Gardens of Islam

The inhabitants of the early Islamic world were, to a degree that is difficult for us to comprehend, enchanted by greenery.

Early Muslims were pioneers in establishing botanical gardens and plant collections. Below is a quotation from A. Watson, Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World; Cambridge Uni. Press 1983; pp. 117-8:

The inhabitants of the early Islamic world were, to a degree that is difficult for us to comprehend, enchanted by greenery.

This love of plants is clearly shown in a genre of poetry, the rawdiya or garden poem, probably of Persian origin, which came to be one of the main poetic forms in the Abbasid orient from the eighth to the tenth century.

In the garden poem, the author exclaimed at the coolness of the shade, the heaviness of the perfume, the music of the running water, the lushness of the foliage and so forth – in short at all the features of the artificially contrived environment which contrasted so strongly with the arid natural world. By the ninth century the genre had arrived in Spain where it was to reach its greatest heights in the eleven century; gardens became… probably the most common of all Arabigo-Andalus poetic themes.

These were not mere words; they corresponded to a reality. Early Muslims everywhere made earthly gardens that gave glimpses of the heavenly garden to come. Long indeed would be the list of early Islamic cities which could boast huge expanses of gardens.

To give only a few examples, Basra is described by the early geographers as a veritable Venice, with mile after mile of canals criss-crossing the gardens and orchards; Nisbin, a city in Mesopotamia, was said to have 40,000 gardens of fruit trees, and Damascus 110,000; Al-Fustat [Old Cairo],with its multi-storey dwellings, had thousands of private gardens, some of great splendour; in North Africa, one learns of a multitude of gardens, surrounding and even inside cities such as Tunis, Algiers, Tlemcen, and Marakesh, places which today are not conspicuous for their greenery; in Spain, writers speak endlessly of the gardens and lieux de plaisance of Seville, bCordoba and Valencia, the last of which was called by one of them “the scent bottle of al-Andalus”.

The most spectacular gardens of all were those of the rulers… the garden of al-Mu’tasim at Samarra; the great royal parks of the Aghlabid amirs of Tunisia, situated near Qairawan, and later the famous garden of the Hafsid rulers of Tunisia; those of the Fatimid caliphs of Egypt, and of the visier al-Afdal; the gardens surrounding the royal palaces at Fez and Marakesh; the great botanical gardens of `Abd al-Rahman, the first Ummayad amir of Spain; the Huerta del Rey in Toledo; the gardens of many of the Taifa kings of Spain; those of the Il-Khans and Timurids at Tabriz and elsewhere; and that of Mahmud of Ghazna at Balkh.

One of the more elaborate gardens was that of Khumarawaih, a Tulunid ruler of Egypt in the later ninth century, who made a royal garden said to be in the Persian manner. According to al-Maqrizi, the glory of this garden was its palm trees, whose trunks were covered with gold; behind this covering were pipes which brought water up the side of the trees and sprayed it out from various openings into pools.

In this way royal gardens might have been focal point in the process of plant diffusion. The evidence we have suggests that this was actually the case. It was in stocking their gardens with rare and exotic plants that many rulers gave full reign to their collecting instincts. We are told, for instance, that the first Umayyad amir of Spain, Abd al-Rahman, was passionately fond of flowers and plants, and collected in his garden rare plants from every part of the world. He sent agents to Syria and other parts of the east to procure new plants and seeds. A new kind of pomegranate was introduced into Spain through his garden.

(Left) Gardens of the Al-Hambra Palace, Granada, Spain, (Right) ‘Islamic Gardens and Landscapes’ book by D. Fairchild Ruggles (Source)

The date palm, too, was probably, or reintroduced, by him. By the tenth century, the royal gardens at Cordoba seem to have become botanical gardens, with fields for experimentation with seeds, cuttings and roots brought in from the outermost reaches of the world. Other royal gardens, in Spain and elsewhere, also became the sites of serious scientific activity as well as places of amusement.

A very important recently discovered geographical manuscript, that of al-Udhri, relates that al-Mu’tasim, a Taifa king, brought many rare plants to his garden in Almeira; these, we are told, included banana and sugar cane (both of which, however, were already known in other parts of Spain). At the other end of the Islamic world, in Tabriz, the garden of the Il-Khans was used to acclimatize rare fruit trees from India, China, Malaysia and Central Asia.

In many parts of the Islamic world this royal interest in botanical research and agricultural innovation outlasted the agricultural revolution by several centuries: the sources tell of Syrian plants introduced into his garden in Cairo by the Mamluk sultan Qalawun; of a thirteenth century king of Kanem who experimented with the growing of sugar cane in his garden; and of a number of fourteenth-century Yemeni sultans who were seriously interested in botanical and agricultural research, one of whom wrote an agricultural treatise, while another imported exotic tress and was the first to plant rice in the valley of Zabid.

Another sign of the serious nature of these undertakings is the fact that such gardens were often in the charge of leading scientists: that of the Il-Khans was directed by a Persian botanist who wrote a book on the grafting of fruit trees; al-Tignari, the author of an important Andalusian farming manual made botanical gardens for a Spanish Taifa king and then for the Almoravid prince Tamim; in the garden of a sultan of Seville, the author of an anonymous botanical treatise domesticated rare Iberian plants and acclimatized exotic ones; in the twelfth century the famous botanist and physician al-Shafran collected plants from many outlying regions of Spain for the garden of an Almohad sultan at Guadix ; the Huerta del Rey in Toledo was directed by two of Spain’s leading agronomes, Ibn Bassal and Ibn Wafid, both of whom carried out agricultural experiments and wrote important manuals of farming, the texts of which have recently been discovered.

Ibn Wafid was also the author of a book of simples, which gives, inter alia, the names and uses of many of the new plants being introduced into Spain. After the fall of Toledo in 1085, both scientists moved to the South of Spain and continued their work there; Ibn Bassal planted another botanical garden in Seville for his new patron, al-Mu’tamid, the Taifa king.

Thus the gardens of the medieval Islamic world, and particularly the royal gardens, were places where business was mixed with pleasure, science with art. By being part of a network which linked together the agricultural and botanical activities of distant regions, they played a role – perhaps one of great importance – in the diffusion of useful plants. Only many centuries later did Europe possess similar botanical gardens which helped to make it the same kind of medium for plant diffusion that the Islamic world had been in the Middle Ages.



Contents of Article: 

 1. What is Fatiha 
 2. Contents of Fatiha 
 3. Proofs of individual acts carried out in fatiha. 
        3.1   Passing of reward (Essal-e-Sawaab) to the others/sick/diseased through, a)Fasting b) Prayers c) Charity d) Releasing slave e) Pilgrimage f) Sacrificing animal and g) Reciting holy Quran.
       3.2   Proof on reciting and Excellence of Surah Iqlas, Surah Falaq, Surah Nass.  
       3.3   Virtues of reciting durood on prophet sallalahu alaihi wassalam
       3.4   Reciting on food & raising hands. 
       3.5   Teeja, Dahom, Chahloom, Barsi, 
 4.     Conclusion.


  1. 1.     WHAT IS FATIHA:

Fatiha is a compendium (collection) of various virtuous acts. Fatiha is combination of reciting few ayahs of Holy Quraan, durood, supplications (dua) for diseased and muslim ummah, feeding (providing food) family, relatives, neighbors, near and dear and to the poor and to pass on reward these virtues act to the diseased.

To pass on the reward of physical and financial ibaadat to other Muslims is permissible, and the reward reaches the person whom it is passed to. This is proven from the Quran, Hadith and rulings of the Jurists (Fuqahaa). The Hadith describe the excellence of these acts.  For this reason, Fatiha itself is Mustahab (commendable) as well as Mustahsan (established by the Sunnah) 

Some claim that this act wasn’t done by Sahaba or in past centuries and call it as biddah and to extent of shirk. We  will discuss the permissibility of passing on reward and fatiha in next couple of sectios in light of Quran and Ahadith inshallah.


Generally surah fatiha is recited in start of reciting other verses of quraan by which this practice of essal-e-sawaab got name and commonly known as fatiha.

It is said in the Shaami:
و يقرء من القران ماتيسرله من الفاتحة و اول البقرة و اية الکرسي و امن الرسول و سورة يس و تبارک الملک و سوره التکاثر و الاخلاص اثني عشر مرة او احدي عشر او سبعا او ثلاثا ثم يقول اللهم اوصل ثواب ماقرئناه الي فلان او اليهم One may recite the Holy Qur’an by way of Fatiha, on any particular occasion in the following manner: In the beginning Surah Fatiha, then the first there verses of the Surah Baqrah then Ayat-ul-Kursi, the last three verses of the Surah Baqrah, then Surah Yasin, Surah Mulk, Surah Takathur and in the end Surah Ikhlas the last one recited Twelve times or Eleven times or Seven times or Three time then pray to Almighty Allah for the Eesal-e-Sawab in favour of so and so person or persons. [Raddul Mukhtar, Qir’at lil Mayyit, Baab ad-Dafan, Vol. 1, Page 666]

In the above passages full procedure of the known offering of Fatiha has been outlined, which in short is that the man offering Fatiha should recite the Holy Qur’an and finally pray to Almighty Allah to grant the reward of the recitation in favour of or persons concerned. Since it is sunnah to raise hand at the time of final prayer of Eesal-e-Sawab, the man should raise both palms joined together up to the shoulders which would also be explained inshallah in forethcoming paragraphs.

As such any good deeds can be carried out to pass on reward, however the generally practiced so called fatiha in short is as follows:

  • Reciting Surah Fatiha once
  • Reciting Surah Iqlas thrice (or seven or eleven times)
  • Reciting Surah Falaq once.
  • Reciting Surah Naas once.
  • Reciting Durood (once, thrice, seven, eleven or as possible)
  • Praying the Almighty Allah to grant reward to the diseased (and other ummah can be included) for what you have recited and the food you provide to others.

 3.       Proofs of individual acts carried out in fatiha.
Though there are numerous references in the contest, only few have been selected to limit the document to the point and to explain in the best possible manner. Those who are Interested in more reference, then inshallah will be added in comments after end of the article.

          i.    Hadees Proof to pass on reward through fasting:

Proof 1: It is narrated by hazratha Aisha radiallahu tala anha that, Allah’s Apostle said, “Whoever died and he ought to have fasted (the missed days of Ramadan) then his guardians must fast on his behalf.”  [Sahih Bukhari Book 31 Hadith 173]

          ii.    Hadees Proof to pass on reward through prayers:
Proof 2:
في ذكر البصرة الملاحم سنن أبي داود حدثنا محمد بن المثنى حدثني إبراهيم بن صالح بن درهم قال سمعت أبي يقول انطلقنا حاجين فإذا رجل فقال لنا إلى جنبكم قرية يقال لها الأبلة قلنا نعم قال من يضمن لي منكم أن يصلي لي في مسجد العشار ركعتين أو أربعا ويقول هذه لأبي هريرة سمعت خليلي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول إن الله يبعث من مسجد العشار يوم القيامة شهداء لا يقوم مع شهداء بدر غيرهم قال أبو داود هذا المسجد مما يلي

The sahabi, Abu Hurayra, urged some people to pray 2 raka’ahs in Masjid Ashaar and told them to say after the prayers, “Haaza li Abi Hurayra”. THIS IS FOR ABU HURAYRA
Sunan Abi Dawood, Kitab al-Malaahim, Vol 11, Page 285, Hadith 3754 Shau’b al-Iman lil Baheeqi, Bab al Fazail al-Hajj wal Umrah, Vol 9, Page 152, Hadith 3960 Mishkaat, Babul Fitan wal Malaahim, Chapter Two.

From the above narration of abu hurayra three things are very clear which can be deduced as listed below:
(1) to offer physical act of worship (Namaz) with the intention of conveying the sawab of that Namaz to any other person is permissible (2) to utter by the tongue praying Almighty Allah to convey the sawab to so and so (by Name) is much better than simple intention (3) to offer the Namaz in the Masjid of some rightieous saintly person with the intention of receiving more sawab is also permissible.

Proof 3# Imam al-Bukhari writes:

“Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) has said, ‘The status of the deceased is raised [during their time in the grave], and the deceased ask Allah why this has happened. Allah replies,‘Your son has prayed for your forgiveness’”

►[al-Bukhari, Al-Adab Al-Mufid, chapter on ‘Excellency of Parents’]

From this particular hadith it can be understood that not only fasts, but the offering of prayers (making duas) and the giving of alms, will also benefit the deceased.

                iii.    Hadees Proof to pass on reward through releasing slave, charity and pilgrimage:
Proof 4:  Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-‘As:
Al-‘As ibn Wa’il left his will that a hundred slaves should be emancipated on his behalf. His son Hisham emancipated fifty slaves and his son Amr intended to emancipate the remaining fifty on his behalf, but he said: I should ask first the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him). He, therefore, came to the Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) and said: Apostle of Allah, my father left in his will that a hundred slaves should be emancipated on his behalf and Hisham has emancipated fifty on his behalf and fifty remain. Shall I emancipate them on his behalf? The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) said: Had he been a Muslim and you had emancipated slaves on his behalf, or given sadaqah on his behalf, or performed the pilgrimage, that would have reached him. [Abu Dawud Book 17 Hadith 2877 ]
Proof 5:  Imam al-Bukhari and Imam Muslim write that:

“A man came to the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said ‘My mother has suddenly died and she did not leave any will, but I suspect that if she did then she would have told me to give something to charity. Now if I offer something in charity on her behalf, will she get the reward?’ Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) replied, ‘Yes.’Then the man said, ‘I make you, the Prophet, my witness that I offer my garden full of fruits in charity’”

Bukhari chapter on ‘Al-Wasiya’ Volume 4, Book 51, Number 19 Muslim, chapter on ‘Al-Wasiya’ Book 13, Number 4003
These hadith, as can be clearly read, proves that to offer a charity on behalf of the deceased will result in the deceased obtaining a benefit.

       iv.    Hadees Proof to pass on reward through sacrificing of animal.
Proof 6: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) reported: We performed Hajj along with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and we sacrificed a camel on behalf of seven persons, and a cow on behalf of seven persons.

[Sahih Muslim Book 7 Hadith 3026 ]
Proof 7: أَنَّهُ كَانَ يُضَحِّي بِكَبْشَيْنِ أَحَدُهُمَا عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَالْآخَرُ عَنْ نَفْسِهِ فَقِيلَ لَهُ فَقَالَ أَمَرَنِي بِهِ يَعْنِي النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَلَا أَدَعُهُ أَبَدًا

Sayyidina Ali (RA) always sacrificed two rams, one on behalf of the Prophet (SAW) and one on his own account. Someone asked him, Why do you do that? He said, ‘The Prophet (SAW) had commanded me to do it. So I will never neglect it.”. [Abu Dawud ,Book 15 ,Hadith 2784 [ under heading of sarficing for deceased/those in graves]

       v.    Hadees Proof to pass on reward through reciting of the Holy Quran. 
Proof 8: Narrated byMa’qil ibn Yasar al-Muzani

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “If anyone recites Ya-Sin out of a desire for Allah’s favour, his past sins will be forgiven him; so recite it over those of you who are dying.”

Bayhaqi transmitted it in Shu’ab al-Iman.
Al-Tirmidhi Hadith No:2178.

Proof 9: It is related that al-`Ala’ ibn al-Lajlaj said to his children: “When you bury me, say as you place me in the side-opening (lahd) of the grave: Bismillah wa `ala millati rasulillah — In the name of Allah and according to the way of Allah’s Messenger — then flatten the earth over me, and read at the head of my grave the beginning of Surat al-Baqara and its end, for I have seen that Ibn `Umar liked it.”

References 1. Narrated by Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (4:56), 2. Ibn Qudama in al-Mughni (2:474, 2:567, 1994 ed. 2:355) 3. al-Tabarani in al-Kabir, and Haythami said in Majma` al-zawa’id (3:44) that the latter’s narrators were all declared trustworthy.
Proof 10:
حدّثنا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ . حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ شَقِيقٍ ، عَنِ ابْنِ الْمُبَارَكِ ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ التَّيْمِيِّ ، عَنْ أَبِي عُثْمَانَ وَلَيْسَ بِالنَّهْدِيِّ ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ مَعْقِلِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ: «اِقْرَؤُوهَا عِنْدَ مَوْتَاكُمْ» يَعْنِي يَس.

The Prophet of Allah Said: Recite It (Iqarahu) on (‘Inda) the deceased/dying that means Surah Yaseen. (Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitab Al Janaiz #1438)

The commentator of Sunan Ibn Majah further states:

قوله ( عند موتاكم )
His saying : On the deceased/dying — That is to say on the dying or (Aw) after (Ba’ad) death Also. (Sharh Sunan Ibn Majah Al Sanadi , Ibid)

In the commentary of Sunan Abu Dawud, entitled Awn Al Ma’bud Sharh Sunan Abi Dawud it states:
وعند النسائي من حديث ابن عباس ” أنه صلى على جنازة فقرأ بفاتحة الكتاب وسورة وجهر فلما فرغ قال سنة وحق
And in NAsai the hadith from Ibn Abbas: He prayed the funeral prayer and read the Fatiha.

The Prophet said: iqra’u `ala mawtakum ya seen “Read Ya Seen over those of you who are dying/deceased.”

References 1. Abu Dawud in his Sunan (Jana’iz) 2. al-Nasa’i in his Sunan (`Amal al-yawm wal-layla), 3. Ibn Majah in his Sunan (Jana’iz),  4. Ibn Hibban in his Sahih (Ihsan), and he declared it sound (sahih).

3.2    Proof on reciting and Excellence of Surah Iqlas, Surah Falaq, Surah Nass.
Proof 1:
There is a Hadith in Sunan Nasai, Jame’ Tirmidhi, Sunan Abu Dawood, Shu’abul Iman Lil Baihaqui, Musnad ‘Abd Bin Humaid, Al Jame’ Ul Kabeer Lis Suyuti and Ma’arifatis Sahabah Li Abi Nu’aim, etc.:

Translation of Hadith: Hadhrat Mua’dh Bin Jabal (May Allah be well pleased with him) narrates on the authority of his father:  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: Recite the Surah “Qul Huwallahu Ahad,” “Qul A’udhu Bi Rabbil Falaq,” and “Qul A’udhu Bi Rabbin Naas” thrice (i.e. 3 times) every morning and evening.  It will save you from everything.

Sunan Nasai, Hadith No. 5445 Jame’ Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 3924 Musnad Iman Ahmed bin Hambal, Hadith No. 23332 Shu’abul Iman Lil Baihaqui, Hadith No. 2467 Musnad ‘Abd Bin Humaid, Hadith No. 496 Al Jame’ Ul Kabeer Lis Suyuti, Hadith No. 375 Ma’arifatis Sahabah Li Abi Nu’aim, Hadith No. 2267
The Surah of the Holy Quran, which are recited in Fatiha, the above given Hadith instruct us to recite the same Surah every morning and evening.
Proof 2:  There is a Hadith in Sahih Bukhari, Jame’ Tirmidhi, Sunan Abu Dawood, Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hambal, Sahih Ibn Hibban, Shu’abul Iman Lil Baihaqui, Kanz Ul Ummal, etc.:

Translation of Hadith:  It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah Ta’ala be well pleased with her) that whenever the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would retire to the bed, He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would bring His palms together, recite Surah Ikhlas, Surah Falaq, Surah Naas, blow upon His hands and then He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would rub His hands on His blessed body as much as possible.  He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would start from His blessed head and face and would rub the front of His blessed body completely.  He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would do this thrice.

This Hadith is present in the following books:

Sahih Bukhari, Hadith No. 5017, Jame’ Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 3730, Sunan Abu Dawood, Hadith No. 5058, Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hambal, Hadith No. 25595, Shu’abul Iman Lil Baihaqui, Hadith No. 2570, Sahih Ibn Hibban, Hadith No. 5544 Kanz Ul Ummal, Hadith No. 41998

3.3  Virtues of reciting durood on prophet sallalahu alaihi wassalam
Allah Ta’ala has ordered the believers to send Durud on the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).  It is given in the Holy Quran:

Proof 1: Surely Allah and (all) His angels invoke blessings and greetings on the Holy Prophet [blessings and peace be upon him]. O Believers! You (also) send blessings on him and salute him with a worthy salutation of peace abundantly (and fervently).  Surah Ahzaab (33:56)

Proof 2: The Hadith give glad tidings to those who present Salaam to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:

Translation of Hadith: Jibraeel (May peace be upon him) met me and said:  I give you glad tidings that Allah Ta’ala says:  Whoever presents Salaam to you, I will send Salaam on that person and whoever sends Durud on you, I will send down mercy on him.

Mustadrak ‘Alas Sahihain, Hadith No. 770, Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hambal, Hadith No. 1574, Ash Shifa Bi Ta’areefi Huquqil Mustafa, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 75.

Proof 3: It is given in Mustadrak ‘Alas Sahihain:

Translation of Hadith: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abu Talha Ansari (May Allah Ta’ala be well pleased with him), who narrates on the authority of his father that one day the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) came to us and happiness was evident from His blessed face.  We told:  O Prophet of Allah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)!  We see signs of happiness on your face.  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:  The reason is that just now an angel came to me and said:  O Personification of Praise (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)!  Indeed your Lord says: Are you not happy with this that when any of your Ummati sends Durud on you, I will send mercy on him 10 times and if anyone sends Salaam to you, I will send Salaam on him 10 times.  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:  Yes!  I am happy.

Mustadrak ‘Alas Sahihain, Hadith No. 3534, Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 398, Sunan Kubra, Hadith No. 9888,

Proof 4: In M’ojam Kabeer of Imam Tabarani, the following words are added:

Translation of Hadith: If any of your Ummati sends Durud on you, I will send mercy on him 10 times, my angels will pray for his forgiveness and if anyone sends Salaam on you, then Me and my angels send Salaam on him 10 times.

Proof 5: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abdullah Bin Mas’ud:

Translation of Hadith: Indeed!  There are some angels of Allah Ta’ala who roam the earth, who bring the Salaam of my Ummah to me.  (Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hambal, Hadith No. 3484; Sunan Nasai, Hadith No. 1265; Mustadrak ‘Alas Sahihain, Hadith No. 3535; Kitab Ush Shifa, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 79)

Proof 6: It is mentioned in another Hadith:

Translation of Hadith: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Ibn Wahb (May Allah Ta’ala be well pleased with him) that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: Whoever sends Salaam unto me has as if freed a slave.  (Kitab Ush Shifa, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 77)

Proof 7: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (May Allah Ta’ala be well pleased with him) that reciting Durud on the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) is more effective in wiping out sins than cold water is for dousing fire and sending Salaam on Him is better than freeing slaves.  (Kitab Ush Shifa, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 77)

Proof 8: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abdullah Bin Umar (May Allah Ta’ala be well pleased with them):

Translation of Hadith: You send Durud profusely on the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) on Friday, as every Friday it is presented before Him on your behalf.  (Kitab Ush Shifa, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 79)

3.3   Reciting on Food & Raising Hands

Generally no one has any objection and it is acceptable to majority that the prayers, dua, and good deeds can benefit the diseased but basically disagree with placing of food infront while reciting quraan.

So now the only aspect for consideration is whether if the food can be placed in front and offer the Fatiha, by raising hands. Hence we will be giving more effort for better understanding the same in light of concrete references. There are many Ahadith concerning the particular issue few of which are listed below.

Proof 1:
It is recorded in Mishkaat Sharif, Chapter of Miracles (Al-Mu’jizaat). It is reported by Hadrat Abu Huraira that once he brought some dates in the presence of the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) and requested him to pray for its abundant growth
فضمهن ثم دعا لي فيهن بالبرکة The Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) mixed these dates together and prayed for increased growth of the dates (dry fruit). [Tirmidhi, Bab al-Manaqib, Vol 12, Page 327, Hadith 3774]
Proof 2:
It is recorded in the Mishkaat, Babul Mujizat that in the Battle of Tabuk,

At one stage of the battle a shortage of food was felt in the Islamic army. The Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) asked every man present there to bring whatever was with him. Every one brought whatever was with him and presented it to the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him). The tablecloth was spread. The Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) prayed for the blessing over the food so spread. After this he asked the men to put back the food in the utensils (pots) as a reserve for eating at the food time. [Mishkat al-Masabih, Baab al-Maujizat, Page 539]

Proof 3:

Narration of Sahi Bukhari:

Narrated Anas bin Malik: “Whenever the Prophet passed by (my mother Um-Sulaim) he used to enter her and greet her. Anas further said: Once the Prophet way a bridegroom during his marriage with zainab, Um Sulaim said to me, “Let us give a gift to Allah’s Apostle .” I said to her, “Do it.” So she prepared Haisa (a sweet dish) made from dates, butter and dried yoghurt and she sent it with me to him. I took it to him and he said, “Put it down,” and ordered me to call some men whom he named, and to invite whomever I would meet. I did what he ordered me to do, and when I returned, I found the house crowded with people and saw the Prophet keeping his hand over the Haisa and saying over it whatever Allah wished (him to say). Then he called the men in batches of ten to eat of it, and he said to them, “Mention the Name of Allah, and each man should eat of the dish the nearest to him.” When all of them had finished their meals, some of them left and a few remained there talking, over which I felt unhappy. Then the Prophet went out towards the dwelling places (of his wives) and I too, went out after him and told him that those people had left. Then he returned and entered his dwelling place and let the curtains fall while I was in (his) dwelling place, and he was reciting the Verses:– ‘O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet’s house until leave is given you for a meal, (and then) not (as early as) to what for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meals, disperse without sitting for a talk. Verily such (behavior) annoys the Prophet; and he would be shy of (asking) you (to go), but Allah is not shy of (telling you) the Truth.’ (33-53) Abu Uthman said: Anas said, “I served the Prophet for ten years.” (Sahi Bukhari vol 7 Book 62, Hadith 92m)

a similar narration is also recorded in Mishkaat as follows:

On the wedding of the Holy Prophet (peace be upno him) with Hadrat Zainab, Hadrat Umm-e-Saleem prepared a small quantity of valima in celebration of the wedding. But the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) invited a large number of Companions to attend the Valima. The food was obviously short. The Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) recited some prayer on the food and passed his Holy hand over the food. [Mishkat al-Masabih, Baab al-Maujizat, Page 539]

Proof 4:
In another incident, On the occasion of the Battle of the Trench (Ghazwa-e-Khandaq), the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said a prayer when the food was placed before Him.  The whole Hadith is in Sahih Bukhari.  Please look at a part of the Hadith:

Translation of Hadith:  The wife of Hadhrat Jabir (May Allah be well pleased with them) presented kneaded flour to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) put His blessed saliva in it and said a prayer for Barakah (blessings).  Then He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) again put His blessed saliva and said a prayer.  (Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 2, Hadith No. 3793)

Proof 5:
It was on the third day after the death of Ibrahim, son of the Messenger of Allah, when Abu Zarr came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) with dry dates, milk and some wheat bread. He placed it in front of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). He recited Surah Fatiha and Surah Ikhlas thrice and then raised his hands in Dua and wiped his face. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) then ordered Abu Zarr to divide the food amongst the people.’ (Tashih al-Aqa’id, p. 127).

The other point to observe in this regard is that the thing for which fatiha or dua for blessing is sought, should be placed before the person doing the dua. This is sunnah and the tradition of the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) as we have seen that in the cases mentioned in these lines the things for which blessing was prayed were placed before the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him). The funeral pier (Janaza) of the deceased is placed in front of the Imam who leads the funeral prayer and offers the Dua forgiveness in the Presence of Allah. Just in the same way the foodstuff on which blessing is sought is placed before the person offering the dua.

There appears no valid justification for objecting this gesture of seeking Blessings from Almighty Allah. It is said that the Syeduna Rasoolullah Sallallaho Alaihi Wa Sallam while sacrificing the animal of Qurbani prayed for the blessings in favour of the Ummah while the animal of sacrifice lay before him, he recited he following dua on that occasion:

اللهم هذا من امة محمد O Allah! Accept this Qurbani (Sacrifice) on behalf of my Ummah. [Sunan Abi Dawood, Vol. 2, Page 30]
The Dua on the occasion of Aqiqa is also recited over the sacrificial animal that remains before the sight. Reciting Bismillah before eating the food kept in front is the command of the Shariagh. Bismillah, as we all know, is the verse of the Holy Qur’an. Fatiha for Eesal-e-Sawab or blessing is the process on a larger scale but not different in any way!

This section of reciting over food, and animal is extracted from book Ja Al-Haq (The Obliteration of Falsehood) by Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan Na’eemi

3.4   Teeja, Dahom, Chahloom, Barsi,
Under the ayat, “و ھذا کتاب انزلناہ مبارک” Tafseer Roohul-Bayaan states, “It is narrated from Hadrat Aaraj رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہthat 4,000 angels say “Ameen” on the dua made after the completion of the Holy Quran’s recitation. They then make dua for the reciter and ask for his forgiveness until either dawn or dusk.”

The above quotation appears in Imam Nawawi’s رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ book, Kitaabul-Azkaar, Kitaabu-T’ilaawatil-Quran. It confirms that dua is accepted at the time of the Quran being completed (khatam). Isaal-e-Thawaab is also a dua. Thus, to complete the recitation of the Quran at that time is good. Ashiatul-Lam’aa states, “Charity should be given from the day the deceased pass away until seven days after.” – Baabu Ziyaaratil-Quboor.

This reveals the source of the practice in some areas of continuously giving out charity in the form of rotis from the day of demise until the seventh day after. Constantly making Fatiha is also sourced from this.

The Holy Prophet” gave out charity on behalf of Ameer Harnzaرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہon the 3rd, 7th and 40th day, as well as on the 6lh and 12th month subsequent to his demise. – Anwaare-Saatia, Pg. 145. Marginal notes on the book. Khazaanatur-Riwaayat. (ref Ja-al-Haq, Chapter of Esal-e-sawab)

This is the source for Fatiha on the 3″ day (Teeja), after 6 months (Shashmaahi) and a full year afterwards (Barsi).

At the time of completing the Holy Quran (Khatmul-Quran), Hadrat Anas رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ used to gather his family members and make dua. Hakeem ibn Utba states that Mujaahid and his slave, Ibn Ahi Luhaaha, gathered people together and said, “We have called you because we are completing the Holy Quran today and dua is accepted at the time of Khatmul-Quran.” It has been authentically narrated from Hadrat Mujaahid رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ that the Pious elders used to call gatherings of people at the time of Khatmul-Quran and say, “Mercy descends in this time.” – Kilaabul­Askaor, Baabu Tilaawatil-Quran.

Thus, the gatherings of Teeja (3rd Day) and Chaliswaa (40th) is the practice of the pious predecessors.

Durre-Mukhtaar states. “If a person recites Surah Ikhlaas 11 times and conveys its reward to the deceased, all of the deceased equally receive the thawaab.’10.8-Baobu-Dafn, Qiraat IiI-Mayyit.
We do not find any proof within Islamic Sources that forbid the holding of the Qur’an Khwanee on the 3rd, 10th or 40th day. Nor is it compulsory to do it on these very days. After all, this is a Mustahab Act, not a compulsory act (which usually has a time limit). From the prayers for the dead mentioned in the Qur’an and Hadeeth, there is no time limit. The Holy Prophets, and the Sahaba prayed for all Muslims, no matter when they had died. The Holy Qur’an also commands us likewise for our parents. However, these days are scheduled as it will be easier to remember. If not planned or programmed, it will never be held. Look.

For e.g 1. The Holy Qur’an commands us to offer prayer, but does not command us to put up notices within our mosques declaring the congregation timings, or to announce the Azaan on loud speakers – but we do that although Muslims are aware of the 5 daily prayers, this to keep everybody posted and gather all at the same time.
2. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to regularly visit the graves of the martyrs of Uhud regularly once every week. He also exhorted others to visit Uhud, and greet the martyrs. (See Hadeeth above). It is also mentioned that he offered charity on their behalf. The actions of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) (i.e. visiting every week) are a very good example for us

However, it suffices to prove that necessary stages and every action performed in Fatiha is sunna as described in the above article, prove that Fatiha as a permissible offering for the purpose of Eesal-e-Sawab.

It is also clear that Fatiha is the combination of the above mentioned things basically two, the recitation of the Quran and Sadqah which are obviously permissible as well as the means and medium of blessing (barkat) in their own way. Then why should the combination of these two in the offering of Fatiha be considered as Haram, when the intent has no mundane or worldly gain in the offering of Fatiha?

For obvious reasons when the ingredients of many eatables are halal, then on what grounds the combination of these ingredients be declared as unlawful or haram when the prepared combination does not produce any objectionable result which is not permissible in the laws of the shariah.

Every halal/ persimissible activity if performed independtly or combined with any other permissible activities remains permissible. in order to negate the permissibility of any halal activity either it need to be nullified by Quran or proven and mashoor (sahi) hadees, unless and untill the action is nullified (mansooq) by Quran and hadees it cannot be termed as impermissible.

Ref Books:

  1. Jal-al-Haq by Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan Na’eemi.

  2. Article on Esal-e-Sawab by Mufti Ziauddin Naqshbandi.

  3. Esal-e-sawab sunnat hai by Allama Mufti Mohammed Akmal Attari Khadri.


Permissibility of Sending Blessings and Salutations on Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him)

Contents of Article:

1. Preface:
2. Permissibility of Sending blessings and Honoring Prophet from Quran.
      – Sending salutation on prophet is divine practice of Allah.
– Praising and Honoring prophet
– Devine practice is eternal and will never change
3. Sending Salutations Whilst Standing Respectfully
      – Qiyaam-e-masrrat (To stand for someone as an expression of happiness)
– Qiyaam-e-muhabbat  (To stand for someone as an expression of love)
– Qiyaam-e-azmat(tazeem) (To stand in honor of a person).
4. Harf-e-Nida (Addressing Prophet, like using words “Ya Nabi” or “Ya Rasool”)
5. Believing in Prophets presence, his hearing from far and replying to salutations (Hazir-o-Nazir).
      – Definition of Hadhir-o-Nadhir
– Proofs from Quran.
– Prophet is witness over ummah.
– Prophet is among us.
– Prophet is closer to momin than there lives.
– Proofs from Ahadees
– Deeds of ummah are presented to prophet.
– Blessings and Salutations are presented to prophet before one finishes it.
– Prophets hears Salutations and greetings.
– Prophet replies to salutations and greetings.
– Prophet sees the entire ummah
– Prophets can make their presence after physical departure from our vision:
6. There is no restrictions of place, time or specific posture for sending blessings on prophet.
7. Conclusion#######################################################################

1. Preface: 
This article is intended to explore the permissibility and noble action of sending blessings and salutations upon Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) [durood-o-salam]

The blessings can be sent in any language, and in the manner of standing with utmost reverence, is not confined to the Ahle Sunnah from amongst the Asia or certain regions of the Indo-Pak, but can be traced to almost every country from far North to South, East to West and spreading across the whole world.

None of the authentic Kitaab written by the righteous scholars of the Ahle Sunnah, who are in the majority, have ever condemned this practice of the recitation and the standing and indeed no objection can be found either in the Glorious Quran or the Ahadith. However, there are still a minority group who severely condemn this practice and have labelled this very practice as Shirk, Bidat and Haraam due to ignorance or short of education/understanding.

Though there are lot authentic books clarifying the issue, we considered that it will be beneficial to present the extract of the books in short article and to point, exploring each noble action associated with reciting salaam in light of proofs collected in single place, which basically includes the following.
– Permissibility of sending blessings and Prasing Prophet.
– Standing in respect and honor during salam.
– Addressing Prophet using words Ya Nabi, Ya Rasool. (Harf-e-Nida)
– Believing that Prophet has ability to see, listen and make replies to Salaam (Hadhir-o-Nadhir)

May Almighty Allah, through the Wasila of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), guide us all to understand, assist and explore teaching of sahi ul Aqida Ahle Sunnah Wa Jamaat at a time when false ideologies are misleading the Ummah from the Straight Path. Aameen.

It is my humble request and dua that the youth read this article to the end with the light of Imaan and the objectivity that it deserves, so that the practice of sending blessings and salutations (salaam) on prophet continues to grow and the love of the Holy Prophet (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) becomes a foundation of our beliefs and generations to come. Aameen.

2. Permissibility of Sending blessings and Honoring prophet from Quran.

It is completely within the Shari’ah (Islamic Law) to send Salutations and Blessings upon Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) as is evident in the following Qur’aanic verse

2.1 “Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet: O ye that believe! Send ye blessings on him, and salute him with all respect.”[ Surah Al-Ahzab33:56]

Sending blessings on our prophet(peace be upon him) is divine practice of Almighty Allah. As Allah azza wajjal has Himself acted upon this command therefore this divine practice becomes the sunnah of Allah. This is unlike most of Allah’s other commands. All worships such as prayers, fasting, the pilgrimage, charity and donations are the commandments of Allah but not His sunnah. Allah neither performs hajj nor fasts nor prays. He is above all these things. All these duties and deeds are not His sunnah but the sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him). So if a person offers prayers or goes to Makkah for the pilgrimage or keeps the fasts of Ramadan or gives the poor due or does any other virtue, he is following the sunnah of the holy Prophet (peace be upon him) not the sunnah of Allah.

However, the showering of blessings and salutations upon the Prophet (peace be upon him) is the Divine practice of Allah, His sunnah. As the glory of Allah is the highest and the most exalted, so His sunnah is also the highest and the most exalted. The Prophet (peace be upon him) is the faithful and devotee of Allah. Amongst all of creation, his ranking is the highest and the most reverend. Yet regardless of this ranking and reverence, no human can be equal to the Creator. So in the same way, the sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) cannot equate with the sunnah of Allah (azzawajal)

The Quran further states:

2.2. Praise be to Allah, and peace on His servants whom He has chosen (for His Message). (Qur’ān 27:59)

2.3. And we have exalted your remembrance for you (O dear Prophet Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him). [Surah Al Inshirah 94:4]

2.4. We have truly sent thee as a witness, as a bringer of Glad Tidings, and as a Warner, In order that ye (O men) may believe in Allah and His Messenger, that ye may “assist and honor him” and celebrate His praise (Puirty of Allah) morning and evening. [Surah Al Fath 48:8-9]

2.5. Glorified be your Lord, the Lord of Majesty, from what they associate to Him. And peace be upon the sent ones (the messengers). And all praise to Allāh, Lord of the worlds. (Al-Ṣāffāt  37: 180-182).

All worships are accomplished under the subjection of Divine commandments. It is obligatory for Believers to show reverence to Divine commandments, as they have traditionally held a superior position. Divine laws have also changed with the passage of time and from nation-to-nation. New Prophets brought new Revelations often subjugating older Divine laws. In contrast to this Divine practice has been constant and abiding. Divine practice is an inevitable reality, entirely safe from all sorts of alterations and effects. The Qur’an states:

2.6. “Yet you will never find any change in Allah’s practice”.[Surah Fatir 35:43]

From the above referred Quranic verses it is very clear that showering blessings on prophet is divine practice of Almighty Allah, and this practice is forever and will never change, Allah commands believers to send blessings on prophet, Almighty Allah has raised status of prophet and remembrance, and all are commanded to respect, praise and honor the beloved Prophet (Peace be upon him).

Whosoever does contrary to it, or raise objection when respect/praises for prophet is mentioned, surely he will be against Quran and doing Takdhib of it (Naudhobillah)

After establishing the ruling of the Holy Qur’aan on permissibility of reciting salaam and honoring prophet, we now quote few Ahaadith clarifying permissibility of standing in repect and honor for Prophet.

3. Sending Salutations Whilst Standing Respectfully

Standing up (Qiyaam) whilst offering Salawat (Blessings) and Salaam (Salutations) to Rasoolullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), in terms of religion is desirable and commendable (mustahab) according to the belief of the Ahl us-Sunnah. It is an act of happiness, respect and love, the origin of which is established from Shariah. This is the consensus of opinion of the entire ‘Ulama of Ahl us-Sunnah. Furthermore, it is known that anyone who visits the Prophet (sallallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) in Madina is obliged to stand in front of him with utmost respect at the time he gives him greetings and salutations. In general the Standing (Qiyaam) is of three kinds :

                – Qiyaam-e-masrrat (To stand for someone as an expression of happiness)
– Qiyaam-e-muhabbat  (To stand for someone as an expression of love)
– Qiyaam-e-azmat(tazeem) (To stand in honor of a person).

These kind of gestures in Islam are proven through many Ahadees, and practice of Sahaba, mentioned below are few of them:

a. Qiyaam-e-masrrat: (Standing as on expression of happiness)

The origin of Qiyaam-e-Musarrat is derived from the action of the companion of the Holy Prophet Hadhrat Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), as proved from the following Hadith

Hadhrat Uthman (radi allahu ‘anhu) said, “The Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) passed away before we could ask him the solution to this problem.” Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radi allahu ‘anhu) said, “I have already asked him concerning this affair …” Then Hadhrat Uthman (radi allahu ‘anhu) said (upon hearing this glad tidings from Hadhrat Abu Bakr (radi allahu ‘anhu)), “I stood up for him.” (Sahih Bukhari)

b. Qiyaam-e-muhabbat:(Standing as an expression of love)

A’isha, the Umm al-Mu’minin, said, “I did not see anyone who more resembled the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in manner of speaking that Fatima. When she came to him, he stood up for her, made her welcome, kissed her and had her sit in his place. When the Prophet came to her, she stood up for him, took his hand, made him welcome, kissed him, and made him sit in her place. She came to him during his final illness and he greeted her and kissed her. (Narrated by Imam Bukhari, Al Adab Al Mufrad, Hadith 433, under chapter of Greetings)

c. Qiyaam-e-azmat(tazeem): (Standing in Respect/Honor)

i. Narrated ‘Amir bin Rabi’a: The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, “If any one of you see a funeral procession and he is not going along with it, then he should stand and remain standing till he gets behind it, or it leaves him behind, or the coffin is put down before it goes ahead of him . ” (sahi bukhari, kitabul janaiz, hadith 395)

ii. In a Hadith reported by Hadhrath Abu Huraira (radi allahu ‘anhu), he says, “The Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) was seated with us in the mosque and speaking to us. When he rose to depart, we all rose with him and remained standing until he entered any of the houses of his Blessed Wives.” (Mishkaat-Kitabul-Adaab, Babul Qiyaam, Page 403)

iii. Usama ibn Sharik (radi allahu ‘anhu) narrates : “I came to see the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) while his Companions were with him, and they seemed as still as if birds had alighted on top of their heads. I gave him my Salaam and I sat down. [Then Bedouins came and asked questions which the Prophet answered.] … The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) then stood up and the PEOPLE STOOD UP. They began to kiss his hand, whereupon I took his hand and placed it on my face. I found it more fragrant than musk and cooler than sweet water.”(Narrated by Abu Dawud [#3855], Ti[2038 – hasan sahih], Ibn Majah [3436], al-Hakim [4:399], and Ahmad [4:278]. Al- Hafiz Imam Bayhaqi cites it in Branch 15 of his Su’ab ul-iman entitled : The Fifteenth Branch of Faith, Namely A Chapter On Rendering honor To The Prophet, Declaring His High Rank, And Revering Him Vol. 2 p.200 [#1528])

iv. Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: The people of (Banu) Quraiza agreed to accept the verdict of Sad bin Mu’adh. So the Prophet sent for Sad, and the latter came (riding) a donkey (or mule) and when he approached the Mosque, the Prophet said to the Ansar, “GET UP FOR YOUR CHIEF OR FOR THE BEST AMONG YOU.” Then the Prophet said (to Sad).” These (i.e. Banu Quraiza) have agreed to accept your verdict.” Sad said, “Kill their (men) warriors and take their offspring as captives, “On that the Prophet said, “You have judged according to Allah’s Judgment,” or said, “according to the King’s judgment.” ( Sahi Bukhari, Bab Al-Maghaazi, Hadith 447)

Indeed Hadhrat Sa’d (radi allahu ‘anhu) is worthy of such honour. Narrated Jabir (radi allahu ‘anhu) : I heard the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) saying, “The Throne (of Allah) shook at the death of Sa’ad bin Mu’adh.”

Allama Ibn Hajar Makki (rahmat allahi ‘alaih) states in Moulidatil Kabeer, “It is proven from Sunnah to stand for others besides the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), thus in honour of the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) it is permissible in the first instance. The proof hereof is the command to stand the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) gave in respect of Sa’ad ibn Muadh.”

The Qiyaam during sending Salutations on prophet and during the occasion of Mawlid an-Nabi may represent the three kinds of Qiyaam as discussed above, because it is a manifestation of happiness, love and honour towards the occasion which is celebrated to thank Allah for his arrival. However, the ‘ulama have also collectively designated these Qiyaam as Qiyaam-e-Tazimi, i.e. standing up in honour, love and happiness of a person, and in this case, to the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)

Note: At the same time people should not expect others to stand for themselves as it is recorded by Imaam bukhari through narration of Abu Mijaz and Muawiya that, The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said,

“Whoever likes to have the slaves of Allah stand up out of respect for him should take his place in the Fire.” (Al Adab Al Mufrad, Hadith 446 under chapter of greetings)

From the above narrations it is worth noting that standing in respect for the others/honored is not prohibited in islam, what prohibited in islam is that any men expecting others to stand for himself. Verily who ever expect others to stand for himself is in hell fire.

4. Harf-e-Nida (Addressing Prophet using words  like “Ya Nabi” or “Ya Rasool”).

The ‘Harf-e-Nidaa’ means – to use the pronoun for addressing the second person – who is present (ie. using the word ‘YA’ which means ‘OH !’, when addressing the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) eg. ‘Ya Nabi !, Ya Rasool !’)

The words ‘Ya’ and ‘Ayyu’ are for addressing. The one who is addressing is called Munadee and the addressee is called Munadaa.

Some individuals say addressing prophet by using the words like Ya Nabi ! and Ya Rasool is shirk! They say this because they believe that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) cannot hear and is not present so one should not call to him as he calls the one who is physically present. And few say that it is permissible to say so only out of love for the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) but not with the belief in mind that he can hear you.
If the ‘Harf-e-Nidaa’ was not permissible then why is it present in the Salaah, which we read five times a day, and every worshipper salutes the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), “Ayyuhannabiyyu” (Oh Prophet !)?

it is stated in Durr ul-Mukhtar,  “The ‘Tashahud’ must be read in the present and not as the repetition of an event such as took place during the Mi’raj when the ‘Tashahud’ was revealed. In fact, one must know and read ‘Tashahud’ and recite Allah’s Praises then make present (haazir) the Prophet (peace be upon him) and say ‘Assalamu alaika ayyahannabiyu …’, then the Salaam upon the present congregation and the pious peoples, and then the testament of the Oneness of Allah and the Messengership of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam). This then constitutes the ‘Tashahud [Durr ul Mukhtar Volume 1, Page 228]

Allah Ta’aala orders us not to call upon the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) in the same way as we call upon each other : “Make not the summoning of the Messenger among yourselves, like one calls the other among you.” (Surah al-Noor, Verse 63)

i.e. When we call upon the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) it must be with utmost respect and not like how we call each other. This Ayat is sufficient evidence, because besides making it permissible, Allah Ta’aala also shows us the etiquette when calling Rasoolullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)

Few references where sahaba have addressed prophet in his absence.

i) It is related that once ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar’s foot went numb. He was told, “Remember the most beloved of people to you and it will go away!” He shouted, “Ya Muhammad!” and the feeling returned. [Imam al-Bukhari in Adab al-Mufrad, Under chapter Gestures, Hadith No. 964]

ii) Even salafi scholar Ibn Taymiyya writes, “In the same way as ‘Abd Allah ibn Umar’s foot became numb and he remembered the one he loves the most, ‘Abd Allah Ibn ‘Abbas’s foot also became numb. Someone also advised him to remember the one who he loves the most, whereupon ‘Abd Allah Ibn ‘Abbas exclaimed Ya Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and his foot immediately recovered from numbness” [Ibn Taymiyya, Al Kalim al Tayyib, chapter on ‘Khadirat Rijluhu’]

iii) Imām Nawawi Radi ALLAHu Ta’ala Anho in his commentary of the Sahih Muslim, and also in Kitāb al-Azkār, records that some individuals were sitting in the company of Sayyiduna ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Abbās Radi ALLAHu Ta’ala Anho, when suddenly one of them suffered from cramps. The Noble Companion advised the man to remember the person whom he loved the most. The man screamed, “Ya Muhammada!” He was immediately cured. There are many As’hāb who narrate incidents of similar nature. [Al-Adhkar, Dar al Kitab al Arabi Berut – Lebanon, Page 271]

Substantiating this, ‘Allama Shahāb al-Din Khafāji Misri Radi ALLAHu Ta’ala Anho (d.1070/1660) states in his book, Nasim al-Riyād, commentary of Shifā by Imām Qādi Ayād Radi ALLAHu Ta’ala Anho (d.544/1149), that:

It is a common practice of the people of Madina al-Munawwara to proclaim “Ya Muhammada!” in times of difficulty and pain. [Nasim al-Riyād Sharha Shifā, Vol 3, Page 55]

iv)  When Sayyiduna Khalid bin Waleed Radi ALLAHu Ta’ala Anho clashed with Musailma Kaddhab, at one point the Muslims were faltering. When Syeduna Khalid Ibn Waleed saw this:

He then proclaimed according to the slogan of the Muslims and the slogan of that day was “Ya Muhammada”. [al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, Vol 6, Page 324]

v) Sayyida Zainab Radi ALLAHu Ta’ala Anha, the sister of Sayyiduna Imam Husain Radi ALLAHu Ta’ala Anho, proclaimed at Karbala:

“Ya Muhammadah Ya Muhammadah Salla ‘Alaykallahu wa Malaka al-Samahu”. [al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, Vol 8, Page 193]

vi] After the demise of Sayyiduna ‘Umar al-Faruq Radi ALLAHu Ta’ala Anho in 18 AH, there was a severe drought due to which Sayyiduna Bilal Ibn al Harith proclaimed, “Ya Muhammadah”. [al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, Vol 7, Page 91] 

5. Believing in prophets presence, his hearing from far and replying to salutations (Hadhir-o-Nadhir).

(Hadhir o Nadhir being a vast topic in itself only few references have been quoted to limit the size of document and as necessary to confine & support the current discussion, detailed article on Hadhir-o-Nadhir will be included in future article Insha Allah)

We, the Ahlus Sunnah, believe that the Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant him peace] is Hazir and Nadhir, which simply put means that he views our actions and in this way we are presented to him. He [May Allah bless him and grant him peace] is Nadhir, since he views our actions, both good and bad.

It is not believe of ahlus sunnah that prophet is omnipresent (physically present everywhere and everytime), Ahlus sunnah believes that prophet witnesses all our deeds and actions and he can make his spiritual presence any where he likes.

5.1 Definition of Hadhir-o-Nadhir:

Mufti Ahmad Yaar Khan gives definitions Hadhir-o-Nadhir as follows: “Haadhir Nadhir does not mean that the Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant him peace] is present. Rather, it means that the Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant him peace] views the actions of his Ummah whilst he is in his grave. He can go from his grave to other places where he likes spiritually. He prays for us.  [Tawzeeh-ul-Bayaan Sharh Sahih Muslim vol 1 Chapter on Mi’raj Ja al-Haqq chapter  Al Haadir-u-wannadir by Mufti Ahmad Yaar Khan].

5.2 Proofs from Quran:
Allah Ta’ala says in the Qur’an

i. “O Prophet! [May Allah bless him and grant him peace] no doubt, We have sent you as a witness, bearer of glad tiding and a Warner” [Surah Al-Ahzab, 33:45.]

ii. ” And know that Allah’s Noble Messenger is among you,….” [Surah Hujurat 49:7]

iii. We have indeed sent you (O dear Prophet Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him) as a present witness and a Herald of glad tidings and warnings. (The Holy Prophet is a witness from Allah.) [Surah Fath 48:8]

iv. We have indeed sent a Noble Messenger towards you, a present witness over you [Surah Muzzammil 73:15]

v. And the day when We will raise from every group, a witness from among them, in order to testify against them and will bring you O dear Prophet (Mohammed – peace and blessings be upon him) as a witness upon them all; and We have sent down this Qur’an upon you which is a clear explanation of all things, and a guidance and a mercy and glad tidings to the Muslims. [Surah Nahl 16:89]

vi. Then how shall it be, when We bring up a witness from every nation, and (O beloved Muhammad !) We will bring you as a witness and a guardian against all those. ” [Surah al-Nisa, 4:41]

vii. “And thus We made you exalted among all nations that you may be witnesses to the people and this Messenger your guard and witness.” [Surah al-Baqara, 2:143]

The Qur’an refers to RasoolAllah [May Allah bless him and grant him peace] as ‘Shahid’(witness) and the witness is someone who sees whilst being present. [Mufradaat, Imam Raghib, under the word Shahid]

Allah sent the Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant him peace] as Shahid. It is for this reason we refer to him as metaphorically being Haadhir/Nadhir and that he is not Hadhir/Nadhir in the way that are the Angels Kiraman, Katibeen. (The Angels who are constantly present on the right and left shoulder of every human being.)

viii. The Prophet is closer to the Muslims than their own lives [Surah Ahzab 33:6]
Our lives are present. Nobody can deny this fact because if the life is absent then it would mean that we are dead. So if our lives are present, then the one who is nearer to us than our own lives has to be present.

Moulvi Shabeer Ahmad Uthmaani says, regarding the same ayat : If a Believers’s Imaan is considered seriously, then it is like a ray from the light of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam). On this account, if a Believer ponders about his own reality, then, before he understands the state of his own Imaan, he has to first understand the wisdom of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam). On this point it is true that the august presence of the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) is closer to us than our own souls.

5.3. Proof from Ahadith:

i) Deeds of ummah are presented to prophet.

a. The Prophet [May Allah bless him and grant him peace] stated: “My life is better for you, you narrate Ahadith and Ahadith are narrated for you. When I pass away it will continue to benefit you because your actions will be presented before me. If I see a good deed I shall praise Allah Soobha Nahu Wata’ala, If I see a bad deed of yours I shall ask Allah Soobha Nahu Wata’ala to forgive you. [Majma-uz-Zwaa’id, vol.9, pg.24]

b. The Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) says, “My entire Ummah was presented before me with each individual’s scroll of deeds, good as well as bad.”(Muslim Shareef, Volume 1, Page 207, Musnad-i-Ahmad, Ibn Majah)

Further it is firm believe of ahlus sunnah that  that the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) hears the Salaat/Durood (Blessings) and Salaam (Salutations) that are sent to him. Furthermore, it is within His capabilities to see and hear events taking place far away as mentioned in Ahadees referred below. 

ii. Blessings and Salutations are presented to beloved prophet:

a. Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: “Invoke blessings on me abundantly on the day of Jum‘ah (Friday). Verily it is attended and the angels attend it, and none invokes blessings on me but his supplication is presented to me till he finishes it.” Ibn Majah, book of jana’iz (funerals) ch. 65, Hadith 1637.

b. “Invoke blessings upon me, since blessings invoked by you are conveyed to me wherever you may be” (Abu Dawood, Kitab Al-Manasik Wal-Hajj, Hadith 2042)

iii. Prophets hears Salutations and greetings

“He who invokes blessings upon me by my grave, I will hear him and he who invokes upon me at a distance it will be conveyed to me.” Ahmad bin Husayn Bayhaqī, Shu‘ab-ul-īmān, (Hadith: 1583)

iv. Allah returns soul and Prophet replies to salutations and greetings

Narrated AbuHurayrah: The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: If any one of you greets me, Allah returns my soul to me and I respond to the greeting. (Abu Dawood, Kitab Al-Manasik Wal-Hajj (rituals of hajj) Hadith 2036)
Some people misunderstands or misinterpret this Hadith saying that the Prophet (peace be upon him) is not alive since his soul returns to his body only when he is greeted.

The ‘Ulama have given various answers to people who use this Hadith and try to imply that the Prophet (peace be upon him) is dead and that he comes alive only when someone sends Salaam. Imam Jalaal’uddeen as-Suyuti (rahmat allahi ‘alaih) listed 17 of these explanations. In the book Anba’ al-adhkiya’ fi hayat il-ambiya’ he said that “radda” means “‘ala al-dawam”, i.e. permanently, and not temporarily: in other words, Allah does not return the soul and take it back, then return it again and then take it back again, but He has returned it to the Prophet (peace be upon him) permanently, and the Prophet (peace be upon him) is alive permanently, not intermittently as understood by few due to ignorance.

The above explanation is very much confirmed even if the Hadith is taken literally, since there is always people at prayer (Salaah) in the world during the entire twenty-four hour cycle, and sending Salawat on the Prophet (peace be upon him) is part of Salaah, therefore people are constantly and permanently invoking blessings and greetings on the Prophet (peace be upon him) without break. This shows that the Hadith of the Prophet (peace be upon him) on the return of his soul takes into consideration the continuity of prayer (Salaah) concomitant with the revolving five times of prayer around the world, and that indeed he is alive in permanence, since Allah has entitled him to return every single Salaam that is made to him.

v. Prophet sees his entire ummah

Allama Imam Qastalani (rahmat allahi ‘alaih) commentator of Bukhari Shareef, writes in his book Mawahib ul-ladunya and Imam Muhammad Ibn Hajar al-Makki (rahmat allahi ‘alaih) writes in his book Madkhal, “There is no difference between the states of life and death of the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam), in his seeing his entire Ummah and his recognising of their states, their intentions and their minds, and all this is clear to him; there is no secret thereof of him.” (Mawahib ul-ladunya Page 32, Madkhal Page 21)

5.4. Prophets can make their presence after physical departure from our vision:

It is written in the Sahihain of al-Bukhaari and Muslim, that Allah Ta’ala sent all the Prophets to our Prophet on the Mi’raj night. He became the Imam, and they performed two rak’as of Salaah, which is agreed by all and denier of this event of miraj is kafir. From this event of Miraj, it is established that all the Prophets (‘alaihimus salaam) made Haaziri (were present) in Musjid al-Aqsa to perform Salaah with our Noble Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) being the Imam. If Prophets cannot leave their Blessed Graves then how is it that all of the Prophets (‘alaihimus salaam) were present in Musjid al-Aqsa, on the blessed night of Mi’raj an-Nabi which occured long after (thousands of years of) the Wisaal of the other Prophets. 

After establishing the permissibility of sending salutations, prophets bestowed power of hearing, witnessing deeds of umma and prophets authority to make their presence after physical demise, now the question is what happens if salawaat is recited in different places at the same time? how can prophet make his presence in various places at same time? how fast he can make his spiritual presence?

before answering this let us quote the following.

i) It is recorded that at the time of the call to prayer (Adhan) the Iblees (Shaitaan) runs thirty six miles away and returns in an instant after the completion of the Adhan (Mishkaat – Chapter Adhan). We ask the individuals who generally pose this question to please explain, how can it be, that Allah Ta’ala’s Beloved, Huzoor-e-Aqdas Muhammad Mustafa (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) is confined to his Blessed Grave while Shaitaan the cursed is freely running up and down, and that too, at high speeds !

ii) Besides Iblees, even Angels have this ability. The Holy Qur’aan says, “…when death comes to any of you, Our Angels take his soul and they do not fail ” (Surah al-Anaam, Verse 61). Relating to this it is written that, “For the Angel of Death the whole of the Earth is like a tray, so that he may take the souls as he pleases. There is no difficulty for the Angel of Death to take souls, even though there are many and many deaths in different places !” (Tafseer Kabir Khazeen and Ruh-ul-Bayaan)

iii) The speed of Jibra’eel (‘alaihis salaam) is such that, when Nabi Yusuf (‘alaihis salaam) was thrown into the well Jibra’eel (‘alaihis salaam) travelled from Sidratul Muntaha to the bottom of the well. When Nabi Ibraheem (‘alaihis salaam) was about to sacrifice Nabi Ismail (‘alaihis salaam) and had his knife on the neck of Nabi Ismail (‘alaihis salaam), Jibra’eel, travelled from Sidratul Muntaha to the earth with a Ram(sheep).
The above events relate to an Angel and it’s abilities, but men of Allah (Awliya Allah) are also bestowed with such powers. Asaf ibn Barkhiya’s taking the throne of Bilqis [the Queen of Sheba] to Sulaiman (‘alaihis salaam) is also reported in the Qur’an al-karim, Surah Naml, Verses 39 and 40. Queen Bilqis throne was miles away and protected in chambers, Hazrath Asaf ibn Barkhiya got the throne in blink of the eye. how did he go there? at what speed? how did he made his presence there in no time?? is not time factor applicable to him??

When our senses accepts this all, the freedom given to the iblees, the bestowed power to angles, Jibrael and Asaf ibn Barkhiya then why the minds get blocked when this attributes are related to prophet (peace be upon him)?

Hadhrat Sheikh Abd al-Haqq Muhaddith Dahlawi is unanimously accepted as a great ‘Aalim and a Mujaddid (Reviver of Religion) of his time.

Shaikh Abd al-Haqq Muhaddith Dahlawi states, “Allah Ta’ala has given the Holy Prophet (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) the strength and power to go anywhere he likes, he can go with his own body or only in soul. On the earth, in the sky, in the grave and the Holy Prophet’s (sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam) connection stays with his own shrine.” (Madarigun Naboowat – Volume 2 Part 4 Wasleh Hayaateh Ambiya)

Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki (rahmat allahi ‘alaih) writes, “The possibility of arrival of Rasoolullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) in the Meelad assembly is not wrong because the bodily world is restricted to time and place, but the spiritual world is free from both. So the arrival of Rasoolullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) is not far from being possible”. (Shamaime Imdaadiya, Page 50, Madani Qutub Khana, Multan)

A Hadith Shareef declares, “The one who sees me in his dream sees me as he would see me when he is awake.” This is why Imam Nawawi (rahmat allahi ‘alaih) said, “Seeing him in a dream is really seeing him.” As a matter of fact, it was declared, “Anyone who has seen me in his dream has seen me truly, for the devil cannot appear in my form,” in a Hadith Sharif reported in the book Kunuz ad-daqa’iq by al-Imam al-Manawi on the authority of al-Bukhari and Muslim, [and recorded in Sahi bukhari in interpretetion of dreams book 87#122, 123]. We would not see Rasoolullah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) “truly” if we saw his likeness in a dream.

Concerning the questioning (of the dead person) in the grave, the third question that will be asked by the Angels of the grave is, “Ma kunta taqulu fi haqqi hazar rajul” (meaning : “What did you have to say about this person?” (i.e. the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam)). When this question is asked the veil is removed from the dead person’s eyes so that he can see the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) who will be present (Haazir) in the grave. (Mishkaat Shareef, Bukhaari Kitaabul Janaaiz, Hadith 422)

From this Hadith we learn that the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) is seen by the dead in person and not in some sort of mental thought, because the word “rajul” that is used in the question, in Arabic grammar refers to a real person made of flesh and bones.

So it is established that every person that dies sees the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) in his grave in person. Now, at any given time thousands of people around the world are buried and all these people see the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) at the same time and are asked the same question.

This is ample proof that the Holy Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) by the grace of Allah Ta’ala can present himself in many places at the same time. All the ‘Ulama of Ahl as-Sunna agree with this, and the following comment regarding this issue is the fatwa of Ahmad ibn Hajar al-Haitami (rahmat allahi alaih), which is written on the ninth page of the second volume of Fatawa al-Kubra:

Many of the youth don’t know why they were told not to send Blessings and Salutations on the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam). This is because they were brainwashed by their local ‘aalim/ ameer/ relatives/ friends not to do it, and not to ask why they should not do it. Many of the youth live in areas away from major city centres where they have never been exposed to Salawat and Salaam, Mawlid etc. but have only been lied to and brainwashed by silly rumours initiated by those who are not scholarly enough to present any authoritative evidence in refutation of it. Many youth come from country towns to work and to study in tertiary institutions. So when they enter a mosque or a Jamaa’at Khana at the University or in the area that they are boarding, and if Salaam is recited, they rush out of the musjid as if a grave sin is being committed. Then, (like their elders) start to initiate silly rumours and theories as to why Blessings and Salutations should not be sent to the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam).

May Allah Taala guide us on Siraatul Mustaqeem and instill in our hearts the true love for Taajidare Madina, Muhammadur Rasoolullah (sallalaahu alaihi wasallam). Aameen.

6. There is no restrictions of language, place, time and specific posture for sending blessings on prophet.

Referreing to the Ayat quoted in section 2 above, “Undoubtedly, Allah and his angels send blesseings on the prophet (Peace be upon him). o believers! you (too) send your blessings upon him and salute him with all respect” [Surah Al-Ahzab 33:56]

Sending blessings on our prophet(peace and blessings be upon him) is divine practice of Almighty Allah. Allah has subjected His worship and the sunnah of His beloved Prophet (peace be up on him) to bounds and binding but He has set His sunnah free from the same. That is why Allah has made His devotees free from restraint and binding whilst offering salat and salam. Greetings can be sent in any language. We can send our greetings to the Prophet (peace be up on him) in Arabic, English, Hindi, Persian, Punjabi, Urdu or in any other language. Salat and salam can be sent in the form of prose or verse, silently or loudly, collectively or individually, It can be sent in imam Bawsiri’s invocation or in the melody of imam Ahmad Raza Khan because it is sunnah of Allah, It is free from all restraints. In view of this, no one has the right to subject salat and salam to any condition of time, condition of place and condition of posture, i.e. of standing, sitting or lying down.

There is no specification of type, no qualification in their form and thus no condition can be added to it.

In Islamic terminology the concept of ‘Ebaadah, worship, is a broad based one encompassing all acts that are done to seek the pleasure of Almighty Allah. Through this verse it has already been established that sending salat and salam on to the Holy Prophet (peace be up on him) is considered a dhikr of Allah, and the dhikr of Allah can be done in any manner – standing, sitting or lying down. There is no exclusion in manner or exclusivity in type. Allah the Almighty states in the Holy Qur’an:

“Those who remember Allah while standing, sitting and lying on their sides” [Surah Al-‘Imran 3:191]

Further It is narrated by Tirmidhi that “Abu Hurayrah (radi allahu anhu) also reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “If people sit in an assembly in which they do not remember Allah nor invoke a blessing on their Prophet (peace be upon him), it will be a cause of grief for them (on the Day of Judgment)” [al-Jami‘-us-saheeh, b. of dua (supplication) ch.8 (5: 461 # 3380), and he graded it hasan(fair) and sahih (sound)].

Sending salat and salam upon the Holy Prophet (peace be up on him) is one of the azkar, remembrances of Allah. So according to the above it is permissible to send the blessings in any of the 3 ways and at any place. There is no specific Qur’anic verse or command which stipulates that sending blessings whilst standing is prohibited nor is there any contrary verse saying standing is preferable. Neither as per the hadith and verse there are any  restrictions on place, blessings can be sent at home, mosque or any general place of assembly. Further it is worth noting from the above mentioned references that blessings can be sent in a group(assembly). This comes under the law of generality, which applies to all of the remembrances of Allah and prophet as pointed above.

If somebody have got objection on standing/congregation let them prove sunnah way of Allah azzawajal showering blessings on prophet (Allah forbid) so we sunnis can follow sunnah of Allah azzawajal , or get one ayah or proof claiming that standing in respect for prophet is prohibited.

7. Conclusion:
– Sending blessings on prophet is permissible and blessed practice of Allah (AJ).
– Allah (AJ) send blessings on prophet along with group of angles, permitting us to recite as an individual/ group
– Allah (AJ) has raised status, remembrance and praise of prophet.
– We have been commanded to honor and respect prophet in the best way.
– We have been commanded by Allah even to call prophet very respectfully.
– Addressing of prophet is permissible even after his physical departure from our vision.
– Prophet is witness over entire ummah and nations.
– All good and bad deeds of ummah are presented to prophet.
– Prophet hears and replies to blessings and salutations.
– Blessings are presented to prophet before one finishes it.
– Prophet views actions of the ummah
– Prophet can make his presence if he likes, and can be present more than one place at a time.
– Standing out of respect/love/happiness for prophet/pious and honored is permissible.



  1. Meaning of urs.
  2. Visiting graves of Muslims.
  3. Gaining blessing from graves of prophets/pious.
  4. Allocating specific time/day for visiting graves.
  5. Reciting Quran or verses near the grave
  6. Placing flowers, piece of cloth on grave and using incense burner/fragrance.
  7. Kissing hands of shaykh, descended of Wali and Graves: 
  8. Serving food to visitors (Niaz)
  9. Sima/Qawwali
  10. Concluding the extract of article through single Hadees.
  11. Reference articles:
1.     Meaning and advent of name “Urs”.
Urs is the day of the passing away of the noble Saints and Prophets. The word Urs has been taken from the Hadith: “Sleep just like the bride(Uroos).” [Mishkaat, Baabu Ithbaatil-Qabr] The Angels say to the Pious in the grave, “Sleep with restfulness and comfort just like a bride.” [Jame Tirmidi 3/383]
Because these angels have called them ‘Uroos’ on that date, it therefore becomes the day of ‘Urs’,
Another reason is because, on this day, the angels will reveal the beauty and splendor of Rasoolullahصلی اللہ علیہ وسلم and ask him, “What did you say about this man?” He will reply, “He is the Uroos (adorned personality) of all creation. The entire creation has attained splendor through him.” Meeting the beloved is the day of ‘Urs’, and it is for this reason that the day is called Urs.
On the day of the passing away of a Saint or on a specific date, their admirers, disciples, followers and relatives assemble together at the grave of the Saint to make esal-e-sawab, obtain spiritual benefit and celebrate the anniversary with rejoice. 
The object of fixing the day and time of Urs is that the people become aware of this auspicious occasion. There is no harm in fixing the date and visiting the graves in gathering in fact this proven practice of prophet as cited in the forth coming sections.
Hazrat Maulana Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddith Dehlwi(radi Allahu anhu) has written that if the day of Urs is meant for invocation or reminding for the deceased one, there is no harm. That gives benefit to the living as well as the deceased ones. (Fatawa Aziziyah) 
2. Visiting graves of Muslims
Visiting graves is a recommended sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), who said, “In the past, I had forbidden you earlier from visiting graves, but now you can do so, for it helps to remind you of the hereafter.” In other words, in the early days of Islam, Muslims were told not to visit graves, because of the fear of shirk, as the Arabs had been closer to their pagan ways, for they had been in the habit of worshiping idols, statues, and graves, etc. But after Islamic creed of tawheed (the Oneness of Allah) had become rooted and people had absorbed the true lessons of Islam, there was no fear of Muslims reverting to the practice of worshiping graves; hence the above prohibition was lifted and the Muslims were allowed to visit graves.
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), however, did not merely allow them to visit graves, but also went a step further to encourage them to do so because of the obvious benefits associated with it: First, it reminds them of their final resting place; second, it helps people remember their dead ones and offer prayers for them. Allah tells us in the Qur’an that the true believers are those who supplicate to Allah saying, [Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who have preceded us in faith and do not allow for any rancor in our hearts towards the believers; our Lord you are Full of Pity, Merciful (Al-Hashr 59:10). 
The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) demonstrated the sunnah of visiting graves through his own practice. The Holy Prophet himself used to visit the martyrs of “Uhd” battle and pray for them. The Holy Prophet asked the believers to visit the graves, it is also proven from the practice of companions of prophet and the next generation who use to visit sacred grave of prophet and pious to gain blessings which Allah has bestowed on them.
a. Abdullah bin Buraida reported on the authority of his father that Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said this: I prohibited you from visiting the graves, but (now) you may visit them, and I prohibited you (from eating) the flesh of sacrificed animals beyond three days, but now keep it as long as you like. I prohibited you from the use of Nabidh except (that prepared) in dry waterskins. Now drink (Nabidh prepared in any utensil), but do not drink when it becomes intoxicant. (Sahi muslim, Book 22 The Book of Sacrifices (Kitab Al-Adahi), Hadith #4866)
b. Narrated Buraydah ibn al-Hasib: The Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) said: I forbade you three things, and now I command (permit) you for them. I forbade you to visit graves, now you may visit them, for in visitingthem there is admonition. I forbade you drinks except from skin vessels, but now you may drink from any kind of vessels, but do not drink an intoxicant. I forbade you to eat the meat of sacrificial animals after three days, but now you may eat and enjoy it during your journeys.  (Sunan abu dawood, Book #26 Drinks (Kitab Al-Ashribah), Hadith #3689)
c. Sayyidah Umme Aisha (RA) narrates, Whenever I entered the house in which Prophet (Peace be upon him) and my father (i.e. Abu Bakr ra) are buried, I used to take off my sheet (from head) thinking that it’s only my father and husband (whom I am visiting), however By Allah! When Umar (ra) got buried with them, I never went inside without being fully covered, this is because of being ashamed of Umar (ra) 
[Musnad Ahmed bin Hanbal, Volume No. 6, Page No. 202, Hadith 25701]
Women Visiting Graves: Permissible provided women visit the graves of aulia respecting sharia (with hijab, mahrim, avoid crying/fitna, else it is haram as per opinion of renowned scholars)
:: Permissibility for women to visit the graves ::
In the Hanafï School, women are permitted to visit the graves as long as they are properly dressed and ensure that there is no undue intermixing with non-mahrim men and that they do not behave inappropriately, such as wailing. The Fatàwà Hindiyya (5:350).
One of the foremost references for fatwa in the School, says: “The Scholars differed about women visiting graves. Al-Sarakhsï said that the soundest position is that it is not wrong.” Al-Sarakhsï states in al-Mabsat (24:10): 
“The soundest opinion in our School is that the dispensation (to visit graves) is present for both men and women, because it has been related that umme Aisha, used to visit the sacred grave of the Messenger of Allàh eat all times, and that when she went on Hajj she visited the grave of her brother ‘Abd al-Rahmàn” This is confirmed by Ibn Nujaym in his al-Bahral-Rà’iq. Ibn ‘Àbidïn said in his super commentary on this work, Minhat al-Khàliq Hàshiyat al-Bahral-Rà’iq (2:210), that al-Ramlï said: “As for women, if they visit graves to renew their sorrows, or to cry and wail, as is the customary practice of many, it is not allowed for them to visit graves. This is how the Prophetic hadïth “Allàh has cursed women who visit graves,” is understood.
As for if they visit for contemplation, compassion, and seeking baraka by visiting the graves of the righteous, then it is not wrong if they are elderly. It is disliked if they are young [i.e. there is fear of fitna from their attending]. Among that which shows that women’s visiting graves is not unlawful is the hadith narrated by Anas tthat, “The Prophet passed by a woman who was crying by a grave. He said, ‘Fear Allàh and be patient.’” The permissibility is implied, said the Fuqahà’, because he did not forbid her from visiting the grave; had it been unlawful it would have been obligatory for the Prophet to forbid her
View of couple of Sunni Ulema of current era:
 2. Moulana Kokab Noorani,
3. Gaining blessing from graves of prophets/pious.
3.1 Gainging blessings from sacred tomb of beloved prophet.
Imam Dārimī Relates from Abu al-Jawza’ Aws bin ‘Abdullah: The people of Medina were in the grip of a severe famine. They complained to ‘A’ishah (about their terrible condition). She told them to go towards the Prophet’s grave and open a window in the direction of the sky so that there is no curtain between the sky and the grave. The narrator says they did so. Then it started raining heavily; even the lush green grass sprang up (everywhere) and the camels had grown so fat (it seemed) they would burst out due to the over piling of blubber. So the year was named as the year of greenery and plenty.
a. Sunan Darimi Volume 001, Page 227, Hadith Number 093    b. Muhammad bin ‘Alawi al-Maliki says, “This tradition has a good chain of transmission; rather, in my opinion, it is sound. The scholars have also acknowledged its soundness and have established its genuineness on the basis of almost equally credible evidence. [Shifa’-ul-fu’ad bi-ziyarat khayr–il-‘ibad Page No.153] c. Ibn-ul-Jawzī in al-Wafā’ bi-ahwāl-il-mustafā (2:801) d. Subkī in Shifā’-us-siqām fī ziyārat khayr-il-anām (p.128) e. Qastallānī in al-Mawāhib-ul-laduniyyah (4:276); and Zurqānī in his Commentary(11:150) Chain :”“Abū an-Nu‘mān heard it from Sa‘īd bin Zayd, he from ‘Amr bin Mālik an-Nukrī and he from Abū al-Jawzā’ Aws bin ‘Abdullāh who has reported it.”
3.2 Imam Shafi(Rehmatuallah aliye) visiting Tomb of Imam abu Hanifa (Rah)
He describes his own experience about the blessings of the tomb of Imam Abū Hanīfah: I derive blessing from the person of Imam Abū Hanīfah and I visit his grave every day. When I face a problem, I offer two optional cycles of prayer and visit his grave and (while standing) I pray to Allah to solve my problem. And I have not even left the place that my problem is solved.
a. Khatīb Baghdādī has related the incident with a sound chain of transmission in his Tārīkh Baghdād (1:123)
b. Ibn Hajar Haythamī, al-Khayrāt-ul-hisān fī manāqib-il-imām al-a‘zam Abū Hanīfah (p.94)
c. Muhammad Zāhid Kawtharī, Maqālāt (p.381)
d. Ibn ‘Ābidīn Shāmī in Radd-ul-muhtār ‘alā Durr-il-mukhtār (1:41).  
3.3 Mullah Ali Qari (rah) writes in detail and gives perfect clarification by saying:
Anyone who builds a mosque near the grave of an upright person or prays in the tomb (Maqbara) or intends to ask for help through the Ruh of that upright person or intends to seek barakah from his left overs, If he does all that without the intention of giving him Tazeem or doing tawajuh towards him ( in prayer) “Then there is nothing wrong in that, don’t you see that Grave of Hadrat Ismail(A.S) is inside the Masjid ul Harram near the hateem and to Pray there is Superior than anything else ” however to pray near the graves is only forbidden when the soil becomes dirty because of Najasat of deceased… In the Hateem near Hajr al Aswad and Mizaab there are “Graves of 70 Prophets”  [Mirqat, Sharh al Mishqaat, Volume No. 2, Page No. 202]
3.4 Imam Dhahabi (rah) narrates: Once there was a drought in Samarqand, People tried their best, some said Salat al Istisqa but still it did not rain, A renowned righteous man known as Salih came to the Qadhi and said: In my opinion you along with your public should visit the grave of Imam Bukhari (rah), His grave is located in Khartank, We should (go near the Qabr) and ask for rain, Allah might give us rain then, The Qadhi said Yes to his opinion and then he along with the people went towards (the Qabr) and then He made a dua along with the people and people started to cry near the grave and started to make him a Waseela (i.e. Imam Bukhari). Allah Ta’ala (immediately) sent rainclouds. All people stayed in Khartank for about 7 days, none of them wanted to go back to Samarqand although the distance between Samarqand and Khartank was only 3 miles [Siyar al A’lam wa al Nubalah, Volume 012, Page No. 469]
Imam Bulqini also declares this tradition “sound” in his Fatawa. Imam Subki confirms Hakim’s authentication in [Shifa-us-siqam fi ziyarat khayr-il-anam Page No. 120-1]
3.5 Imam Ibn al-Haaj (rah) statesIt is recommended to visit graves of Saliheen in order to obtain Barakah from them, because the benefit which is obtained by them during their lives is also obtained after their deaths. It has been a norm of Ulama and Muhaqiqoon to make dua near the graves of righteous people and also to ask through their intercession…Anyone who has some need, he should go to the (graves of righteous) and make them Waseela. This reasoning should not be given that Prophet (saw) told not to travel except for three mosques i.e. Masjid ul Harram, his mosque and Masjid ul Aqsa. The great Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali (rah) has mentioned in the chapter of “Adaab As-Safr” of his Ihya that traveling should be done for Ibadah like for Hajj or Jihad, after this he said: It includes traveling to visit graves of Prophets, Sahaba, Tabiyeen including all Ulama and Awliya. Every person whose ziyarah to obtain blessing is permissible in his life is also permissible after his death. [Al-Madkhal, Volume No.1, Page No. 216]
3.6 Imam Abu Abdullah Ibn al-Haaj al-Maliki also wrote a complete Chapter on visiting Awliyah and Saliheen he Writes: Student (muta-lim) should visit Awliyas and Saliheen and go to see them as seeing them makes the heart alive just as earth becomes alive due to rain, by seeing them the hearts which are stones are turned soft, because they remain present in the Bargah of Allah who is merciful, He never rejects their worship or intentions, and those who attend their Mehfils and those who identity them and those who love them, this is because they are mercy after Allah and his Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) which remains open for his men, so any one who has these qualities then people should be quick to receive blessing from such people because people who meet these personalities get the blessing, knowledge and memory which cannot be explained, you will know that due to same maani one can see a lot of people who got perfection in knowledge and ecstasy, Anyone who respects these blessings never gets away from mercy and Barakah, but condition is that the person who should be visited for a look should obey the Sunna’h and protect it and show it from his actions. [Ibn al-Haaj, al-Madkhal Volume 002, Page No. 139]
3.7 It is attributed to ‘Abdullāh bin Mas‘ūd that the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم) is reported to have said:
My life is blissful for you because you hear traditions from people and relate them to others and my death is also blissful for you because your deeds will be presented to me. If I see the virtues prevail, I will be grateful to Allah, and if I see the vices prevail, I will pray for your forgiveness from Allah.
References a. Haythamī transmitted it in Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:24) and said that that tradition had been reported by Bazzār (in his Musnad) and its sub-narrators are all of sahīh (sound) hadith. b. ‘Irāqī has confirmed the soundness of its transmission in his book Tarh-ut-tathrīb fī sharh-it-taqrīb (3:297) c. Ibn Sa‘d has recorded it in at-Tabaqāt-ul-kubrā (2:194) d. Qādī ‘Iyād has inscribed this tradition in ash-Shifā (1:19) e. Suyūtī, recording it in al-Khasā’is-ul-kubrā (2:281) and Manāhil-us-sifā fī takhrīj ahādīth ash-Shifā (p.3), has commented that Ibn Abū Usāmah in his Musnad has reproduced it through Bakr bin ‘Abdullāh Muzanī and Bazzār in his Musnad who have relied on its narration by ‘Abdullāh bin Mas‘ūd with a sound chain of transmission. It has been endorsed by Khafājī and Mullā ‘Alī Qārī in their commentaries on ash-Shifā, i.e. Nasīm-ur-riyād (1:102) and Sharh ash-Shifā (1:36) respectively. f. Hadith-scholar Ibn-ul-Jawzī has reproduced it in al-Wafā bi-ahwāl-il-mustafā (2:809-10) from Bakr bin ‘Abdullāh and Anas bin Mālik. Subkī has copied this tradition in Shifā’-us-siqām fī ziyārat khayr-il-anām (p.34) from Bakr bin ‘Abdullāh Muzanī, and Ibn ‘Abd-ul-Hādī in as-Sārim-ul-munkī (p.266-7) has authenticated its veracity. g. Bazzār’s tradition has also been recorded by Ibn Kathīr in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:257). h. Ibn Hajar ‘Asqalānī narrated it through Bakr bin ‘Abdullāh Muzanī in al-Matālib-ul-‘āliyah (4:22-3#3853). i. ‘Alā’-ud-Dīn ‘Alī copied Ibn Sa‘d’s tradition in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:407#31903) and from Hārith (#31904). j. Nabhānī related it in Hujjatullāh ‘alal-‘ālamīn fī mu‘jazāt sayyid-il-mursalīn (p.713).
3.8 Hadrat Nafi said“I saw that Hadrat[‘Abdullah] ibn Umar used to come to the grave a hundred times or more. He would say,’Peace be upon the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. Peace be upon Abu Bakr.” Then he would leave. Ibn Umar was also seen to put his hand on the seat of Prophet[SallalLaahu Alayhi Wasallam] at the mimbar and then place his hand on his face [for blessings and Barakah]
[Narrated in Ash-Shifa of Qadi Iyad- Section 9]     
3.9 Imam Ghazzali (rah) said, Whenever anyone is in some difficulty then he should ask the people of tombs for help, who are of (sacred) souls but have passed away (i.e. transferred into another dimension). There is no doubt in it that any person visiting (their tombs) gets spiritual help plus benefit from them and many times when their Waseela is presented in the court of Allah, the difficulties are removed [Tafsir Ruh ul Ma’ani, Volume 30, Page No. 24] 
First of all this hadith indicates that the grave of Prophet and Saliheen were covered and placed within the room/house. The word “BAYT” which means house.
Secondly: Even after the burial of Sayyidna Umar (ra) Sayyidah Aisha (ra) used to cover from him when visiting his grave. This is an explicit proof on Aqida of Sahaba, that people of graves get to know about those who visit them.
4.0 Allocating specific time/day for visiting graves.
Now after establishing permissibility of visiting graves, the issue is to clarify whether or not graves can be visited on specific date or annually.
Firstly the hadith “I had previously stopped you from visiting the graves. Now, you may definitely visit them.” confirms the permissibility of visiting the graves in general, free from time/gender/singular/plural. Graves can be visited daily, weekly, monthly or annually either alone or in a group. Thus, when someone emplaces his own restrictions to this (e.g. visiting the graves in a group is prohibited, or visiting it after appointing a date for it every year, etc.), it is inconsequential. The practice is permissible with or without specifying a date or day.
Secondly, appointing a date for Urs eases the gathering of people. They gather together and collectively recite the Holy Quran, Zikr, Durood, etc. and, through this, many blessings are attained. for e.g: The Holy Qur’an commands us to offer prayer, but does not command us to put up notices within our mosques declaring the congregation timings, or to announce the Azaan on loud speakers – but we do that although Muslims are aware of the 5 daily prayers, this to keep everybody posted and gather all at the same time.
Thirdly, all of the devotees of a sheikh/order are aware of day of demise, gather on the date and come to know of each other’s conditions. They meet unceremoniously and love is increased through this.
4.1 Permissibility of giving importance to particular day from Quran:
a. Quran states in regards to Prophet Yahya (peace be upon him) “So peace be upon him the day he was born, the day that he dies and the day that he will be raised to life” [Surah Maryam 19:15]
b. In other place in regards to prophet Eisa (peace be upon him) followed by testament of Allah, on importance of the day the prophet was born, passed away from world and day when he will be raised again.
Allah says in Quran that, Prophet Esa said “And peace is upon me the day I was born, and on the day I shall taste death, and on the day I will be raised alive.” [Surah Maryam 19:33] Allah azzawajal says “This is Eisa (Jesus), the son of Maryam; a true statement, in which they doubt”. [Surah Maryam 19:34]
Almighty Allah demonstrated importance of days attached to prophets by sending peace upon them mentioning days specifically, the day he was born, day he dies and day he will be raised. The days when Ambia are born are the days of Tranquility in sight of Allah Almighty. Here the intention not to compare Awliya with prophets, but to indicating the certainty/permissibility of giving importance to specific days attached to pious.
4.2 Visiting graves annually and permissibility of allocating specific time to carry out mustahab deeds:
a. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) used to go to the graves of the martyrs of Uhd once a year and also recite the verse of the Holy Qur’an on excellence of patience. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) used to pray for them. When the beloved Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) passed away himself, the Caliphs Abu-Bakr, Umar, Usman (Allah be pleased with them) used to do the same thing. (yearly visit)
Reference :
                a. Tafsir Tabari,Tafsir Ibn-Kathir for Quran 13:20
                b. and Tafsir Qurtabi by Imam Tabari, Imam Qurtabi commentary of Surah Ra’d Verse 20.
                c. Shaami states and quotes same hadith in Vol. 1, Baabu Ziyaaratil-Quboor
b. Prophet used to fast every monday, the day our beloved prophet was born [Sahih Muslim, Book 006, Number 2606, Imam al-Bahayqi  in his “Sunnan ul Kubra” (Vol. 4, pg. 300 Hadith no 8182, 8259] (specific day/weekly)
c. Prophet used to fast on 10th of every muharam, the day when moses was rescued and firoun drowned [Sahih Muslim, Volume 2, Page No. 147, Hadith No. 1130, Dar ul Kutab al Ilmiyyah] (specific days/year)
d. Aqiqa for the new borns (sunnah practice) is to be carried out preferable on 7th day (if not then 14 or 21)
[‘Sunanut-Tirmidhee’ (3/38-39), also refer Sunan Abudawood-book of sacrifice/2832)]. (preferable specific days/life time) 
e. Prophet used to visit Jannatul baqi in last part of night. [muslim, kitab us salat, hadith 2126] (specific time)
Umme ‘A’isha reported (that whenever it was her turn for Allah’s Messenger [may peace be upon him] to spend the night with her) he would go out towards the end of the night to al-Baqi’ and say: Peace be upon you, abode of a people who are believers. What you were promised would come to you tomorrow, you receiving it after some delay; and God willing we shall join you. O Allah, grant forgiveness to the inhabitants of Baqi’ al-Gharqad. Qutaiba did not mention his words:” would come to you”.  (muslim, Book #004, kitab us salat Hadith #2126) 
5. Sandal procession, Placing flowers, piece of cloth on grave and using incense burner/fragrance. 
The Chaadar(Sheet) and Sandal procession is a public event designed to reflect love and respect of the soul of the wali. It is an event whereby homage is paid to the wali, and to his success in the hereafter. Trays are decoratively laden with many Ghilaaf (sheets of material used to cover the grave of the wali), flowers, Itr, Niyaaz and sandal powder. These trays are carried on the head as a mark of respect (This does not constitute Ibaadat in any way). The mureedeen and other devotees of the saint normally prepare the trays. A Shaamyaana (roughly translated as a four – handled shade, awning or umbrella) usually in the colors of the Silsila/order to which the saint belongs, is held aloft by those who are taking part in the procession. It is there to shelter on from the natural elements, viz. The sun and rain. It also lends dignity to the procession. 
The existing Chaadar is replaced with new after washing the grave and the surroundings of any dust/remains from old sandal procession. is The grave is then sprinkled with sandal, atar/perfume and covered with flowers. Their graves are covered with a Chaadar just as we cover the Quran and Kaabah with Ghilaaf. It also displays recognition of the achievement and success of the departed soul. It also dawns on the observer that this is the grave of a beloved of Allah who has reached the ultimate goal of nearness to Allah.
5.1 Permissibility of Spraying water on grave (Ghusl-e-Shareef)
Usually the deniers of tazeem-e-Aulia raise their eyebrows and try to find reasons/slip in every possible act to misled Ummah, though this act is permissible and does not go against Shariah but we considered it to be important to cover and clarify this issue as well as part of the activity carried out during the Urs. Spraying water after burial is sunnah and the permissibile in shariah.
a. It is narrated that Rasoolallah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) ordered water to be sprayed on the grave of Sa’d. [Ibn Majah, Volume 2, Hadith no: 1551],  Rasoolallah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) also sprayed water on the grave of his son, Ibrahim. [Mishkat, p.148]
b. The companions sprayed water on the blessed grave of Rasoolallah (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) [Mishkat, p.149]
Imam Ali Qari writes that ‘Allama Tayyibi said “spraying water on the grave is an indication towards the mercy of Allah” [Mirqat Sharh Mishkat, vol. 2, p.278]
c. In another instance Imam ‘Ali Qari writes that ibn Malik said that when it is not raining, it is from the sunnah to spray water on the grave so that Allah may make the grave cool. [Mirqat Sharh Mishkat, vol. 2, p.377]
d. Hazrath shaykh shah abdul aziz muhaddis e dahlwi (rahmatullah alaih) states “Spraying water indicate decent of mercy, cleansing mistakes and washing away the sins. [Hashya Mishkaat, page 123].
e. Imam ibn ‘Abideen Shami writes that it is mandub to spray water on a grave. [Radd al-Muhtar, vol. 1, p.838]
From the above it is apparent that spraying of water is permissible even for an ordinary Muslim, and like any other act, if a sinful get relief due to some act, then for the pious and servants of Allah the same act will lead to increase in their status, rank and blessings of Almighty Allah.
No matter what name is used for this act whether spraying/showering/pouring of water or ghusl, there is no harm it can be done at the burial or after year or after certain lapse of time, it does not in any way clash with sharia. Rather it is an indication of blessings of Allah on inhabitants of the grave.
5.2 Placing green leaves, flowers over the grave
Fresh flowers have life and therefore make tasbeeh and tahleel. Through this tasbeeh etc, reward is attained or punishment is decreased for any ordinary muslim’s grave, and the visitors to a grave/mazaar gain a pleasant fragrance. Therefore, placing them on any muslim’s grave is allowed. Even if the deceased is experiencing punishment, through the blessings of the tasbeeh, it is lessened. The source for this practice is the following hadith:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas (radi allahu anhu) : The Prophet ( peace be upon him ) once passed by the two Graves and said, “These two persons are being punished not for a major sin (to refrain from). One of them never saved himself from being soiled with his urine, while the other used to go about with calumnies(to make enmity between friends).” The Prophet (peace be upon him) then took a green leaf of a date-palm tree, split it into (pieces) and fixed one on each Grave. They said, “O Allah’s Apostle (peace be upon him)! Why have you done so?” He replied, “I hope that their punishment might be lessened till these (the pieces of the leaf/branch/twig ) become dry.” [Sahi Bukhari – Book 4,Hadith 215 and 217]
It has been said that the punishment will be lessened because, as long as the twigs are fresh, tasbeeh will be made by the twigs. Based on this Hadith, Ulama have also ruled that reciting the Holy Quran near the grave is Mustahab (preferred because this is more suited to lessen punishment than the tasbeeh of a branch.” (AN/IE/JAH)
Under this very Hadith, the ulema has ruled the permissibility of placing flowers, green plants and fragrance on graves. Alamghiri states, “To place flowers and fragrance on graves is good.” – Kitaabul-Karaahiyat, Vol. 5, Baabu Ziyaaratil-Quboor. (AN/IE/JAH)
Discussing visiting the graves, Shaarni states, “From this and the Ahadith, it is ascertained that placing these things on the graves is Mustahab. The practice of placing branches of the myrtle plant, etc. On graves is modeled on this.” Vol. I, Ziyaaratil-Quboor
 It further states. “The reason for the decrease in punishment is the branches not becoming dry. In other words, through the blessings of them making tasbeeh, the punishment of the grave is lessened, since the tasbeeh of a fresh branch is more complete in comparison to a dry one. This is because there is a kind of life existing in the former.”
Two issues emerge from these Ahadith and extracts of the Commentators of Hadith and Jurists,
1. It is permitted to place every green plant, etc. on the graves of Muslims.The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) himself placed branches on those graves that were undergoing punishment.
2. The decrease in punishment is through the blessings of the tasbeeh made by the green plants etc, not only because of Rasooullah’s  (peace be upon him) dua. If it was only due to this dua, why was the restriction of “as long as they are dry” mentioned in the Hadith?
Thus, today, if we lay flowers etc, the deceased will surely benefit from this action, Insha Allah. The wisdom behind keeping the graves of general Muslims natural is that when it rains, green grass will sprout and, through the tasbeeh of the grass, the punishment of the deceased will decrease. This proves that placing flowers or green plants on the graves of Believers is allowed.
However, it should be beard in mind that the action which is a remover of hardship for sinners causes an increase in the rank of the pious, e.g. walking towards the Masjid erases our sins but increases the rank of the virtuous. Likewise, some duas eradicate the sins of criminals like us but increase the distinction of the pious. The logic used by the opposition necessitates that the pious should not come to the Masjids or make istighfaar because they are cleansed of sin. Through the tasbeeh of these flowers, the mercy of Allah shall descend more upon their graves just as how it increases by the recitation of the Holy Quran.
5.3 Placing Sheet over grave
Placing sheets (ghilaafs/chaadars) on the graves of the Aulia (freinds of Allah) is permissible because through this, the grandeur of the inmate of the grave becomes apparent to the general public who visit.
1) Allama Shaami writes, “Fatawa Hujja has stated that placing mantles (sheet/covering) on the graves is Makrooh (disliked). However, we say that if today, creating respect within the general public is intended by doing so (so that they may not deem the inmate of the grave with contempt but rather, through these shrouds, respect, admiration and awe is instilled amongst those unaware), then placing sheets is permissible. This is because actions are based on intentions.”
[Raddul-Muhtaar, Vol. 5, Baabul-Karaahiyat, Baabul Labs]
2) The great Shafi scholar and Sufi, Imam Abdul Wahab al-Sharani (rah) writes:
My teacher Ali (rah) and brother Afzal ud din (rah) used to forbid that domes should be build over graves of ordinary people and also to put the deceased in “COFFINS” and also to put sheets over their graves. They used to say that only Prophets and great awliya are deserving for domes and sheets, whereas we should be buried in the feet of people and also in their ways [Al-Anwar al Qudsiya, Page No. 593]
3. Narrated Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn AbuBakr: I said to Aisha! Mother, show me the grave of the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him) and his two Companions (Allah be pleased with them). She showed me three graves which were neither high nor low, but were spread with soft red pebbles in an open space. [Abu Dawud, Book 20, Number 3214] (the hadith establishes two points, one the graves were little elevated/above the ground and second the red pebbles were laid/spread over the grave)
From the above and from the extract of Shaami it is established that whatever permissible action is done to demonstrate the greatness of the Auliya Allah/Pious is permissible. The source of sheets is that even in the time of Rasooullah (peace be upon him) the Kaaba was covered with the Ghilaaf and he didn’t prohibited this.
further for centuries, there have been very expensive green coverings of silk over the walls covering Rauza Sharif (between the golden grills and encasing wall surrounding the blessed grave) of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him). The Ghilaaf bearing the Kalima Shareef and other Quranic verses can be clearly seen even today. This Sunnah was in practice from the days of the sahaba and maintained even by the present regime.
No one has disallowed this even until today. There is even a covering on (a structure built over) the Maqaam-e-Ibrahim (the stone on which Hadrat Ibrahim iti!l stood to build the Holy Kaaba).
Why have sheets/structures have been placed over them? Simple: to demonstrate the greatness of these things.
5.4 Using incense sticks/Burner/Fragrance
To light incense sticks (agarbatti) and lobaan in vicinity of the grave’s of the Awliya is made for the benefit of the visitors and gathering which is permissible.
One should bear this in mind that it is done not for the deceased but rather for the comfort of the visitors, as they will feel better in a sweet-scented environment.
The action of doing good deeds for others is also a means of Sadaqa and the deceased also receive the Sawaab of this Sadaqa performed by those who are living. Basically this is an act which is carried out only to create freshness in the air and pleasant/comfortable environment of the visitors.
6.0 Reciting Quran and Zikr near the grave.
1) The Prophet of Allah Said: Recite It (Iqarahu) on (‘Inda) the deceased/dying that means Surah Yaseen. (Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitab Al Janaiz #1438)
The commentator of Sunan Ibn Majah further states:
 قوله ( عند موتاكم )  
His saying : On the deceased/dying — That is to say on the dying or (Aw) after (Ba’ad) death Also. (Sharh Sunan Ibn Majah Al Sanadi , Ibid)
2) It is related that al-`Ala’ ibn al-Lajlaj said to his children: “When you bury me, say as you place me in the side-opening (lahd) of the grave: Bismillah wa `ala millati rasulillah — In the name of Allah and according to the way of Allah’s Messenger — then flatten the earth over me, and read at the head of my grave the beginning of Surat al-Baqara and its end, for I have seen that Ibn `Umar liked it.”
References 1. Narrated by Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (4:56), 2. Ibn Qudama in al-Mughni (2:474, 2:567, 1994 ed. 2:355) 3. al-Tabarani in al-Kabir, and Haythami said in Majma` al-zawa’id (3:44) that the latter’s narrators were all declared trustworthy.
3) Referring to the hadith about placing of green twigs on grave mentioned in earlier section, it is established that green twigs/leaves/flowers will be beneficial for inhabitant of grave until the time the they remains green/fresh due to their dhikr. Certainly the dhikr of living being, Human, and Quran is more virtues and beneficial than fresh flowers. The dhikr in the vicinity is beneficial for both the reciter and inhabitant of grave.
7.0 Kissing hands of shaykh, descended of Wali and Graves:
Kissing is sign of love, respect  and honor. Some people say that to kissing the hands and the feet of the shaykh and grave of wali whose URS is being celebrated is Shirk (associating partners with Allah). 
We fail to understand how a kiss becomes ibadah and sign of Elah/divinity??
There are ample of ahadith which establishes permissibility of kissing hands, feet and graves of pious which has been practice of Ahle Bait and the Sahaba-e-Ikraam who even used to kiss the hands & the feet of one another in honor and respect.
In general there are five kinds of kisses:  a. The kiss of affection and love like a father kissing his son,  b. The kiss of meeting (mulaqat) like a Muslim kissing another Muslim on meeting one another,  c. The kiss of love and regard like a son kissing his parents,  d. The kiss of friendship, when someone kisses his friend, and  e. The kiss of sensual love, like the husband kissing his wife or vice versa.  Some have added another kind of kiss as a mark of religious sanctity like of the Hajar-e-Aswad. (Alamgiri) 
Apart from the above mentioned types, we also notice one more type kiss which is generally related with worldly success or achievement, to name a few winner kissing a winning trophy, parents of children kissing progress card to encourage children, kissing a new car out of excitement, kissing much awaited letter or dreamt employment offer and so on.
Few Ahadees are mentioned below proving permissibility of subject matter which includes hadith on the following.
a) Kissing the children b) Kissing hands and feet of prophet (peace be up him) c) Kissing Hajr-e-aswad d) Kissing the blessed relics e) Kissing the Quran f) Kissing the dead
1. Abu Hurayra razi allahu anhu said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, kissed Hasan ibn ‘Ali while al-Aqra’ ibn Habis at-Tamimi was sitting with him. Al-Aqra’ observed, ‘I have ten children and I have kissed any of them.’ The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, looked at him and said, ‘Whoever does not show mercy will not be shown mercy (Al adab al Mufrad, under chapter looking after children 50:91)
2. A Jew asked his companion to take him to the Prophet (peace be upon him). When they met him, they inquired of him about the nine clear signs (given to Moses); this was followed by the recital of the relevant Hadith. This made the issue quite clear. In the end both of them kissed his hands and feet and said: We bear witness that you are indeed a Prophet. Transmitted by Tirmidhi. {Al-Tirmidhi Hadith, Hadith 280}
3. Usama ibn Sharik (radi allahu ‘anhu) narrates : “I came to see the Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) while his Companions were with him, and they seemed as still as if birds had alighted on top of their heads. I gave him my Salaam and I sat down. [Then Bedouins came and asked questions which the Prophet answered.] … The Prophet (sallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam) then stood up and the PEOPLE STOOD UP. They began to kiss his hand, whereupon I took his hand and placed it on my face. I found it more fragrant than musk and cooler than sweet water.”(Narrated by Abu Dawud [#3855], Ti[2038 – hasan sahih], Ibn Majah [3436], al-Hakim [4:399], and Ahmad [4:278]. Al- Hafiz Imam Bayhaqi cites it in Branch 15 of his Su’ab ul-iman entitled : The Fifteenth Branch of Faith, Namely A Chapter On Rendering honor To The Prophet, Declaring His High Rank, And Revering Him Vol. 2 p.200 [#1528])
4. When we went to Medina, we hurried out of our vehicles and started kissing the hands and feet of the beloved Prophet References: 1. Abū Dāwūd, Sunan, b. of adab (good manners) 4:357 (#5225) 2. Bayhaqī, as-Sunan-ul-kubrā (7:102) 
5. Suhayb said, “I saw ‘Ali kiss the hands and feet of al-‘Abbas.”  Reference: Al-Adab al-Mufrad Al-Bukhari by Imam Bukhari. Greetings Chapter 445 Hadith No 976
6. Anas was asked, “Did you touch the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, with your hand?” He replied, “Yes,” so they kissed it.  Reference: Al-Adab al-Mufrad Al-Bukhari by Imam Bukhari. Greetings Chapter 445 Hadith No 974
7. Ahmed bin Hamdan al-Qasaar said that he saw Muslim bin Hajjaj (rah) i.e Imam Muslim R.A coming in the court of Imam Bukhari (rah) and kissed his forehead, “THEN HE ASKED HIS PERMISSION TO KISS HIS FEET” he then said: O Teacher of Teachers master of traditionalists and grand scholar on hadith weaknesses. [Al Bidayah wan Nihayah (11/33), Published by Maktaba al Ma’rif, Beirut, Lebanon]
8. It is in Hadith – Narrated by Naafi’ (razi allahu anhu) He said: I saw Ibn Umar (razi allahu anhu) touch the Stone with his hand then he kissed his hand. He (Ibn Umar – razi allahu anhu) said, I have never ceased to do this since I saw the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) do it. (Muslim – 1268).
9. Ibn `Umar used to touch the seat of the Prophet’s minbar and then wipe his face for blessing. al-Mughni 3:559; al-Shifa’ 2:54; Ibn Sa`d, Tabaqat 1:13; Mawsu`at Fiqh `Abdullah ibn `Umarp. 52.
10. Abd Allah ibn Ahmad said: “I saw my father take a hair that belonged to the Prophet , put it on his mouth, and kiss it. I believe I saw him put it on his eyes. He also dipped it in water and drank the water to obtain cure. I saw him take the Prophet’s bowl (qas’a), wash it in water, and drink from it. I saw him drink Zamzam water in order to seek cure with it, and he wiped his hands and face with it.” I say: Where is the quibbling critic of Imam Ahamad now?
It is also authentically established that ‘Abd Allah asked is father about those who touch the pommel of the Prophet’s e pulpit and touch the wall of the Prophet’s e room, and he said: “I do not see any harm in it.” May Allah protect us and you from the opinion of the Khawarij and from innovations!
[ Al-Dhahabi, Siyar A’lam al-Nubala’ (9:457). Ch. on Imam Ah.mad, section entitled Min adabih]
11. It is stated in Durra Mukhtar’ that Hadrath Farooq-e-Azam Omar bin Khattab (Radiallahu tala anhu) used to take, kiss each page of Holy Quran every morning and say, “This is the command of my Lord Allah SWT and His manifesto.” Similarly Hadrath Uthman bin ‘Affan (Radiallahu tala anhu) used to kiss the Holy Quran and keep it on his face, to obtain blessings of it. Ref: Durre Mukhtar’ Vol. No: 5, Pg. No: 272. 
12. Narrated ibn abbas and aisha: Abu Bakr razi allahu anhu kissed (the forehead of) the prophet sallelahu alaihiwa sallam when he passed away. {Sahih Al-Bukhari – 7.610}
13. Abu Bakr razi allahu anhu kissed the prophet sallelahu alaihiva sallam when he passed away, Tirmidi and Ibn Majah transmitted it {Al-Tirmidhi Hadith – 508}
14. The Prophet, peace be upon him, kissed ‘Uthman ibn Maz’un after his death {Fiqh-us-Sunnah – 4.16}
15. Dawud ibn Salih said: “[The governor of Madina] Marwan [ibn al-Hakam] one day saw a man placing his face on top of the grave of the Prophet. He said: “Do you know what you are doing?” When he came near him, he realized it was Abu Ayyub al-Ansari. The latter said: “Yes; I came to the Prophet, not to a stone., ref:  a. Ibn Hibban in his Sahih,  b. Ahmad (5:422) c. Al-Tabarani in his Mu`jam al-Kabir (4:189) and his Awsat according to Haythami in al-Zawa’id (5:245 and 5:441 #5845 Book of Hajj, “Section on the honoring of the dwellers of Madina, chapter on placing one’s face against the grave of our Master the Prophet ” and #9252 Book of Khilafa, “Chapter on the leadership of those unworthy of it”),  d. al-Hakim in his Mustadrak (4:515); e. both the latter and al-Dhahabi said it was sahih. f. It is also cited by al-Subki in Shifa’ al-siqam (p. 126)  g. and leader of salaf Ibn Taymiyya in al-Muntaqa (2:261f.)
8.0 Feeding people (Niaz)
To send Esaale Sawaab (passing on reward) to the living or souls of the deceased is permissible is Islam. This can be carried out in any form, such as passing reward of durood, salaam, prayers, fasting, charity, feeding others, recitation of Quran, Umrah and Hajj. The reward reaches the person whom it is passed to, which is proven from the Quran, Hadith and rulings of the Jurists (Fuqahaa). There are ample of Ahadith which describes the excellence of such acts. Generally no one has any objection on passing of reward by feeding others which is considered as one of best traits of islam. There is hadith in Sahi Bukhari, Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr: A man asked the Prophet, “What Islamic traits are the best?” The Prophet said, “Feed the people, and greet those whom you know and those whom you do not know [Sahi Bukhari, book 74, Hadith 253]
When this trait is carried out with intention to pass on reward in general it is termed as Fatiha, and when the same activity is carried out for Awlia/pious, it is then termed as Niaz. So, Niaz is basically a trait of serving food to others with the intention of passing on reward to soul of Awlia, and most of the time it includes passing on reward to all the prophets, companions, pious and to all the muslims along with the inhabitant of the grave for whom this trait is carried out in particular. Few people misinterpret the word “Niaz” and misguide innocent muslims quoting that this act is shirk/biddah and carried out to please the awliya and compare the act with the sacrifice/believes of non-believers who worship gods besides Allah. They do not understand the difference between Allah, Ahlullah, Ghairullah, muslims and not muslims, which we can only say is their ignorance and incomplete understanding of Islam.
A complete and detailed chapter is available on “Passing on Reward to Muslims and it forms, passing on reward through feeding others”, link of the same is given at the end of this article. Insha-Allah reader will find it very helpful which will shed more light on the topic. 
Secondly, most of the visitors are non residents of the city and gather for the particular event of URS. By arranging food for them will help them to avoid facing any hardships which is again a sadaqa.
9.0 Sima/Qawwali:
Sima falls into that sharia classification of acts which are technically called as ‘Mubah’, which mean that they are Permitted by the Shariah, but have no religious value or significance. For a good purpose it is permissible, but if it is used for an undesirable or an evil purpose, then it becomes forbidden.
The permissibility of Sima is derived from the following:
a. Narrated Umme Aisha: Abu Bakr came to my house while two small Ansari girls were singing beside me the stories of the Ansar concerning the Day of Buath. And they were not singers. Abu Bakr said protestingly, “Musical instruments of Satan in the house of Allah’s Apostle !” It happened on the ‘Id day and Allah’s Apostle said, “O Abu Bakr! There is an ‘Id for every nation and this is our ‘Id.” [Sahi bukhari, book of festivals#Hadith 72, book of merits and virtues of prophet#Hadith730, Sahi muslim, book of prayers#1940,]
b. Once, on an Eid day, some Abyssinians were giving a song and dance performance right on the premises of the Prophet’s Mosque in Medinah. Bibi Aisha . r.a. narrates that the Prophet asked her if she would like to watch it. She agreed and both she and the holy Prophet watched it for quite a while. [Sahi muslim, book of prayers#1943]
c. Another hadith, Narrated Umme Aisha: Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) came to my house while two girls were singing beside me the songs of Buath (a story about the war between the two tribes of the Ansar, the Khazraj and the Aus, before Islam). The Prophet (p.b.u.h) lay down and turned his face to the other side. Then Abu Bakr came and spoke to me harshly saying, “Musical instruments of Satan near the Prophet (p.b.u.h) ?” Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) turned his face towards him and said, “Leave them.” When Abu Bakr became inattentive, I signalled to those girls to go out and they left. It was the day of ‘Id, and the Black people were playing with shields and spears; so either I requested the Prophet (p.b.u.h) or he asked me whether I would like to see the display. I replied in the affirmative. Then the Prophet (p.b.u.h) made me stand behind him and my cheek was touching his cheek and he was saying, “Carry on! O Bani Arfida,” till I got tired. The Prophet (p.b.u.h) asked me, “Are you satisfied (Is that sufficient for you)?” I replied in the affirmative and he told me to leave. [Sahi bukhari, book of festivals, Hadith 70, sahi muslim, book of prayers#1942] ( the above hadith are recorded in sahih hadith books with multiple narrations and different chains and does not leave any room for controversy)
d. Umme Aisha may Allah be pleased with her, said, “Poetry can be beautiful or ugly; so take what is beautiful and leave what is ugly. I have related some of the poetry of Ka’b ibn Malik, including an ode of some forty verses or less than that.”
[Al-Bukhari, Al-Adab Al-Mufrad, Number 863, Sahih]
e. Abdullah ibn Umar reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, “Poetry is in the same position as speech; the beautiful among it is like beautiful speech, and the ugly among it is like ugly speech.”
[Al-Bukhari, Al-Adab Al-Mufrad, Number 862, Sahih]
f. ‘Amr b. Sharid reported his father as saying: One day when I rode ehind Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), he said (to me): Do you remember any Poetry of Umayya b. Abu Salt. I said: Yes. He said: Then go on. I recited a couplet, and he said: Go on. Then I again recited a couplet and he said: Go on. I recited one hundred couplets (of his poetry). This hadith has been reported on the authority of Sharid through another chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording.  
[Sahih Muslim, Book 28, Number 5602]
g. Imam gazali states in Keemia-e-Sadat, page 408: The music which brings you towards BAD is haram..and the one which brings closer to ALLAH is halal (these are not the eaxct words..but the gist) [KEEMIA E SADAT ,adabi duniya publications, New Delhi,India] at page 358 He imam gazali r.a detailed types of permissible instruments which include flute, daf, drum (with ropes) etc which does not intimate instruments of drunkyards.
In the light of the above evidences if use music and poetry done for good purpose and lawfully then it is permissible and for undesirable and evil purpose then it is haram. The real Sama/Qawwali is that which relates to the situation where love of Allah Ta’ala will reach the point of an devoted love (Ishq). In this case, Sama is not only permissible, but it becomes extremely necessary for such a person.
Everything or act that increases the friendship or love of Allah Ta’ala obviously becomes the object of a plenitude of spiritual recompense and this is why the Sufis’ attach so much importance to it.
Sama/Qawwali is, in reality a means of increasing the brightening light of the burning flame of the love of Allah and it has a tremendous spiritual effect on the listeners. Many a Sufi undergoes a state of unveiling of spiritual divine mysteries. When such states coming from the world of the unseen thus become overwhelming, the Sufis experience a particular kind of spiritual state of transformation which is called ‘wajd’ or spiritual ecstasy.
In order to limit it to certain boundaries, Fuqah have drawn a clear line and conditions for Qawwali (Sima).  Respecting the ruling of Ulema, the Sima is permissible if its conditions are met. This is for the Ahl (capable/men of piety as per the Shariah) as agreed upon by the expert Scholars and glorified Saints (Awliya’) of Allah (Allah is pleased with them all). 
The conditions are: 
1. In the assemblies of these persons, there should be no beardless person (child/immature) when singing.
2. All of them should be only of one gender. In their assemblies, there should be no lovers of this world (Dunya) and no sinner.
3. The singer should sing only for the sake of Allah SWT and should have no desire for money or food.
4. These pious persons should not have gathered there for having food.
5. When they stand up in a state of ecstasy (Wajd), they should get up only when they have lost control (Maghlub ul Haal).
6. They should express only that Wajd, which is true.
For those pious people who fulfill all these conditions, listening to Qawwali is permissible and allowed (jayaz and Mubah). Those who do not fulfill the above conditions should avoid listening to Qawwali.
10.0 Concluding the extract of article through single Hadees.
Narrated ‘Uqba bin ‘Amir: One day the Prophet went out and offered the funeral prayers of the martyrs of Uhud and then went up the pulpit and said, “I will pave the way for you as your predecessor and will be a witness on you. By Allah! I see my Fount (Kauthar) just now and I have been given the keys of all the treasures of the earth (or the keys of the earth). By Allah! I am not afraid that you will worship others along with Allah after my death, but I am afraid that you will fight with one another for the worldly things.” [Sahi Bukhari, Book of funerals/Al Janiaz 23, Hadith 428]
If sermon/religious advice is not permissible in the vicinity of graveyards, where did the prophet gave sermon? there was neither masjid or Eidgah nor any special occasion apart from the visiting the martyrs of uhud! from where did the pulpit came in graveyard? was the pulpit was brought from somewhere else for this specific purpose? and what was the necessity of specifically mentioning the crowd visiting the graves that “I am not afraid that you will worship others along with Allah after my death” at this particular occasion?
This is because the visit was made with complete preparation, the time/date was specified and informed to all because of which the Muslims gathered and visited along with the prophet, the sermon was given standing on pulpit brought from madina (or some other place) to the gathering. Further, the knower of unseen, peace of our hearts, our beloved prophet was aware that this sunnah of visiting graves in gathering and giving sermon will also be practiced by the loving ummah, so by mentioning about the “shirk” our prophet made it very clear to entire ummah that if anyone notices similar deeds in ummah do not ever assume that they are involved in shirk nay my ummah will never worship graves or anything besides Allah, this is my very practice which they will follow till the day of judgment, thus closing down all doubts and doors of shirk.