Great muslim mathematician, astronomer, historian, geographer and musician.
First person who used zero
Composed oldest works on algebra and astronomical tables
Systematized the Greek and Hindu mathematical knowledge
Introduced the method of counting based on numerals and decimal systems for
the first time
Wrote famous book named Hisab-al-jabar wal Muqabla in which he gave analytical
solutions of quadratic and linear equations .This book was used as principal mathematical
textbook, until the 16th century by European universities.
Composed his own astronomical tables known as Zijj (ZJ), which became a
model for astronomical pursuits in East and West.
Kitab-surat-al-ard was a geography book in which he gave an idea about the
shape of the earth
THE TREATY OF HUDAIBIA
In the sixth year after migration the Prophet (S.A.W) decided to go for Hajj some fourteen to fifteen
hundred people joined him. He also carried with him some seventy camels to be sacrificed. As his
intention was only to perform Hajj he did not carry any arms nor allowed his companions to carry any.
Ali (A.S.) was given the banner of Islam and was asked to lead the caravan. When the caravan reached
Zil Haleefa the Prophet (S.A.W) changed his dress and wore the dress of a pilgrim. The Meccans on
getting the news of Prophet (S.A.W)’s coming decided not to allow him to enter Mecca. They started
preparing themselves to fight with him. Khalid Bin Waleed was sent with two hundred people to stop
the Prophet (S.A.W) outside Mecca. The Prophet (S.A.W) was resting near a wall called Hudaibia when
he got the news of Khalid’s coming. He immediately took a pledge from his companions to fight and die
than to run away. This pledge is recorded in the history as Baitur Rizwan, and those who gave the
pledge are known as Ashab-us-Samra. The representative of Quraish who came to have a dialogue with
the Prophet (S.A.W) advised the Prophet (S.A.W) not to precipitate the matter and go back to Madina
without performing the Hajj as he could see with him such mean and treacherous people who will leave
you in the battlefield and run away [Sahih Bukhari Vol II page 7]. Abu Bakr who was sitting just behind
the Prophet (S.A.W) said, “Do you think we will leave the Prophet (S.A.W) in the battle front and run
away” [Tabari Vol 3 page 75]. If they can come to some understanding with the Quraish some
arrangement for the next year can be made.
The Prophet (S.A.W) asked Umar Ibnul Khattab to go and talk to the Meccans on his behalf. But Umar
refused and said, “I am afraid if I go I will be killed, for they very well know my hatred for them and there
is nobody of my tribe in Mecca who will save me from them.” Then he suggested the name of Usman
Ibne Affan who was from the tribe of Banu Umayya and a relative of Abu Sufian. If he goes there he will
be welcomed. The Prophet (S.A.W) then sent Usman to talk on his behalf to the Meccans. When Usman
entered Mecca he was given a warm welcome by the Quraish. After preliminary discussions the
Quraish decided to send Suhail Bin Amr to have further discussions with the Prophet (S.A.W). Suhail
came and after discussing the matter with the Prophet (S.A.W) agreed to sign a contract with the
Prophet (S.A.W) on four terms:-
(1) That his agreement will be for ten years. And during these ten years the infidels and the Muslims will
not fight with each other. People from either side can move freely and there will not be any restriction
on their movements.
(2) The people are free to have friendly relations with either party and nobody will object to their such
relationship and will be respected by the other party.
(3) The Muslims can perform the Hajj only next year and they will not carry any arms when they enter
Mecca. They can of course carry them on their journey.
(4) If any person from the infidels joins the Muslims, the Muslims will have to send them back, but when
a Muslim joins the infidels he will not be returned.
When these basic terms were settled the Prophet (S.A.W) asked Ali (A.S.) to reduce them in writing.
Ali (A.S.) began to write Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Rahim (In the name of God, the Beneficent, the
Merciful). When Suhail objected to this beginning and said the agreement should start with, “With Thy
Name” only and not Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Rahim. The Prophet (S.A.W) agreed and asked Ali (A.S.)
to change accordingly. Ali (A.S.) cancelled the words Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Rahim and wrote, “With
Thy Name”. Continuing the agreement Ali (A.S.) wrote, “…This agreement is between Mohammad
(S.A.W) the Apostle of Allah and…” Suhail stopped Ali (A.S.) and told the Prophet (S.A.W) to cancel the
words Apostle of Allah after his name, as they (Quraish) do not accept him as the Apostle of Allah. The
Prophet (S.A.W) asked Ali (A.S.) to erase those words and write in its place Mohammad (S.A.W) Ibne
Abdullah. Ali (A.S.) refused with apology and said, “After writing the words `Apostle of Allah’ after thy
file:///D|/books/Ali/chap19.htm (1 of 2) [8/8/2000 4:14:36 AM]
name how can I erase them.” The Prophet (S.A.W) himself erased the words, “The Apostle of Allah”
from the agreement with Ali (A.S.)’s aid and ordered Mohammad (S.A.W) Ibne Abdullah to be written in
Two copies of this agreement were prepared and were signed by the Prophet (S.A.W) and Suhail.
Umar Ibnul Khattab was so angry with this agreement that according to his own confession, “A great
doubt arose in my heart on the day the peace treaty at Hudaibia was signed. I deviated from the
Prophet (S.A.W) on that day as I had never deviated from him before. I went to him and asked “Are you
not the Messenger of Allah?” The Prophet (S.A.W) replied “Verily I am”. I said “Are we not right and our
opponents wrong?” The Prophet (S.A.W) replied “Yes, we are right”. Then I said “Why should we bear
this humiliation and disgrace, and return to peace in this manner”. The Prophet (S.A.W) replied, “You
son of Khattab, undoubtedly know I am the Messenger of Allah, and I do not do anything without His
Orders. He alone is my Helper and He will see that my labour is not lost.”
The treaty of Hudaibia though annoyed many Muslims like Umar it brought tremendous relief and
benefits to the Muslims. They were now not tortured or harassed any more. The Muslims who were
living in Mecca surrounded by infidels were safe and could think and work for their future. And for at
least ten years they had not to worry for their defence or consider themselves in danger. Those
Muslims of Mecca who had hidden their identity uptil now for fear of being harassed were now openly
moving as Muslims. Recitation of Quran and preaching of Islam was now done openly. Taking the name
of Allah in Mecca was not a crime now. The Muslims now openly invited the infidels to embrace Islam.
Before the signing of this treaty the infidels did not speak to the Muslims, but now they had friendly
relations with them and moved freely with them. And above all the Prophet (S.A.W) had some peace of
mind and his life was not in that danger now. And due to the atmosphere of love and peace that this
agreement brought in Mecca the Muslim population doubled in just two years.
After signing of the peace treaty the Prophet (S.A.W) ordered the Muslims to sacrifice the animals he
had brought from Madina. But none obeyed his orders. The Prophet (S.A.W) after asking them three
times to slaughter the animals he himself rose and taking the help of Ali (A.S.) sacrificed all the
रसूलल्लाह सल्लल्लाहु अलैहि वसल्लम का बनु उमैया के लिये कॉल।
अबू बरजह अस्लमी फरमाते है
“ज़िंदा लोगो में रसूलल्लाह सल्लल्लाहु अलैहि वसल्लम सब से ज्यादा बनु उमैय्या बनु हनीफा और बनु सक़ीफ़ पर नाराज थे”
अल मुस्तरदाक सही ज़िल्द 6 पेज 615 हदीस न. 8482
अबु सईद खुदरी फरमाते है की रसूलल्लाह सल्लल्लाहु अलैहि वसल्लम ने फ़रमाया . . . . . .
“मेरे बाद मेरी उम्मत की जानिब से मेरी अहलेबैत को क़त्ल और भागने का सामना होगा और मेरी कौम के साथ सब से ज्यादा बुग्ज रखने वाले लोग बनु उमय्या, बनु मुग़ीरह और बनु मख्जूम है”
अल मुस्तरदाक सही ज़िल्द 6 पेज 624 हदीस न. 8500
ये दोनों हदीस बुखारी और मुस्लिम के मयार पर सही है लेकिन नक़ल नहीं किया है।
एक ऐसी ही रिवायत मिसकवत उल मसबीह में भी है की आप सल्लल्लाहु अलैहि वसल्लम बनु उमैय्या बनु हनीफा और बनु सक़ीफ़ पर नाराज थे
मिसकवत उल मसबीह ज़िल्द 5 पेज 163 हदीस न. 5992
अब्दुल्लाह इब्ने अब्बास र.अ. से रिवायत है की अल्लाह के रसूल ﷺ ने फ़रमाया,
“अय औलादे अब्दुल मुत्तलिब, मैंने अल्लाह से तुम्हारे लिए तीन चीज़े मांगी; की वो तुम्हारे दिलो को (अपने दीन पर) साबित रखे, ये की वो सिखाये (अल्लाह का) दीन तुम्हारे जाहिल और अनपढ़ को और हिदायत दे तुम्हारे गुमराह को और ये की वो तुम्हे बना दे भला एहसान करने वाला, सखी और महबूब एक दूसरे लिये।
तो अगर कोई इंसान नमाज़े पढता रहे सारी जिंदगी रुक्न (काबतुल्लाह) और मक़ाम (मक़ाम इ इब्राहिम) के बीच खड़ा हो कर, और रोज़ा रखता रहे पर वो मरे इस हाल में की उसके दिल में हसद व किना हो एहलेबैत ए मुहम्मद ﷺ के लिये तो उसे जहन्नम में डाल दिया जायेगा। “
Imam Hakim ne is hadis ko Hasan Sahih kaha Muslim ki shart par lekin likha nahi hay, Zehbi ne ise muslim ki shart par sahih likha (Talkhis Mustadrak me)
Mustadrak al-Hakim – Jild 4, Page 293, Hadith : 4712
Kanz ul Ummal – Jild 11-12, Page 375, Hadith : 33910
Mujam al Kabir by Tabarani – Jild 11, Hadith : 11412
“Hazrate Aboo Sa’iyd Khudri RadiyAllahu Ta’ala Anhu Se Riwayat Hai Ki Huzoor Nabiyy-E-Akram SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Farmaya :
Aagaah Ho Jaawo!
Mera Jaama Daan Jis Se Mein Aaraam Paata Hoo’n Mere Ahl-E-Bayt Hai Aur Meri Jama’at Ansaar Hain.
Un Ke Buro’n Ko Muaaf Kar Do Aur Un Ke Nekokaaro’n Se (Achchhaa’i Ko) Qubool Kar Lo.”
Is Hadith Ko Imam Tirmidhi Aur Ibn Abi Shaybah Ne Riwayat Kiya Hai Neez Imam Tirmidhi Ne Farmaya Ki Ye Hadith Hasan Hai.
[Tirmidhi Fi As-Sunan, 05/714, Raqam-3904,
Ibn Abi Shaybah Fi Al-Musannaf, 06/399, Raqam-32357,
Shaybani Fi Al-Ahadith Wa’l Mathani, 03/332, Raqam-1716,
Ibn Sa’d Fi At-Tabqat-ul-Kubra, 02/252,
Ghayat-ul-Ijabah Fi Manaqib-il-Qarabah,/23, Raqam-01.]
“Hazrat Zayd Bin Thabit RadiyAllahu Ta’ala Anhu Bayan Karte Hain Ki Huzoor Nabi-E-Akram SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Farmaya :
BeShak Mein Tum Me Do² Na’eeb Chhod Kar Jaa Raha Hoo’n.
Aik Allah Ta’ala Kee Kitab Jo Ki Aasman Wa Zamin Ke Darmiyan Phaili Huwi Rassi (Kee Tarah) Hai Aur Meri Itrat Ya’ni Mere Ahl-E-Bayt Aur Ye Ki Ye Donon Us Waqt Tak Harghiz Juda Nahin Honge Jab Tak Ye Mere Paas Hawz-E-Kawthar Par Nahin Pahunch Jaate.”
Is Hadith Ko Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal Ne Riwayat Kiya Hai.
[Ahmad Bin Hanbal Fi Al-Musnad, 05/181, Raqam-21618,
Haythami Fi Majma’-uz-Zawa’id, 09/162,
Ghayat-ul-Ijabah Fi Manaqib-il-Qarabah,/23, 24, Raqam-02.]
“Hazrat Abd-ur-Rahman Bin Awf RadiyAllahu Ta’ala Anhu Bayan Karte Hain Ki Huzoor Nabi-E-Akram SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Makkah Fatah Kiya Phir Ta’eef Ka Rukh Kiya Aur Us Ka Aanth-08 Ya Saat-07 Din Muhaasrah Kiye Rakha Phir Subah Ya Shaam Ke Waqt Us Me Daakhil Ho Gaye Phir Padaaw Kiya Phir Hijrat Farmayi Aur Farmaya :
Aye Logon !
BeShak Mein Tumhare Liye Tum Se Pahle Hawz Par Mawjood Hoonga Aur BeShak Mein Tumhein Apni Itrat Ke Saath Neki Kee Wasiyat Karta Hoo’n Aur BeShak Tumhara Thikaana Hawz Hoga…… Al-Hadith.”
Is Hadith Ko Imam Hakim Ne Riwayat Kiya Hai Aur Farmaya Ki Ye Hadith Sahih Hai.
[Hakim Fi Al-Mustadrak, 02/131, Raqam-2559,
Ghayat-ul-Ijabah Fi Manaqib-il-Qarabah,/24, Raqam-03.]
“Hazrat Zayd Bin Arqam RadiyAllahu Ta’ala Anhu Se Riwayat Hain Ki Huzoor Nabi-E-Akram SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Farmaya :
Mein Tum Me Do² Chizein Chhod Kar Jaane Waala Hoo’n Aur Agar Tum Un Kee Ittaba’ Karoge To Kabhi Gumraah Nahin Howoge Aur Woh Do² Chizein Kitab-ul-Allah Aur Mere Ahl-E-Bayt Hain Phir Aap SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Farmaya :
Kya Tum Jaante Ho Mein Mominin Kee Jaanon Se Badh Kar Un Ko Aziz Hoo’n Aap SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Aysa Teen³ Martaba Farmaya. Sahaba-E-Kiram Ridwan-ul-Allahi Ta’ala Alayhim Aj’maeen Ne Arz Kiya :
Ha’n Ya RasoolAllah ﷺ !
To Huzoor Nabi-E-Akram SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Farmaya :
Jis Ka Mein Mawla Hoo’n Ali Bhi Us Ka Mawla Hai.”
Is Hadith Ko Imam Hakim Ne Riwayat Kiya Hai Aur Kaha Ki Ye Hadith Sahih Hai.
[Hakim Fi Al-Mustadrak, 03/118, Raqam-4577,
Ghayat-ul-Ijabah Fi Manaqib-il-Qarabah,/25, Raqam-04.]
“Hazrat Abdullah Bin Abbas RadiyAllahu Ta’ala Anhuma Se Marwi Hai Ki Jab Ye Aayat :
﴿قُلۡ لَّاۤ اَسۡـَٔلُکُمۡ عَلَیۡہِ اَجۡرًا اِلَّا الۡمَوَدَّۃَ فِی الۡقُرۡبٰی﴾
Naazil Huee To Sahaba-E-Kiram Ridwan-ul-Allahi Ta’ala Alayhim Aj’maeen Arz Kiya :
Ya RasoolAllah ﷺ !
Aap Kee Qaraabat Koun Hain Jin Kee Mohabbat Hum Par Waajib Hai ?
To Aap SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Farmaya :
Ali, Fatimah Aur Un Ke Do² Beyte (Hasan Wa Husayn).”
Is Hadith Ko Imam Tabarani Ne Riwayat Kiya Hai.
[Tabarani Fi Al-Mu’jam-ul-Kabir, 03/47, Raqam-2641,
Haythami Fi Majma’-uz-Zawa’id, 09/168,
Ghayat-ul-Ijabah Fi Manaqib-il-Qarabah,/25, 26, Raqam-05.]
“Hazrat Zayd Bin Arqam RadiyAllahu Ta’ala Anhu Aik Tawil Riwayat Me Bayan Karte Hain Ki Huzoor Nabi-E-Akram SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Farmaya :
Pas Ye Dekho Ki Tum Do² Bhaari Chizon Me Mujhe Kaise Baaqi Rakhte Ho.
Pas Aik Needa Dene Waale Ne Needa Dee Ya RasoolAllah ﷺ !
Woh Do² Bhaari Chizein Kya Hain ?
Aap SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Farmaya :
Allah Ta’ala Kee Kitab Jis Ka Aik Kinaara Allah Ta’ala Ke Haath Me Aur Dusara Kinaara Tumhaare Haathon Me Hai Pas Agar Tum Ise Mazbooti Se Thaame Raho To Kabhi Bhi Gumraah Nahin Howoge Aur Dusari Chiz Meri Itrat Hai Aur BeShak Us Latif Khabir Rab Ne Mujhe Khabar Dee Hai Ki Ye Donon Chizein Kabhi Bhi Juda Nahin Hongi Yaha’n Tak Ki Ye Mere Paas Hawz Par Haazir Hongi Aur Aysa Un Ke Liye Mein Ne Apne Rab Se Maanga Hai.
Pas Tum Log Un Par Pesh Qadami Na Karo Ki Halaak Ho Jaawon Aur Na Hee Un Se Pichhe Raho Ki Halaak Ho Jaawo Aur Na Un Ko Sikhaaawo Kyu’n Ki Ye Tum Se Zyaada Jaante Hain Phir Aap SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Hazrat Ali KarramAllahu Ta’ala Waj’hah-ul-Karim Ka Haath Pakad Liya Aur Farmaya :
Pas Mein Jis Kee Jaan Se Badh Kar Use Aziz Hoo’n To Ye Ali Us Ka Mawla Hai Aye Allah!
Jo Ali Ko Apna Dost Rakhta Hai Too Use Apna Dost Rakh Aur Jo Ali Se Adawat Rakhta Hai Too Us Se Adawat Rakh.”
Is Hadith Ko Imam Tabarani Ne Riwayat Kiya Hai.
[Tabarani Fi Al-Mu’jam-ul-Kabir, 05/166, Raqam-4971,
Ghayat-ul-Ijabah Fi Manaqib-il-Qarabah,/26, 27, Raqam-06.]
“Hazrat Mus’ab Bin Abd-ur-Rahman Bin Awf Apne Waalid Se Riwayat Karte Hain Ki Jab Huzoor Nabi-E-Akram SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Makkah Fatah Kiya Us Ke Baad Aap SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ta’eef Kee Taraf Rawaana Huwe Aur Aap SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Satrah-17 Din Ya Unnis-19 Din Ta’eef Ka Muhaasarah Kiye Rakha Phir Aap SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Khitaab Ke Liye Khade Huwe Aap SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Allah Ta’ala Kee Hamd Wa Thana’ Bayan Kee Phir Farmaya :
Mein Apni Itrat Ke Baare Me Tumhein Bhalaayi Kee Wasiyat Karta Hoo’n Aur BeShak Tumhaara Thikaana Hawz-E-Kawthar Hoga Aur Namaz Qaayim Karoge Aur Zakaat Ada Karoge Ya Mein Tumhari Taraf Aik Ayse Aadami Ko Bhejunga Jo Mujh Me Se Hai Ya Meri Tarah Ka Hai Aur Jo Tumhaari Gardane Maarega Phir Aap SallAllahu Ta’ala Alayhi Wa Aalihi Wa Sallam Ne Hazrat Ali KarramAllahu Ta’ala Waj’hah-ul-Karim Ka Heath Pakda Aur Farmaya :
Us Aadami Se Meri Muraad Ye Hai.”
Is Hadith Ko Imam Bazzar Ne Riwayat Kiya Hai.
[Bazzar Fi Al-Musnad, 03/258, 259, Raqam-1050,
Ghayat-ul-Ijabah Fi Manaqib-il-Qarabah,/27, 28, Raqam-07.]