ACCOUNT OF HASHIM IBN ‘ABD MANAF

medina
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Hishám Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Sŕ’ib al-Kalbi informed us on the authority of his father, he on the authority of Abu Salah, he on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas; he said:

Hashim’s name was `Amr and to him is the reference in the taming of the Quraysh (Cf. Al-Qur’an, 106:1). The taming of the Quraysh was a custom of the Quraysh; and the person who introduced two journeys for the Quraysh was he. The first journey during winter was made towards Yaman and Abyssinia; (its ruler) al-Najáshi (Negus) honoured them and they loved him. (The other) journey during summer was towards Syria and Ghazzah, and sometimes they reached Anqirah (Ankara). They were admitted before the Caesar who honoured them and they loved him. (Cf. al-Tabari, Vol. II. p. 180; Ibn Hishám, p. 85).

Once the Quraysh had to face a famine which lasted for several years, and all that they had exhausted. Then Háshim went to Syria and ordered for bread which was baked in large quantity for him. He loaded it in bags on camels till he reached Makkah, and broke them into small pieces and dipped them in soup. He slaughtered these camels and then ordered them to be cooked; then he emptied those kettles into plates. The people of Makkah ate to their satisfaction, and then after years of affliction the first showers came to them. So he received the appellation of Háshim. (One who breaks bread and other things into pieces) `Abd Allah Ibn al-Ziba’rŕ writes concerning this:“The lofty `Amr broke into pieces al-tharid (bread soaked in soup) for the people of Makkah, who were suffering from famine and had become weak”.

medina
He (lbn Sa`d) said: Hisham Ihn Muhammad informed us; he said: Ma`ruf Ibn al-Kharrabudh al-Makki related to me; he said: A person of the tribe of `Adi Ibn al-Khiyar Ibn ‘Adi Ibn Nawfal Ibn `Abd Manŕf related to me on the authority of his father; he said:  Concerning this circumstance Wahb Ibn `Abd Qusayyi said: “Hashim bore (that burden) which had exhausted the people of high birth and they were unable to bear it.
[P. 44] He brought for them bags full of wheat from Syria, which people covet.
He entertained the people of Makkah on hashim (pieces of bread) and soaked them in (the soup of) the meat of fat animals.
The people began to eat from wooden cups which were brimful, on the verge of overflowing”. (Cf. al-Tabari, Vol. II, p. 180)
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Umayyah Ibn ‘Abd Shams Ibn `Abd Manŕf Ibn Qusayyi became jealous of him (Háshim). Since he was a wealthy person he tried to imitate Hashim’s action but he failed. Thereupon the people of the Quraysh taunted him; he became angry and abused Hŕshim and challenged him for munáfarah. (To secure the verdict of superiority of one person over another from one who was considered competent.) Háshim would not accept the challenge because of his advanced years and the respect (which he commanded), but the Quraysh did not permit him to do so, and forced him to accept it. Then he (Hŕshim) said (to Umayyah): Verily, I shall accept it, provided you agree that (in case of defeat) you will offer fifty camels of black pupils for being slaughtered in the valley of Makkah and go into banishment from Makkah for ten years. Umayyah agreed. They approached the sooth-sayer of Khuzá’ah who declared Hashim to be superior. Thereupon (Háshim) took possession of the camels and slaughtered them. Those who were present ate the meat. Umayyah went to Syria where he stayed for ten years. This was the first demonstration of enmity between Hishim and Umayyah. (Ummayyah’s father ‘Abd Shams and Háshim are stated to be twins. Hashim died at the early age of twenty; it is therefore improbable that his nephew could have challenged him to munafarah Cf. al-Tabari, Vol. II, p. 180)

medina
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Muhammad Ibn ‘Umar al-Aslami informed us; he said: `Ali Ibn Yazid Ibn `Abd Allah Ibn Wahb Ibn Zam’ah related to me on the authority of his father: Verily Hashim, ‘Abd Shams, al-Muttalib and Nawfal, sons of `Abd Manaf, joined hands to seize what was in the possession of Banu `Abd al-Dar Ibn Qusayyi which Qusayyi had bequeathed to `Abd al-Dár, namely, al-hijábah, al-liwa, al-rifádah, al-siqáyah, and al-nadwah; they had done this, because they considered their right to be stronger on account of their superiority and excellence among their people. The person who acted as their leader was Háshim Ibn ‘Abd Manaf but the Banu ‘Abd al-Dar rejected the demand of surrendering to them their right; their leader was `Amir Ibn Hashim Ibn ‘Abd Manaf lbn `Abd al-Dar. The Banu `Abd Manáf Ibn Qusayyi were supported by the Banu Asad Ibn ‘Abd al-`Uzzŕ Ibn Qusayyi Banu Zuhrah Ibn Kilŕb, Banu Taym Ibn Murrah and Banu al-Harith Ibn Fihr. With Banu `Abd al-Dar were the Banu Makhzum, Sahm, Jumah and Banu ‘Adi Ibn Ka`b. Banu `Amir Ibn Luwayyi and Muhárib Ibn Fihr were neutral; they did not side with any party. The various tribes pledged their support on oath that they would not desert nor surrender their men to the enemy till the wool could be drenched in sea-water (that is, for all time).

Then the Banu `Abd Manáf and their supporters came out and filled a jafnah (a large sized bowl) with perfume and placed it near the Ka`bah; the people dipped their hands in it and then they promised, pledged, took oaths and touched the Ka`bah with their hands to confirm their swearings. They were known as al-Mutayyibin (the perfumed).

(On the otherhand) the Band `Abd al-Dar and their supporters came out with a bowl full of blood. They dipped their hands in it and pledged and swore not to desert till the sea could drench wool, they were called al-Ahlŕf (sworn allies), and La`agat al-Damm (the Lickers of blood). They made preperations for fighting; each tribe was ready to meet the other. In the meantime [P. 45] people intervened to make peace on the turns that al-siqayah and al-rifadah should be entrusted to the Banu `Abd Manaf and Banu ‘Abd al-Dar should retain al-hijabah, al-liwa and dar al-Nadwah as it was at the moment. They agreed, and the people who wanted to come to blows avoided it. The dŕr al-Nadwah remained with the Banu ‘Abd al-Dar till `Ikrimah Ibn `Amir Ibn Háshim Ibn ‘Abd Manáf Ibn `Abd al-Dar Ibn Qusaayyi sold it to Mu`awiyah Ibn Abu Sufyán, who converted it into Dár-al-Amárah (Government House). The same is in the possession of the Khalifs till today.

medina
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Muhammad Ibn `Umar al-Aslami informed us; he said: Yazid Ibn `Abd al-Malik Ibn al-Mughirah al Nawfal related to me on the authority of his father; he said:

They made peace that day on the terms that Hŕshim Ibn `Abd Manáf Ibn Qusayyi should take over charge of al-siqayah and al-rifadah. He was a man of means and when the time of pilgrimage approached he stood among the Quraysh and said: 0 people of the Quraysh ! verily, you are the neighbours of Allah and custodians of His house, pilgrims come to you during the season, they show respect to His House; they are the guests of Allah and are entitled to the hightest honour among the guests. Verily Allah has chosen you for this, and has honoured you with it; He protects your rights more than any other neighbour does; so respect His guests and pilgrims who come with dishevelled hair, covered with dust from every city on camels as lean as the arrows (of gambling), and have crawled, and stink, have lice in their clothes, and have exhausted their provisions; so entertain them and supply them with drink. Consequently the Quraysh used to entertain them to such an extent that the people living there sent the smallest thing that they could spare.
Hashim Ibn `Abd Manŕf Ibn Qusayyi used to allot a large portion of his wealth for this purpose and the wealthy from among the Quraysh supported him by sending one hundred Heraclian mithqals (of gold).
Hashim constructed cisterns near the well of Zamzam and filled them with water drawn from the other wells of Makkah. The pilgrims drank water from them. He commenced feeding them from the day of tarwiyah (8 Dhu al-Hijjah) at Makkah and Mina and on the day of Jam’a (assembling on 9 Dhu al-Hijjah) at ‘Arafah. He soaked the crumbs of bread in the soup of meat mingled fat, sawiq (gruel of parched barley) and dates. He supplied them with drinking water in Mina, when water in the cisterns became scanty. When people returned from Mina the entertainment came to an end, and then they returned to their homelands.

medina
He (Ibn Sa’d) said: Muhammad Ibn `Umar al-Aslami informed us; he said: al-Qasim Ibn al-`Abbas al-Lahabi related to me on the authority of his father, he on the authority of ‘Abd Allah Ibn Nawfal Ibn al-Harith; he said:

Hashim was a noble; and he secured a guarantee from the Caesar for the Quraysh that they would travel safe and would be allowed to carry their merchandise duty-free; Caesar had given him this in writing and had written to Negus to admit the Quraysh into his country. They were traders; Hŕshim started with a caravan of the Quraysh with merchandise, he passed by Madinah and halted at Suq al-Nabt [P. 46] where a market was held every year, and a number of people assembled. They (Quraysh) sold and purchased commodities. Here they noticed a woman on an elevated place commanding another woman to sell and purchase on her behalf. This woman appeared to be prudent, persevering and pretty, so Hŕshim inquired about her, if she was a spinster or a married woman. He was told that she had been married to Uhayhah Ibn al-Julah, and `Amr and Ma`bad were born to her as a result of this wedlock; then she got separation. Since then she has not married because of her high position among her people; and (she would now marry on the condition) that she would be at liberty to leave her husband if she disliked him.

Her name was Salmŕ Bint `Amr Ibn Zayd Ibn Labid Ibn Khidŕsh Ibn `Amir Ibn Ghanm Ibn `Adi lbn al-Najjar. Hŕshim made a proposal to her, and she married him after knowing about his noble descent and excellence. He consummated the marriage, and gave a feast to his Qurayshite companions who were forty in number and were from among the descendants of `Abd Manŕf, Makhzum and Sahm. He also invited some people of the (Banu) Khazraj (to the feast). He lived with her for some time, and she became pregnant. Her child, `Abd al-Muttalib, had some grey hair on his head at the time of his birth; so he was named Shaybah (old). From there Hŕshim travelled to Syria till he reached Ghazzah where he fell ill. They (his companions) remained there with him; when he died they interred him at Ghazzah, and returned with his belongings to his children. It is said that the person who had brought his belongings was Abu Ruhm Ibn `Abd al-`Uzzŕ al-`Amiri a descendant of `Amir Ibn Luwayyi. He (Hashim) was only twenty years of age (at the time of his death).

medina
He (Ibn Sa’d) said: Hisham Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Sa’ib al-Kalbi informed us on the authority of his father; he said: Hŕshim Ibn `Abd Manaf made a will in favour of his brother al-Muttalib Ibn ‘Abd Manŕf, so the Banu Hŕshim and Banu al-Muttalib form one unit till today; while the descendants of ‘Abd Shams and Jawfal, sons of ‘Abd Manaf, form another unit.

medina
He (Ibn Sa’d) said: Hisham Ibn Muhammad informed us on be authority of his father; he said:

Hŕshim Ibn `Abd Manaf ad four sons and five daughters, namely, (1) Shaybat al-Hamd, nown as ‘Abd al-Muttalib; he was the Chief of the Quraysh till’s death; (la) Ruqayyah Bint Hŕshim who died before she had stained puberty and (their) (There is a misprint in the text; The statement it may be added, appears to be incorrech because Ibn Sa’d has narrated above that Háshim set out for Syria when ‘Abd al-Muttalib’s mother was pregnant with him and that he (Háshim) died on reaching Ghazzah. It appears therefore that the mother of Ruqqayyah was not Salma.) mother was Salma Bint ‘Amr Ibn Layd Ibn Labid Ibn Khidash Ibn `Amir Ibn Ghanm Ibn ‘Adi Ibn al-Najjar; their uterine brothers were ‘Amr and Ma`bad, sons of Uhayhah Ibn al-Julah Ibn al-Harish Ibn Jahjaba Ibn Kulfah Ibn `Amr Ibn `Awf lbn al-Aws (Háshim’s other children), (2) Abu Sayfa Ibn Hŕshim whose name was ‘Amr and who was the eldest of them, and (3) Sayfayya; their mother was Hind Bint ‘Amr Ibn Thalabah Ibn al-Harith Ibn Malik Ibn Salim Ibn Ghanm Ibn ‘Awf Ibn al-Khazraj; their uterine brothers were Makhramah Ibn al-Muttalib Ibn `Abd Manŕf Ibn Qusayyi; (Hŕshim’s sons), (4) Asad Ibn Háshim whose mother was Qaylah surnamed al-Jazur Bint ‘Amir Ibn Malik Ibn Jadhimah; Ibn Jadhimah was also called al-Mustaliq which became the name of a branch of Khuza’ah, (Hashim’s son), (5) Nadalah Ibn Hashim, and (2a) al-Shifa and (3a) Ruqayyah, and their mother was [P. 47] Umaymah Bint `Adi 1bn ‘Abd Allah Ibn Dinar Ibn Malik Ibn Salaman Ibn Sa’d of the tribe of Quda’ah; their uterine brothers were Nufayl Ibn `Abd al-‘Uzza al-‘Adawi and `Amr Ibn Rabi`ah Ibn al-Harith Ibn Hubayyib Ibn Jadhimah Ibn Malik Ibn Hisl Ibn `Amir Ibn Luwayyi; (Hashim’s daughters) (4a) al-Da’ifah Bint Hashim and (5a) Khŕlidah Bint Hashim, and their mother was Umm `Abd Allah who was also known as Waqidah Bint Abi ‘Adi; it has been said that it was ‘Udayyi and not `Adi, and that his name was ‘Amir Ibn ‘Abd Nuhm Ibn Zayd Ibn Mazin Ibn Sa`sá’ah; (Hŕshim’s daughter), (6a) Hannah Bint Hashim, her mother was ‘Udayyi Bint Hubayyib Ibn al-Harith Ibn Malik Ibn Hutayt Ibn Jusham Ibn Qasi who was also known as Thaqif. (The number of daughters has become six instead of five because Ruqayyah has been mentioned twice (la and 3a)
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Hashim’s kunyah was Abu Yazid and some say that he had his patronymic name after his son Asad Ibn Háshim.
When Hashim died his offspring composed elegies containing a large number of verses. Muhammad Ibn `Umar informed us on the authority of his people that Khalidah Bint Hashim composed an elegy of her father; there are, however, slips in the verses: “The announcer of death announced at an early hour the death of the best among those who tread on the pebbles; and he was of noble actions and pure mind.
The announcement related to a chief of noble disposition; he (possessed) sagacity, generosity and fortitude; he was not of weak intellect and mean disposition.
He was the ornament of his family during the season of drought and famine.
Verily the most polished of all the family of Luwayyi is covered with dust and stones of Syria; so weep bitterly for the loss of one who was generous and respected.
Thou hast suffered the bereavement of one who was the chief of Fihr and who was considered their superior in all affairs”.
Shifa Bint Háshim composed the following elegy: “0 my eye ! shed tears for the loss of a generous and noble person. For Hashim who was a man of exalted excellence, mighty, generous and sincere.
0 my eye ! weep on the breavement of my father who was a noted chief, of elegent figure, and continue weeping for him.
He was experienced, of great fortitude, like an eagle; and among the nobles of the earth his family is the oldest.
He was strong, of great height, polished, eloquent, lion-hearted, a chief with numerous qualities and of charming physique.
He was one of the descendants of Ghálib, experienced and mighty, whose tree of excellence was very strong; and he himself was a man of generosity and forbearance.
He proved his valour by his deeds and he commanded great respect; he had no blemish of weakness”.

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