ACCOUNT OF QUSAYYI IBN KILAB

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He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Muhammad Ibn `Umar al-Aslami informed us on the authority of more than one scholar of Madinah; (second chain) he (Ibn Sa`d) said: Hishŕm Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Sŕ’ib al-Kalbi informed us on the authority of his father; they said:

Kilab Ibn Murrah Ibn Ka`b Ibn Luwayyi Ibn Ghŕlib Ibn Fihr Ibn Malik married Fatimah Bint Sa’d Ibn Sayal whose name was Khayr Ibn Hamŕlah Ibn `Awf (Ibn Ghanm in between ‘Awf and ‘Amir in al-Tabari, Vol. II, p. 181) Ibn ‘Amir, surnamed al-Jŕdir, because he was the first person to build the wall of the Ka`bah; he was son of `Amr Ibn Ju’thumah Ibn Mubashshir (Yashkur according to al-Tabari. Vol. II, p. 181) Ibn Sa’b Ibn Duhman Ibn Nasr Ibn Zahrŕn Ibn Ka’b Ibn al-Harith Ibn Ka’b Ibn ‘Abd Allah Ibn Malik Ibn Nasr Ibn al-Azd. Ju`thumah’s migration coincided with that of Azd from Márib. (Marib was the capital of Yaman, on the bank of a stream of the same name, under the rulers of Saba. It was situated to the east of San’a. A dam was constructed across the river. The dam was destroyed by a flood known as Sayl al-‘Arim between A.C. 542 and 570, when the residents abondand their homes) They alighted with the ‘tribe of Du’il Ibn Bakr Ibn ‘Abd Manŕt Ibn Kinanah with whom they formed an alliance and contracted marriages. Then Fatimah Bint Sa’d bore Zuhrah Ibn Kilŕb to Kilŕb Ibn Murrah. There was no issue for a long time and then she bore Qusayyi whose name was Zayd. Then Kilab Ibn Murrah died and Rabi`ah Ibn Haram Ibn Dinnah Ibn `Abd Ibn Kabir Ibn `Udhrah Ibn Sa’d Ibn Zayd, of the tribe of Quda’ah carried her to his place in the land of ‘Udhrah`who were the nobles of Syria upto Sargh and its dependencies. Since Zuhrah Ibn Kiláb was grown up, he remained in his tribe but since Qasayyi was very young and had newly weaned his mother took him with her. He was named Qusayyi (distant) because he was living in the distant land of Syria. There she bore Rizŕh to Rabi`ah, to whom Qusayyi has also been attributed.

One day he competed with a member of the tribe of Quda`ah whose name was Ruqay`. Hisham Ibn al-Kalbi said: He was’a member of the tribe of `Udhrah. Qusayyi overpowered him; the person so overpowered became angry and enmity grew between them till they exchanged hot words and quarrelled. Ruqay` said: Why do you not go back to your own place and people; you are not one of us? Qusayyi went to his mother and asked her: Who is my father? She said: Rabi’ah is your father. He said: Had I been his son, I would not have been denied by them. She said: If it is so, then by Allah, it is not the observance of the right of neighbourhood, nor protection of the right by them. In fact you are nobler and more honourable both in your individual capacity and also by birth and descent. Your father is Kilab Ibn Murrah Ibn Ka`b Ibn Luwayyi Ibn Ghalib Ibn Fihr Ibn Malik Ibn al-Nadr Ibn Kinanah of the Quraysh tribe, and your people live in Makkah close to the Ka’bah, the vicinity of which is respected.

He said: By Allah! I shall never stay here. She said: Wait till the season of pilgrimage, and then go there with the pilgrims, since I fear lest some people might harm you. He stayed there; when (the time of pilgrimage) approached, she sent him with the people of the Quda`ah tribe; he reached Makkah. (His elder brother) Zuhrah was yet alive. Zuhrah and Qusayyi both had signs of pilgrimage (Unstiched garment donned by pilgrims) on them, so the latter (i.e., Qusayyi) approached the former (i.e., Zuhrah) and said: I am your brother. Zuhrah, who had grown old and lost his vision, said to him: Come close to me, then he touched him and said: By Allah I recognise the voice and the resemblance (in features). When he was free after performing the pilgrimage the men of the Quda’ah insisted on his return with them to their territory, but he declined and settled at Makkah. Since he was of a forbearing nature, prominent and of noble descent, he made a proposal to Hulayl Ibn Hubshiyyah Ibn Salul Ibn Ka`b Ibn ‘Amr Ibn Rabi’ah. This Hulayl is surnamed Luhayyi al-Khuza`i, and the proposal was concerning his daughter Hubba. Having come to know of his descent, Hulayl gave his daughter Hubba in his (Qusayyi’s) marriage. In those days Hulayl was administering the affairs of Makkah, and had combined with it the custodianship of the Ka`bah. Then Hulayl perished and his son al-Muhtarish became the custodian of the Ka`bah. His patronymic name was Abu Ghubshan; the Arabs made payments to him during seasons of pilgrimage. In one of the seasons they curtailed them and withheld a portion of what they used to pay to him; so he grew angry. Thereupon Qusayyi invited him and served him with drink and then purchased the Ka`bah from him for a few camels. It is said that he purchased it for a water-skinfull of wine and he was pleased with the bargain; then he went to the outskirts of Makkah. (Cf al-Tabari, Vol. II, p. 183)

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He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Muhammad Ibn `Umar Ibn Waqid al-Aslami informed us; he said: `Abd Allah Ibn ‘Amr Ibn Zuhayr related to me on the authority of `Abd Allah Ibn Khidash Ibn Umayyah al-Kabi, he on the authority of his father; (second chain) he (Ibn Sa`d) said: Fatimah Bint Muslim al-Aslami related to me on the authority of Fŕtimah al-Khuza’i, who had lived in the time of the Companions; they said:

When Qusayyi married Hubbŕ Bint Hulayl Ibn Hubshiyyah and she bore children to him; Hulayl said: Verily the children of Qusayyi are my children since they are the children of my daughter. Then he made a will concerning the custodianship of the Ka`bah and control over Makkah in favour of Qusayyi and said to him: Thou art the fittest person. (Cf al-Tabari, Vol. II, p. 183)

Now, back to the previous narration of Muhammad Ibn `Umar Ibn Waqid al-Aslami and Hisham Ibn Muhammad al-Kalbi; they said: It is said that when Hulayl Ibn Hubshiyyah perished and the descendants of Qusayyi spread and his wealth increased and he rose in honour, then he began to think that his right to the custodianship of the Ka’bah and administration of Makkah was better than (that of the) Khuza`ah and Banu Bakr, and that the Quraysh were the offspiring of Isma’il Ibn Ibrahim and were his true descendants. So he had a talk with the people of the Quraysh and Banu Kinanah and exhorted them to banish Banu Khuza`ah and Banu Bakr from Makkah and declared: We have better title to this office than they have. They (the Quraysh and the Kinanah) responded to his appeal and followed him. Then he wrote to his uterine brother Rizah Ibn Rabi`ah Ibn Harŕm al-`Udhri asking him to support him. Thereupon Rizah with his step-brothers, Hunn, Mahmud and Julhumah and their followers of the Quda’ah tribe set out for Makkah and reached there. (The tribe of) Sufah whose name was al-Ghawth Ibn Murr used to prevent people from the `Arafah not allowing any body to throw pebbles (a ritual of the pilgrimage) till every one of them had done it. After that year the Sufah repeated what they were doing in the previous years, but Qusayyi appoached them and met them at al-‘Aqabah with his followers from among the Quraysh, the Kinŕnah and the Quda`ah. He said: We have better title to it than you.

They denied and a fierce fighting ensued in which the Sufah were defeated. Then Rizŕh said: Qusayyi ! permit the people (to perform the ritual of throwing pebbles). He permitted the people and took hold of what was in their (Khuzá`ah & Bakr’s) possession. Since then (the ritual of) Ifadah (circumambulation round the Ka`bah) has been the privilege of the descendants of Qusayyi. (The people of the tribes of) Khuza`ah and Banu Bakr regretted their action and drew away from him. Thereupon Qusayyi collected his forces to fight with them. They fought a fierce battle at al-Abtab, and a large number of people were slain. Then they sued for a peace and they appointed Ya’mar Ibn `Awf Ibn Ka`b Ibn Layth Ibn Bakr Ibn `Abd Manat Ibn Kinŕnah as an arbitrator. He declared that Qusayyi Ibn Kilab had a better title to the custody of the Ka’bah and administration of Makkah than Khuza`ah. He declared that the bloodshed caused by Qusayyi was lawful and was to be under his feet; consequently Khuza`ah and Banu Bakr were to pay diyah (blood money) for every person of the Quraysh and the Kinanah whom they had slain. Since that day Ya`mur was surnamed al-Shaddakh because he declared how the blood of the parties was spilt. (Cf. al-Tabarl, Vol. II, pp. 183-184. Ibn Hishám, (Al-Azhar edition), Vol. I, p. 78)

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He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Muhammad Ibn `Umar informed us: Musa Ibn Ya`qub al-Zam`i informed us on the authority of his paternal aunt, she on the authority of her mother Karimah Bint al-Miqdad, she on the authority of her father; he said:

When Qusayyi achieved his objective and expelled the Khuza`ah and Banu Bakr out of Makkah, the Quraysh joined him and since then they are known as Quraysh, because of their joining him; altaqarrush signifies joining. When the affair of Qusayyi was settled his uterine brother Rizáh Ibn Rabi`ah al-‘Udhri went back along with his brothers and kinsmen, who were three hundred in number, to their lands. Subsequently Rizáh and Hunn used to meet Qusayyi and come (to Makkah) during the period of pilgrimage. They used to be his guests and could see the respect shown to him by the Quraysh and the Arabs. He (Qusayyi) showed respect to them (Rizah and Hunn) and gave presents to them, and the Quraysh respected them for their assistance and fortitude in the battle of the Khuzá`ah and Bakr.

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He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Hisham Ibn Muhammad informed us on the authority of his father; he said:

Verily they were called the Quraysh because two of Fihr’s sons were from one mother and one from another, so they separated and settled in different parts of Tahamah of Makkah; subsequently they united. Thereupon Banu Bakr said: The sons of Jandalah got united.

The first person of the Mudar (tribe) to settle at Makkah was Khuzaymah Ibn Mudrikah who cast a statue dedicated to Hubal and placed it there and so it was called the idol of Khuzaymah. His descendants lived there till Fihr Ibn Malik succeeded them. Thereupon Banu Asad and the people of Kinanah migrated to their present settlement.

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He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Hisham Ibn Muhammad al-Kalbi informed us on the authority of his father; he said:

All the children of Qusayyi Ibn Kilab were born of Hubba Bint Hulayl, yiz. `Abd al-Dar Ibn Qusayyi, the first born, `Abd Manaf Ibn Qusayyi whose name was al-Mughirah, “Abd al-`Uzza Ibn Qusayyi and `Abd Ibn Qusayyi, and Takhmur Bint Qusayyi and Barrah Bint Qusayyi.

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Hč (Ibn Sa`d) said: Hishŕm Ibn Muhammad informed us on the authority of his father, he on the authority of Abu Salih, be on the authority of Ibn `Abbas; he said:

Qusayyi used to say that he begot four sons, two of whom he dedicated to his gods. one to his house and one to himself. Consequently `Abd Ibn Qusayyi was called ‘Abd Qusayyi, and the two after his gods `Abd Manaf and `Abd al-`UzzA, and one after his house was `Abd al-Dar. (Cf. al-Tabari, Vol. II, p. 181)

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He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Muhammad Ibn `Umar al-Aslami informed us; he said: `Abd Allah Ibn Ja’far al-Zuhri related to me, he said: I discovered in the book of Abu Bakr Ibn `Abd al-Rahman Ibn al-Miswar Ibn Makhramah saying: Muhammad Ibn Jubayr Ibn Mut`im informed us; (second chain) he (Ibn Sa`d) said: Hishŕm Ibn Muhammad al-Kalbi informed us; he said: My father informed me on the authority of Abu Sŕlih, he on the authority of Ibn `Abbas; they said:

Qusayyi Ibn Kilŕb was the first of the descendants of Ka’b Ibn Luwayyi to assume sovereignty, and his people paid homage to him. He was the Sharif (Chief) of Makkah and there was none to dispute his claim. Then he erected Dar al-Nadwah (Council Chamber), its door facing the Ka`bah. All the affairs of the Quraysh were discussed and decided there e.g. marriage, war, and consultations about other affairs, even such minor things as the attaining of puberty by a girl and her changing the shirt; her shirt was cut there and then she was sent to her family. (It was a custom) The banner of war offensive or defensive was hoisted in the Dar al-Nadwah; (the hoisting of the banner) was the chief prerogrative of Qusayyi. No boy was circumcised but in the Dar al-Nadwah. No caravan of the Quraysh set out on its journey but from it, nor returned but alighted in it, as a mark of respect to him and for being blessed by his advice; this was in recognition of his excellence. They followed his orders like the commands of the faith; without his sanction nothing was done in his life, nor after his death. He had combined in his person offices of al-hijábah (the custody of the Ka’bah); al-siqáyah (to supply drinking water to the pilgrims); al-rifádah (to feed the pilgrims); al-liwa (hoisting the banner of war); al-nadwah (council) and the administration of Makkah. He used to receive tithes from all persons entering Makkah but not from its residents.

He (lbn Sa`d) said: It was called Dar al-Nadwah because people assembled there (to gain) good and (to ward off) evil. [P. 40] Nadi is a place for the assembling of the people, when they assemble. Qusayyi divided Makkah into quarters allottiug them to the branches of his tribe. Different branches of the Quraysh settled in the places in which they still live. The place abounded in `idáh and salm (Idah and Salm are two species of ever-green thorny trees) and the Quraysh feared to cut them within the boundry of the Ka`bah. Qusayyi allowed them to cut the trees and told them that they were being cut for their houses and roads, and may Allah curse him who has evil designs. Qusayyi felled a tree with his own hand and his supporters followed him, then the Quraysh cut them. They applied the appellation of Mujammi` to him, because he had brought about unity in respect of their affairs. They sought blessings of God through him, They showed respect to him and appointed him their ruler. (Cf. al-Tabari, Vol. II, p. 182; Ibn Hisham, Vol. I, p 79) He (Qusayyi) made the sub-tribes of the Quraysh settle at al-Abtah, so they were called the Quraysh of al-Bitŕh. He made Banu Ma`ďs Ibn ‘Amir Ibn Luwayyi, Banu Taym al-Adram lbn Ghalib Ibn Fihr, Banu Muharib Ibn Fihr and Banu al-Harith Ibn Fihr settle in the upper part of Makkah; for this reason they were known a1-Zawahir and also because they had not settled at al-Abtah with Qusayyi. However there was an exception of the sub-tribe of Abu `Ubaydah Ibn al-Jarrah who belonged to Banu al-Harith Ibn Fihr and because they had settled at al-Abtah they were known as the people of al-Bitah and lived with al-Mutayyabin. (They were the arbitrators appointed to adjudge the claims of the rival houses of ‘Abd Manaf and `Abd al-Dar concerning hijabah, rifadah. siqayah and liwa.) A poet, Dhakwán the mawla of ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattáb, composed the following verses concerning al-Dahhak Ibn Qays al-Fihri who had struck him.

“( I wish) a party of the Quraysh had been present before me, but it would have been of the Quraysh of al-Bitah and not of the Quraysh of al-Zawahir”.

Hudhafah Ibn Ghanim al-`Adawi recited in praise of Abu Lahab Ibn `Abd al-Muttalib.

“Your progenitor was Qusayyi whose appellation was Mujammi` because Allah made the tribes of Fihr united by him.”

So Qusayyi was called Mujammi` because he united the Quraysh; and the Quraysh, who were called Banu al-Nadr before him, were given by him the name of the Quraysh.

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He (Ibn Sa’d) said: Muhammad Ibn `Umar informed us; he said: Abu Bakr Ibn `Abd Allah Ibn Abi Sabrah related to me on the authority of Said Ibn Muhammad lbn Jubayr Ibn Mut’im:

That ‘Abd al-Malik lbn Marwán asked Muhammad Ibn Jubayr: When were the Quraysh given this name? He replied: When they came and settled together near the sanctuary (of the Ka’bah). This coming together is called taqarrush. Thereupon ‘Abd-al-Malik said: I have not heard it, but I have heard that Qusayyi was called al-Qurashi, and the Quraysh were not so named before him.

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He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Muhammad Ibn `Umar informed us; he said: Abu Bakr lbn `Abd Allah Ibn Abu Sabrah related to me on the authority of `Abd al-Majid Ibn Suhayl Ibn `Abd al-Rahmŕn Ibn ‘Awf, he on the authority of Abu Salamah 1bn ‘Abd al-Rahman Ibn `Awf; he said:

When Qusayyi settled by the sanctuary (of the Ka’bah) and overpowered it, he did noble deeds; consequently he was called al-Qurashi, and he is the first person to be so named.

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He (lbn Sa`d) said: Muhammad lbn `Umar informed us; he said: Abu Bakr Ibn `Abd Allah Ibn Abu Sabrah related to me on the authority of Abu Bakr lbn `Abd Allah lbn Abu Jahm; he said:

Al-Nadr lbn Kinanah was named al-Qurashi.

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He (lbn Sa’d) said: Muhammad Ibn `Umar informed us on the authority of `Abd Allah Ibn Ja`far, he on the authority of Ya`qub [P. 41] Ibn ‘Utbah al-Akhnasi; he said:

Al-Hums (Al-hums signifies the people who are emotional, and pay attention to etiquette.) were the Quraysh, the Kinanah and the Khuzŕ`ah and all those Arabs who had descended from the Quraysh. Muhammad Ibn `Umar added, without giving this chain of narrators: Or allies of the Quraysh.

Muhammad Ibn ‘Umar said: Al-Tahammus relates to certain rites which they introduced in their religion and were strict in observing them, to wit: They did not go out of the sanctuary when they had performed the pilgrimage and thus they fell short of performing the rile which Allah had enjoined on Ibrahim, and that was to stay at `Arafah which is outside the sanctuary. They abstained cooking in fat, and did not live in tents of hair; they lived under red canopies of leather. They commenced to permit the pilgrims to circumambulate round the Ka’bah in their clothes if they had not gone to the `Arafah. When they returned from the ‘Arafah they did not circumambulate round the Ka`bah, known as tawaf al-ifadah, but naked or in two ahmasi (A kind of coarse cloth woven by the Banu Ahmas, a branch of the Banu Dubay’ah) clothes. In case one circumambulated in his own clothes it was not lawful for him to wear them again.

Muhammad Ibn `Umar said: Qusayyi introduced burning fire at al-Muzdalifah, when he stopped there, so that the persons coming from `Arafah could see it. The burning of fire did not cease in the days of Ignorance on the night of assembly. (Laylat Jam’)

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Muhammad Ibn `Umar said: Kathir Ibn `Abd Allah al-Muzani informed me on the authority of Nafi’, he on the authority of Ibn `Umar; he said:

This fire continued to be kindled in the time of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, `Umar and ‘Uthman.

Muhammad lbn `Umar said: It is kindled even today. Qusayyi had made it obligatory for the Quraysh to perform the functions of siq’iyah and the rifadak; and said: People of Quraysh ! you are the neighbours of Allah and the custodian of His House (the Ka’bah) and the custodian of the sanctuary, and verily the pilgrims are the guests of Allah and the visitors of His House (the Ka’bah), and they are the worthiest of the guests for honour; so provide them with food and drink during the days of pilgrimage, till they return. They complied with it and they had a portion of their wealth allotted for this purpose, which they paid to him (Qusayyi). He provided food to the people in Mina and Makkah (during the days of pilgrimage) and constructed tanks to be filled with water with water-skins; people drank this water at Makkah, Mina and `Arafah. This custom continued in the days of Jŕhiliyah till his people embraced Islam; they have continued it till today.

When Qusayyi grew old and feeble and (he observed that) his first born and eldest son `Abd al-Dar was weak and his brothers were sturdier than him, he said: 0 my son ! by Allah, I`shall make thee join thy people although they are superior to thee. None of them will enter the Ka’bah unless thou openest it, no banner of war will be hoisted unless thou hoistest it, no body will drink water in Makkah but at thy siqŕvah (drinking place), no body will take food during the days of pilgrimage but from thy food; and the Quraysh will make no decision but in thy house. (In this way) he bequeatned to him Dar al-Nadwah (council chamber), Hijobat al-Bayt (the custody of the Ka`bah), [P. 42] al-Liwŕ (the Banner), siqayah (arrangements for drinking water); and al-rifádáh (provision of food for the pilgrims); and he chose him for these affairs so that he might be equal to all his brothers.

Then Qusayyi died and was interred at al-Hajun. His daughter Takhmur Bint Qusayyi recited the elegy of her father.

“After a short sleep the announcer announced the death of Qusayyi, the generous and the noble.

“He announced the death of the most refined of (the descendants of) Luwayyi, so my tears trickled down like the pearls scattering from a string.

“I suffered from sleeplessness because of internal grief and sorrow like one who becomes restless on being stung by a snake or a scorpion.”

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