2.25 grammes of Zakat is necessary or if you have 620 grammes of silver then 15.75 grammes of silver is necessary for Zakat [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar etc.].
    • Rule: Except for gold and silver you have other goods which are for business purposes then if the value of that adds to the same as the Nisaab for gold or silver then Zakat is necessary on that also, meaning the fortieth part of the goods is to be given for Zakat. If you did not have enough goods that reached upto the Nisaab level but you also had some gold or silver then they should be combined together and then if the total adds up to the Nisaab level then Zakat is necessary. The value of the goods should be calculated with the going currency of that county, for example in India the currency would be Rupees and for the UK it would be sterling. If gold or silver coins are used somewhere then it is upto you to use whichever coin you like. However, if you use Rupees and the Nisaab does not complete but by using an Ashrafi the Nisaab completes or vice-versa, or by using one currency the Nisaab completes but with another currency there is more than one-fifth of the Nisaab left-over then use the currency that gives more Nisaab left-over meaning one fifth more and do not use the other currency that does not add up to the extra Nisaab [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

    Calculation for goods more than the Nisaab

    • Rule: If you have more goods than the Nisaab threshold and the extra is one fifth more then Zakat is necessary on this extra amount. For example, for silver after 620 grammes (which is the Nisaab), then you have to pay Zakat on every 124 grammes above the threshold as this is one fifth of the threshold and therefore an extra 3.15 grammes have to be given in Zakat. In the same way for gold after the Nisaab of 88 grammes you have to pay Zakat on every 17.6 grammes of gold which would mean an extra Zakat of 0.45 grammes. If the extra did not amount to an additional fifth then Zakat is not applicable on the extra amount, meaning if you had 105 grammes of gold then Zakat is only payable on the Nisaab which is 88 grammes and the rest would not be payable as it does not add up to one fifth and hence the Zakat on the extra 17 grammes is not payable and the same applies to silver and other goods or money [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].
    • Rule: If you had both gold and silver and they both add up to the Nisaab separately then you cannot add the amount together’and give Zakat on the total amount (for example, you had 88 grammes of gold and 620 grammes of silver then you cannot add them both up to 708 grammes and then give Zakat on the amount as silver) but you have to give Zakat on them separately as separate items. Although if you wished you can pay the Zakat in one item (meaning if you wanted you could pay it all in gold) but you must pay it in the amount which would be better for the receiver and which is worth more.
    • Rule: If you have gold and silver but neither of them reach the threshold then calculate both of them and add them together and make either the gold Nisaab or the silver Nisaab. If then the Nisaab still does not complete then no Zakat is necessary. If the silver is converted to the value of gold or the gold is converted to the value of silver and then when mixed the Nisaab is completed, then Zakat is necessary and if silver makes the Nisaab and the gold does not then Zakat is necessary on silver. If both conversions make the Nisaab then it is upto you, to which you give Zakat for. However, if one conversion makes the Nisaab and exceeds another fifth of it then it is necessary to give Zakat on this conversion. For example, you had 300 grammes of silver and 60 grammes of gold, when you converted the gold value the Nisaab of silver completes but if you try it the other way then the Nisaab of gold does not complete, in which case it is necessary to give Zakat after converting it to the Nisaab value of silver. If the Nisaab value reaches both but the silver reaches the value of 756 grammes of silver (Nisaab plus one fifth) and the gold does not reach 105.6 grammes, then it is necessary to give Zakat on the value of the silver. In the same way if you had many Nisaabs and none of the extra was individually reaching, an extra fifth of the Nisaab, then add the extra amount of the Nisaabs together and then if it adds up to a fifth extra of one Nisaab then you have to give Zakat on this and if it does not reach to a fifth on any Nisaab then no Zakat is necessary on the extra amount [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

    Zakat on Notes is also necessary

    • Rule: It is necessary to give Zakat on notes as this is the same as money [Bahar]. This means that Zakat is necessary on the amount equivalent to 620 grammes of silver or 88 grammes of gold or above as the same rules that apply to gold and silver will also apply here.
    • Rule: Zakat Is necessary on business goods that have been available for a year and the condition is that the value of the goods are not less than 200 Dirhams at the start of the year [Alamgiri].
    • Rule: Pans that have been loaned out do not need Zakat paid on them and in the same way a house that has been rented out do not need Zakat paying on it [Alamgiri, Qazi Khan].

    ZAKAT ON SAIMA ((ANIMALS)

    Definition of Saima

    Zakat is necessary on three types of animals that are Saima, i.e. camels, cows and goats. Saima is those animals who spend most of the year grazing and their purpose is to gain milk or their young or just to keep [Tanweer, Bahar]. If hay or grass is brought to them in your home or the animals are used to shift loads or carry loads or are used for travelling on, then even if they graze, they are not Saima and their Zakat is not necessary. In the same way if they are kept to eat meat then Zakat is not necessary even if the animal grazes in the wild. If the animal is for sale and is kept to graze, then this is also not Saima, however, the value is to be calculated as business goods and the Zakat is to be given as normal [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

    Zakat on Camels

    Zakat is not necessary on less than five camels. When you have five or more than five but less than twenty-five, then on every five camels one goat is given as Zakat. Therefore if you have five then one goat is to be given and if you have ten then two are given etc etc [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar].

    • Rule: The goat that is given in Zakat is not to be less than one year old. The goat can be male or female, the choice is yours [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
    • Rule: If you have more than one Nisaab but less than two Nisaabs (more than five but less than ten) then Zakat on the extra amount is forgiven and is not necessary, meaning if you had seven or eight then only the one goat is necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: If you have twenty-five camels then one small camel is given that is more than one year old and less than two years old, the same rule applies to upto thirty-five camels, meaning one small camel. If you have between thirty-six and upto forty-five then one camel more than two year’s old is to be given. If you have between forty-six and upto sixty then one camel that is more than three year’s old. If you have between sixty-one and upto seventy-five then one camel that is more than four year’s old is to be given. If you have between seventy-six and upto ninety then two camels that are older than one year’s old are to be given as Zakat. If you have between ninety one and upto one-hundred and twenty then you must give two camels older than two year’s old. For more than one hundred and twenty upto one hundred and forty five then you must give two camels older than three year’s old and one goat for every five extra. For example, if you have one hundred and twenty five then you give two camels (older than three year’s old) and one goat, the same amount of camels are given for one hundred and thirty but two goats etc. Then if you have one hundred and fifty then give three camels (older than three years old).

    Zakat on Cattle

    • Rule: If you have less than thirty cows then Zakat is not necessary. When you have thirty then the Zakat is one calf older than one year. If you have forty then the Zakat is one calf older than two year’s old. This rule applies to upto fifty nine cattle. On sixty cattle the Zakat is two calves older than two year’s old. Then the rule is on every thirty one calf one year old and on every forty one calf two year’s old. For example on seventy you would give two calves one calf that is one year old and one calf that is two year’s old. For eighty you would give two calves that are both two year’s old etc.etc.
    • Rule: The same rule applies to cows and buffaloes and if you have a mixture, then they would be added together. For example, if you have ten cows and twenty buffaloes then Zakat would have to be given. The Zakat given is the calf of the animal that there is more in quantity, e.g. if you have more cows than buffaloes then a calf of a cow would be given. If the amount is equal then the calf of the animal is given that is worth more in value [Alamgiri].

    Zakat on Sheep and Goats

    If you have less than forty sheep or goats then Zakat is not necessary. Between forty and one hundred and twenty then you would give one goat or sheep, meaning regardless of the quantity between this figure, only one goat is sufficient. Two goats are given for the quantity between one-hundred and twenty one and two hundred. Then upto between 201 and 300, three goats are to be given. Between 301 to 400, four goats are given in Zakat. Then for every hundred extra one extra goat is given and for any goats that are between the hundred mark, then there is no extra Zakat.

    • Rule: The choice is yours as to whether you give a male or female, however it is necessary that the animal is not younger than one year old. If this is the case then the value of a one year old goat would have to be given [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. Lamb, sheep or goat are all regarded as the same and if you do not have a complete set of one kind then they are to be mixed together and you can give sheep or lamb in Zakat but they must be older than one year [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. If someone has a mixture of camels, cattle and goats but none complete their individual Nisaabs then there is no need to add them together and Zakat is not necessary.
    • Rule: If you have horses, donkeys or mules then even if they are for grazing they are not Saima. If they are for business then they would be treated as business stock and one fortieth is to be given on their value.

    ZAKAT ON CROPS AND FRUIT

    Which ground is regarded as Ushr (one tenth) and as Nisf Ushr (One twentieth) ?

    The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wassallam has stated that the ground that has rainfall falling on it or has a stream of water wetting the ground or is looked after by water from a river or stream then it has to be given in Ushr (one tenth of the crops to be given to charity) and the ground that has to be given water where the water is brought to the ground on an animal etc. then that has to be given as Nisf Ushr (one twentieth of the crops to be given) [Bukhari etc.].

    • Rule: The farming ground that is watered by rainwater or from a stream then Ushr has to be given i.e. one tenth of the crops have to be given. If the farming ground is watered for some days by natural water and some days from brought water in buckets etc. then if more of the days is used using the natural water and a few days from water in buckets then Ushr is Wajib, otherwise Nisf Ushr [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: Land that has been given on rent for farming then the Ushr is upon the farmer to give [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
    • Rule: If Ushr land has been divided between the cultivator and the landlord then the Ushr has to be paid by both of them. If the land is a taxable source then the tax has to be paid by the landowner [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

    Different types of land

    Rule: There are three types of land;

    1. Ushri

    2. Taxable (Khiraji)

    3. Non Ushri and non taxable.

    It is necessary to give tax on land that is taxable. It is necessary to give Ushr on land that is Ushri or land that is non Ushri and non taxable. Ushri land is that land where it is necessary to give Ushr, meaning whatever grows one tenth of it and taxable land is that land where tax has to be given, meaning that much tax which the king of Islam has fixed, whether it be fixed as a percentage of the crops e.g. one quarter or one third or half or a fixed amount e.g. ten or twenty rupees per acre or something similar to what Hazrat Umar Farooque had fixed.

    • Rule: If you are aware of what the railing Islamic sultanate has fixed then give that much as long as it is not more that what is fixed in the Hadith by Hazrat Umar Farooque, and where there is no fixed amount mentioned in the Hadith then no more than half of the crops are to be given and it is also a condition that the land is capable of growing the crops [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
    • Rule: If you are hot aware of what the Islamic Sultanate has fixed then give what has been fixed by Hazrat Umar Farooque and if this is not known then give half [Fatawa-e-Razvia].
    • Rule: Where there is no Islamic Sultanate then people there should themselves spend on the poor and needy and those who themselves have to rely on tax [Bahar-e-Shariat].
    • Rule: The land in India is not regarded as taxable unless a particular land is proven to be taxable according to Shariat [Bahar-e-Shariat].

    For whom and for what is Ushr necessary ?

    • Rule: It is not a condition to be an adult or to be sane for Ushr to be necessary. Whatever grows on land which is owned by a child or an insane person has to be still given Ushr [Alamgiri, Bahar]. If the person whom Ushr is necessary upon dies and the cultivator is present then the Ushr will be taken off him [Alamgiri, Bahar]. Rule: It is not a condition for Ushr that a whole year has to pass, in fact if in one year in one piece of land crops have grown many times then Ushr has to be given every time [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
    • Rule: Nisaab is not a condition for Ushr, if even on Sa’a is grown the Ushr must be given [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. If honey is made on Ushri land or on mountains or in the wild then Ushr is necessary on it and in the same way Ushr is necessary on honey that is taken from flowers from the mountains or from the wild, the only condition is that the king of Islam has made necessary precautions for that honey to be protected from poachers, thieves or robbers, otherwise it is not necessary to give Ushr [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. Ushr is necessary on wheat, barley, corn, oat, rice and all types of linseed, safflower, walnuts, nuts and all types of fruit, cotton, flowers, sugarcane, melon, watermelon, eggplants and all types of vegetables whether a little or a lot has been grown [Alamgiri, Bahar]. Whatever grows in a house or mausoleum (shrine) is neither Ushri or taxable [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar]

    Land that qualifies as Ushri or Taxable (Khiraji)

    • Rule: If a Muslim has made a garden in their house and gives Ushri water to it then the land is regarded as Ushr and if taxable water is given then the land is regarded as taxable. If both types of water is given then the land is regarded as Ushri. If a settler (non Muslim) has made a garden in his house then the necessary tax will be taken. Water from the skies, a well, streams, sea etc. is all regarded as Ushri water. If a pool is dug by immigrants then that is regarded as taxable. If infidels had dug a well and it is now in the hands of Muslims or it was dug on taxable land then the water is taxable (Khiraji) [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: There are many ways a land is regarded as Ushri, for example, if Muslims won the battle and the land was distributed between the Mujahideens or the landowners themselves converted to Islam. A battle did not occur and some land which was not being used was next to some Ushri land that was taken into farming or that land was given some Ushri water, all the above conditions means that the land is Ushri, there are also other reasons which make the land Ushri and you will find these in larger books.
    • Rule: There are many ways where land is also regarded as taxable (Khiraji), for example, Muslims won the battle and gave that land to the inhabitants as a favour or gave it to other infidels or that country came into a peace agreement with Muslims , or an immigrant bought Ushri land off Muslims or used Khiraji water on Ushri land then in all these cases the land will be regarded as Khiraji. There are also other reasons where land is regarded as Khiraji.
    • Rule: If Khiraji land is watered with Ushri water, the land will still remain as taxable.
    • Rule: The land that is not regarded as Ushri or Khiraji is for example, land that has been won in battle by Muslims and is kept until the day of judgement by Muslims or the owner of a piece of land dies and the land is given in Bait-ul-maal, then in these situations the land is not Ushri nor taxable.

    Tax is not counted by giving it to the government -Where can tax (Khiraj) be given ?

    • Rule: The money that is given to the government for day to day living cannot be counted as Khiraj tax. The tax will remain the responsibility of the owner and it is necessary to give it. The tax is hot only given to the soldiers of Islam but all Muslims, where there is a Masjid being built or for the running of the Masjid or for the salary of the Imam or Mo’azzin or for the students learning Islamic knowledge or for the assistance of the scholars of Islam. Those scholars that give speeches and assist in teaching scholars of Islam and those scholars that remain busy in writing fatawas and for causes such as building bridges or roads etc. tax can be given to all the above reasons [Fatawa-e-Razvia].

    WHOM CAN ZAKAT BE GIVEN TO ?

    Who is a poor person and is defined as a pauper

    • Rule: There are seven types of people who can accept Zakat;

      1. Faqir – poor person

      2. Misqueen – Beggar 3 Aamil (Designated Person)

      3. Aamil (Designated Person)

      4. Riqab – Slave

      5. Gharim – Person in debt

      6. Fee-Sabeelillah – Spent in the path of Allah

      7. Abn-isabeel – Traveller

    • Rule: A Faqir is a person who has some property but not enough to make the qualifying threshold known as Nisaab or he has enough to fulfil the Nisaab but some of or all of the property is part of his basic necessities, such as a house to live in and clothes to wear and servants for his care and tools for his profession, then regardless of how expensive they are, they are not counted in Nisaab and if his savings do no total the Nisaab or he has savings but he is in debt and when his debt is calculated it takes his savings below the Nisaab threshold, then this person is regarded as a poor person [Radd-ul-Mohtar etc.]. Rule: A Misqueen is a person who has nothing and is desperate even for shelter or for clothing to cover his body and has to resort to begging. Rule: It is allowed for a Misqueen to beg and it is not allowed for a Faqir to beg. This is because if a person has enough for food or clothing to cover themselves then it is Haram for a person to beg [AlamgiriJ. Rule: An Aamil is a person who has been designated by the leader of Islam to collect money from people for Zakat. He should be given enough so that his and his helpers expense can be fulfilled whilst collecting the Zakat money. He should not be given so much that whatever he has collected, his expense is more than half that amount [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.]. Rule: Riqab means to give money to a slave so that with this money he can free himself from his master and become a free man.
    • Rule: Gharim means a person who has so much debt, that by paying it off he would not have enough left to fulfil the Nisaab [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: Fee-Sabeelillah means to spend in the path of Allah. There are many ways this can be done. If a person wishes to go to Jihad (battle for Islam) and he does not have the necessary means for weapons and goods then he can be given Zakat, even if he has the power to earn the money. If a person wishes to perform Hajj and he does not have the means to do this then he can be Zakat to perform Hajj, however, it is not allowed for him to ask or beg for the money. If a student who is studying religion can be given Zakat and this student can even ask or beg for the money when he has specifically reserved himself for the learning of Islamic knowledge, even if he has the power to earn the money In the same way, Zakat can be spent in all pious activities where the condition is that the person taking the Zakat will become the owner of the money, if the intention is not to make the person the owner then Zakat will not be fulfilled [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: There are many people who send their Zakat money to poor Madressas, they should make sure that they tell the trustees of the Madressa that this money is Zakat money, so that the Trustees can keep the money separate and spend it on the poor children who are studying, otherwise if they are unaware then they may spend the money on other causes, whereby the Zakat will not be fulfilled [Bahar-e-Shariat]. Ibn-e-Sabeel means a person who is travelling and his money has finished then he can take Zakat, even if he has goods or money at home, however, he can only take so much that his needs can be fulfilled and not more as this would not be allowed.
    • Rule: It is necessary when giving Zakat that the person whom Zakat is being given to is made the unconditional owner and not just the keeper. Therefore, to spend Zakat money or goods on a Masjid or to buy a Kafan (shroud) for a deceased person or to pay off a debt of a deceased person or to free his slave or to make a pathway, road, bridge etc. or to have dug a well or stream for water or to buy books and then give them away is all not sufficient and Zakat would not be fulfilled by doing this until you make a Faqir the owner of the Zakat money, however, when the Faqir becomes the owner of the goods or money, he can then spend the money in these causes if he wishes [Johra. Tanveer, Alamgiri etc.].
    • Rule: You cannot give Zakat to your immediate parents or grandparents (maternal or paternal) i.e. whom we are children of and nor can you give Zakat to your children or grandchildren. In the same way you cannot give them Sadqah, Fitra, Kaffara or Nazr. As far as Voluntary Sadqah is concerned then this can be given and in fact it is better to give them this [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: Zakat can be given to the daughter-in-law or son-in law or to your stepmother or stepfather or you wife’s children (from a previous marriage) or your husband’s children. You can give Zakat to any of your relatives for whom you are responsible for their maintenance as long as you do not include the money into the maintenance account [Radd-ul-Mohtar]. A wife cannot give Zakat to her husband nor can a husband give Zakat to his wife. However, if a man divorces his wife and he can then give her Zakat after the iddat (probationary period) is over [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
    • Rule: You can give Zakat to the wife of a rich person as long as she is not the owner of Nisaab and the same applies to a rich person’s father if he is a Faqir [Alamgiri].
    • Rule: You cannot give Zakat to a rich man’s non adult children, however, if a rich man’s children are adults and they are a Faqir, then you can give them Zakat [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
    • Rule: If a person after basic necessities is the owner of Nisaab, then he cannot be given Zakat. Meaning after the basic necessities he has enough goods or money that totals to two hundred Dirhams (Approx. £400). Even if Zakat is not necessary on this amount, i.e. if a person has six tolas (70 grammes) of gold then this does not complete the Nisaab to give Zakat as the Nisaab is 88 grammes to give Zakat, but this person cannot be given Zakat money. Also for example, if a person has twenty cattle and this totals two hundred Dirhams then this person cannot be given Zakat, even though Zakat does not become necessary on twenty cows.
    • Rule: A house, food to eat, clothing to wear, a servant, animal or vehicle for travelling, tools for working, books for a student which are being used for his study are all regarded as goods for basic necessities.
    • Rule: A healthy person can be given Zakat even if he has the strength to earn money, although he cannot beg for money [Alamgiri]
    • Rule: If a person has diamonds or pearls and they are not for business use then it is not necessary to give Zakat on them, although if they reach the Nisaab threshold then the owner cannot take Zakat [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].
    • Rule: You cannot give Zakat to people belonging to the BaniHashim family. BaniHashim family means children of Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Ja’far, Hazrat Aqueel, Hazrat Abbas, Hazrat HarisIbne Matlab [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar etc].
    • Rule: If the mother is Hashmi or a Sayyeda and the father is not a Hashmi then they are not regarded as Hashmi, because according to Shariat the family tree (Nasab) is from the male and therefore they can be given Zakat as long as they qualify for Zakat [Bahar-e-Shariat].
    • Rule: Voluntary Sadqa and Lillah can be given to Bani Hashim [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: An immigrant infidel (Zimmi) cannot be given any Zakat or Sadqa Wajiba (such as Nazr, Kaffara, Sadqa, Fitr) and it is not allowed to give any type of Sadqa to an infidel visitor even if the visitor has gained permission to enter the Islamic country by the authorities (visa) and they cannot even be given any voluntary Sadqa such as a gift, money etc. Although India is a place where Islam is recognised (Daar-ul-lslam), the infidels in India are not immigrants (Zimmi) and they cannot be given even voluntary money as this is not allowed [Bahar-e-Shariat].
    • Rule: Whatever people that qualify for taking Zakat that has been mentioned, the condition has to be that they all must be Faqirs except for an Aamil as they do not need to be a Faqir to qualify for taking Zakat and the other exception is Ibn-e-Sabeel as even if they are rich they are regarded as a Faqir when they are on a journey and they run out of funds. Except for these two, no other person can be given Zakat unless they are a Faqir [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].

    Who should be given preference when giving Zakat

    • Rule: It is better when giving Zakat, Sadaqa etc. that it should be given to your own brothers and sisters, then to their children, then to your paternal uncles and aunts and then to their children, then to your maternal uncles and aunts and then to their children and then to people living in your home village or town [Johra, Alamgiri etc.]. It is quoted in the Hadith Sharif that Allah Ta’ala does not accept those people’s Sadaqat whose relatives are in need of it and they give the money to others [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
    • Rule: It is not allowed to give Zakat to Bad Mazhabs i.e. people who belong to a wrong sect [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. In the same way it is not allowed to give Zakat to those renegades who claim to be Muslims from their mouths but lower the dignity of Allah and His beloved Prophet or reject other obligatory beliefs of Islam [Bahar etc.].

    Who can beg or ask for financial help

    • Rule: That person who has food for today or has the strength to go out and earn then it is not allowed for him to beg and if someone gives him food or money without him asking for it then he is allowed to take it. If a person has food but does not have clothes to wear then he can beg for them. If a person is going or is involved in Jihad or is a student learning Islamic knowledge then they can beg for assistance even though they may be healthy enough to earn for themselves. Just as it not allowed for people to beg, it is not allowed for people to give them aid when they beg for it as the giver will also be committing a sin [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

    Begging is a degrading act

    • Rule: To beg is a very degrading act and should not be done unless it is absolute necessary. It is proven in Hadiths that to beg without necessity is Haram and the person begging is eating Haram food [Muslim, Abu Da’ud, Nisaa’ee etc.]. The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that ‘those who wish to refrain from begging, then Allah will protect them from begging, and those who wish to become rich, then Allah will make them rich and those who wish to be patient then Allah will give them patience [Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi etc.]. It has also be reported that the person who opens the door to begging then Allah opens the door of need for him [Ahmad, Tibrani]. The Holy Prophet has also stated that ‘those who beg and they have enough to satisfy them then they are wanting fire as the extra, people asked how much is the amount where a person cannot beg, the Holy Prophet replied ‘food for morning and night’ [Abu Da’ud, Ibn-e-Hubaan, Ibn-e-Khuzaima].

    SADAQA AND FITRA

    The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that ‘ a servant’s fast remains stuck between the earth and sky until he gives Sadaqa-e-Fitra [Delami, Khateeb, Ibn-e-AsaakarJ.

    • Rule: Sadaqa -e-Fitr is Wajib and the time to give it is the whole lifetime, meaning if you have not given it then give it now as the responsibility will not go away until it is given and when giving it, it will not count as Qaza, but will remain as Adaa, even though it is Sunnat to give it before the Eid Namaz [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
    • Rule: The Sadaqa-e-Fitr becomes Wajib on Eid morning from the break of dawn, and therefore if a person dies before the break of dawn on Eid day or becomes a Faqir then the Sadaqa will not become Wajib for them [Alamgiri].
    • Rule: After the dawn has broken on Eid day then a child is born or an infidel becomes a Muslim or a Faqir becomes rich then the Sadaqa-e-Fitr does not become Wajib for them [Alamgiri].
    • Rule: If before the dawn has broken on Eid day a child is born or an infidel becomes a Muslim or a Faqir becomes rich then Sadaqa-e-Fitr is Wajib upon them [Alamgiri].
    • Rule: If a person dies after dawn has broken then Sadaqa-e-Fitr becomes Wajib upon them [Alamgiri].
    • Rule: Sadaqa-e-Fitr is Wajib upon all Muslims who are free (not a slave) and are the owners of Nisaab (i.e. additional to the basic necessities), in this to be sane and be an adult is not a condition nor is it a condition for the goods or money to be within your possession for over a year [Durr-e-Mukhtar].

    Whose Sadaqa-e-Fitr is Waiib upon who ?

    • Rule: It is Wajib on a man who is the owner of Nisaab to give Sadqa-e-Fitr for himself and for his children, as long as the children are not the owner of Nisaab themselves and if they are then the Sadqa for them will have to be given from their goods. It is Wajib to give Sadqa of a mental child even when they reach adulthood upon the father as long as the child is not the owner of Nisaab themselves, and if they are the owner of Nisaab then the Sadqa will be given from their goods [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
    • Rule: For the Sadqa-e-Fitr to become Wajib it is not necessary that you have to fast, therefore if a person does not fast due to a religious exemption such as on a journey or illness or old age or may Allah protect for a non valid reason a person misses a fast or all fasts then the Sadqa-e-Fitr is still Wajib upon them [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: If there is no father then the grandfather (paternal) is the guardian and therefore it is Wajib on them to give the Sadqa-e-Fitr on behalf of their grandchildren.
    • Rule: A man is not responsible for the Sadqa-e-Fitr of their wife or adult children even if they are physically disabled, even if he is responsible for their maintenance [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar etc.].

    Quantity of Sadqa-e-Fitr

    The quantity of Sadqa-e-Fitr is half a Sa’a of wheat or it’s flour or instead of this half a Sa’a of it’s mixture with barley, or one Sa’a of dates or raisins or barley or it’s flour or instead of this one Sa’a of it’s mixture [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri etc.}. Rule: It is better to give the flour of wheat or barley rather than the grains and it is better than that to give the monetary value, whether you give the value of wheat, barley or dates. However, during a price war or famine it is better to give the goods than money. If money is given for bad wheat then subsidise the rest of the money with the money of good wheat [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

    The weight of a Sa ‘a

    After great study and analysis it is suggested that the price at present (however, this can increase) two pounds and fifty pence (£2.50) The price of half a Sa’a is one pound and twenty five pence (£1.25). One Sa’a is four pounds and six and a half ounces (4lb, 6.5ozl and half a Sa’a is two pounds and three and a quarter ounces (2lb 3 25 ozi For the sake of ease it is better to give four and a half pounds of (4 5lb) barley or dates or two and a quarter pounds (2.25lb) of wheat for each person as Sadqa-e-Fitr.

    Who should be given Sadqa-e-Fitr ?

    The same people qualify for giving Sadqa-e-Fitr as those who qualify for giving Zakat to except for an Aamil An Aamil can be given Zakat but not Sadqa-e-Fitr [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].

    QURBANI – (SACRIFICE)

    Definition of Qurbani

    Qurbani is a worship with goods and is Wajib upon every rich person. To sacrifice a specific animal on a specific day for the sake of Allah for the intention to gain reward is called a Qurbani. Qurbani is Wajib upon every Muslim who is not a traveller and is the owner of Nisaab and is a free person.

    Who is Qurbani Wafib upon ?

    Rule: Just as Qurbani is Wajib upon all males it is also Wajib upon all females [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc]. Rule: Qurbani is not Wajib upon a traveller, however, if he wishes to perform it voluntarily, then he can do so and will gain reward [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc]. The owner of Nisaab means to have as much goods in addition to the basic necessities an amount of two hundred Dirhams (approx. £300-£400) [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, etc.].
    Rule: Whoever has two hundred Dirhams or twenty Dinars in addition to the basic necessities or is the owner of goods that equal to two hundred Dirhams etc. then according to Shariat that person is rich and Qurbani is Wajib upon them [Alamgiri etc.].

    Time of Qurhani

    The time of Qurbani is from the break of dawn of the 10th of Zil Hajj to sunset on the 12″1 of Zil Hajj, meaning three days and two nights. However, it is better to perform it in the morning of the 10″1, then 11th, then 12th.

    • Rule: If the Qurbani is performed in a city then the condition is that it is performed after the Eid Namaz and because there is no Eid Namaz in villages and outskirts then it can be performed after the break of dawn.
    • Rule: It is necessary to perform Qurbani at the time of Qurbani, therefore, if that much money or the same amount of goods to the value of an animal is given then the responsibility of Qurbani will not be fulfilled [Alamgiri etc.].
    • Rule: If the time of Qurbani has passed then a Qurbani can no longer be performed and if you had purchased an animal for Qurbani then give it as Sadqa or give the amount of money equivalent to the value of a goat as Sadqa [Darr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, etc.]

    Rules of Qurbani

    Once the conditions of Qurbani are fulfilled (as mentioned above), then to sacrifice one goat or sheep or lamb or one seventh of a camel, cow, buffalo is Wajib and no less than this can be performed. If a person’s share of a large animal is less than one seventh then their share of the Qurbani will not count (meaning, if eight people are jointly sacrificing one large animal then only seven of these people’s Qurbani will count). If there are less than seven people jointly performing Qurbani and the parts divided are equal to at least one seventh per person then the Qurbani will count.

    • Rule: Every person that is jointly performing Qurbani have to make the htention that they are doing it to gain reward and not just to gain the meat and therefore a person wanting to perform an Aqueeqa can also join in as this is done to gain reward [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

    Method of performing Qurbani

    The animal that is going to be sacrificed should be fed and given water. The knife that is going to be used should be sharpened beforehand, but not in front of the animal. The animal should be laid on it’s left side with it’s face pointing towards the Qibla and the person slaughtering the animal should put their right foot on the animal and quickly slaughter the animal using a sharp knife. Before slaughtering the animal, this Dua should be prayed;

    “Inni Wajjahto Waj’hiya Lillazi Fataras Samaawaat’e Wal’arda Hanifaw Wamaa Anaa Minal Mushrikeena, inna Salaati Wa Nusooki Wa Mah’Yaaya Wa Ma’maati Lillahi Rabbil Aalameen. Laa Shareeka Lahu Wa Bizaalika Umirtu Wa Anaa Minal Muslimeena Allahumma Laka Waminka Bismillahi Allahu Akbar”.

    As soon as you finish praying the Dua, start cutting with the knife. If the Qurbani is from yourself then after slaughtering pray this Dua;

    “Allahumma Taqabbal Minni Kamaa Taqabbalta Min Khaleelika Ibraheema Alaihis Salaam Wa Habeebika Muhammadin Sallalaho Alaihi Wasallam”

    When slaughtering cut all four veins (in the throat) or at least three veins and so that the knife reaches the back of the throat and it should not be cut more than that as it would cause unnecessary pain for the animal. As soon as the animal goes cold then cut the feet and take off the skin. If you have slaughtered the animal on behalf of someone then at the point where you pray “Minni” pray “Min Falaa” (meaning their name). If the animal is bought jointly and there are more than one person involved in the partnership of the animal such as a cow, camel, buffalo etc. then all their names should be said in place of ‘Falaa’.

    • Rule: If someone else is performing the slaughter for you then it is better to be present.

    Rules of meat and the skin

    If the animal is bought jointly then the meat should be weighed and equally distributed. It should not be divided roughly because if it is divided un-equally then even if the person receiving less, forgives them it will not be forgiven as the right is as per Shariat [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]. Then split your share into three parts and give one third to the poor as Sadqa, one third to your relatives and one third for yourself and eat the meat yourself and give some to your wife and children. If you have a lot of children and a large family then you can keep all the meat for yourself and if you so wish you can give all of it to Sadqa, however, it is better to keep one part of yourself.

    • Rule: If you have performed a Qurbani on behalf of a deceased person then the rule of the meat is the same, however, if the deceased had requested for the Qurbani then give all the meat away as Sadqa.
    • Rule: If the Qurbani is from a deceased person then the meat cannot be eaten by yourself nor Can it be given to a rich person, but it is Wajib to give all the meat away as Sadqa [Bahar].
    • Rule: It is Mustahhab for the person performing the Qurbani to eat the Qurbani meat as the first food of the day [Barraur-Raiq].
    • Rule: The meat of the Qurbani should not be given to infidels.
    • Rule: The animal’s skin, reins, saddle etc. should all be given in Sadqa. You can use the skin for yourself and make something out of it e.g. a leather bag or a mat for praying Namaz on. However, you cannot sell the skin and use the money for yourself, if this is done then the money has to be given as Sadqa [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
    • Rule: Nowadays people usually give the skins to Madressas, this is allowed and if you sell the skin with the intention to give the money to the Madressa then this is also allowed [Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: The meat of the Qurbani cannot be given to the person performing the Qurbani or skinning the animal as labour or salary. If however, you give it as a gift as you would do to friends then this is acceptable, but you cannot include it as a form of payment for his work [Hidaya etc.]. Rule: There are many places where the skin is given to the Imam. This should not be given as part of his salary but can be given as a gift or assistance [Bahar-e-Shariat].

    Which animals can be used for Qurbani

    Animals for Qurbani – Camel, cow, buffalo, goat, ewe (male or female), eunuch, large eunuch can all be used for Qurbani [Alamgiri].

    • Rule: Wild animals such as deer, white antelope, reindeer cannot be used to perform Qurbani. Rule: A sheep or lamb are included in the eunuch category.

    Age of a Qurbani Animal

    • Rule: A camel must be at least five years old, a buffalo must be at least two years old and a sheep or lamb or goat at least a year old. If they are younger than this then the Qurbani will not count. However, if a lamb or a eunuch’s young is so big at six months that by looking at it from a distance it looks to be a year old then it can be used for Qurbani [Durr-e-Mukhtar].

    What should a Qurbani Animal be like ?

    • Rule: A Qurbani animal should be big and healthy and should not have any faults. If there is a small fault with the animal then the Qurbani will count but is Makrooh and if there is a big fault then the Qurbani will not count [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar. Alamgiri]. Rule: If a bull has no horns from birth then it is allowed and if the horns have been broken upto the root then it is not allowed to use it for Qurbani and if they are a little broken then it is allowed [Alamgiri, etc.]. Rule: A blind, lame, cross-eyed, mad, cut-ears, cut-tailed, toothless, cut-teats, dried teats, cut nosed, deaf from birth, a hermaphrodite (where an animal’s both sexual organ’s exist), an animal that only eats impurities then all of these animals cannot be used for Qurbani [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: If the illness is small and the lameness is not that bad so that the animal can walk upto the slaughter-house or the ears, nose etc. are less than a third cut then the animal can be used for Qurbani [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Hidaya, Alamgiri].
    • Rule: If when performing the Qurbani the animal jumped and shook and due to this it became faulty then there is no harm [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
    • Rule: If you performed a Qurbani and found that there is a live born inside then that should also be slaughtered and can be made use of, and if the young inside is dead then it should be thrown away [Bahar-e-Shariat].
    • Rule: If after purchasing and before the Qurbani the animal give birth then the new-born should also be slaughtered and if it is sold then the money should be given away as Sadqa and if it is not slaughtered before the Qurbani then give it away live as Sadqa [Alamgiri, Bahar].

    NOTICE: Just look at our master and king the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad Mustapha Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam’s big heart and concern that he made a Qurbani on behalf of his Ummat and thought of us, therefore, if a Muslim can then they should perform an additional Qurbani on behalf of the Holy Prophet then it would be a very good and fortunate act [Bahar-e-Shariat].

    AQUEEQA

    Definition of Aqueeqa

    Due to the happiness of when a child is born, the animal that is slaughtered is known as an Aqueeqa.

    When should an Aqueeqa be performed

    • Rule: An Aqueeqa is Mustahhab and it is better to perform it on the seventh day. If it cannot be performed on the seventh day then perform it whenever possible and the Sunnat will be fulfilled.
    • Rule: Two goats should be slaughtered for a son and one goat for a daughter, also a male animal for the boy and a female animal for the girl, if however, if this is vice-versa then it is also accepted. If you cannot afford to slaughter two then for the boy one female goat would also do.
    • Rule: If you slaughter a cow or a buffalo then for the boy you would specify two parts and for the girl one part. Rule: You can mix parts of Aqueeqa with a Qurbani animal. The same conditions apply for an Aqueeqa animal as for the Qurbani animal.

    What should be done with the Aqueeqa meat ?

    • Rule: The meat of the Aqueeqa should be given to the poor, friends and relatives raw or cooked, or it can be served as a meal and all the people invited, in all cases it is allowed.
    • Rule: For pious prediction don’t break the bones and if you do break them then this is not forbidden. You can cook the meat in whichever way suits you but to cook it salty is a means that the child will become with good characteristics.
    • Rule: The Aqueeqa meat can be eaten by all relatives such as mother, father, grandfather, grandmother etc.
    • Rule: The rule for the skin of the Aqueeqa is the same as for the Qurbani animal, meaning you can make use of it yourself or give it to someone or give to a Madressa or Masjid.

    Dua for Aqueeqa 

    When slaughtering the animal for Aqueeqa, pray this Dua;

    “Allahumma Haazihi aqueeqatu ibn-e-Falaa (Instead of Ibne Falaa state the your child’s name if you are slaughtering the animal yourself, and if someone is performing the Aqueeqa on behalf of someone then say the child and the child’s father’s name) Damuhaa Be-Damihi Walah muha Bi Lahmihi Wa’azmuha Be-Azmihi Wa Jilduha Be-Jildihi Wa’Sha’ruha Be Sha’rihi Allahummaj Alha Fi’da’al Li’lbne Minannaar’e Bismillahi Allahu Akbar”

    If the child is a girl then pray this Dua ;

    “Allahumma Haazihi aqueeqatu Binti Falaanatan (Instead of Falaa state the name) Damuhaa Bi damihaa Walah’Muhaa Bilah’Mihaa Wa’azmuhaa Bi azmiha Wajilduha Bijildiha Washa’ruha Bisha’riha Allahummaj Alhaa Fida’al libinti (if the daughter is yours, and if it is someone else’s then say Bint Falaa) Minanaaar’e Bismillali Allahu Akbar”

    If you do not know this Dua then by just praying Bismillahi Allahu Akbar the Aqueeqa will be complete [Bahar-e-Shariat].

    Wallaahu Ta’ala A’lama Wa’ilmahu Ahkam Wa’atam Wa Sallalaho Alaihi Wasallam”

    Alhamciolillah – The translation of this book (Vol.1) was completed on the 11″‘ of Ramadhan 1418 al Hijri.

    May Allah Subhana Wa Ta’ala with the Wasila of His most beloved Prophet Salallaho Alaihi Wasallam accept this work and reward the Isaal-e-Sawab to Hazrat Huzoor Mufti Azam Hind Mustapha Raza AI-Qadri Razvi Noori Alaihi Rahmat-o-Wa Rizwan. Ameen.

     الصيام في شهر رمضان المبارك

     4 FASTING IN THE MONTH OF RAMADHAN

     

    Obligation of Fasting

    The rule for Fasting is similar to Namaz and is Farz-e-Ain and those who reject to believe it as obligatory (Farz) is a Kafir and those who miss it without genuine reason is a big sinner and will receive punishment in hell. Those children who have the strength should be made to keep a fast and strong boys and girls should be forced to keep a fast (a few slaps not with a stick) [Durr-e-Mukhtar]. Fasting for the whole month of Ramadan is obligatory.

    Description of fasting and age for beginning

    According to Shariat, the definition of a fast is make the intention to fast for the sake of Allah from the break of dawn to sunset and to refrain from eating, drinking or having sexual intercourse. For fasting, a woman has to be clean from menstruation or bleeding after childbirth meaning, the fast will not count for a woman on her period or still bleeding after childbirth. It is obligatory for a woman on her period or bleeding after childbirth to fast after her state of bleeding is over and she is clean from it, meaning to make Qaza for the missed Roza. Fasting is not obligatory for children or for an insane person as long as they remain insane for the whole month of Ramadan, and if they gain sanity any period in the middle and it is still within the allocated time for intention, then they must make the intention and fast from that day onwards and the Qaza is necessary for the whole month, for example, if a person was insane from the first of Ramadan and gained sanity on the twenty ninth day from the break of dawn until midday then they will have to perform Qaza for whole month’s fasts [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

    Allocated time for the intention of Fasting

    • Rule: The fasts of Ramadan, fixed time promised fasts, voluntary, Sunnat, Mustahhab, and Makrooh fasts, the time for the Niyyat is from sunset upto midday and if an intention is made from any time between this allocated time then the Fast will count but it is better to make the intention from night-time. Except for these six types of fasts all other Fasts (such as, Qaza for Ramadan, Qaza for Nafl, non fixed time promised fasts, compensation Roza i.e. Kaffara, Fasting for your sins and Roza for Tamattao) the time is from sunset upto the beginning of the break of dawn not after this and the mentioning of the exact fast being performed is necessary, for example, I am keeping a fast for the 28th missed Ramadan Roza, or I am keeping a promised fast for such and such a thing being fulfilled [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: The intention for the Roza must be made before midday and if it is made as soon as the sun reached midday then the fast will not count [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

    The meaning of the intention

    • Rule: Just as it was explained for other forms of worship, intention means to fix a firm thought in your heart, it is not necessary to say the intention, in the same way the intention for the fast is done the same way, however, it is better to say it with the tongue. If the intention is made at night then say “I have made the intention for the fast of Ramadan for Allah which 1 will keep tomorrow” and if the fast is made before midday then say ” I have made the intention for the fast of Ramadan for Allah which I will keep today” [Johra, Bahar].
    • Rule: If the intention is made in the day (before midday) then it is necessary to make the intention that I have been fasting from the break of dawn and if you make the intention that I will start fasting from now not from the break of dawn, then the Roza will not count [Johra, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

    Fasting on doubtful days

    • Rule: The rule for fasting on the thirtieth of Shabaan when you are not sure whether it is the thirtieth of Shabaan or the first of Ramadan, then to fast with the sole intention of Nafl is allowed but to fast with the intention that if it is the first of Ramadan then it is my first Ramadan Roza and if it is not the first of Ramadan then it is a Nafl Roza then this is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi. However, if the thirtieth falls on a day where you always fast on that day then it is better to fast on that day, for example, if you fasted every Thursday and the thirtieth of Shabaan was on a Thursday then it is better to fast that day as a Nafl fast [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar etc.].
    • Rule: On a day where there is uncertainty then you should wait until midday and if the news of seeing the moon arrives then fast that day and if no news arrive then eat and drink [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: To fast at the end of Shabaan for only one or two days is Makrooh and if you fast for three or more days then it is not Makrooh. Rule: To fast on the day of Eid is Makrooh-e-Tahrimi, also the same rule applies on fasting on Bakr-e-Eid and also on the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth of Zil Hajj.
    • Rule: To fast for Sunnat or Nafl Roza for only one day is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi, for example, to fast on the tenth of Moharram is Sunnat but to fast only on that day is Makrooh and if you fast on the ninth then there is no problem and there is also no problem in fasting on the tenth and eleventh. Rule: It is Makrooh-e-Tanzihi for a woman to fast a Nafl Roza without the permission of her husband.

    To make a promise to fast

    • Rule: If you made a promise to fast if your prayer was fulfilled, then that fast become Wajib as soon as your prayer is fulfilled. Rule: If you was fasting a Nafl Roza and you broke it then to perform it’s Qaza is Wajib.



    THE SIGHTING OF THE MOON

    The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that start fasting by seeing the moon and finish fasting ( celebrate Eid) by seeing the moon, and if there is cloud then finish Shabaan by completing thirty days [Bukhari, Muslim]. He has also reported that do not start fasting unless you see the moon and do not stop fasting until you see the moon and if there is cloud and you cannot see the moon then complete the thirty days [Bukhari, Muslim].

    Which months is it Wajib to see the moon ?

    • Rule: It is Wajib-e-Kifaaya to see the moon for five months. These are Shabaan, Ramadan, Shawwal, Zil Qad and Zil Hajj [Fatawa-e-Razvia].
    • Rule: Attempt to see the moon on the twenty-ninth of Shabaan in the evening and if you can see it then keep fast the next day and if you can’t then complete thirty days of Shabaan and then start Ramadan [Hidaya, Alamgih, Bahar].

    Proof of moon when skies are not clear

    • Rule: If the skies are not clear meaning there is cloud or smoke then only the proof of Ramadan will be counted if one Muslim who is sane and is an adult and is pious and a follower of Shariat, then his oath will be accepted, whether the person is a male or female. Except for the beginning of Ramadan all other month’s proof has to be given by either two men or one man and two women and they all have to be pious and they have to say “I bear witness that I have seen the moon personally” then the proof of the moon will be accepted [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Baharetc.].

    Definition of a pious person

    The definition of a pious person in this text is a person who refrains from large sins and does not make a habit of committing small sins and is a person who does not perform acts which are against the respect of society such as eating whilst walking in the town.

    Definition of a person following Shariat

    A person who by looking at them follow the Shariat but you are unaware of his hidden activities [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
    Rule: Whoever sees the moon and is a pious person then it is Wajib for them to give oath that night. Rule: If the moon is seen in the village by a person and there is no Islamic judge or ruler then the people of the village should be gathered and the oath should be given and if the person giving oath is a pious person then it is necessary for the village people to fast the next day.
    Rule: When the sky is not clear then the proof for Eid has to be given by a Muslim, sane, adult, pious and a follower of the Shariat and there has to be either two men or one man and two women and only then the oath will be accepted [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].

    Proof of moon when skies are clear

    • Rule: It the skies are clear then until a lot of people do not give witness the oath will not be accepted (whether it be for Ramadan, Eid or any other month). The question remains as to how many people there should be, then this is upto the Islamic judge and when he is satisfied with the amount of people then he will declare it official. If the witnessing is given because the moon has been seen outside the city or from a high place then only one pious person’s oath can be accepted for Ramadan [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. However, we say that because nowadays people are lazy and do not bother going to look for the moon then except for Eid all the other month’s moon witnessing when the skies are clear should be accepted if two Muslims have given oath.
    • Giving an oath when seeing the moon

    When giving oath it is necessary to say “I bear witness” and without these words the oath cannot be accepted. However, due to’ bad skies and clouds for the oath of the moon for Ramadan if only “I have seen with my eyes the moon for this Ramadan today or I saw it last night’ is sufficient.

    • Rule: If some people come and say ‘the moon has been seen in such a place or give witness that there has been a sighting of the moon (but have not seen the moon themselves) in such a place, or give witness that such and such a person has seen the moon or say that the judge of such a town has ordered Ramadan or Eid tomorrow then they are all incorrect methods and cannot be accepted [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: If only the judge or Imam has seen the moon alone for Eid then he can’t celebrate or give order to celebrate Eid as this is not allowed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: If the moon was seen in a particular city and a group of people came from that city and stated the news that Ramadan has begun on such a day and people have started fasting from that day and the news is common then this is sufficient for people in this town as proof [Radd-ut-Mohtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: A person saw the moon alone for Ramadan or Eid but the judge did not accept his statement or oath then it is Wajib for him to fast the next day and if he doesn’t or has broken the fast the Qaza is necessary [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri].
    • Rule: If the moon is seen during the day whether it be before or after midday that moon is for the next day, meaning if the moon is seen on the thirtieth day of Ramadan then it means the next day is the first of Shawwal and not the current day and therefore the fast must be completed. In the same way if the moon is seen during the day of the thirtieth of Shabaan, then Ramadan will begin the next day and the current day is the thirtieth of Shawwal and therefore fasting is not necessary [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]. Rule: If the moon is seen in one place then this moon isn’t just for that place but for all the world, however, the rule applies to the other places only when there has been a witness about the sighting of the moon, i.e. someone has given oath or the judge that has ordered the seeing of the moon gives oath or a group of people have took the news from where the moon was sighted and have stated whether the people in their town have kept a fast or celebrated Eid. Rule: Proof cannot be accepted if the news are via a telegram or telephone or radio because even if it is correct it is only news and not an oath and in the same way news from people or printing the news in papers cannot be accepted either as it is not proof of oath. Rule: If the moon is seen then to point towards it is Makrooh, even if it is to show someone [Alamgiri, Siraajia, Bazazia, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

    ACTIONS THAT BREAK THE FAST

    • Rule: By eating, drinking or having intercourse breaks the fast when you are aware that you are fasting and if you forget that you were fasting and eat or drank or had intercourse, then the fast will not break [Hidaya, Alamgiri, Qazi Khan etc.].
    • Rule: The fast will break if you smoked a cigarette or other form of smoke inhalation or cigar etc.
    • Rule: The fast also breaks by eating a paan or tobacco, even if you spit out the contents.
    • Rule: If you put sugar, sweet, chewing gum or any item in your mouth which dissolves and you swallow the taste then the fast will break.
    • Rule: If there was something stuck in your teeth the same size or larger than a chick pea and you swallowed it or it was smaller than a chick pea and you took it out of your mouth and then swallowed it again then the fast will break. Rule: If your gums bled and the blood was more or equal to your saliva and went down your throat or was less than the saliva and it went down your throat and you could taste it then the fast will break. If the blood was less than the saliva and you couldn’t feel the taste and it went down your throat, then the Roza will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: If a syringe is used or medicine is put up your nostrils or oil or medicine is put inside the ears then the fast will break, however, if water is put into or goes into the ears then the fast will not break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: If you were cleaning your mouth out or was cleaning your nostrils and water went down your throat by mistake or went up too far in your nostrils that it went in your mouth canal even by mistake then the fast will break, if however, you forgot that you were fasting then the fast will not break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: If you drank water or eat something whilst you were sleeping or your mouth was open and water went down your throat or snow went down your throat then the fast will break [Johra, Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: To swallow someone else’s saliva or to take your own saliva in your hand and then swallowing it will break the fast [Alamgiri, Bahar]. Rule: If you put a coloured thread in your mouth and your saliva became coloured and then you swallowed the saliva, then the fast will break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: If tears went into the mouth and it was only a drop or two then the fast will not break and if it is more and the taste is felt in the whole mouth then the fast will break, the same rule applies to sweat [Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: If a man kissed a woman or touched her or hugged her or copulated with her or embraced her and then ejaculated the fast would break and if the woman touched a man and the man ejaculated then the fast would not break. If a man touches a woman on her clothing and her clothing is so thick that the body warmth cannot be felt then the fast will not break even if he ejaculates.
    • Rule: If the private parts are cleaned with excessive force upto the extent that the water reached upto the place where the suppository is kept then the fast will break and one should refrain from using too much force as there is a chance of illness [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar]. If a man put oil or water down the hole of his penis then the fast will not break even if the liquid reaches the bottom. If a woman put water or oil into her vagina then her fast will break [Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: If a woman put cotton or a cloth in her vagina and it does not stay completely on the outside then the fast will break. If someone puts a dry finger up the anus or a woman put a dry finger inside her vagina then the fast will not break and if the finger is wet or something is on it then the fast will break when the finger reaches the part where the point of the suppository goes [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: If a mouthful vomit is done purposely and you are aware that you are fasting then the fast will break and if small amounts are vomited then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
    • Rule: If vomit occurs on it’s own without control then whether, it be a small amount or large the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: The rule of vomit applies when the vomit consists of food or liquid or blood, if the vomit consists of just phlegm then the fast will not break regardless of situation [Alamgiri].
    • Rule: If in Ramadan a person without cause openly eats or drinks then the rule for an Islamic judge is to execute them [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].


    Actions that break the fast but only Qaza is necessary

    • Rule: If you were under the impression that the break of dawn had not yet occurred and therefore you eat, drank or had sexual intercourse and then later on found out that the break of dawn had already happened, then the fast will not count and only Qaza is necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: If you were forced into eating or drinking and someone threatened you (either to kill you or cause you serious harm) if you did not break your fast then even if you eat with your own hands, only Qaza is necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.]. Meaning only one fast has to be performed to replace the one broken [Bahar-e-Shariat].
    • Rule: If you had eatenor drank or had intercourse by mistake or you ejaculated just by seeing something or had a wet dream and then you thought that the fast had broken and therefore you deliberately eat or drank etc. then it is only compulsory to perform Qaza [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: If you put ear drops in your ear or there was a wound on your stomach or head and you put medication on it and it reached the stomach or brain or you took on a drip (of glucose) or you sucked up medicine up your nose or you eat a stone, soil, cotton, paper, grass or any item where people would not generally eat and would think awful of, or stayed in Ramadan as if in Roza but did not make an intention of fasting, or did not make an intention in the morning but made an intention before midday and then eat after midday, or made an intention of fasting but not for Ramadan or raindrops or snow went down the throat or drank many drops of tears or sweat or except for the fast of Ramadan you broke another fast whether it be the Qaza of Ramadan, or a woman was in her sense in the morning and she made the intention of fasting and then she went insane and whilst in this situation sexual intercourse was committed with her, or you were under the impression that it is night and you had food or you were in doubt that it was night but you had food but in fact the morning had broken, or you thought that the sun had set and you eat but the sun had not set or two people gave witness that the sun had set and two people gave witness that it was still day and this situation you eat food then in ALL the above situations only Qaza is necessary not Kaffara [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar, etc.].
    • Rule: A traveller settled at a place, a woman on her period or bleeding after childbirth became clean from it or an insane person came back to their senses, or an ill person became healthy whose fast was broken whether someone made the person break their fast or water or other liquid went down the throat by mistake and the fast was broken because of this or you thought that it was night and had some food but in fact morning had broken or you thought that it was sunset but in fact daytime was still left then in all these situations where there is still daytime left then you must stay as if you were in fasting as this is Wajib and then perform Qaza for the fast and if a child became an adult or an infidel became a Muslim then the Qaza for this day is not necessary but to remain as if they were fasting for the rest of the day is also necessary for them [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: When a child reaches the age of ten and they have the strength to keep a fast then they should be forced to keep a fast and if necessary they should be hit and if the strength is seen and then they break the fast then they are not to be given the order of Qaza, however, if the Namaz is broken then they should be made to repeat it [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]. If someone was having intercourse before dawn and as soon as dawn occurred they separated then there is no harm but if they continued then Qaza is necessary not Kaffara [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
    • Rule: If you were having intercourse by mistake and you separated as soon as you remembered then there is no harm and if you continued then Qaza is necessary not Kaffara [Radd-ul-Mohtar].
    • Rule: A deceased person had some Qaza that he had to perform then the Wali (next of kin) should give Fidya (money to replace the fast) to the poor but this is only necessary when the deceased had made a will and left some property behind and if this is not the case then it is not necessary for the Wali to give Fidya, however, it is better if they do so [Bahar-e-Shariat].

    Actions that break the fast and Kaffara is also necessary

    If the fast of Ramadan is purposely broken then Kaffara is necessary. The Kaffara (compensation) is either to free one slave and if this is not possible then keep sixty fasts consecutively without a gap and if this is also not possible then feed fully sixty beggars twice in a day. If the sixty fasts are kept and in the middle even if one day’s fast is missed then you must start the sixty again the previous ones will not count. If someone had kept fifty nine fasts and was unable to keep the sixtieth due to illness etc. then they must start again the previous fifty nine are wasted. However, if a woman starts her period in between then she must miss them and continue the fasts once she becomes clean and the previous fasts before the period started will count and when completing sixty the Kaffara will be completed [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar, Alamgiri]. When breaking the fast and for Kaffara to become necessary there are a few conditions that have to be fulfilled and only then the Kaffara become necessary.

    Conditions where Kaffara become necessary

    1. A fast is kept in the month of Ramadan with the intention of keeping a fast of Ramadan.
    2. The person keeping the fast is a resident and not a traveler.
    3. The person is an adult and is sane (if a child or madman breaks the fast then Kaffara is not necessary).
    4. The intention for the fast of Ramadan was done at night (if the intention for the fast was made in the day before midday and then broken then only Qaza is necessary not Kaffara).
    5. After breaking the fast an act occurred which gives reason to miss a fast which you had no control over such as a woman started her period or such an illness occurred where it is allowed to miss a fast then the Kaffara will not be necessary. If however, after breaking the fast a person became a Ma’zoor (had a problem) which was within their control such as a person injured themselves and therefore became Ma’zoor or became a traveller then the Kaffara will not be cancelled as these things are within their control and Kaffara becomes necessary [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Johra, Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: A person fasting purposely eat or drank some medicine or tablets or drank water or had something to eat or drink for pleasure or had intercourse with his wife whether had an orgasm or not  then in all these situations both Qaza and Kaffara is necessary.
    • Rule: If such an act is done whereby the thought is that the fast will not break(except eating, drinking or having intercourse), but you thought that the fast has broken and then you eat or drank, for example, you extracted blood or put on Surma (eye colour) or you had intercourse  or touched  your wife woman or kissed her or laid next to her or performed foreplay but in all these cases you did not reach orgasm i.e. did not ejaculate, or you put a dry finger up the anus and then after this you purposely eat or drank then in all these cases it is necessary to perform Qaza and Kaffara. If however, an act is performed where the thought is that the fast does not break and you thought that the fast had broken and a Mufti (Islamic jurist) gave a Fatwa and the Mufti is respected within the local community and the Fatwa is that the fast has broken and then you purposely eat or drank, or you had wrongly misinterpreted a Hadith and thought that the fast had broken and then you eat and drank, then the Kaffara is not necessary even though the Fatwa is wrong or the Hadith heard is not proven [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

    Acts that do not break the fast

    • Rule: If you eat, drink or have sexual intercourse by mistake then the fast does not break.
    • Rule: If a fly, smoke or dust goes down the throat then the fast does not break, however, if you purposely inhaled smoke then the fast will break if you know that you are fasting. For example, incense, loban was lighted and was brought near the mouth and the smoke was sucked up the nose, then the fast will break.
    • Rule: If you apply oil or lotion or surma on the body or eyes then the fast will not break and if the taste of the oil or surma is felt in the throat or if the saliva is colored due to the surma then the fast will still not break [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Johra, Bahar].
    • Rule: If a fly goes down the throat then the fast will not break and if it is deliberately swallowed then the fast will break [Alamgiri, Bahar]. If whilst talking the lips got wet or you cleared your throat and then drank the saliva, then the fast will not break but you should refrain from doing this [Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]
    • Rule: If your gums bled and the blood reached the throat but did not go down it, then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir].
    • Rule: If you were eating by mistake and as soon as you remembered you spat out the food then the fast will not break and if you swallowed the food then the fast will break [Alamgiri].
    • Rule: You started eating (sehri) before the break of dawn and whilst you were eating you saw that the morning had broken and you spat out the food in your mouth then the fast will not break and if you swallowed the food then the fast will break [Alamgiri].
    • Rule: If you chewed a linseed or something of equivalent size and it went down the throat with your saliva then the fast will not break, if however, you felt the taste of it then the fast will break [Fatahul Qadir].
    • Rule: If medicine is grounded or flour is sieved and you felt the taste in your throat then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir etc.].
    • Rule: If water went inside the ears then the fast will not break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Fatahul Qadir]
    • Rule: If you talked badly about someone behind their back then the fast will not break, however to backbite is a very big sin. It is stated in the Holy Quran that to backbite is the same as eating the flesh of one’s dead brother, it is quoted in the Hadith Sharif that backbiting is worse than adultery and by backbiting the light (noor) of fasting will disappear [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: If you kissed your wife but did not ejaculate then the fast does not break, and in the same way you looked at her private parts but did not touch her and ejaculated or reached orgasm even though you looked many times or you thought about intercourse for a long time or kept on thinking about sexual activities and then ejaculated, then in all these situations the fast will not break [Johra, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: ‘If you had a wet dream (nocturnal emission) then the fast will not break.
    • Rule: If you remained in a state where bathing is obligatory (Junub) until the morning, in fact remained like that all day then the fast will not break, however to remain like that so that you miss a Namaz is Haram and it is quoted in the Hadith Sharif that where there is a Junub person in a house the angels of mercy do not enter the house [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: If  you masturbated but did not ejaculate then the fast does not break although this act is strictly Haram and it is stated in the Hadith that those who do this are not with me (Holy Prophet) [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

    Acts that make the fast Makrooh

    • Rule: To lie, backbite, tell-tale, to swear, talk shamelessly, to cause someone harm are all Haram acts anyway, but to do these acts whilst fasting are even more Haram and because of this the fast become Makrooh.
    • Rule: For a fasting person to taste or chew something without reason then the fast becomes Makrooh. The acceptable reason is when a husband or master is very short tempered and due to there being less salt will cause him disappointment then to taste (but not swallow) will not make the fast Makrooh. Another reason is when there is a small child or elderly or disabled person who cannot chew a chappati or bread and there is no other person available who is not fasting then the fast will not become Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

    Definition of tasting

    Tasting something is not what is known as today where to taste something a few bites are taken or a few sips are taken, never mind tasting this will break the fast and if the conditions of Kaffara apply then Kaffara will become necessary. Tasting is to put something on the tongue and the taste is identified and then the food is spat out and none of it goes down the throat then the fast will not break and if something goes down the throat then the fast will break. Rule: If an item is purchased and it is necessary to taste it otherwise you would suffer a loss then you can taste it and the fast will not become Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar].

    • Rule: To kiss your wife or to embrace her or to touch her is Makrooh when the fear is that you may ejaculate or may be tempted to have sexual intercourse and to kiss her on the lips or to suck her tongue is even more Makrooh and in the same way to perform foreplay is also Makrooh [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
    • To smell a rose or musk (perfume) etc. and. to put oil on the beard or mouchtache or to put on surma is not Makrooh as long as the surma is applied to look handsome or the oil is put on so that the beard will grow, and if the beard is a fist in length then it is Makrooh even when not fasting and if you are fasting then the Makrooh is even more [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: Whilst fasting, for a person to clean the nose or mouth with too much water and exaggeration is Makrooh, exaggeration in washing the mouth means to fill the whole mouth with water.
    • Rule: Except for bathing or Wuzu to put water in the mouth or up the nose to cool down or wash the body or put on a wet cloth to cool down is not Makrooh, however, if you do this to show that you are suffering i.e. to put on a wet cloth, then it is Makrooh because to have a small heart for worship is not a good thing [Alamgih, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: To gather saliva in the mouth and then to swallow even without fasting is not a good thing but it is Makrooh whilst fasting [Alamgiri, Bahar]. To perform Miswaak whilst fasting is not Makrooh, in fact just as it is Sunnat to perform Miswaak on other days it is also Sunnat whilst fasting.



    SEHRI AND IFTAAR (BEGINNING AND ENDING THE FAST) 


    The virtue for performing Sehri

    The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated “eat for Sehri as there is a lot of blessings for this. The difference between our fasts and the fasts of the other book followers is the bite of sehri[Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmizi,Nisaa’i etc.]. Allah and His angels send blessings to those who eat at Sehri [Tibrani]. The whole of Sehri is complete blessing and should not be missed and if possible drink at least one gulp of water because Allah and His angels send blessings upon those who perform sehri” [Imam Ahmad]. The Holy Prophet has stated the Allah has said that out of my servants I love those more who rush their Iftari and delay their Sehri [Ahmad, Tirmizi etc.]. It is also reported that Allah chooses those who hurry their Iftari and delay their Sehri [Tibrani]. Rule: To eat Sehri and to delay it is Sunnat, but to delay it so much that their is doubt that the dawn will break then this is Makrooh [Alamgiri, Bahar]. Rule: To hurry the Iftar is Sunnat but it must only be done when you are satisfied that the sun has set, and until you are not completely satisfied you should not start Iftari even if the Mo’azzin has called the Azaan. On days where it is cloudy the Iftar should not be hurried [Radd-ul-Mohtar].

    What should Iftar be started with ?

    • Rule: The Holy Prophet has stated that when you start the Iftar, then start it with either some dates or dry, dates, and if these are not available then start it with water as this is an item that purifies. The Holy Prophet used to pray this Dua when finishing the fast (Dua of Iftari) “Allahumma Laka Sumto, Wa Alaa Rizqika Aftarto” meaning, Oh Allah I fasted for you and I have opened my fast with vour given wealth.

    Situations Where Missing The Fast Is Allowed

    • Rule: Travelling, pregnancy, breast-feeding, sickness, fear of being killed, any other difficulty recognised by Shariat or illness affecting sense are all reason where missing the fast is allowed and therefore no sin will be committed and when the cause is over then to keep Qaza of the missed fast is compulsory.
    • Rule: Travelling means as per Shariat the recognised distance, i.e. a journey with the intention of travelling three days (fifty seven and a half miles) even if the journey is for a disallowed cause [Durr-e-MukhtarJ. Rule: If you started travelling in the daytime then that day’s fast is not a cause, however, if it is broken then the Kaffara will not be necessary but you will have committed a sin, and if you broke it before starting the journey and then started the journey, then Kaffara will also be necessary. If you travelled during the day but forgot something at home and returned for it and whilst back at home you broke the fast and then started the journey again, then Kaffara is also Wajib [Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: If a traveller had not started travelling before midday and had not eaten anything so far, then it is Wajib to make the intention for the fast [Johra, Bahar].
    • Rule: If no harm will affect the traveller or his companion if they fasted then it is better to fast and if it will cause a problem then it is better not to fast [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: If a pregnant woman or a mother breast feeding has a true indication that her life or the child’s life is in risk then she can miss the fast even if the breast feeding woman is only a wet nurse and only does this work in Ramadan [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: If an ill person has a true indication that their illness will worsen or the healing will be delayed or if a healthy person has a definite indication that their health will deteriorate or the helper will become very weak then in all the above situations it is allowed to miss the fast [Johra, Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: In these situations a definite indication is necessary and just a thought or fear is not sufficient. A definite indication means three options, either a physical sign is seen or felt, or true experience is known or a Muslim Doctor who is not a wrongdoer (Fasiq) has advised. If therefore a physical sign is not seen or it has never been experienced or an infidel doctor or wrongdoer has advised and you missed a fast then this will mean that you have committed a sin and if you break a fast then Kaffara would also be necessary [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar]. Most of today’s doctors if they are not infidels then they certainly are wrongdoers and if these people advise then it must not be followed and it is not allowed to miss the fast or to break the fast is not allowed. These doctors are seen to forbid fasting for small illnesses and do not have the decency to separate the illness that does need the fast to be missed and the illness where fasting would not cause any harm.
    • Rule: If you are so hungry or thirsty that you are definitely sure that you will die or you will lose sanity then in this situation do not keep a fast [Fatahul Qadir, Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: If you are bitten by a snake and your life is at risk then break the fast [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: If an old age pensioner (an old person who is getting weaker every day) who does not have the strength to keep fast and will no longer be able to keep a fast then it is allowed for them not to fast anymore, but it is Wajib upon them to give Fidya for every fast missed meaning to fully feed a beggar twice or to give Sadqa and Fitra for every fast missed [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Alamgiri, Bahar].
    • Rule: If an old person cannot keep the fast in summer due to the heat but can keep the fast in winter then he can miss them in the summer but it is obligatory for him to fast perform Qaza) in the winter [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar etc.]. Rule: After giving Fidya the old person gained enough strength to keep the Qaza for the missed fast then it is Wajib upon them to fast and the Fidya will be counted as voluntary.
    • Rule: A person cannot fast or pray Namaz for another person, however he can send the reward for his fasts to other people [Hidaya, Alamgiri, Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: A Nafl fast if started deliberately becomes necessary and therefore if it is broken it becomes Wajib to keep a Qaza or if it breaks unintentionally such as if monthly periods start it is still necessary to keep it’s Qaza [Hidaya, Durr-e-Mukhtar, etc.].
    • Rule: If a Nafl fast is kept on Eid days or the days when it is Makrooh to fast then it is not Wajib to finish the fast, in fact it is Wajib to break it and Qaza is not Wajib for breaking this fast. If you have made a promise to fast on these days then it is Wajib that you keep the fast but on some other day not on these days [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].

    When Nafl fasts can be broken

    • Rule: You can break a Nafl fast due to the arrival of guests when you are sure that you will perform Qaza for it and it is only allowed to break the fast before midday not after. However, if your parents are unhappy then it is allowed to break the fast before Asr Namaz and not after [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar].
    • Rule: If someone has invited you for a meal then you can break the Nafl fast before midday and it is necessary to keep it’s Qaza.
    • Rule: A woman should not fast Nafl, promised or oath Rozas without her husband’s permission and if she has then he can make her break them but to perform the Qaza will be Wajib and permission should be asked from the husband before keeping them. If however there is no problem from her husband then she can keep the Qaza without his permission and in fact if he refuses she can still keep the Qaza. As for Ramadan fasts or Ramadan Qaza fasts there is no need to gain permission from her husband and in fact if he stops her she must still keep these fasts [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. Rule: If a fast is not kept due to any reason then when it is possible it the Qaza must be kept [Durr-e-Mukhtar etc.].

     

    Injection invalidates the fast and requires the fast to be made up in the opinion of all the schools. 

    At the time Al-Jazīrī wrote that book, all Islamic school of thoughts considered that injection invalidates fasting. It is different matter that later, influences by modern muftis (opinion makers), many changed their views, still what is known in Hanafi Madhab (especially those of ahle-sunnah-wal-jammah), view is still that injection invalidates fasting.

    Why injection invalidates fast

    Hadith of Prophet (saws): Leave that which you are doubtful for that which are not doubtful

    There is no doubt that ‘Injection invalidates fasting’ was an accepted practice of Islam amongst all Muslim school of thoughts (Hanafi, Shafi, Hambli and Malki. 


    So, if things changed by present day muftis, this change cannot be a change without doubts. 

    Hadith regarding doubtful matters:

    Bukhari: Volume 1, Book 2, Number 49: Narrated An-Nu’man bin Bashir: I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, ‘Both legal and illegal things are evident but in between them there are doubtful (suspicious) things and most of the people have no knowledge about them. So whoever saves himself from these suspicious things saves his religion and his honor. And whoever indulges in these suspicious things is like a shepherd who grazes (his animals) near the Hima (private pasture) of someone else and at any moment he is liable to get in it. (O people!) Beware! Every king has a Hima and the Hima of Allah on the earth is His illegal (forbidden) things. Beware! There is a piece of flesh in the body if it becomes good (reformed) the whole body becomes good but if it gets spoilt the whole body gets spoiled and that is the heart. Bukhari:Volume 3, Book 34, Number 267:  Muslim: Book 010, Number 3882:

    Logical conclusions regarding ‘injection and fasting’:

    There are two main reasons that made these petro-dollar muftis to give fatwa (opinion) that injection does not invalidate fasting:

    Reason one: ‘compulsion of necessity’

    YUSUFALI: Why should ye not eat of (meats) on which Allah’s name hath been pronounced, when He hath explained to you in detail what is forbidden to you – except under compulsion of necessity? But many do mislead (men) by their appetites unchecked by knowledge. Thy Lord knoweth best those who transgress – (Quran 6. 119)

    From above ayah, these people (some present day opinion makers) consider that if injection is due to medical reasons, it is ‘compulsion of necessity’, and thus it should be allowed, even during fasting.

    Question is that: Is taking injection is ‘compulsion of necessity’? 

    It would have been the case if in Islam, there was no alternative for fasting (obligatory fasting). Fortunately, there is alternative, rather it is recommended that if a person is sick, one should do qadda fasting and if one cannot even do qadda fasting than give fidia. So taking injection is not ‘compulsion of necessity’ and thus it cannot be justified using above ayah.

    Reason two: Due to differences regarding nutrition and medicine as intake. (Excuses rotates around believe about something going into cavity or something is nutrition or not).

    One reason given is that, invalidating fasting means getting something in cavity (stomach).

    Well, if that would have been the case then nutrition injection should not invalidate fasting (along with medical injection) as it does not provide anything to cavity (but obviously, that is not allowed, as if it was allowed, it would have made fasting a joke for rich).

    Other reason given being that, only nutrition injection invalidates fasting but medical injection does not.

    That means that its not injection that invalidates fasting but receiving nutrition invalidates fasting (and as medicine is not nutrition, it does not invalidate fasting). That argument is illogical, because if that would have been the case, than, taking medicine (that has no nutrition values) through mouth should be OK too (according to same analogy), but it is not.

    Thus, it shows that opinion (fatwa) of these Salafi petro-dollar muftis regarding ‘injection of medicine does not invalidate fasting (and at the same time, injection of nutrition does)’ is a joke, that does not stand in front of any ijtihad based on daleel or on qias.

    Now, is it true that fast can be broken only if a thing gets to cavity (stomoch)?

    Well, it is untrue as many things can break (or invalidates) fast that is nothing to do with either things going into cavity or things to do with nutrition intakes. For example, discharge of semen that is nothing to do with cavity or excessive bleeding nothing to do with cavity (both mentioned do not even provide nutrition but can make a person more weak) or smocking (smoke does not go to cavity but to lungs and has no nutrition value), etc etc, all invalidates fast.

    [Note, smoke is not nutrition, and thus if it was only nutrition that can invalidates fast then smocking should not break fast. On the other hand, all injection uses liquid (even medical injection) and liquid, regardless of it being of any nutrition value, invalidates fast].


    VIRTUES FOR SOME NAFL FASTS 

    Ashura

    Meaning fasting on the tenth of Mohharram and it is better to fast on the ninth of Mohharram. The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam kept the Ashura fast himself and instructed others to keep it and also stated that after Ramadan the best fast is of Ashura [Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da’ud, Tirmizi] and he has also stated that the Ashura fast erodes the past one year and the coming one year’s sins [Muslim, Abu Da’ud].

    Six fasts of Shawwal

    The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that those who have kept the fasts of Ramadan and then kept six fasts of Shawwal, then they are like those who have always kept a fast. He has also stated that if you fast after Eid for six days then you have fasted for the whole year [Muslim, Abu Da’ud Tirmizi, Nisaai, Ibne-Maja etc.].

    • Rule: It is better that they are kept. separately and if they are kept continuously after Eid then there is no harm [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Bahar].

    Fast of Shabaan and the virtue for the 15th of Shabaan

    The Holy Prophet Salallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that when the fifteenth night of Shabaan arrives then on that night stand (meaning perform Nafl Namaz) and fast during the day, because Allah Ta’ala after sunset pays special attention to the world and says is there anyone wanting forgiveness whom I will forgive, is there anyone looking for wealth whom I will- give wealth to, is there anyone who is stuck in difficulty whom I will release ? Is there anyone like this, is there anyone like this ? and He states this until the sunrise of Fajr [Ibne Maja]. He has also stated that on the night of the fifteenth Allah pays attention to all His creation and forgives all except for the infidel and those who break friendship because of a worldly cause [Tibrani, Ibne Huban].

    Fasts of Ayyam Baiz

    Meaning the fasts of the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth of every month. The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that fasting for three. days every month is like fasting all the time [Bukhari, Muslim]. He has also stated that if possible keep three fasts every month as every fast erodes ten sins and clears you of sins like water cleans clothes [Tibrani].

    Fasting on Mondays and Thursdays

    The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that the actions of each person is presented to Allah on Mondays and Thursdays and I would prefer that my actions are presented when I am fasting. He has also stated that Allah forgives everyone except two people who have had a fight and are not speaking to each other, then Allah tells His angels to leave them until they make up [Tirmizi, Ibne Maja].

    Fasting on Wednesdays and Thursdays

    The Holy Prophet Sallallaho Alaihi Wasallam has stated that those who fast on Wednesdays and Thursdays, then there freedom from Hell has been written down and those who fast on Wednesdays, Thursdays and Fridays then Allah Ta’ala makes a house for them in Jannat where the inside can be seen from the outside and the outside can be seen from the inside. Rule: To specifically keep a fast only on Fridays is Makrooh, therefore, you should keep a fast before or after, as to keep a Nafl or Sunnat fast on it’s own is Makrooh.

    AI’TEKAAF – STAYING IN MASJID

    Ai’tekaaf is to stay with the intention of Ai’tekaaf for the sake of Allah in Masjid. There are three types of Ai’takaaf, Wajib, Sunnat-e-Maukida and Mustahhab.

    Ai’tekaaf Wajib

    This is when a promise is made and fulfilled. For example, you make the intention that if my such and such thing is done then I will stay in Masjid for one day or two days. Once the action is completed it is necessary to perform Ai’tekaaf and with this Ai’tekaaf fasting is a condition and without fasting the Ai’tekaaf is not correct.

    Ai’tekaafSunnat-e-Maukida

    This is performed in the last third of Ramadan, meaning the last ten days. i.e. from sunset of the twentieth of Ramadan you entered in the Masjid with the intention of Ai’tekaaf and did not come out until the thirtieth sunset or if the moon is seen on the twenty-ninth sunset. If the intention of Ai’tekaaf is made after sunset on the twentieth then the Sunnat Maukida will not be counted. This Ai’tekaaf is Sunnat-e-Kifaya meaning if one person within the community performs it then all will not be held responsible and if no-one performs it then all will. be held responsible. Fasting is also a condition for this Ai’tekaaf, but the Ramadan fasts are sufficient [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Hindiya].

    Ai’tekaaf Mustahhab

    Except for the Ai’tekaaf Wajib and the Ai’tekaaf Sunnat, any other Ai’tekaaf is Mustahhab. Fasting is not a condition for Ai’tekaaf Mustahhab and it can be done for a little while. Whenever you go to Masjid, make the intention for this Ai’tekaaf even if you are going for a short while and when you come out the Ai’tekaaf will finish. For the intention, just the thought that I am performing Ai’tekaaf Mustahhab for Allah is sufficient [Alarngiri, Bahar etc.].

    • Rule: Masjid is necessary for men but for women the place where she normally prays Namaz is sufficient [Hidaya, Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar].
    • Rule: It is Haram for the Mu’takif (the person performing Ai’tekaaf) to come out of Masjid without a reason, even if it is by mistake, as the Ai’tekaaf will break. In the same way if the woman comes out of the area of Ai’tekaaf without reason then her Ai’tekaaf will break even if she remains in the house [Alamgiri, Radd-ul-Mohtar]. There are two reasons where you can leave the Masjid, one is for natural necessity and the other is for religious necessity. The natural necessity reason is things such as, excretion, urination, to clean the private parts, bathing, Wuzu (where there is no facilities in Masjid to perform Wuzu or have a bath, i.e. a big pool, showers, etc.). The religious necessity is things like going to pray Eid or Juma Namaz and if in the Masjid that you are staying does not have regular Jamaat prayers then you can leave and go to pray Jamaat. Except for these reasons if you went outside the Masjid even for a little while then the Ai’tekaaf will break, even if it was done by mistake.
    • Rule: The Mu’takif will remain in Masjid and he will eat, drink and sleep there, and if he leaves the Masjid for these things then the Ai’tekaaf will break [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Hidaya etc.].
    • Rule: Except for Mu’takif, no other person has the permission to eat, drink or sleep and if you wanted to do these things in Masjid then first make the intention of Ai’tekaaf and then either pray Namaz or other worship and then perform these functions, but you must remember and take great care that the Masjid does not get dirty [Radd-ul-Mohtar, Bahar etc.]. Rule: To fulfil the Mu’takifs needs or his family’s needs, the Mu’takif is allowed to buy or sell in the Masjid as long as the items that he is buying are already not available in the Masjid or if they are available then there is only a small amount and it does not take a lot of space and if the intention is to make business then this is not allowed even if the items are not available in the Masjid [Durr-e-Mukhtar, Radd-ul-Mohtar. Bahar].
    • Rule: The Mu’takif should not stay quiet nor should he speak but he should pray the Quran or Hadith or pray the Durood Sharif, and learn or lecture about the knowledge of Islam, and pray the life stories of the Prophets and the Walls of Allah and write about religion [Durr-e-Mukhtar].
    • Rule: If Nafl Ai’tekaaf is broken then there is no Qaza for it. If the Sunnat Ai’tekaaf is broken then only the day that is broken is necessary for Qaza and not for all the ten days. If the Wajib Ai’tekaaf is broken and the promise was to keep Ai’tekaaf for some days of the month then only the day where the Ai’tekaaf is broken needs to be repeated. If the intention was to keep so many continuous days Ai’tekaaf and it breaks then the Ai’tekaaf will have to be started again. If the continuity is not the promise then just repeat it from where it was broken.
    • Rule: Whatever the reason may be for breaking the Ai’tekaaf, whether it be intentionally or unintentionally, the Qaza has to be performed. 

     

 5 HAJJ, UMRA AND ZIYARAH

The Hajj Pilgrimage, is one of the Pillars and fundamentals of Islam. It is the completion of surrender and the day of perfection of the religion of Islam. It was on this day that Almighty Allah revealed the following message to the Ummah of His beloved Prophet, Sayyiduna Rasulullah(sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)“Today, I have perfected your religion for you and completed my grace upon you and approved Islam as your religion.”

We must understand that the basis of all actions is intention and intention without doubt bears fruit if there is sincerity, and Hajj, which is an integral part of Islam, will therefore require those who perform it to have sincerity.

When the person intends undertaking Hajj, he severs all ties with his family and home. This is a reminder to him also of the journey he will have to undertake for the Hereafter.

As for provisions, the intending pilgrim must ensure that they have been acquired in the Halaal (permissable) manner. If a person desires to take a lot for the journey, then let him remember the journey to the Hereafter which is longer and more difficult and that the best provision for that journey will be Taqwa (Piety).

As for transport, when the pilgrim acquires transport he should give thanks to the Almighty Creator and at the same time remember the transport that will carry him the grave and the next world, namely hisKaffan (Shroud).

As for leaving home, the intending pilgrim should know that he is now bound for the House of Allah. He is on a journey unlike any other. He should bear in mind where he is heading and whom he intends to visit. He should also have hope that his Hajj will be accepted, not because of the difficulties faced, but because of the trust that he has in His Creator.

When wearing the Ihraam, the pilgrim is aware that he has heard the summons of Almighty Allah. He should possess fear and hope when considering the acceptance of his Hajj. This fear should be the fear of Almighty Allah and hope in His Mercy.

As for touching the Hajre Aswad (Black Stone), the pilgrim should believe that he is pledging his loyalty to Almighty Allah and that he will obey the Commands of the Supreme Being. Make firm your promise and do not be like those who promise today and change their minds tomorrow.

When the pilgrim clings to the Khilaaf (Cloth) of the Holy Kaaba, seek forgiveness and beg for Allah’s Mercy. Even the running between Saffa and Marwa must signify a slave who is running to and from the Court of a Mighty King not knowing whether he has been accepted or rejected. As for standing at Arafaat, look at the crowds following theirImaams (Leaders) and recall the sight of the Yaumal Hashr (Day of Gathering).

After this, plead for Almighty Allah’s Mercy. When you throw stones at the Shaitaan, your purpose should be obedience to your Creator. The idea is to drive Shaitaan away from you.

Such should be the various duties of the pilgrim at all stages of the Hajj. When all acts are completed, your heart should be filled with concern and hope, for you do not know whether your Hajj has been accepted or rejected. Yet after completion you realise that your inner and outer self has been filled with enthusiasm and love, and you have a genuine feeling of making Ibaadah, then remember that you have been placed among the chosen ones!

This is without doubt the culmination of a great festival – a festival where Muslims of all colour and language congregate on one massive plain to celebrate the praise of their Creator, Almighty Allah. Hajj provides an opportunity to unite Muslims of the world and it also offers to Muslims an occasion to exchange views on their mutual problems, to iron out their differences, to discuss common opinions, to exchange gifts as well as goodwill, and to take back to their respective homelands memorable feelings of the Muslim brotherhood, of course, in addition to the innumerable blessings of Almighty Allah and the new found purity of their body and soul.

The Five days of Hajj

1ST DAY – 8th Zil-Hajj : The people go to Mina from Makkatul Mukarramah in the morning after wearing the Ihraam.

2ND DAY – 9th Zil-Hajj : The people arrive at Arafaat in the morning and continue their Ibaadah. They also read their Zohar and Asar Salaah and leave for Muzdalifa just before sunset.

3RD DAY – 10th Zil-Hajj : People stay in Muzdalifa for the night and read their Maghrib and Isha Salaah together. They continue their Ibaadah the whole night. Just after Fajar Salaah, they leave for Mina. They then make Qurbaani and stone the Jamratul Uqbah. After Qurbaani, they trim or shave their hair and remove their Ihraam for ordinary clothes. Tawaaf-e-Ziyaarah is then made and Sa’ee between Saffa and Marwa. They now return to Mina.

4TH DAY – 11th Zil-Hajj : The three Jamraats are stoned.

5TH DAY – 12th Zil-Hajj : The three Jamraats are stoned again. Before leaving Makkatul Mukarramah, the Haaji will have to make the Farewell Tawaaf (Tawaaf-e-Widaa).

A visit to Madinatul Munawwarah is also necessary. This can be done before or after the Hajj. Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) has said: “One who visits my grave, is like one who has visited me in my lifetime.” AND “One who visits my grave, my Shafa’at becomes Waajib for him.”

What is Ayyaam-e-Tashreeq

“Ayyaam-e-Tashreeq” or “The Days of Praise” are the 5 days from the 9th till the 13th of Zil-Hajj. It begins from the Fajar Salaah of the 9th and ends at the Asar Salaah of the 13th of Zil-Hajj. On these days, it is Waajib upon all Muslims to read the Takbeer-e-Tashreeq aloud once after every Fard Salaah. Females are required to read softly. It is Sunnah to read this Takbeer 3 times. The words of the Takbeer are:“Allah is Great. Allah is Great. There is none worthy of worship except Allah and Allah is Great. Allah is Great and to Allah belongs all Praise.”

UMRAH: IMPORTANT MASAA’IL

The meaning of “Umrah” is “to visit.” The accomplishment of Umrah at least once in a lifetime is Sunnat-e-Mu’akkadah. The Umrah performed during the auspicious month of Ramadaan supercedes that Umrah completed in other days. Bukhari Shareef states that Umrah in Ramadaan is equal to Hajj.

THE MASAA’ILS OF UMRAH CAN BE BRIEFLY SUMMARISED AS:-


The wearing of Ihraam before entering the Miqat boundary

The performance of two Rakaahs Sunnatul Ihraam

The recitation of Niyyah and Talbiyah

The advancement towards Makkatul Mukarramah while constantly reading the Talbiyah

The performance of Tawaaf with Idh’tibaa and Ramal

The performance of two Rakaah Waajib Salaah after Tawaaf behind Maqaam-e-Ebrahim

Advancement to the Multazam to make Du’a and drink water from the Zam Zam well

Performance of Sa’ee between Saffa and Marwa

Shaving or trimming the hair of the head. 

THE FARAA’IDH OF UMRAH:


Ihraam

Four circuits of Tawaaf 

WAAJIBAAT OF UMRAH:


Completion of all seven circuits

Sa’ee

Shaving/trimming of the hair. 

N.B. The rest are either Sunnat or Adaab.

SEQUENCE OF PERFORMING UMRAH:


Adoption of Ihraam and performance of two Rakaah with Niyyah of Umrah

Tawaaf

Du’a at Multazam

Performance of two Rakaah Salaah at Maqaam-e-Ebrahim

Drinking Zam Zam water

Performing Sa’ee between Saffa and Marwa

Two Rakaah Salaah

Shaving/Trimming of the hair. 

VISITING THE GRAVE OF THE PROPHET:

Visiting the grave is part of the Sunnah and is both excellent and desirable. Hazrat Ibn Umar (radi Allahu anhu) said that the Prophet(sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, “My intercession is assured for all who visit me.” (at-Tabarni) Hazrat Anas bin Malik (radi Allahu anhu) said that the Messenger of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) said, “Anyone who visits me in Madina for the sake of Allah is near to me and I will intercede for him on the Day of Rising.” (Al-Bayhaqi).

Imam Malik (radi Allahu anhu) disliked anyone saying “the tawaf of the visit,” or “we visited the grave of the Prophet,” because people normally use that for visits between themselves, and he did not like to put the Prophet on the same level as other people. He preferred a specific statement like “We greeted the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).” He did not dislike people saying, “We visited the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).” (Ash-Shifa)

ZIARAT – PRESENTING ONESELF THE BLESSED COURT OF THE HOLY PROPHET (SALLAL LAAHU ALAIHI WASALLAM) IN MADINATUL MUNAWWARAH

To present oneself (Haaziri) at the blessed court of the Holy Prophet(sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is close to Waajib (compulsory). Certain people, disguising themselves as “friends”, try to convince you to stay away from the Rauza-e-Anwar of Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). It is said that it is not important to go there. Beware! Never listen to their comments and do not return with the stain of being deprived of visiting Madinatul Munawwarah.

When going to Madinatul Munawwarah, make special intention of visiting Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Imam Ibn Ilhaam states that when going to Madinatul Munawwarah do not even make the intention of visiting the Masjid, but make intention of visiting the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). You should drown yourself in the recitation of Durood and Zikr throughout your entire journey. When the Haram of Madinatul Munawwarah is visible, then it is better to travel on foot. Walk towards it crying, with your head bowed, eyes lowered, and, if possible, bare feet. When the Green Dome or Ghumbade Anwar is in sight, then recite Durood and Salaams in abundance. On reaching the Blessed City, drown yourself in the thought of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

Before making Haaziri you should clear the heart of all other thoughts that are disturbing and avoid unnecessary conversation. Make wudhu (using Miswaak) and Ghusal, if possible, is better. Preferably wear white clothing and new clothes are better. Use fragrance and Surma. The best of fragrance is Musk. Now, with total love and reverence, turn towards the Roza-e-Aqdas. If you cannot cry, make a sorrowful face and force the heart to weep. Beg in the court of Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). At the entrance of the Masjid, send Durood and Salaams and then wait for a little while as if you are waiting for permission from Sarkaar-e-Madina (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Say “Bismillah” and enter with the right foot. Do so with utmost respect and reverence. When visiting the Rauza-e-Anwar, believe in your heart that the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is physically alive and present just as he was before passing from the world. His demise and the demise of all the other Ambiya (alaihimus salaam) is only a split second, to fulfil the promise of Allah. Their passing away was for them just to be hidden from the eyes of the general public. Imam Muhammad ibn Haaj Makki (radi Allahu anhu) in “Madkhal”, and Imam Ahmad Qastalaani (radi Allahu anhu) in “Muwaahibul Laduniyah” state, “There is no difference in the life and demise of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) as he is seeing his Ummat, and he is aware of them, and he is aware of their intentions. He understands the thoughts of the hearts and all these are before the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). In this way, that there is nothing actually hidden in it.”

Now at the height of respect, bow your head, lower your gaze, and shiver in the fear of Allah. Perspire in the shame of your sins, hoping and having faith in the mercy and blessing of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Present yourself at the feet of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) and hope that the blessed sight of the Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) is on you. This is sufficient for you in both the worlds. Now like the heart, the face is also towards the Jaali Mubaarak of Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) which is the resting place of the beloved of Allah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Stand with total respect and honour. With a soft voice, low gaze, ashamed, not with a harsh or loud voice (since to speak aloud in this court is disrespect and cause of destruction) and neither being too soft since it is against Sunnah (even though the Prophet is even aware of the condition of your heart, just as it was evident from the sayings of the A’imma mentioned above), say the following: “As Salaamu Alaika Ayuhan Nabiyu wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barkatuhu, As Salaamu Alaika Ya Rasolallah. As Salaamu Alaika Ya, Khairi Khalqillah. Asalaamu Alaika Ya Shafi Al Muznabeen, As Salaamu Alaika Wa Ala Aalika wa Ashaabika Wa Um’matika Ajmaeen.”

Ask for Shafa’at (Intercession) from Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) for your parents, Ustaads, Peer-o-Murshid, respected ones, friends, relatives and all Muslims. Continuously say, “As Alukash Shafa’ata Ya Rasoolallah.” If someone asked you to convey their Salaams, then do so. May Almighty Allah accept the Ziyaarat of all those of visit the Rauza-e-Anwar of Huzoor-e-Akram (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam)Ameen.

ASK THE AALIM

Question: If any act was not done correctly or mistakenly during the Hajj and Umrah, can the Dam be given outside the precincts of the sacred Haram?

Answer: If it is Waajib to give Dam for the mistakes made during Hajj and Umrah, then that animal of Dam should be slaughtered in the Haram. If the animal is slaughtered outside the precinct of the Haram, Dam will not be regarded as valid.

Question: If a person who performed Umrah did not shave his head and returned to his country, what should he do?

Answer: He should shave his head and give Dam.

SAUDI AUTHORITIES AND THEIR ULAMA ARE CONSPIRING TO CHANGE THE TIMES OF RAMI-E-JAMRAT DURING THE HAJJ

THE MUSLIM UMMAH SHOULD UNITE IN OPPOSING THIS RULE AS IT IS AN OPEN BID’AH (INNOVATION). SAUDIS SHOULD DISCUSS THIS MATTER WITH THE ULAMA AND SCHOLARS OF THE MUSLIM UMMAH WORLD-WIDE AND SEEK A SOLUTION TO THE STAMPEDING PROBLEM AS OFFERED BY THE SHARI’AH.

It has been reported in the Saudi news media that the times of the Rami-e-Jamrat (Stoning of Shaitaan) are to be changed by the Saudi Government. In their view, they consider it permissable within the framework of Shari’ah to change this time. They believe that in doing so, it would prevent congestion, ease the whole process and prevent the recurrence of the stampedes which took place in the past.

It is reported in the newspaper, “Al-Hayaat”, that the normal period in which the pelting of the Shaitaan takes place, that is, after Zawaal on the 11th and 12th of Zil-Hijjah, would now be changed to begin from after the Fajr on the same days.

The Saudi Ulama propose to issue and publish a Fatwa prior to the Hajj of 1419 A.H. (in 1999) to make way for the changes. If this goes ahead as they plan, this will constitute a great Bid’ah (Innovation). From the time of Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), the established proceedure for Rami-e-Jamrat throughout the ages, including the period of the four Righteous Imams, to this day, had been the stoning of the Shaitaan from after Zawaal on the 11th and 12th of Zil-Hijjah.

The rules and the laws governing Hajj has been established by Shari’ah. The manner in which Rasool-e-Paak (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) directed the proceedure of Rami-e-Jamrat during Hajjat-ul-Wida, as far as the time, manner and sequence is concerned, is the same proceedure followed through the ages, which we should follow through.

This proceedure is also verified in Bukhari Shareef (Vol. 1), Sahih Muslim (Vol. 1) and Abu Dawud (Vol. 1) under the section, “Kitaabul Manaasik”. In Bukhari Shareef, Vol. 2, pg. 464, Hadith 134, in the Chapter, “To do the Rami of the Jamir”, it is stated: Hazrat Jaabir (radi Allahu anhu) said, “The Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) did the Rami on the Day of Nahr (10th Zil-Hajjah) before noon, and then (on the 11th and 12th of Zil-Hijjah) he did the Rami after Zawaal (after the decline of the sun)”.

The sequence, the place and the manner of carrying out the Arkan of Hajj should be executed in exactly the same manner as was shown to the Ummah by Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). This is an obligatory act prescribed by Shari’ah.

In the same manner that it is not permissable to bring about changes in the proceedure of Hajj with regards to the rituals, it is also not permissable to change the times of carrying out the rituals from that which was shown to us by Rasoolullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).

The majority of the Saudis claim to be the followers of Imam Ahmed bin Hambal (radi Allahu anhu), who himself did not deviate from the times and ritual proceedures as mentioned above. This is evident in the Kitaab of the Hambali Madhab known as “Al Mugni” by Ibne Qadama, Vol. 3, pg. 452, where it is stated that, “On the Days of Tashreeq, Rami is not permissable before Zawaal. If it is done before Zawaal, then it has to be repeated after Zawaal” (to conform with Shari’at).

The reason for recurring stampedes in the Rami area is because the Hujjaj fail to exercise discipline and opt for rushing through the proceedure. It has been stated that the stampedes that have occurred in the past took place on the 10th or 13th of Zil-Hajj. To carry out Rami on the 10th before Zawaal is Sunnat, although the period extends till sunset without violating the Laws of the Shari’ah. If for some excusable reason, the stoning of the Jamrat takes place at night, then it is not Makrooh.

The real solution to the problem of delaying the Rami, as indicated above, may be done within the framework of the Shari’ah. In instituting any changes in Shar’an times of Rami, the Saudi Government would be causing a major interference with the Shari’ah and this could lead to Fitna.

In order to address this issue, it is imperative that the Hujaaj be administered with proper training and be made familiar with the details of Hajj prior to going for Hajj. It is of utmost importance in the interest of upholding the principles of the Shari’ah that the Muslim Ummah, Ulama and masses, unite and vehemently object and put an end to the Saudi Government’s attempted blatant violation of Shari’ah proceedures as was shown to us by Rasool-e-Paak (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).  Courtesy –  http://www.nooremadinah.net

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