Ramaḍan ka maʻná wa mafhūm

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ʻArabī zabān meṅ Ramaḍān ka māddah ضَم َر hai, jis ka
maʻná saḳht garmī aur tapish hai. Ramaḍān meṅ chūṅ-keh
rozah-dār bhūk-o pyās kī shiddat măḥsūs kartā hai is liye use
Ramaḍan kaha jāta hai.
[Ibn Manẓūr fī Lisān al-ʻArab, 07: 162]

Mullā ʻAlī Qarī farmāte haiṅ keh Ramaḍan رمضاءse
mushtaq hai is ka maʻná saḳht garm zamīn hai lehāz̲ā Ramaḍān
ka maʻná saḳht garm huwā. Ramaḍan ka yeh nām is liye rakhā
gaya hai keh jab ʻAraboṅ ne purānī luġhat se mahīnoṅ ke nām
muntaqil kiye to unheṅ awqāt aur zamānoṅ ke sāth mausūm
kar diyā. jin meṅ woh us waqt waqeʻ the. Ittefāqan Ramaḍan
un dinoṅ saḳht garmī ke mausim meṅ āyā thā. Is liye us ka nām
Ramaḍān rakh diya gaya.
[Mullā ʻAlī Qārī fī Mirqāṫ al-mafātīḥ, 04: 229]
Qur’ān kī raushnī meṅ Ramaḍānu al-mubārak kī faz̤īlat
Ramaḍānu al-mubārak Islāmī taqwīm (kaileṅd̥ar) meṅ
wo bā-barkat mahīnā hai jis meṅ Allāh Taʻālá ne Qur’āne
Ḥakīm nāzil farmaya. Ramaḍānu al-mubārak kī hī kī ek bā-
barkat shab āsmāne dunyā pūre Qur’ān ka nuzūl huwā lehāz̲ā
us rāt ko Allāh Rabbu al-ʻIzzāt ne tamām rātoṅ par faz̤īlat ʻaṭā
farmā’ī aur use Shabe Qadr qarār dete huwe irshād farmāyā:” لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ اَلْفِ شَهْر ٍ۔
hazār mahīnoṅ se behtar hai.”
[Al-Qadr, 97: 03.]
Ḥadīs̲kī raushnī meṅ Ramaḍānu al-mubārak kī faz̤īlat
Ḥaz̤rat Abū Hurayrah raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se marwī
hai keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī
wa-sallam ne farmayā:
. مَنْ ص َ ام َ رَمَض َ انَ إِيْمَانًا وَّإِحْتِس َ ابًا غُِفِ َ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّم مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ
“Jo shaḳhs ba-ḥālate īmān s̲awāb kī nīyat se Ramaḍān
ke roze rakhtā hai us ke sābiqah gunāh baḳhs diye jāte haiṅ.”
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 709, raqam: 1910.]
Ḥaz̤rat Abū Hurayrah raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se marwī
hai keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī
wa-sallam ne farmayā:
. إِذَا َدخَلَ رَمَض َ انُ فُتِّحَتْ اَبْوَابُ الْجَنَّةِ وَغُلِّقَتْ اَبْوَابُ جَهَنَّمَ، وَسُلْسِلَتِ الشَّ يَاطِيْنُ
“Jab māhe Ramaḍān ātā hai to jannat ke darwāze khol
diye jāte haiṅ aur doazaḳh ke darwāze band kar diye jāte haiṅ
aur Shayṭān ko pā-ba-zaṅjīr kar diyā jātā hai.”
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 03: 1194, raqam: 3103]

Ḥujjaṫ Allāh al-bāliġhah meṅ Ḥaz̤rat Shāh Walī Allāh
Muḥaddit̲h̲Dihlawī raḥmaṫu Allāhi ‘alayh mundareja’e bālā
ḥadīs̲e mubārkah kī sharḥ meṅ farmāte haiṅ: “Jannat ke darwāzoṅ kā kholā jānā Ăhle Īmān ke liye
faz̤l hai warnā Kuffār-o Mushrikīn to in dinoṅ meṅ gumrāhī
wa z̤alālat meṅ păhle se ziyādah maṣrūf ho jāte haiṅ kyūṅ-keh
shaʻā’irullāh kī hatk karte haiṅ. Ăhle Īmān chūṅ-keh Ramaḍān
ke roze rakhte haiṅ aur ʻibādat-o riyāz̤at karte haiṅ. Is mubārak
mahīne meṅ nekiyoṅ kī kas̲rat karte haiṅ aur burā’iyoṅ se
bache răhte haiṅ.”
[Shāh Walī Allāh fī Ḥujjaṫ Allāh al-bāliġhah, 02: 88.]
Is liye ham kăh sakte haiṅ keh un ke liye jannat ke
darwāze khol diye ga’e haiṅ aur jahannam ke darwāze band
kar diye ga’e haiṅ.
Aur jannat ke darwāzoṅ ke khole jāne kā fā’edah yeh
hai keh Malā’ikah rozah-dāroṅ ke ʻamal ko achc̥hā jān kar un
ke liye jannat tayyār karte haiṅ aur yeh Allāh Rabbu al-ʻIzzat
kī ṭaraf se rozah-dāroṅ kī bar̥ī ʻizzat āfzā’ī hai.
Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ Shayṭānoṅ kā jakar̥ diyā
jānā is amr se kināyah hai keh Shayṭān logoṅ ko băhkāne se
bāz răhte haiṅ aur Ăhle Īmān un ke waswase qubūl nahīṅ karte.
Is kī waj·h yeh hai keh roze ke bāʻis̲ ḥaiwānī quwwat ho
ġhaz̤ab aur shăhwat kī jar̥ hai, maġhlūb ho jātī hai. Ġhaz̤ab aur
shăhwat hī bar̥e-bar̥e gunāhoṅ kā bāʻis̲hote haiṅ. Is ke bar ʻaks

quwwate ʻaqlīyah jo ṭāqat aur nekiyoṅ kā bāʻis̲hai, roze kī
waj·h se qawī hotī hai, jaisā keh mushāhadah meṅ hai keh maiṅ
ʻām dinoṅ kī insbat gunāh kam hote haiṅ aur ʻibādat ziyādah
hotī hai.
Istiqbāle Ramaḍānu al-mubārak
Ḥaz̤rat Anas raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se marwī hai keh
jaise hī māhe Rajab kā chāṅd ṭulūʻ hotā to Āp ṣallá Allāhu
‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam Allāh Taʻālá ke ḥuz̤ūr yeh duʻā
farmāte:
. اَللَّهُمَّ بَارِکْ لَنَا فِي رَ جَبٍ ، وَشَعْبَانَ، وَبَارِکْ لَنَا فِي رَمَض َ انَ
“Ae Allāh! Hamāre liye Rajab, Shaʻbān aur (bil- ḳhuṣūṣ) māhe Ramaḍān ko bā-barkat banā de.”
[Abū Nuʻaym fī Ḥilyaṫ al-awliyā’ wa-ṭabaqāt al-aṣfiyā’, 06:
269.]
Ummu al-Mu’minīn Ḥaz̤rat Ummi Salamah raḍiya
Allāhu ‘anhā bayān kartī haiṅ keh unhoṅ ne Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye
Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ko musalsal do
māh tak roze rakhne nahīṅ dekhā magar Āp ṣallá Allāhu
‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam Shaʻbānu al-muʻaẓẓam ke
mubārak māh meṅ musalsal roze rakhte keh wo Ramaḍānu al￾mubārak ke roze se mil jātā.
[Nasā’ī fī al-Sunan, 04: 150, raqam: 2175.]

Ḥaz̤rat Anas raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu Shaʻbān meṅ Ṣahāba’e kirām raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhum ke maʻmūl par raushnī
. للضَّ عيفِ والمسکينِ علي صيامِ و رمضانَ کان المسلمون إِذَا َدخَلَ شَعْبَانُ اکبُّوا علي المصاحِفِ فرقووها، واَْخ ْ َجُوْا زَ ک َا َه اموالهم تقوِيَةً :̇d̥ālte huwe farmāte hain
“Shaʻbān ke shurūʻ hote hī Musalmān Qur’ān kī ṭaraf
jhūk par̥te, apne amwāl kī zakāṫ nikālte tā-keh ġharīb, miskīn
log roze aur mahe Ramaḍān behtar ṭaur par guzār sakeṅ.”
[Ibn Rajab Ḥanbalī fī Laṭā’if al-maʻārif, /258.]
Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá
Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ke maʻmūlāt
1. Kas̲rate ʻibādat wa Riyāz̤at 2. Saḥrī wa Ifṭārī
3. Qiyāmu al-Layl 4. Kas̲arte Ṣadaqāt wa Ḳhairāt
5. Eʻtikāf

1. Kas̲rate ʻIbādat wa Riyāz̤at
Ummu al-Mu’minīn Ḥaz̤rat ʻĀ’ishah Ṣiddīqah raḍiya
Allāhu ‘anhā se marwī hai:
. الدُّعَائِ، وَاَشْفَق َ مِنْه ُ صليٰ االله عليه وآله وسلم إذَا َدخَلَ رَمَض َ انَ لَغَيَرَ لَوْنُهُ وَ کَثُرَتْ ص َ َل َ تُهُ، وابْتَهَلَ فِي اللهِ ک َانَ رَسُوْلُ ا
Istiqbāle Ramaḍānu al-mubārak 21

“Jab māhe Ramaḍān shurūʻ hotā to Rasūl Allāh ṣallá
Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ka raṅg mubārak
mutaġayyir ho jātā, Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa￾sallam kī namāzoṅ meṅ iz̤āfah ho jātā, Allāh Taʻālá se gir̥ gir̥ā
kar duʻā karte aur us kā ḳhauf ṭārī takhte.”
[Bayhaqī fī Shuʻab al-īmān, 03: 310, raqam: 3625.]

2. Saḥrī wa Ifṭārī Ḥaz̤rat Anas bin Mālik raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se marwī
hai keh saḥrī khāne ke mutʻalliq Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-
Ālihī wa-sallam ne farmāyā:
. تَس ََّح َّ ُوْا فَاِنَّ فِي الس ُّ حُوْرِ بَرَکَةً
“Saḥrī ḳhāyā karo kyūṅ-keh saḥrī meṅ barkat hai.”
[Muslim fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 770, raqam: 1095.]
Ek aur maqām par Ḥaz̤rat Abū Qays raḍiya Allāhu
‘anhu ne Ḥaz̤rat ʻAmr bin al-ʻĀṣ raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se
riwāyat kiyā keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi
wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne farmāyā:
“Hamāre aur Ăhle Kitāb ke rozoṅ men saḥrī khāne ka
farq hai.”
[Muslim fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 771, raqam: 1096.]

3. Qiyāmu al-Layl
Ḥaz̤rat Abū Hurayrah raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se marwī
hai keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī
wa-sallam ne farmāyā:
. رَمَض َ انَ، إِيْمَانًا وَاحْتِس َ ابًا، غُِفِ َلَهُ ما تَقَدَّم َ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ مَنْ قَام َ
“Jis ne Ramaḍān meṅ ba-ḥālate īmān s̲awāb kī nīyat se
qiyām kiyā to us ke sābiqah tamām gunāh muʻāf kar diye
ga’e.”
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 01: 22, raqam: 37.]
Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī
wa-sallam ne farmāyā:
“Jis ne īmān wa eḥtesāb kī nīyat se Ramaḍān ke roze
rakhe aur rātoṅ ko qiyām kiyā wo gunāhoṅ se is ṭarḥ pāk ho
jātā hai jis din woh baṭne mādar se paidā hote waqt (gunāhoṅ
se) pāk thā.”
[Nasā’ī fī al-Sunan, 04: 158, raqam: 2208_2210.]

4. Kas̲arte Ṣadaqāt wa Ḳhairāt
Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá
Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam kī saḳhāwat aur ṣadaqāt-o
ḳhairāt meṅ kas̲rat sāl ke bāqī gyārah mahīnoṅ kī nisbat aur
ziyādah bar̥h jātī. Is māh ṣadaqa-o ḳhairāt meṅ itnī kas̲rat ho
jātī keh hawā ke tez jhaūṅke bhī us kā muqābalah na kar sakte.

Ḥaz̤rat ʻAbd Allāh bin ʻAbbās raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhumā se
marwī hai:
. اَجْوَ َد بِالْخَيْر ِمِنَ الرِّيْحِ الْمُرْسَلَةِ اللهِ( فَإِذَا لَقِيَهُ جِبْرِيلُ ک َانَ )رَسُوْلُ ا
“Jab Ḥaz̤rat Jibrīl Amīn ā jāte to Āp ṣallá Allāhu
‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam bhalā’ī karne meṅ tez hawā se bhī
ziyadah saḳhī ho jāte the.”
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 672_673, raqam: 1803.]
Ḥaz̤rat Jibrīl Allāh Taʻālá kī ṭaraf se paiġhāme
maḥabbat le kar āte the. Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ chūṅ-keh
ʻām dinoṅ kī nisbat kas̲rat se āte the is liye Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye
Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam un ke āne kī
ḳhẉushī meṅ ṣadaqa-o ḳhairāt bhī kas̲rat se karte.

5. Eʻtikāf
Ummu al-Mu’minīn Ḥaz̤rat ʻĀ’ishah Ṣiddīqah raḍiya
Allāhu ‘anhā se marwī hai:
Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī” . اعْتَکَفَ اَزْوَاجُهُ مِنْ بَعْدِه ِ ، ثُمَّ اللهُ االَوَاْخ ِ َ مِنْ رَمَض َ انَ حَتَّي تَوَفَّاُه ا اَنَّ النَِّب َي صليٰ االله عليه وآله وسلم ک َانَ يَعْتَکِفُ الْعَْش ْ َ
wa-sallam Ramaḍānu al-mubārak ke āḳhirī das din eʻtikāf
karte the yahāṅ tak keh Allāh Taʻālá ke ḥukm se Āp ṣallá
Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam kā wiṣāl ho gayā, phir Āp
ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ke baʻd Āp ṣallá
Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam kī Azwāje muṭahharāt ne
eʻtikāf kiyā hai.”
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 713, raqam: 1922.]
Ḥaz̤rat Abū Hurayrah raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se marwī
hai:
“Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī
wa-sallam har sāl Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ das din eʻtikāf
farmāte the aur jis sāl Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa￾sallam ka wiṣāl mubārak huwā, us sāl Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi
wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne bīs din eʻtikāf kiyā.”
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 719, raqam: 1939.]
Allāh Taʻālá Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ Ummate
Muḥammadī ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ko
kin taḥā’if se nawāztā hai?
Ḥaz̤rat Jābir bin ʻAbd Allāh raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhumā
bayān karte haiṅ keh Rasūl Allāh ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī
wa-sallam ne farmāyā:
“Merī ummat ko māhe Ramaḍān meṅ pāṅch tŏḥfe mile
haiṅ jo is se păhle kisī Nabī ko nahīṅ mile.
إِلَيْهِ لَمْ اللهُ تَعالي إِلَيْهِمْ وَمَنْ نَظَرَ ا اللهُ أَمَّا وَاحِدَةٌ فَإِنَّهُ إِذَا ک َانَ أَوَّلُ لَيْلَةٍ مِنْ شَهْر ِرَمَض َ انَ نَظَرَ ا

. يُعَذِّ بْهُ أَبَدً ا
Păhla yeh keh jab māhe Ramaḍān kī păhlī rāt hotī hai
to Allāh Taʻālá un kī ṭaraf naẓare iltifāt farmātā hai aur jis par
Allāh kī naẓar par̥ jā’e use kabhī ʻaz̲āb nahīṅ degā.
. رِيْحِ الْمِسْکِ مِنْ اللهِ وَأَمَّا الثَّانِيَةُ فَإِنَّ خُلُوْف َ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ حِيْنَ يُمْسُ وْنَ أَطْيَبُ عِنْدَ ا
Dūsrā yeh keh shām ke waqt un ke muṅh kī bū Allāh
Taʻālá ko kastūrī kī ḳhẉushbū se bhī ziyādah achc̥hī lagtī hai.
. وَأَمَّا الثَّالِثَهُ فَإِنَّ الْمََلَئِکَ َه تَسْتَغِْفُِ لَهُمْ فِي کُلِّ يَوْمٍ وَلَيْلَةٍ
Tīsrā yeh keh firishte har din aur rāt un ke liye
. َدارِي وََک َ َامَتِي تَعَبِ الدُّ نْيَا إلَِي اسْتَعِدِّي وَتَزَيَنِي لِعِبَادِي أَوْشَکُوْا أَنْ يَسْ تَرِيْحُوْا مِنْ : يَأْمُرُ جَنَّتَهُ َفيَقُوْلُ لَهَا اللهَ وَأَمَّا الرَّابِعَةُ فَإِنَّ ا .̇baḳhshish kī duʻā karte răhte hain
Chauthā yeh keh Allāh Taʻālá apnī jannat ko ḥukm
dete huwe kăhtā hai: mere bandoṅ ke liye tayyārī kar le aur
muzayyan ho jā, qarīb hai keh wo dunya kī thakāwat̥ se mere
. وَأَمَّا الْخَامِس َةُ فَإِنَّهُ إِذَا ک َانَ آْخ ِ ُ لَيْلَةٍ غُِفِ َ لَهُمْ جَمِيْعًا .̇ghar aur mere dāre raḥmat meṅ pahŏṅch kar ārām ḥāṣil karen
Pāṅchwāṅ yeh keh jab (Ramaḍān kī) āḳhirī rāt hotī hai
un sab ko baḳhsh diyā jātā hai.

Ek Ṣaḥābī ne ʻarz̤ kiyā: kyā yeh sab shabe qadr ko hotā
hai? Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne farmāyā:
nahīṅ. Kyā tum jānte ho keh jab mazdūr kām se fāriġh ho jāte
haiṅ tab unheṅ mazdūrī dī jātī hai?”
[Bayhaqī fī Shuʻab al-īmān, 03: 303, raqam: 3603,
Mund̲h̲irī fī al-Tarġhīb wa-al-tarhīb, 02: 56, raqam: 1477.]
Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ Tilāwate Qur’ān Ḥakīm kī
Faz̤īlat
Yeh ʻaẓīm Kitāb jis kī tilāwat kī be panāh faz̤īlat hai,
Ramaḍānu al-mubārak ke bā-barkat mahīnah meṅ nāzil hū’ī.
Isī leḥāẓ se Qur’āne Ḥakīm aur Ramaḍānu al-mubārak kā āpas
men găhrā taʻalluq hai. Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ Qur’āne
Majīd kī tilāwat karne wālā goyā us taʻalluq ko maz̤būṭ-o
mustăḥkam kartā hai.
Ḥaz̤rat ʻAbd Allāh Ibn ʻAbbās raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhumā
se marwī hai:
Ḥaz̤rat Jibrā’īle Amīn ‘alayhi al-salām Ramaḍān kī” . ک َانَ يَلْقَاُه فِي کُلِّ لَيْلَةٍ مِنْ رَمَض َ انَ فَيُدَارِسُهُ الْرقُْآنَ
har rāt meṅ Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam se
mulāqāt karte aur Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam
ke sāth Qur’ān kā daur karte.”
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 01: 07, raqam: 06.]

Ḥaz̤rat ʻAbd Allāh bin ʻAmr raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu
bayān karte haiṅ keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi
wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne farmāyā:
“Qiyāmat ke din rozah-dār aur Qur’ān donoṅ bande ke
liye shafāʻat kareṅge. Rozah kahegā: ae mere Rabb! maiṅ ne
is shaḳhṣ ko din ke waqt khāne (pīne) aur (dūsrī) nafsānī
ḳhẉāhishāt se roke rakhā pas tū is shaḳhṣ ke mutaʻalliq meri
shafāʻat qubūl farmā. Qur’ān kahegā: ae mere Rabb! maiṅ ne
is shaḳhṣ ko rāt ke waqt jagā’e rakhā pas is ke mutaʻalliq merī
shafāʻat qubūl farmā. Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa￾sallam ne farmāyā: un donoṅ kī shafāʻat qubūl kī jā’egī.”
[Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal fī al-Musnad, 02: 174, raqam: 6626.]

Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ ʻUmrah karne kī Faz̤īlat

Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ ʻumarah adā karnā s̲awāb
meṅ ḥajj karne ke barābar hai. Ḥadīs̲e mubāraka meṅ Ḥaz̤rat
Ibn ʻAbbās raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhumā se riwāyat hai keh Ḥuz̤ūr
Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne ek
Anṣārī ḳhātūn se farmāyā: kyā waj·h hai keh tū ne hamāre sāth
ḥajj nahīṅ kiyā? Us (ʻaurat) ne kaha: hamāre pās ek pānī
bharne wālā ūṅt̥ thā. Us par Abū fulāṅ aur us kā lar̥kā yaʻnī us
kā shauhar aur bet̥ā sawār ho kar ḥajj ke liye rawānah ho ga’e
aur apne pīc̥he ek āb-kash ūṅt̥(ḳhāndān kī z̤arūrat ke liye) c̥hor̥
ga’e (is ke ʻilāwah hamāre pās ko’ī sawārī nahīṅ). Yeh sun kar
Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne farmāyā: jab
Ramaḍān ā’e to ʻumrah kar lenā kyūṅ-keh Ramaḍān meṅ ʻumrah ḥajj ke barābar hai.”
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 631, raqam: 1690.]

List of expeditions of Nabi Pak ﷺ

  • Blue colour indicate :Expeditions in which Nabi Pak ﷺ took part
  • Green colour indicate: Expeditions in which Nabi Pak ﷺ  sent his Sahaba 
Type Name C.E. date A.H. year
1 Expedition of Hamza ibn ‘Abdul-Muttalib[2] March 623 1
2 Expedition of Ubaydah ibn al-Harith April 623 1
3 al-Kharrar expedition[3] May 623 1
4(1) Patrol of Waddan (al-Abwa'[3]) August 623 1
5(2) Patrol of Buwat September 623 2
6(3) First Expedition to Badr (Safwan[3]) September 623 2
       
       
7(4) Patrol of Zul Al-Ushairah December 623 2
8 Nakhla Raid January 624 2
9(5) Battle of Badr 15 March 624 2
10 Killing of Asma bint Marwan March 624 2
11 Killing of Abu Afak March 624 2
12(6) Invasion of Banu Qaynuqa April 624 2
13(7) Invasion of Sawiq May/June 624 2
14(8) Al Kudr Invasion May 624 3
15 Killing of Ka’b ibn al-Ashraf August/September 624 3
16(9) Dhu Amarr raid September 624 3
17(10) Invasion of Buhran October/November 624 3
18 Al-Qarada raid November 624 3
19(11) Battle of Uhud 23 March 625 3
20(12) Battle of Hamra al-Asad March 625 3
21 Expedition of Qatan June 625 4
22 Expedition of Abdullah Ibn Unais June 625 4
23 Expedition of Al Raji July 625 4
24 Expedition of Bir Maona July 625 4
25(13) Invasion of Banu Nadir August 625 4
26(14) Expedition of Badr al-Maw’id April 626 4
27(15) Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa June 626 5
28(16) Expedition of Dumat al-Jandal August/September 626 5
29 Expedition of al-Muraysi’ January 627 5
30(17) Battle of the Trench April 627 5
31(18) Invasion of Banu Qurayza May 627 5
32 Expedition of Muhammad ibn Maslamah June 627 6
33(19) Invasion of Banu Lahyan July 627 6
34 Expedition of Dhu Qarad August 627 6
35 Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan August/September 627 6
36 First Raid on Banu Thalabah August/September 627 6
37 Second Raid on Banu Thalabah August/September 627 6
38 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Jumum) September 627 6
39 Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Al-Is) September/October 627 6
40 Third Raid on Banu Thalabah October/November 627 6
41 Expedition of Zayd ibn Harithah (Hisma) October/November 627 6
42 Expedition of Zayd ibn Harithah (Wadi al-Qura) November/December 627 6
43 Expedition of Abdur Rahman bin Auf December 627/January 628 6
44 Expedition of Fidak December 627/January 628 6
45 Second Expedition of Wadi al-Qura 628 6
46 Expedition of Kurz bin Jabir Al-Fihri January/February 628 6
47 Expedition of Abdullah ibn Rawaha February/March 628 6
48(20) Treaty of Hudaybiyyah March 628 6
49(21) Conquest of Fidak May 628 7
50(22) Battle of Khaybar May/June 628 7
51(23) Third Expedition of Wadi al Qura May 628 7
52 Expedition of Umar ibn al-Khatab December 628 7
53 Expedition of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq December 628 7
54 Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Fadak) December 628 7
55 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Mayfah) January 629 7
56 Expedition of Bashir Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari (Yemen) February 629 7
57 Expedition of Ibn Abi Al-Awja Al-Sulami April 629 7
58 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Fadak) May 629 7
59 Expedition of Ghalib ibn Abdullah al-Laithi (Al-Kadid) June 629 8
60 Expedition of Shuja ibn Wahb al-Asadi June 629 8
61 Expedition of Ka’b ibn ‘Umair al-Ghifari July 629 8
62 Battle of Mu’tah September 629 8
63 Expedition of Amr ibn al-As October 629 8
64 Expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah October 629 8
65 Expedition of Abi Hadrad al-Aslami 629 8
66 Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab’i al-Ansari (Khadirah) December 629 8
67 Expedition of Abu Qatadah ibn Rab’i al-Ansari (Batn Edam) December 629 8
68(24) Conquest of Mecca January 630 8
69 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Nakhla) January 630 8
70 Raid of Amr ibn al-As January 630 8
71 Raid of Sa’d ibn Zaid al-Ashhali January 630 8
72 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Banu Jadhimah) January 630 8
73(25) Battle of Hunayn January 630 8
74 Expedition of At-Tufail ibn ‘Amr Ad-Dausi January 630 8
75(26) Battle of Autas 630 8
76 Expedition of Abu Amir Al-Ashari January 630 8
77 Expedition of Abu Musa Al-Ashari January 630 8
78(27) Siege of Ta’if February 630 8
79 Expedition of Uyainah bin Hisn April/May 630 9
80 Expedition of Qutbah ibn Amir May/June 630 9
81 Expedition of Dahhak al-Kilabi June/July 630 9
82 Expedition of Alqammah bin Mujazziz July/August 630 9
83 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Al-Fuls) July/August 630 9
84 Expedition of Ukasha bin Al-Mihsan (Udhrah and Baliy) 630 9
85(28) Battle of Tabuk October/December 630 9
86 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Dumatul Jandal) October 630 9
87 Expedition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb 630 9
88 Demolition of Masjid al-Dirar 630 9
89 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (2nd Dumatul Jandal) April 631 9
90 Expedition of Surad ibn Abdullah April 631 9
91 Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (Najran) June/July 631 10
92 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Mudhij) December 631 10
93 Expedition of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Hamdan) 632 10
94 Demolition of Dhul Khalasa April 632 10
95 Expedition of Usama bin Zayd (Mu’tah) May 632 10

 

Quran and Modern Science ::CLOUDS AND THE PROCESS OF RAIN

43- Do not you see that God drives the clouds, then joins
them together, then piles them on each other, then you see
the rain comes forth from between them. And He sends
down hail from the sky, where there are mountains of it.
And strikes those with it whom He will and diverts it from
whomever He wills. The vivid flash of its lightning nearly
blinds the sight.
24-The Light, 43

Water is life. The greater portion of water that is the basic need for the
living beings on earth is in continuous motion and transformation. The
uninterrupted sequence of these successive transformations is referred
to as cycling. Water is always present in the air. It goes without saying
that this state of water differs from its state in the seas and rivers. The
formation of clouds by water in the state of vapor, the transformation
of these clouds into rainwater and their falling upon the earth as precipitation are the result of God’s impeccable cycling system. More than
1400 years ago, the Quran began to draw our attention to the facts that
today can be established only by the help of satellites. Scientists studied
types of clouds and established that they were the consequence of well-designed systems and stages. Meteorologists examined the cumulonimbus clouds. The stages they described tallied with the process described
in the sura The Light, verse 43.

1- Clouds move thanks to winds: The fact that the wind is the
primary cause in the process of the formation of clouds that generates
rain is depicted in the sura, The Romans, verse 46 (In the previous
chapter, we saw the role played by wind in the formation of clouds).

2- Joining: Then the small clouds combine to form a single large
cloud.
3- Piles them on each other: When the small clouds join together, updrafts within the larger cloud increase. The updrafts near the
center of the cloud are stronger than those near the edges. These
updrafts cause the cloud body to grow vertically, so the cloud is
stacked up. This vertical growth causes the cloud body to stretch into
cooler regions of the atmosphere where drops of water and hail formulate. When these drops of water and hail become too heavy for the
updrafts to support them, they begin to fall from the cloud as rain,
hail, etc.

GENIUS OF A MAN?

Meteorologists have acquired what they know about the formation,
structure and function of clouds only in recent years by the help of
satellites, computers and balloons. It is significant to read about the
formation of clouds in the Quran. Today’s data are obtained through
the use of instruments and satellites that have a panoramic view of
clouds from above, otherwise, it would be impossible for men living
on the surface of the earth to have an insight into the updraft in the
clouds during their formation and the precipitation emerging from
this cloud expanding vertically.
In the verse above, the simile of “mountain masses” is an apt one,
since the cumulonimbus rain clouds at an altitude of 5-6 km present
a formation like a mountain.
While the verse reveals knowledge unavailable at the 1450 years ago, there is no mention whatsoever of the misconceptions of the
time. Up until the 1600s the western world was dominated by the
meteorological lore of ancient Greece, itself a hotchpotch of correct
and wrong data. It was believed that the atmosphere was made up of
two different types of vapor, namely the dry and the moist; that thunder was the outcome of the collision of dry clouds with their neighbors, and that the flash of lighting was produced by the kindling of
the dry vapor. In the verse in question no such false information has
been provided, while a description is made of the flash of lightning,along with the downfall of rain and hailstones, establishing a link
between them. The lightning flash in atmospheric electricity is the
total observed luminous phenomena accompanying a lightning discharge, which is a series of electric processes by which change is transferred within the atmosphere along a channel of high ion density
between electric charge centers of opposite sign. The water droplets
within the clouds are a source of electricity. The water droplets falling
down as a result of gravitation break down into yet smaller droplets
with positively charged electricity while the surrounding atmosphere
is negatively charged. The electric charge of droplets increases at each
division into smaller units. Along with the emergence of the electrical
charge as a consequence of disintegration of water droplets, the ice
crystals at the upper portion of the cloud gain positive electricity
charge, thus separating from the atmosphere with negative charge and
increasing the electrical charge of the cloud. This process results in an
electric arc, i.e., a flash of light. The verse draws attention to the connection of the precipitation with the flash of lightning, leaving out the
wrong information that attributes this process to the kindling of
clouds. Describing the meteorological process that creates rain accurately, while eliminating the false ideas predominant at the time successfully, cannot be explained as pure coincidence or the genius of a
man.

12- It is He who shows you the lightning for fear and hope,
and raises heavy clouds.
13-The Thunder, 12