UNDERSTANDING FATIHA: PROVEN VIRTUES AND PRACTICE

Contents of Article: 

 1. What is Fatiha 
 2. Contents of Fatiha 
 3. Proofs of individual acts carried out in fatiha. 
        3.1   Passing of reward (Essal-e-Sawaab) to the others/sick/diseased through, a)Fasting b) Prayers c) Charity d) Releasing slave e) Pilgrimage f) Sacrificing animal and g) Reciting holy Quran.
       3.2   Proof on reciting and Excellence of Surah Iqlas, Surah Falaq, Surah Nass.  
       3.3   Virtues of reciting durood on prophet sallalahu alaihi wassalam
       3.4   Reciting on food & raising hands. 
       3.5   Teeja, Dahom, Chahloom, Barsi, 
 4.     Conclusion.

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  1. 1.     WHAT IS FATIHA:

Fatiha is a compendium (collection) of various virtuous acts. Fatiha is combination of reciting few ayahs of Holy Quraan, durood, supplications (dua) for diseased and muslim ummah, feeding (providing food) family, relatives, neighbors, near and dear and to the poor and to pass on reward these virtues act to the diseased.

To pass on the reward of physical and financial ibaadat to other Muslims is permissible, and the reward reaches the person whom it is passed to. This is proven from the Quran, Hadith and rulings of the Jurists (Fuqahaa). The Hadith describe the excellence of these acts.  For this reason, Fatiha itself is Mustahab (commendable) as well as Mustahsan (established by the Sunnah) 

Some claim that this act wasn’t done by Sahaba or in past centuries and call it as biddah and to extent of shirk. We  will discuss the permissibility of passing on reward and fatiha in next couple of sectios in light of Quran and Ahadith inshallah.

  1. 2.     CONTENTS OF FATIHA:

Generally surah fatiha is recited in start of reciting other verses of quraan by which this practice of essal-e-sawaab got name and commonly known as fatiha.

It is said in the Shaami:
و يقرء من القران ماتيسرله من الفاتحة و اول البقرة و اية الکرسي و امن الرسول و سورة يس و تبارک الملک و سوره التکاثر و الاخلاص اثني عشر مرة او احدي عشر او سبعا او ثلاثا ثم يقول اللهم اوصل ثواب ماقرئناه الي فلان او اليهم One may recite the Holy Qur’an by way of Fatiha, on any particular occasion in the following manner: In the beginning Surah Fatiha, then the first there verses of the Surah Baqrah then Ayat-ul-Kursi, the last three verses of the Surah Baqrah, then Surah Yasin, Surah Mulk, Surah Takathur and in the end Surah Ikhlas the last one recited Twelve times or Eleven times or Seven times or Three time then pray to Almighty Allah for the Eesal-e-Sawab in favour of so and so person or persons. [Raddul Mukhtar, Qir’at lil Mayyit, Baab ad-Dafan, Vol. 1, Page 666]

In the above passages full procedure of the known offering of Fatiha has been outlined, which in short is that the man offering Fatiha should recite the Holy Qur’an and finally pray to Almighty Allah to grant the reward of the recitation in favour of or persons concerned. Since it is sunnah to raise hand at the time of final prayer of Eesal-e-Sawab, the man should raise both palms joined together up to the shoulders which would also be explained inshallah in forethcoming paragraphs.

As such any good deeds can be carried out to pass on reward, however the generally practiced so called fatiha in short is as follows:

  • Reciting Surah Fatiha once
  • Reciting Surah Iqlas thrice (or seven or eleven times)
  • Reciting Surah Falaq once.
  • Reciting Surah Naas once.
  • Reciting Durood (once, thrice, seven, eleven or as possible)
  • Praying the Almighty Allah to grant reward to the diseased (and other ummah can be included) for what you have recited and the food you provide to others.

 3.       Proofs of individual acts carried out in fatiha.
Though there are numerous references in the contest, only few have been selected to limit the document to the point and to explain in the best possible manner. Those who are Interested in more reference, then inshallah will be added in comments after end of the article.

3.1   PASSING OF REWARD TO OTHERS (ISSAL-E-SAWAB)
          i.    Hadees Proof to pass on reward through fasting:

Proof 1: It is narrated by hazratha Aisha radiallahu tala anha that, Allah’s Apostle said, “Whoever died and he ought to have fasted (the missed days of Ramadan) then his guardians must fast on his behalf.”  [Sahih Bukhari Book 31 Hadith 173]

          ii.    Hadees Proof to pass on reward through prayers:
Proof 2:
في ذكر البصرة الملاحم سنن أبي داود حدثنا محمد بن المثنى حدثني إبراهيم بن صالح بن درهم قال سمعت أبي يقول انطلقنا حاجين فإذا رجل فقال لنا إلى جنبكم قرية يقال لها الأبلة قلنا نعم قال من يضمن لي منكم أن يصلي لي في مسجد العشار ركعتين أو أربعا ويقول هذه لأبي هريرة سمعت خليلي رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول إن الله يبعث من مسجد العشار يوم القيامة شهداء لا يقوم مع شهداء بدر غيرهم قال أبو داود هذا المسجد مما يلي

The sahabi, Abu Hurayra, urged some people to pray 2 raka’ahs in Masjid Ashaar and told them to say after the prayers, “Haaza li Abi Hurayra”. THIS IS FOR ABU HURAYRA
Sunan Abi Dawood, Kitab al-Malaahim, Vol 11, Page 285, Hadith 3754 Shau’b al-Iman lil Baheeqi, Bab al Fazail al-Hajj wal Umrah, Vol 9, Page 152, Hadith 3960 Mishkaat, Babul Fitan wal Malaahim, Chapter Two.

From the above narration of abu hurayra three things are very clear which can be deduced as listed below:
(1) to offer physical act of worship (Namaz) with the intention of conveying the sawab of that Namaz to any other person is permissible (2) to utter by the tongue praying Almighty Allah to convey the sawab to so and so (by Name) is much better than simple intention (3) to offer the Namaz in the Masjid of some rightieous saintly person with the intention of receiving more sawab is also permissible.

Proof 3# Imam al-Bukhari writes:

“Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) has said, ‘The status of the deceased is raised [during their time in the grave], and the deceased ask Allah why this has happened. Allah replies,‘Your son has prayed for your forgiveness’”

►[al-Bukhari, Al-Adab Al-Mufid, chapter on ‘Excellency of Parents’]

From this particular hadith it can be understood that not only fasts, but the offering of prayers (making duas) and the giving of alms, will also benefit the deceased.

                iii.    Hadees Proof to pass on reward through releasing slave, charity and pilgrimage:
Proof 4:  Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-‘As:
Al-‘As ibn Wa’il left his will that a hundred slaves should be emancipated on his behalf. His son Hisham emancipated fifty slaves and his son Amr intended to emancipate the remaining fifty on his behalf, but he said: I should ask first the Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him). He, therefore, came to the Prophet (peace_be_upon_him) and said: Apostle of Allah, my father left in his will that a hundred slaves should be emancipated on his behalf and Hisham has emancipated fifty on his behalf and fifty remain. Shall I emancipate them on his behalf? The Apostle of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) said: Had he been a Muslim and you had emancipated slaves on his behalf, or given sadaqah on his behalf, or performed the pilgrimage, that would have reached him. [Abu Dawud Book 17 Hadith 2877 ]
Proof 5:  Imam al-Bukhari and Imam Muslim write that:

“A man came to the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said ‘My mother has suddenly died and she did not leave any will, but I suspect that if she did then she would have told me to give something to charity. Now if I offer something in charity on her behalf, will she get the reward?’ Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) replied, ‘Yes.’Then the man said, ‘I make you, the Prophet, my witness that I offer my garden full of fruits in charity’”

Bukhari chapter on ‘Al-Wasiya’ Volume 4, Book 51, Number 19 Muslim, chapter on ‘Al-Wasiya’ Book 13, Number 4003
These hadith, as can be clearly read, proves that to offer a charity on behalf of the deceased will result in the deceased obtaining a benefit.

       iv.    Hadees Proof to pass on reward through sacrificing of animal.
Proof 6: Jabir b. ‘Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) reported: We performed Hajj along with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him), and we sacrificed a camel on behalf of seven persons, and a cow on behalf of seven persons.

[Sahih Muslim Book 7 Hadith 3026 ]
Proof 7: أَنَّهُ كَانَ يُضَحِّي بِكَبْشَيْنِ أَحَدُهُمَا عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَالْآخَرُ عَنْ نَفْسِهِ فَقِيلَ لَهُ فَقَالَ أَمَرَنِي بِهِ يَعْنِي النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَلَا أَدَعُهُ أَبَدًا

Sayyidina Ali (RA) always sacrificed two rams, one on behalf of the Prophet (SAW) and one on his own account. Someone asked him, Why do you do that? He said, ‘The Prophet (SAW) had commanded me to do it. So I will never neglect it.”. [Abu Dawud ,Book 15 ,Hadith 2784 [ under heading of sarficing for deceased/those in graves]

       v.    Hadees Proof to pass on reward through reciting of the Holy Quran. 
Proof 8: Narrated byMa’qil ibn Yasar al-Muzani

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “If anyone recites Ya-Sin out of a desire for Allah’s favour, his past sins will be forgiven him; so recite it over those of you who are dying.”

Bayhaqi transmitted it in Shu’ab al-Iman.
Al-Tirmidhi Hadith No:2178.

Proof 9: It is related that al-`Ala’ ibn al-Lajlaj said to his children: “When you bury me, say as you place me in the side-opening (lahd) of the grave: Bismillah wa `ala millati rasulillah — In the name of Allah and according to the way of Allah’s Messenger — then flatten the earth over me, and read at the head of my grave the beginning of Surat al-Baqara and its end, for I have seen that Ibn `Umar liked it.”

References 1. Narrated by Bayhaqi in al-Sunan al-Kubra (4:56), 2. Ibn Qudama in al-Mughni (2:474, 2:567, 1994 ed. 2:355) 3. al-Tabarani in al-Kabir, and Haythami said in Majma` al-zawa’id (3:44) that the latter’s narrators were all declared trustworthy.
Proof 10:
حدّثنا أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ أَبِي شَيْبَةَ . حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ شَقِيقٍ ، عَنِ ابْنِ الْمُبَارَكِ ، عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ التَّيْمِيِّ ، عَنْ أَبِي عُثْمَانَ وَلَيْسَ بِالنَّهْدِيِّ ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ مَعْقِلِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ: «اِقْرَؤُوهَا عِنْدَ مَوْتَاكُمْ» يَعْنِي يَس.

The Prophet of Allah Said: Recite It (Iqarahu) on (‘Inda) the deceased/dying that means Surah Yaseen. (Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitab Al Janaiz #1438)

The commentator of Sunan Ibn Majah further states:

قوله ( عند موتاكم )
His saying : On the deceased/dying — That is to say on the dying or (Aw) after (Ba’ad) death Also. (Sharh Sunan Ibn Majah Al Sanadi , Ibid)

In the commentary of Sunan Abu Dawud, entitled Awn Al Ma’bud Sharh Sunan Abi Dawud it states:
وعند النسائي من حديث ابن عباس ” أنه صلى على جنازة فقرأ بفاتحة الكتاب وسورة وجهر فلما فرغ قال سنة وحق
And in NAsai the hadith from Ibn Abbas: He prayed the funeral prayer and read the Fatiha.

The Prophet said: iqra’u `ala mawtakum ya seen “Read Ya Seen over those of you who are dying/deceased.”

References 1. Abu Dawud in his Sunan (Jana’iz) 2. al-Nasa’i in his Sunan (`Amal al-yawm wal-layla), 3. Ibn Majah in his Sunan (Jana’iz),  4. Ibn Hibban in his Sahih (Ihsan), and he declared it sound (sahih).

3.2    Proof on reciting and Excellence of Surah Iqlas, Surah Falaq, Surah Nass.
Proof 1:
There is a Hadith in Sunan Nasai, Jame’ Tirmidhi, Sunan Abu Dawood, Shu’abul Iman Lil Baihaqui, Musnad ‘Abd Bin Humaid, Al Jame’ Ul Kabeer Lis Suyuti and Ma’arifatis Sahabah Li Abi Nu’aim, etc.:

Translation of Hadith: Hadhrat Mua’dh Bin Jabal (May Allah be well pleased with him) narrates on the authority of his father:  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: Recite the Surah “Qul Huwallahu Ahad,” “Qul A’udhu Bi Rabbil Falaq,” and “Qul A’udhu Bi Rabbin Naas” thrice (i.e. 3 times) every morning and evening.  It will save you from everything.

Sunan Nasai, Hadith No. 5445 Jame’ Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 3924 Musnad Iman Ahmed bin Hambal, Hadith No. 23332 Shu’abul Iman Lil Baihaqui, Hadith No. 2467 Musnad ‘Abd Bin Humaid, Hadith No. 496 Al Jame’ Ul Kabeer Lis Suyuti, Hadith No. 375 Ma’arifatis Sahabah Li Abi Nu’aim, Hadith No. 2267
The Surah of the Holy Quran, which are recited in Fatiha, the above given Hadith instruct us to recite the same Surah every morning and evening.
Proof 2:  There is a Hadith in Sahih Bukhari, Jame’ Tirmidhi, Sunan Abu Dawood, Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hambal, Sahih Ibn Hibban, Shu’abul Iman Lil Baihaqui, Kanz Ul Ummal, etc.:

Translation of Hadith:  It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Aisha Siddiqua (May Allah Ta’ala be well pleased with her) that whenever the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would retire to the bed, He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would bring His palms together, recite Surah Ikhlas, Surah Falaq, Surah Naas, blow upon His hands and then He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would rub His hands on His blessed body as much as possible.  He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would start from His blessed head and face and would rub the front of His blessed body completely.  He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) would do this thrice.

This Hadith is present in the following books:

Sahih Bukhari, Hadith No. 5017, Jame’ Tirmidhi, Hadith No. 3730, Sunan Abu Dawood, Hadith No. 5058, Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hambal, Hadith No. 25595, Shu’abul Iman Lil Baihaqui, Hadith No. 2570, Sahih Ibn Hibban, Hadith No. 5544 Kanz Ul Ummal, Hadith No. 41998

3.3  Virtues of reciting durood on prophet sallalahu alaihi wassalam
Allah Ta’ala has ordered the believers to send Durud on the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).  It is given in the Holy Quran:

Proof 1: Surely Allah and (all) His angels invoke blessings and greetings on the Holy Prophet [blessings and peace be upon him]. O Believers! You (also) send blessings on him and salute him with a worthy salutation of peace abundantly (and fervently).  Surah Ahzaab (33:56)

Proof 2: The Hadith give glad tidings to those who present Salaam to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:

Translation of Hadith: Jibraeel (May peace be upon him) met me and said:  I give you glad tidings that Allah Ta’ala says:  Whoever presents Salaam to you, I will send Salaam on that person and whoever sends Durud on you, I will send down mercy on him.

Mustadrak ‘Alas Sahihain, Hadith No. 770, Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hambal, Hadith No. 1574, Ash Shifa Bi Ta’areefi Huquqil Mustafa, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 75.

Proof 3: It is given in Mustadrak ‘Alas Sahihain:

Translation of Hadith: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abu Talha Ansari (May Allah Ta’ala be well pleased with him), who narrates on the authority of his father that one day the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) came to us and happiness was evident from His blessed face.  We told:  O Prophet of Allah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)!  We see signs of happiness on your face.  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:  The reason is that just now an angel came to me and said:  O Personification of Praise (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam)!  Indeed your Lord says: Are you not happy with this that when any of your Ummati sends Durud on you, I will send mercy on him 10 times and if anyone sends Salaam to you, I will send Salaam on him 10 times.  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:  Yes!  I am happy.

Mustadrak ‘Alas Sahihain, Hadith No. 3534, Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 398, Sunan Kubra, Hadith No. 9888,

Proof 4: In M’ojam Kabeer of Imam Tabarani, the following words are added:

Translation of Hadith: If any of your Ummati sends Durud on you, I will send mercy on him 10 times, my angels will pray for his forgiveness and if anyone sends Salaam on you, then Me and my angels send Salaam on him 10 times.

Proof 5: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abdullah Bin Mas’ud:

Translation of Hadith: Indeed!  There are some angels of Allah Ta’ala who roam the earth, who bring the Salaam of my Ummah to me.  (Musnad Imam Ahmad Bin Hambal, Hadith No. 3484; Sunan Nasai, Hadith No. 1265; Mustadrak ‘Alas Sahihain, Hadith No. 3535; Kitab Ush Shifa, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 79)

Proof 6: It is mentioned in another Hadith:

Translation of Hadith: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Ibn Wahb (May Allah Ta’ala be well pleased with him) that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said: Whoever sends Salaam unto me has as if freed a slave.  (Kitab Ush Shifa, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 77)

Proof 7: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abu Bakr Siddiq (May Allah Ta’ala be well pleased with him) that reciting Durud on the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) is more effective in wiping out sins than cold water is for dousing fire and sending Salaam on Him is better than freeing slaves.  (Kitab Ush Shifa, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 77)

Proof 8: It has been narrated on the authority of Hadhrat Abdullah Bin Umar (May Allah Ta’ala be well pleased with them):

Translation of Hadith: You send Durud profusely on the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) on Friday, as every Friday it is presented before Him on your behalf.  (Kitab Ush Shifa, Vol. 2, Pg. No. 79)

3.3   Reciting on Food & Raising Hands

Generally no one has any objection and it is acceptable to majority that the prayers, dua, and good deeds can benefit the diseased but basically disagree with placing of food infront while reciting quraan.

So now the only aspect for consideration is whether if the food can be placed in front and offer the Fatiha, by raising hands. Hence we will be giving more effort for better understanding the same in light of concrete references. There are many Ahadith concerning the particular issue few of which are listed below.

Proof 1:
It is recorded in Mishkaat Sharif, Chapter of Miracles (Al-Mu’jizaat). It is reported by Hadrat Abu Huraira that once he brought some dates in the presence of the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) and requested him to pray for its abundant growth
فضمهن ثم دعا لي فيهن بالبرکة The Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) mixed these dates together and prayed for increased growth of the dates (dry fruit). [Tirmidhi, Bab al-Manaqib, Vol 12, Page 327, Hadith 3774]
Proof 2:
It is recorded in the Mishkaat, Babul Mujizat that in the Battle of Tabuk,

At one stage of the battle a shortage of food was felt in the Islamic army. The Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) asked every man present there to bring whatever was with him. Every one brought whatever was with him and presented it to the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him). The tablecloth was spread. The Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) prayed for the blessing over the food so spread. After this he asked the men to put back the food in the utensils (pots) as a reserve for eating at the food time. [Mishkat al-Masabih, Baab al-Maujizat, Page 539]

Proof 3:

Narration of Sahi Bukhari:

Narrated Anas bin Malik: “Whenever the Prophet passed by (my mother Um-Sulaim) he used to enter her and greet her. Anas further said: Once the Prophet way a bridegroom during his marriage with zainab, Um Sulaim said to me, “Let us give a gift to Allah’s Apostle .” I said to her, “Do it.” So she prepared Haisa (a sweet dish) made from dates, butter and dried yoghurt and she sent it with me to him. I took it to him and he said, “Put it down,” and ordered me to call some men whom he named, and to invite whomever I would meet. I did what he ordered me to do, and when I returned, I found the house crowded with people and saw the Prophet keeping his hand over the Haisa and saying over it whatever Allah wished (him to say). Then he called the men in batches of ten to eat of it, and he said to them, “Mention the Name of Allah, and each man should eat of the dish the nearest to him.” When all of them had finished their meals, some of them left and a few remained there talking, over which I felt unhappy. Then the Prophet went out towards the dwelling places (of his wives) and I too, went out after him and told him that those people had left. Then he returned and entered his dwelling place and let the curtains fall while I was in (his) dwelling place, and he was reciting the Verses:– ‘O you who believe! Enter not the Prophet’s house until leave is given you for a meal, (and then) not (as early as) to what for its preparation. But when you are invited, enter, and when you have taken your meals, disperse without sitting for a talk. Verily such (behavior) annoys the Prophet; and he would be shy of (asking) you (to go), but Allah is not shy of (telling you) the Truth.’ (33-53) Abu Uthman said: Anas said, “I served the Prophet for ten years.” (Sahi Bukhari vol 7 Book 62, Hadith 92m)

a similar narration is also recorded in Mishkaat as follows:

On the wedding of the Holy Prophet (peace be upno him) with Hadrat Zainab, Hadrat Umm-e-Saleem prepared a small quantity of valima in celebration of the wedding. But the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) invited a large number of Companions to attend the Valima. The food was obviously short. The Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) recited some prayer on the food and passed his Holy hand over the food. [Mishkat al-Masabih, Baab al-Maujizat, Page 539]

Proof 4:
In another incident, On the occasion of the Battle of the Trench (Ghazwa-e-Khandaq), the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said a prayer when the food was placed before Him.  The whole Hadith is in Sahih Bukhari.  Please look at a part of the Hadith:

Translation of Hadith:  The wife of Hadhrat Jabir (May Allah be well pleased with them) presented kneaded flour to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam).  The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) put His blessed saliva in it and said a prayer for Barakah (blessings).  Then He (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) again put His blessed saliva and said a prayer.  (Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 2, Hadith No. 3793)

Proof 5:
It was on the third day after the death of Ibrahim, son of the Messenger of Allah, when Abu Zarr came to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) with dry dates, milk and some wheat bread. He placed it in front of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). He recited Surah Fatiha and Surah Ikhlas thrice and then raised his hands in Dua and wiped his face. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) then ordered Abu Zarr to divide the food amongst the people.’ (Tashih al-Aqa’id, p. 127).

The other point to observe in this regard is that the thing for which fatiha or dua for blessing is sought, should be placed before the person doing the dua. This is sunnah and the tradition of the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) as we have seen that in the cases mentioned in these lines the things for which blessing was prayed were placed before the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him). The funeral pier (Janaza) of the deceased is placed in front of the Imam who leads the funeral prayer and offers the Dua forgiveness in the Presence of Allah. Just in the same way the foodstuff on which blessing is sought is placed before the person offering the dua.

There appears no valid justification for objecting this gesture of seeking Blessings from Almighty Allah. It is said that the Syeduna Rasoolullah Sallallaho Alaihi Wa Sallam while sacrificing the animal of Qurbani prayed for the blessings in favour of the Ummah while the animal of sacrifice lay before him, he recited he following dua on that occasion:

اللهم هذا من امة محمد O Allah! Accept this Qurbani (Sacrifice) on behalf of my Ummah. [Sunan Abi Dawood, Vol. 2, Page 30]
The Dua on the occasion of Aqiqa is also recited over the sacrificial animal that remains before the sight. Reciting Bismillah before eating the food kept in front is the command of the Shariagh. Bismillah, as we all know, is the verse of the Holy Qur’an. Fatiha for Eesal-e-Sawab or blessing is the process on a larger scale but not different in any way!

This section of reciting over food, and animal is extracted from book Ja Al-Haq (The Obliteration of Falsehood) by Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan Na’eemi

3.4   Teeja, Dahom, Chahloom, Barsi,
Under the ayat, “و ھذا کتاب انزلناہ مبارک” Tafseer Roohul-Bayaan states, “It is narrated from Hadrat Aaraj رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہthat 4,000 angels say “Ameen” on the dua made after the completion of the Holy Quran’s recitation. They then make dua for the reciter and ask for his forgiveness until either dawn or dusk.”

The above quotation appears in Imam Nawawi’s رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ book, Kitaabul-Azkaar, Kitaabu-T’ilaawatil-Quran. It confirms that dua is accepted at the time of the Quran being completed (khatam). Isaal-e-Thawaab is also a dua. Thus, to complete the recitation of the Quran at that time is good. Ashiatul-Lam’aa states, “Charity should be given from the day the deceased pass away until seven days after.” – Baabu Ziyaaratil-Quboor.

This reveals the source of the practice in some areas of continuously giving out charity in the form of rotis from the day of demise until the seventh day after. Constantly making Fatiha is also sourced from this.

The Holy Prophet” gave out charity on behalf of Ameer Harnzaرضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہon the 3rd, 7th and 40th day, as well as on the 6lh and 12th month subsequent to his demise. – Anwaare-Saatia, Pg. 145. Marginal notes on the book. Khazaanatur-Riwaayat. (ref Ja-al-Haq, Chapter of Esal-e-sawab)

This is the source for Fatiha on the 3″ day (Teeja), after 6 months (Shashmaahi) and a full year afterwards (Barsi).

At the time of completing the Holy Quran (Khatmul-Quran), Hadrat Anas رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ used to gather his family members and make dua. Hakeem ibn Utba states that Mujaahid and his slave, Ibn Ahi Luhaaha, gathered people together and said, “We have called you because we are completing the Holy Quran today and dua is accepted at the time of Khatmul-Quran.” It has been authentically narrated from Hadrat Mujaahid رضی اللہ تعالٰی عنہ that the Pious elders used to call gatherings of people at the time of Khatmul-Quran and say, “Mercy descends in this time.” – Kilaabul­Askaor, Baabu Tilaawatil-Quran.

Thus, the gatherings of Teeja (3rd Day) and Chaliswaa (40th) is the practice of the pious predecessors.

Durre-Mukhtaar states. “If a person recites Surah Ikhlaas 11 times and conveys its reward to the deceased, all of the deceased equally receive the thawaab.’10.8-Baobu-Dafn, Qiraat IiI-Mayyit.
We do not find any proof within Islamic Sources that forbid the holding of the Qur’an Khwanee on the 3rd, 10th or 40th day. Nor is it compulsory to do it on these very days. After all, this is a Mustahab Act, not a compulsory act (which usually has a time limit). From the prayers for the dead mentioned in the Qur’an and Hadeeth, there is no time limit. The Holy Prophets, and the Sahaba prayed for all Muslims, no matter when they had died. The Holy Qur’an also commands us likewise for our parents. However, these days are scheduled as it will be easier to remember. If not planned or programmed, it will never be held. Look.

For e.g 1. The Holy Qur’an commands us to offer prayer, but does not command us to put up notices within our mosques declaring the congregation timings, or to announce the Azaan on loud speakers – but we do that although Muslims are aware of the 5 daily prayers, this to keep everybody posted and gather all at the same time.
2. The Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to regularly visit the graves of the martyrs of Uhud regularly once every week. He also exhorted others to visit Uhud, and greet the martyrs. (See Hadeeth above). It is also mentioned that he offered charity on their behalf. The actions of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) (i.e. visiting every week) are a very good example for us

Conclusion:
However, it suffices to prove that necessary stages and every action performed in Fatiha is sunna as described in the above article, prove that Fatiha as a permissible offering for the purpose of Eesal-e-Sawab.

It is also clear that Fatiha is the combination of the above mentioned things basically two, the recitation of the Quran and Sadqah which are obviously permissible as well as the means and medium of blessing (barkat) in their own way. Then why should the combination of these two in the offering of Fatiha be considered as Haram, when the intent has no mundane or worldly gain in the offering of Fatiha?

For obvious reasons when the ingredients of many eatables are halal, then on what grounds the combination of these ingredients be declared as unlawful or haram when the prepared combination does not produce any objectionable result which is not permissible in the laws of the shariah.

Every halal/ persimissible activity if performed independtly or combined with any other permissible activities remains permissible. in order to negate the permissibility of any halal activity either it need to be nullified by Quran or proven and mashoor (sahi) hadees, unless and untill the action is nullified (mansooq) by Quran and hadees it cannot be termed as impermissible.

Ref Books:

  1. Jal-al-Haq by Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan Na’eemi.

  2. Article on Esal-e-Sawab by Mufti Ziauddin Naqshbandi.

  3. Esal-e-sawab sunnat hai by Allama Mufti Mohammed Akmal Attari Khadri.

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