Treacherous Tricks to divide
Hazrat Ammar Radiallahu anhoo was martyred on 9th of Safar, Hijri 37. A bloody war was broken on 10th of Safar, Hijri 37. As if the army of Amir-e-Muavia was near to welcome the defeat, they asked Amr Ibn-e-A’as, “What should we do?” He replied, “I have already thought over the trick for such occasion.” He suggested, “By keeping the Quran on the lance, our army should announce loudly, i.e. this is a mediator between you and us. He said “As a result of this, some of Ali’s people will be reluctant to fight after seeing this, while some will support him. This will create a difference of opinion in Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam army.” By this move, their aim was to create a split in his army. To use the Holy Quran as an arbitrator was not out of and us. any religious purpose but, as Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam had said, it was their dirty e politics. As the religious stalwarts like Imam Suyuti etc. have said, it was clear treachery. Tulaqa-Muavia and his people kept Holy Quran on the lances and repeatedly said, “This is a mediator between you ” Amr libn-e-A’as’s trick did not succeed. Some people said they should accept the proposal, while, others said that it was merely a malicious plan. The wiser of them appealed to understand their vicious plan. They appealed the farmy to fight with all zest and vigour because their victory and the rival’s (defeat was not very far. Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam also tried his best to convince his farmy that it was their tricky plan, and the army should not be misled. But, as the proposal was presented with keeping the Holy Quran in hands, a big number of Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam army became the victim of it. They were so much under the magic of the plan that they were bent upon the opposition of Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and argued that “Their, including that of Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam person plan is that the Syrians should respect and accept Holy Quran. Now, when they were keeping Quran Majid as an arbitrator among us, there is no point in fighting with them.” Some people warned Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam that if he (refused to accept the holy book as a mediator, they would fight with him fand kill him. This created a great difference of opinion. The atmosphere was so much affected that it was on the verge of an opening fight in Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam army itself. Under the circumstances, Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam had to stop the fight. He decided to accept the proposal.
‘When Amir-e-Muavia took the Holy Quran in his hands and said “The Book is a mediator between you and us,” it implied that each party should appoint a mediator from among their side. Now, on the basis of the Holy Quran, whatever settlement they arrive at, will be accepted by both the parties. This is known as arbitration (Tahkim).
The trick that created a difference of opinion in the Hyderi army succeeded here also in the selection of the arbitrator. The people who went (against Quaid-e-A’azm Saiyedena Hazrat Ali Murtuza AlahisSalam forced him to accept the treaty of peace. In future also they followed the same method. Hence, whenever, in the times to come, there was a need to appoint the mediator, Amir-e-Muavia selected Amr bin A’as and Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam appointed Ibn-e-Abbas Radiallahu anhoo, as their arbitrators. But the group of Hyderi army that pressurized Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam for the acceptance, immediately shouted, “But he is your cousin. Instead, Abu Musa Ash’ari is the proper person.” Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam said, “I am doubtful about his faithfulness. He has once betrayed us. He was instigating people against us. I cannot rely on his understanding and positive thinking also. If it is so, you can make Ashtar Nakhai the mediator.” But they insisted upon Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari’s appointment. Finally, on their obstinacy, Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari was appointed the mediator.
On which principle the mediators should give judgement?
On the principle of the agreement that was signed by both Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and Muavia for the acceptance of the treaty, both the mediators were given the authority to arrive at the compromise between both the parties, doing away with the differences that existed between them. The principle given was that both the arbitrators should take the decision on the basis of the Holy Quran and preachings of Prophetic (Sunnat-e-Rasulallah it). It was decided that if the judgement were against the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah it, it would not be accepted.
But the judgement was not given on the basis of the principle
According to the treaty signed, both the arbitrators met at Dumat ul Jandal, on the borders of Syria and Iraq, for the negotiations. As this judgement was going to be a judgement of life or death for the community, thousands of Muslims, including many Sahaaba-e-Kira’am and Hazrat Sa’ad ibn-e-Waqas Radiallahu anhoo Hazrat Abdullah ibn-e-Umar Radiallahu anhoo etc. were gathered there together.
Both the mediators were authorized to give judgement on the basis of the Holy Quran and preachings of Prophet ﷺ. If their judgement was not based on the Holy Quran and preachings of Prophet ﷺ would not be 9 acceptable. But, right from the beginning during the process of negotiations, they did not bother about this main point. They did not bother to refer to the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah’s views about such matters. According to the principle established by Huzur ﷺ when the emigrants and the Ansars had appointed Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam Caliph. There was no doubt about it. Now, let us see what do the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah ﷺ had to say about the people who did not accept the decision of the emigrants and the Ansars. There were clear orders in the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulalllah fits about this. There are verses in Surah Hujarat containing orders of behaviour under this situation. They are as under:
Translation: Al-Hujarat Juz 1: If one group of Muslims is rebellious towards another one, the faithful group should fight with the mutineers until they surrender to the commandments of Allah, the Almighty. (It is the order of Allah, the Almighty that the epoch-maker should be respected.)
After Hazrat Ammar Radiallahu anhoo martyrdom, the Hadith had given a verdict that Amir-e-Muavia’s group was rebellious. After the clarification given by Hadith, the decision that was to be taken on the basis of the Holy Quran was as under:
“Because, the group of Amir-e-Muavia is rebellious, according to the orders of Holy Quran, they will have to leave treachery and, will have to accept the dominance of the Caliph of the time.”
In the Holy Quran, it has been very clearly said that the Muslims have to respect and accept the Caliph of the time and the epoch maker. Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam was, a Caliph in the real sense of the term because, he had been selected by the emigrants and the Ansars. None else had a right to be selected as Caliph so long as Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam was on that post. Due to this, the decision is taken, as shown above, was the final one and Amir-eMuavia and his people should have respected and accepted Hazrat Ali’s AlahisSalam Caliphate.
It was a state of great sorrow that the mediators did not pay any heed to the orders of the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah. On what base, was it wrongly decided that instead of Caliphate Regin, a kingship should be allowed in the Muslims? The political structure and the positive Islamic view about looking towards the world had been so much detached from the Nabuwat ﷺ that till today, it could not be repaired and corrected.
Amir-e-Muavia and his people had no right at all to fight and reject the rightful Caliphate under the excuse of revenge of Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo death. This was treachery, and it was absolutely prohibited. The assassination of Ammar Radiallahu anhoo made it very clear that Amir-e-Muavia’s group was a rebellious one. It was a matter of grief that both the arbitrators equally accepted such a course of action and avoided this important and very essential right. The experts and practitioners of spirituality and religion have described this as treachery and cunningness.
As it has been stated above, when both the arbitrators met at Dumat-ul Jandal for the final decision, the orders of Hadith were, during the discussions, totally neglected. Not only that, they kept on discussing such things by which the orders of Hadith and the Holy Quran were avoided. This led to the wrong judgement.
Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari was a simple-hearted man, so, he was duped by the talks of Amr ibn-e-A’as, who was unique in the whole of Arab country as far as politics was concerned. To impress Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari, Amr ibn-e-A’as started praising and respecting him. At every step, he used to say, “You are a venerable person for me. You are one of the nearest Sahaabis of Huzur ﷺ. First, please let us know your opinion.” The talks that took place between the mediators are given below:
Amr ibn-e-A’as: We will select such a person as Caliph through whom we can please Allah, the Almighty and through whom; the development of the people can also be possible. To whom shall we select as Caliph?
Hazrat Abu Musa: We shall select Abdullah ibn-e-Umar as Caliph. Amr ibn-e-A’as: What is wrong with Muavia?
Hazrat Abu Musa: What designation and prestige does he have? He is not at all the claimant to Caliphate. In comparison with the emigrants and the Ansars, I can never make Muavia a Caliph.
االول Amr ibn-e-A’as: Hazrat Uthman was tortured and killed. Muavia is in favour of the revenge of his assassination. He is Ummul Mominin Hazrat Umm-e-Habiba’s brother.
Hazrat Abu Musa: Ibn-e-A’as has a fear of Allah. These are not sufficient qualifications to demand one’s right of Caliphate. If it is a matter of goodness, how can Muavia be compared with Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam? Had I the authority to select the best of the Quraishis as a Caliph, I would have selected Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam. You are not right when you say, Muavia is the supporter for the revenge of Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo death. Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo sons, who are present now, have the first right of this. If you agree with me, we will select Abdullah ibn-e-Umar as Caliph. He will always keep his father’s memory alive.
Amr ibn-e-A’as: What is wrong with my son Abdullah? You are well aware of his virtues.
Hazrat Abu Musa: There is no doubt that your son is pious and is quite suitable for Caliphate. But as he was involved in the conspiracy, his cloth also has been stained. Why should we not select Taiyab ibn-e-Taiyab Abdullah Umar as Caliph?
Amr ibn-e-A’as: As a Caliph, only such a person can be selected who always shares his bread with other people.
Hazrat Abu Musa: You will have bad days. After a long period of struggle, the Muslims have come to us for guidance. Now, do not create unrest among them.
Amr ibn-e-A’as: Then, what is your opinion?
Hazrat Abu Musa: In my opinion, the names of both Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and Muavia should be cancelled. And let the executive committee select the Caliph.
Amr ibn-e-A’as: I agree with you. The welfare of the community is protected in this. While going through the process of negotiations, it is clearly seen that the basic and fundamental guide-lines, i.e. the orders of the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasulallah fit which are provided for the settlement between two groups when there is a quarrel over some matters were not at all referred to. When the emigrants and the Ansars, who had the right to do so, had selected Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam, then, Amir-e-Muavia had no scope for the disagreement, rejection and revolt. What are the commandments of the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasullah it? The discussion that took place without considering the main point was just like the incident in which the rail engine gets derailed. And, ultimately, the result was the same as it was expected
After this discussion, the arbitrators came to Jama Masjid to announce their decision. Thousands of people, including well known Saha’abas, gathered there to hear the judgement. Hazrat Abdullah-bin Umar Radiallahu anhoo had warned Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ari, “If you have arrived at a joint decision, there should not be any delay in the announcement. First, let Amr Ibn-eA’as make the announcement because he is a very clever and shrewd person. I am afraid; if you make the announcement first, he may betray you.” But Abu Musa said, “There is no problem. We both have arrived at the same conclusion.” Now it was the time to announce the judgement. Thousands of people’s eyes were on the arbitrators. “
Announcement of the decision
Hazrat Abu Musa Ash’ar told Amr Ibn-e-A’as, “First, you make the announcement of the decision.” He said, “You are much better than me in the matter of grace and unique qualities. I dare not do so when you are there.” Hazrat Abu Musa was misled by such talks and went to the dais. From there he announced, “Both, I and my friend (Amr Ibn-e-A’as), jointly come to the decision that Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and Muavia both’s claims for Caliphate should be cancelled and, the executive committee (Shura) may select the Caliph once again. Hence, I cancel the names of both, Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and Muavia. Now let the executive committee selects the Khalifa.”
After this, Amr Ibn-e-A’as stood up and said, “You have heard what Abu Musa said. He has cancelled Ali AlaihisSalam Caliphate. I also cancel it and retain the claim of Muavia because; he is a more suitable claimant for the post of Hazrat Uthman, as, he is eager to take revenge of Hazrat Uthman’s assassination,” Hazrat Abu Musa was taken aback with surprise to hear such a negative judgement. With great fury, he said, “What the hell did you do? Let Allah not give you the right understanding. You are perfidious. You have sown seeds of great quarrels and disputes.”
Now, the horse had run away from the stable. Locking the stable had no meaning. Hazrat Abu Musa was very repentful, but it was alb in vain. This was the result of the fact that the arbitrators discussed on the basis of irrelevant principles, neglecting the basic norms of the Holy Quran and Sunnat-e-Rasullah . Due to Amr Ibn-e-A’as’ decision, very unpalatable situation was created. Hazrat Sharih Ibn-e-Hani Radiallahu anhoo started whipping on them. People were greatly displeased with Hazrat Abu Musa also. Hazrat Sa’ad Ibn-e-Abi Waqasini said, “Abu Musa, we are sorry for your position. You proved to be too weak for Amr’s vicious policy.” Hazrat Abu Musa replied, “What can I do? We agreed on one point, and now he is changed. The decision that he has declared is not the one upon which we had an agreement, but, it has fundamentally changed.” Hazrat Abdur Rehman Ibn-e-Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo said, “Had Abu Musa died before this, it would have been better on his part.” Hazrat Abdullah Ibn-e-Umar Radiallahu anhoo said, “See, where does this community lead itself. Its future was handed over to two persons, one of whom had no feeling for the community and did not think at all over the repercussions of the decision, whereas, the other proved to be too weak for the purpose.”
After this, Amr Ibn-e-A’as consented to give Caliphate to Amir-e-Muavia and appointed him Caliph on this wrong basis. People at large thought, “Can the post of Khalifat-e-Rasul intrebe decided by such a wrong and malicious method?”
Hazrat Abu Musa was extremely ashamed. He dared not face Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and avoided coming in public throughout life. Hazrat Imam Hasan Basri, who is expert in-depth analysis of religious matters Tafsir, Hadith,Islamic philosophy (Fikah) and Islamic mysticism (Tasawwuf), said about Amr Ibn-e-A’as (who supported the whole mission of making Tulaqa Muavia, Caliph) and Mughera Ibn-e-Shoba (who convinced Amir-eMuavia of the scheme for making Yazid a Caliph), to the extent that, “These two people have totally spoiled the welfare of the community.”
Treacherous Tricks to divide