MUBAHELA (MALEDICTORY CONFLICT) The Prophet (S.A.W) then invited the delegates to accept Islam as their religion but they refused and asked the Prophet (S.A.W) to pronounce his beliefs about Jesus. The Prophet (S.A.W) advised them to go and rest and that he will answer their question the next day. Next day, Allah revealed Sura 3, (Ale Imran) verses 58, 59, 60 of the Holy Quran to the Prophet (S.A.W) which says, “Surely the likeness of Jesus is with Allah as the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust then said to him be and he became alive. This is the truth from your Lord. So be not of the disputers.” Next day when the Christian delegates came to he Prophet (S.A.W) to know his views about Jesus the Prophet (S.A.W) recited these verses and said, “Jesus was only a Prophet like Adam. He was created from dust and therefore cannot be son of Allah.” But they did not believe him. Allah sent another revelation which says, “That if the opponents insist in the matter even after the knowledge you
have given them, tell them come let us bring our sons and your sons, our woman and your woman, ourselves and yourselves and beseech Allah and invoke His curse upon the liars” (3-60). The Prophet (S.A.W) informed the Christians about this revelation and challenged them to have a Mubahela (maledictory conflict) with him, which the Christians agreed. Next day when they came prepared for the maledictory conflict they saw the Prophet (S.A.W) coming out with Husain (A.S.), Ali (A.S.)’s second son in his arms. Hasan (A.S.) the eldest son of Ali (A.S.) holding he finger of the Prophet (S.A.W), Fatema (S.A.) Ali (A.S.)’s wife and daughter of the Prophet (S.A.W) walking behind the Prophet (S.A.W) and Ali (A.S.) walking behind Fatema (S.A.). The Christians also heard the Prophet (S.A.W) instructing these four members of his family that when he supplicates they should all say `Amen’. The faces that the Christian saw for the first time and the instructions that they heard the Prophet (S.A.W) giving them frightened the Christians so much that Abu Harris their leader said, “Verily
I see a divine light on the faces of these combatants, truth shines in their eyes. I am sure should they pray for anything Allah will listen to their prayers and even move mountains if they asked for it. I sincerely advise you to refrain from having this maledictory conflict (Mubahela) with them and invoke the curse of Allah. Such maledictory conflicts with people like these is to invite sure death.” Heeding his advice the Christians refused to have Mubahela and signed a treaty with the Prophet (S.A.W) agreeing to supply two thousand dresses of forty Dirhams each every year to the Muslims [Madarejun Naboova, Vol.2, page 498]
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: ‘Amr Ibn al-Haytham and Abu al-Nadr Háshim Ibn al-Qasim al-Kináni informed us; they said: al-Mas`udi informed us on the authority of Abu `Umar al-Shami, he on the authority of `Ubayd Ibn al-Khashkhásh, he on the authority of Abu Dharr; he said:
I asked the Prophet, (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم): Who was the first of the Prophets? He said: Adam. He (Abu Dharr) said; I said: Was he a Prophet? He said: Yes ! he was directly addressed (by Allah). He (Abu Dharr) said; I asked: How many of them were apostles? He said: Three hundred and fifteen which is a large number.
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Ibn Khalid Ibn Khidash informed us: ‘Abd Allah Ibn Wahb informed us on the authority of Sa’id Ibn Abi Ayyub, he on the authority of Ja`far Ibn Rabi`ah and Ziyád, mawla (Mawla means enfranchised slave. See below) to Mus`ab; they said:
The Apostle of Allah, (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), was asked if Adam was a Prophet, and he replied: Yes ! a Prophet who was addressed (by Allah).
He (Ibn Sa’d) said: Hisham Ibn Muhammad Ibn aI-Sa’ib al-Kalbi informed us on the authority of his father; he said:
The first Prophet who was raised was Idris and he is Khanukh (Enoch) Ibn Yáridh (Jared) Ibn Mahlá’il (Mahalaleel). Qaynan (Cainan) Ibn Anush (Enos) Ibn Shith Ibn Adam; then Nuh (Noah, Ihn Lamak (Lamach) Ibn Mattushalikh (Methu Selah) Ibn Khanukh the same as Idris; then Ibrahim (Abraham) Ibn Tarih (Terah) Ibn Nahur (Nahor) Ibn Sarugh (Serug) Ibn Urghuwa (Reu) Ibn Fáligh (Peleg) (bit `Abir (Eber) Ibn Shŕlikh (Salah) Ibn Arfakhshad (Arphaxad) Ibn Sam (Shem) Ibn Nuh; then Ismail (Ishmael) and Ishaq, sons of Ibrahim: then Ya`qub (Jacob) lbn Ishaq Ibn Ibrahim; then Yusuf (Joseph) Ibn Ya`qub Ibn Ishaq; then Lut (Lot) Ibn Háran (Haran) Ibn `Tarih Ibn Nahur Ibn Sŕrugh, and he was the nephew of Ibrahim, the Khalil al-Rahman (friend of the Merciful) then Hud Ibn ‘Abd Allah Ibn al-Khulud Ibn `Ad Ibn `Us Ibn Iram Ibn Sam Ibn Nuh; then Sŕlih Ibn ‘Asif Ibn Kumŕshij Ibn Arum Ibn Thamud Ibn Jathir Ibn Iram Ibn Sam Ibn Nuh; then Shu`ayb (Shu`ayb, according to Muslim tradition, is the name of Moses’ father-in-law.) Ibn Yubab Ibn `Ayfa Ibn Midyan (Midian) Ibn Ibrahim, the friend of the Merciful; then Musa (Moses) and Hárun (Aaron) sons of `Imran (Amran) Ibn Qahith (Kohath) Ibn Lávi (Levi) Ibn Ya`qub Ibn Ishaq Ibn Ibrŕhim; then llyas Ibn Tashbin Ibn al-‘Azar (Eleazar) Ibn Harun Ibn `Imrán Ibn Qahith Ibn Lavi Ibn Ya`qub; then al-Ya`sa Ibn `Uzza Ibn Nishutalikh Ibn lfra’im (Ephraem) Ibn Yusuf Ibn Ya’qub Ibn Ishaq Ibn Ibrahim; then Yunus Ibn Matta from the family of Ya`qub Ibn Isháq Ibn Ibrahim; then Ayyub (Job) Ibn Zarih Ibn Amus Ibn Lifzin Ibn al-‘Ays (Essau) Ibn Ishaq Ibn Ibrahim; then Dawud (David) Ibn ‘Ishŕ (Jesse) Ibn ‘Uwaydh (Obed) Ibn Ba`ar (Booz) Ibn Salmun (Salmon) Ibn Nahshun (Naasson or Nahshon) Ibn Umaynadhib (Amminadab) 1bn Iram (Aram) Ibn Hasrun (Esrom) Ibn Faris (Phares) Ibn Yahudha (Judah) 1bn Ya`gub Ibn Ishag Ibn Ibrahim; then Sulayman (Solomon) Ibn Dawud; then Zakariya (Zechariah) Ibn Bashwa (Berechiah) from the family of Yahudha Ibn Ya`qub, then Yahyá (John), then `Isa (Jesus) Ibn Maryam (Mary) Bint `Imrán Ibn Mathan (Mathan) from the descendants of Yahudha Ibn Ya`qub; then the Prophet, may Allah’s peace be on him, Muhammad Ibn `Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-Muttalib Ibn Hashim.
The Prophet of Islam said to one of his truthful companion Ammaar-e-Yaasar :”If all the people take one way and Ali takes another, you prefer the path taken by Ali and separate yourself from the others! O Ammaar! Ali would never leave you unguided, nor shall he lead you to misguidance and darkness”.
“O Ammaar! pursuance of and obedience to Ali is pursuance of and obedience to me, and my obedience is actually that of the eminent and dear Allah”:
“Donot go ahead of them or lag behind, else you will be annihilated, and teach them not, for they are more learned than you!
The Philosophy underlying Imam’s Treaty.
If the real texts of the Islamic History are viewed with intense scrutiny we will find that it was not Imam who entered into the treaty, but the treaty was imposed on him. Such were the internal and external circumstances of the Islamic countries that the treaty was imposed upon Imam as a necessary and unavoidable must. If any other than Imam Hasan A.S. had confronted that situation he too would have had no go save this. According to external state of affairs : We are aware that the empery of the eastern Rome had suffered great many injuries at the hands of Islam. As such it was awaiting a chance to hurl a mighty blow on the strong and firm government of Islam,
According to external state of affairs :
We are aware that the empery of the eastern Rome had suffered great many injuries at the hands of Islam. As such it was awaiting a chance to hurl a mighty blow on the strong and firm government of Islam,
By the perusal of the Islamic Histories, of which one is the History of Yaqoobi, it is evident that when Rome was informed of the alignment of troops between Imam Hasan A.S. and Muaawiya, the potentates of Rome thought that the occasion was affording a best opportunity in order to fulfill their cherished ambition, therefore the insurgence started. Had Imam Hasan A.S. protracted the war with Muaawiya the enemies of Islam would have given such a sudden blow on the foundation of Islam, that no reparation could have been possible for that impact.
Now rises a question, under those precarious circumstances what a saintly person like Imam Hasan A.S. who had been cultured in the lap of Islam and held Islam dearer than his soul could have done anything else in order to defend a great object than enduring the acridity of the treaty and spiritual torture?
The contemporary witness of the sensitivity of the Islamic politics of those days is Yaqoobi who relates :
“After accomplishment of the treaty when Muaawiva returned to Syria he was reported
that the insurgents of Rome were advancing towards him with a band of magnitude. Muaawiya at first made a pact according to a resolution, but having strengthened himself started warfare against the Romans and succeeded. Defeated, the Romans agreed to collect the same amounts of money which the Islamic government had been paying to Rome, but Muaawiya refused to pay.”
The statement of Yaaqoobi explains that at the time of alignment of troops by Iman Hasan A.S. the Romans were planning to attack the Islamic realm from different fronts, but their designs failed owing to Imam Hasan’s policy.
According to internal affairs
If look into the History of Imam Hasan’s life it will t marked that during his revered father. Amir-ul Momineen’s time he ever held a position in the foremost line in the battle against enemies. As a matter of fact he preceded others in hoisting the standard of the Battle of Camel and was highly eager for warfare.?
He participated in the Battle of Siffeen as well and occupied a position in the heart of the army and struggled arduously for the victory of Hazrat Ali A.S.
Tareekh Yaaqoobi Vol. II pp. 206 Pub. Najaf. 2. Al Imaamath vas-Siyasath-Vol. I pp. 77. 3. Al Imaamath vas-Siyasath-Vol. I pp.108.
He never had any fear and ever was a partizan of the right and reality, so much so that when the treaty was imposed on him he criticised Muaawiya and pointed out his weaknesses. After the treaty when Muaawiya came to Koofa he wanted Imam Hasan A.S. to ascend the pulpit, perhaps with an intention of weakening him.
Imam Hasan A.S. ascending the pulpit narrated the services rendered by his family and stated that the rulership of Muaawiya was unrighteous and hence perishing. He admonished and terrified those who had acquisced the Umayyid government. When Muaawiya noticed the adverse outcome of the incident was highly ashamed.
Now let us examine what eventually happened. Imam Hasan A.S. being so highly courageous why he agreed to enter into a treaty with Muaawiya?
He was aware that the Koofites were not truthful and straightforward in their character. Though apparently they had sworn allegiance to him to the effect that if Imam preferred war they would fight and if he inclined to peace they too will follow him. Inspite of that they had a clandestine inclination towards Muaawiya being allured by his wealth and splendour.
He knew that the Koofites had secretly communicated to Muaawiya assuring him their support, and that they would even captivate
and surrender Imam Hasan A.S. to him if so he wilied. He was also aware that one of his military chiefs Obaidullah bin Abbas by name, accepting a bribe of ten lakhs dirhams from Muaawiya had joined him overnight with eight thousand soldiers under him. He was noticing how Muaawiya was making false propaganda that Imam Hasan A.S. had made a truce with him, and this fraud helped to disintegrate his deluded troopers. He knew it well that with a strength, so weak, to fight with Muaawiya was not possible, and in view of the protection of Islam and muslims there was no other alternative left but to come to an understanding,
To elucidate this fact we reproduce here the diction from the text of history :
Yaqoobi narrates -After the martyrdom of Hazrat Ali A.S. the people swore allegiance to Imam Hasan A.S..Imam Hasan A.S. dispatched an army of twelve thousand soldiers to fight with Muawiya under the command of Obaidullah bin Abbas. The latter was bound over to consult with Qais bin Saad in executive matters. Obaidullah marched, but when Muaawiya was informed of the martyrdom of Ali A.S. came to Mosal within eighteen days and finally his troops faced those of Imam A.S.
Muaawiya sent an amount of ten lakhs dirhams as a bribery to Qais inorder either to win him over to his side or to relinquish Imam Qais being a bold and religious man refused to
accept the money. Muaawiya sent this very amount to Obaidullah bin Abbas, and the latter disposed off his faith and religion and changed over the sides to join Muaawiya with his eight thousand soldiers. But Qais fought steadfastly, and Muaawiya finally sent his spies in the camp of Imam Hasan A.S. in order to retail the rumours that Qais had conspired with Muaawiya whereas the troops of Qais were told that the Imam has made a truce with Muaawiya,
In this way the troops of Imam A.S. were dispersed and it so happened that Muaawiya, even alert for fraud and craftiness, sent some such known and recognised persons, who were held reliable by the people, to meet with Imam Hasan A.S. and who were ordered, on being ushered from the meeting to give out that Imam had negotiated the terms of treaty with Muaawiya.
The troopers of Imam Hasan A.S. without cnquiring into the facts attacked the tent of the Imam and plundered what all fell to their hands. Imam Hasan A.S. mounting a steed departed Cor Saabaath. Jarrah bin Sinaan, lying in bush, made an assault on Imam and inflicted a moral gash with his dagger. As a result of this wound Imam was severely weakened and due to sickness was carried to Madaain. The people forsook him and Muaawiya entering into İraq got control of the situation. The sickness of Imam became intense and availing of that opportunity, when he had no aptitude for war, and his allies having dispersed, the treaty was
imposed upon him. Therefore raising himself on the pulpit he eulogised God, blessed the Prophet and said :
“O folk! God blessed you with guidance through the foremost person from us, and guarded you from the bloodshed through the second person from us. I accomplished a treaty with Muaawiya entrusting him the apparent sway. Even Tibri clarifies that Imam entered into treaty on the time when his soldiers had dispersed and left him all alone” ?
“Imam Hasan’s army was composed of diverse groups i.e., the particular followers of him and his father, Kharjites who did not want to support Imam Hasan A.S. but were willing to fight with Muaawiya; those that were crazy for amassing wealth somehow or other, and such fanatics that only followed the chief of their tribes”.
This is the reason why the soldiers could not be rigid and very hastily they withdrew from Imam’s support, so much so that certain chiefs of some tribes wrote to Muaawiya that they were obedient to him and promised to hand over Imam Hasan A.S. to him. Muaawiya dispatched these letters to Imam Hasan A.S. Qais bin Saad
Yaaqoobi Vol. II, p. 204 pub.Najaf. 2. Tarikh Tebri Vol. VII p. 2.
who had been appointed deputy to Obaidullah bin Abbas informed Imam that Muawiya had won over Obaidullah and for that reason he sanctioned ten lakhs dirhams for him of which half of the amount would be paid forthwith and the rest half on his entry in Koofa. Obaidullah joined Muaawiya’s army in the dead of night. “Thus the ill-intention and impurity of those persons came to light who had surrounded Imam Imam A.S. observed that none save the group of faithful shias was with him, hence, in helplessness he entered into a treaty with Muaawiya, knowing even that Muaawiya had in mind nothing but fraud and that the treaty was only a farce.!
It will be evident by whatever has been said that the internal circumstances in those days were such that the Imam was compelled to enter in the treaty with Muaawiya and had no other alternative; for this reason we say that the treaty was essential for him being imposed upon him and not entered into optionally,
The urgency of the treaty was disclosed by Imam to his followers in this way –
swear by God if the people had pledged for me and supported me the sky would have showered bliss on them and the earth squirted boons, had not Muaawiya been avaricious for caliphate. The Prophet of Islam had bidden farewell to Mecca and his tribe seeking refuge
in a cavern. Had he been supported he would never have to take recourse to the cave and not forsaken Mecca for good. From the time the Islamic nation followed others and forsook us we had nothing but the treaty left for our duty.”
“By God if I had fought with Muaawiya the people would have captivated me and surrendered to him.”
“You donot know what I have done. By God whatever I have done was in the best interest of the ummat on whom the sun shines and sets. I have accepted this for the sake of the muslims inorder to protect them from bloodshed.””The real visage of Muaawiya is unveiled : Muaawiya was the governor of Syria from the time of the second caliph Omer bin Khattaab. The people failed to visualise his real countenance owing to his practice of fraud and hypocrisy. They actually could not discover his reality as he was. He would subdue anyone with great cleverness who rose in revolt against him and acquitted sell. He used to conceal his intriguing
nature and criminal acts by deluding the people and through pretence of love for Islam. He ventured even to the extent of igniting hostility against a pious saint like Hazrat Ali A.S. and contrived to colour it in the vengeance for the blood of Osman.
Evidently if in these circumstances had Imam Hasan A.S. fought with Muaawiya and been killed in the battle his blood could have been spilt invain, and Muaawiya, very slyly, could have given it a pretence of political war and consequently the real face of Muaawiya would have remained in veil. But as the result of the treaty the blood of the muslims was saved and the risk to Islam was warded off. The real face of Muaawiya was exposed to all.
This fact in interesting also that the contents of the instrument of treaty were arranged in such a way by Imam Hasan A.S. as to be helpful in unveiling the real phase of Muaawiya’s character
A part of the Instrument of treaty was as follows:
“Muaawiya accepts the responsibility of acting upon the Divine Gospel and the traditions of the Holy Prophet; would not nominate any successor to himself: Ali A. S. and his followers, partians and friends shall never be molested and
no abusive language shall be given vent to for Hazrat Ali A.S.”
But Muaawiya did not act upon a single clause. After the accomplishment of the covenant he came to ‘Nakhliya’, a place near Koofa and said in one of his speeches :
“By God I did not fight against you that you may pray, fast, pilgrimage and pay zakaath, because these things are observed by you already, but I fought with you only for the sway. I succeeded in my object and now declare that all the stipulations of the treaty which I entered into With Imam Hasan A. S. I trample under my feet. I shall never fulfill them.
Thus the real face of Muaawiya which wa so long veiled under the vellums of dissimulation and hypocrisy was exposed. All knew that he had no other object than the sway on Islamic realm with the dishonest tactics, with the show of pomp and splendour and not at all in the interest of Islam and muslims. When he attained his selfish ends he forgot the Divine the Prophet’s traditions and all the clauses of the covenant of treaty and trampled them all under his feet.
عن ام سلمه قالت قال رسول اﷲ صلی الله عليه وآله وسلم أخبرني جبرئيل ان ابني الحسين يقتل بأرض العراق فقلت لجبرئيل ارني تربة الارض التي يقتل فيها، فجاء فهذه تربتها
“Umm-il-Mu’minin Hazrat Ummi Salamah RadiyAllahu Ta’ala ‘Anha Riwayat Karti Hain Ki RasoolAllah SallAllahu Ta’ala ‘Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Farmaya Mujhe Jibra’ile Ameen Ne (Aalame Bedaari Me) Bataaya Ki Mera Yeh Beta Husayn Iraq Kee Sar Zameen Me Qatl Kar Diya Jaaega Mein Ne Kaha Jibra’il Mujhe Us Zameen Kee Mitti Laa Kar Dikha Do Jaha’n Husayn Ko Qatl Kar Diya Jaaega Pas Jibra’il Gaye Aur Mitti La Kar Dikha Dee Ki Yeh Is Ke Mqatal Kee Mitti Hai.” – [1_Ibn Kathir Fi Al-Bidayah Wa An-Nihayah, 08/196_200,
2_Hisam-ud-Deen Hindi Fi Kanz-ul-‘Ummal, 12/126, Hadith-34313,
Dhib’he ‘Azeem(Dhib’he Isma’il ‘Alayh-is-Salam Se Dhib’he Husayn RadiyAllahu Ta’ala ‘Anhu Tak)/91_92.] 〰〰
عن عائشة عنه انه قال أخبرنی جبرئيل ان ابني الحسين يقتل بعدي بأرض الطف
“Hazrat Aaishah Siddiqa RadiyAllahu Ta’ala ‘Anha Se Marwi Hai Ki RasoolAllah SallAllahu Ta’ala ‘Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Farmaya Ki Jibra’ile Ameen Ne Mujhe Khabar Dee Mera Yeh Beta Husayn Mere Baa’d Maqaame Tuff Me Qatl Kar Diya Jaaega.” – [Tabarani Fi Al-Mu’jam-ul-Kabir, 03/107, Hadith-2814.]
Hazrat Aaishah Siddiqa RadiyAllahu Ta’ala ‘Anha Kee Riwaayat Bhi Kam-o-Besh Wohi Hai Jo Oopar Bayaan Kee Gayi Hai, Yeh Bhi Qatle Husayn RadiyAllahu Ta’ala ‘Anhu Kee Ittila’ Hai. Yeh Rooh Farsa Ittila’ Paa Kar Qalbe At’har Par Kya Guzri Hogi Is Ka Tasawwur Bhi Rooh Ke Dar-o-Baam Ko Hila Deta Hai, Palko’n Par Aansoo’on Kee Kinaari Sajne Lagti Hai Aur Gulshane Fatimah RadiyAllahu Ta’ala ‘Anha Kee Tabaahi Ka Dilkharaash Manzar Dekh Kar Chashme Tasawwur Bhi Apni Palkein Jhuka Leti Hai. – [Dhib’he ‘Azeem(Dhib’he Isma’il ‘Alayh-is-Salam Se Dhib’he Husayn RadiyAllahu Ta’ala ‘Anhu Tak)/92_93.] 〰〰