He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Muhammad Ibn Abi Sufyan Humayd al-`Abdi informed us on the authority of Sufyan Ibn Sa’id al-Thawri, he on the authority of Hishám Ibn Sa`d, he on the authority of Sa’id al-Magburi, he on the authority of Abu Hurayrah; he said:
The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)said: All people are children of Adam and Adam rose from the dust.
Adam was born in the land called Dahna (a plateau). (Al-Tabari, Vol. 1, P. 60)
Sa’id Ibn Jubayr said to me: Do you know why Adam was named Adam? Because he was created from the skin of the earth. (Al-Tabari, Vol. 1, p. 46)
Verily Allah created Adam out of handful of dust, He seized from every kind of soil of the earth, so the children of Adam became of various types according to the soil; such as red, white, black and other shades of them, soft and hard, and stinking and good.
Adam was created out of the skin of the earth of each type-black, red, white, hard and soft; and al-Hasan said something similar to it; and that his trunk was created out of a levelled ground.
Adam was called Adam because he was created from the crust of the earth and he was called Insan (forgetful) because he forgot.
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Husayn Ibn Hasan al-Ashqari informed us saying: Ya`qub Ibn `Abd Allah al-Qummi informed us on the authority of Ja’far i.e. Ibn Abi al-Mughirah, he on the authority of Sa’id Ibn Jubayr, he on the authority of Ibn Mas’ud; he said:
Allah sent Iblis who obtained from the crust of the earth its sweet and saltish (clay), then (Allah) created Adam; whoever is created of his sweet part will enter heaven although he be the son of an impious person, and whoever is created out of the saltish part will enter hell although he be the son of a pious person. For this reason Iblis said (to Allah): Am I to prostrate before one whom Thou hast created out of clay? He said this because he had brought the clay and Adam was so named because he was created out of the crust of the earth. (Al-Tabari, Vol. I, p. 46)
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Al-Hasan Ibn Musa al-Ashyab and Yunus Ibn Muhammad al-Muwaddib said: Hammád Ibn Salamah informed us on the authority of Thabit al-Bunáni, he on the authority of Anas Ibn Malik; he said: The Prophet(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), may Allah bless him, said:
When Allah fashioned Adam, He left him until He liked. In the meantime Iblis went on circumambulating round him; when he discovered him to the hollow, he said: this creature will not straighten.
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Mu`adh Ibn Mu’ŕdh al-`Anbarl informed us, saying: Sulaymŕn al-Taymi informed us saying: Abu ‘Uthman al-Nahdi informed us on the authority of Salman al-Fárisi or Ibn Masud; he said:
Allah kneaded the clay of Adam for forty nights or he said forty days, then He struck it with His hand and then its pleasant portion came into His right hand and noxious portion into His left hand. Then He mixed them. He (Ibn Sa’d) said: it is why He brings living things out of the dead and dead ones from the living.
Ismá`il Ibn `Abd Allah Ibn Abi Uways al-Madani informed us saying: My father related to me on the authority of `Awn Ibn ‘Abd Allah Ibn al-Harith al-Hŕshimi, he on the authority of his brother `Abd Allah Ibn `Abd Allah Ibn al-Harith, he on the authority of his father; he said: The Prophet said:
Verily Allah created Adam with His own hand. (Al-Qur’an, 23:12-14; 32; 7, etc)
Allah created the cildren of Adam as He liked and from whatever He liked, so they became what they are, so blessed be Allah, the best of Creators. He created him from dust and water and out of them his flesh, blood, hair bones and all his body. This is the beginning of the creation of the children of Adam. Then breath was blown into him; with which he stands, sits, hears, sees, and knows what the animals know, and avoids what they avoid. Then soul was given to him with which he discerns right from wrong and guidance from misguidance, and fears, goes ahead, conceals, learns, and manages all his affairs.
The Prophet(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: When Allah created Adam, He touched his back and all souls which are to be created up to the day of resurrection fell from his back, then He created a glow of light between their eyes, then He presented them to Adam who asked as to who they were. (Allah) said: Your offspring. Then he saw a man whose light was much liked by him and he (Adam) inquired about him. He was informed that his name was Dawud. Then he inquired as to how long he will live; he was informed that his life would be sixty years. Then Adam said: Enhance his life by forty years and the same may be diminished from mine. He (Allah) said: That it was to be noted and sealed and that there would be no change in it. He (the Prophet) said: When Adam’s life came to an end and the angel of death came to him: he (Adam) said: Do not yet remain forty years out of my life? He was informed that these he had bestowed an Dawud, one of his offspring. The Prophet remarked that he denied it and like him his children also deny: and Adam forgot, so his children forgot: and Adam committed a mistake and so his children commit mistakes. (Al-Tabari, Vol.I p.77,78)
When the verse of faith was revealed, the Prophet(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said: The first person who denied was Adam; he denied thrice: once when Allah created Adam, touched his back, took out his offspring and presented them to him, he saw among them a person with light and asked Allah which of his offspring he was. He (Allah) said: It is your offspring, Dawud. Then he inquired about his age which was said to be sixty years. Thereupon he prayed to Allah to add to his age. He (Allah) said: No! save that you have your own life diminished equal to the period you want to add to his age. The Prophet said that Adam life was destined to be one thousand years. Thereupon Adam said: O my Lord ! add to his life from mine. Then forty years were added to it and a ducument was executed and the angels were witnesses to it. When Adam was at the point of death and the angels came to extract his soul, he said that forty years of his life still remained. They replied that he had donated those years to his offspring, Dawud. Thereupon he said: O my Lord! I did not do it. Then Allah revealed that book and the witnesses gave evidence: then Allah completed one thousand years of Adam’s life, and one hundred years of Dawud’s life. (Al-Tabari, Vol.I,p.78)
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Ismŕ`il Ibn Ibrahim al-Asadi, who is Ibn `Ulayyah, informed us on the authority of Kulthum Ibn Jabr, be on the authority of Sa’id Ibn Jubayr, he on the authority of Ibn `Abbas, about His (Allah’s) words:
“And (remember) when thy Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their reins, their seed, and made them testify of themselves, (saying): Am I not your Lord? They said: Yea, verily! We testify.” (Al-Qur’an 7:172) (Ibn `Abbas said): Then your Lord touched the reins of Adam, then all the souls, that He is to create till the day of resurrection, emerged at Na’man, beyond `Arafat; then He obtained a covenant from them. Am I not your Lord? They said: Yea, verily! We testify.
Rabi’ah Ibn Kulthum related to us, on the authority of his father, in this hadith. “They said: Yea, verily! we testify: (That was) lest ye should say at the Day of Resurrection: Lo! of this we were unaware.”
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Sulayman Ibn Harb informed us saying: Hammad Ibn Zayd informed us on the authority of Kulthum Ibn Jabr, he on the authority of Sa’id Ibn Jubayr, he on the authority of Ibn `Abbas, he said:
Your Lord touched the reins of Adam at Na’man, this very Na’man, (i.e. Na’man al-Arak, a valley beyond `Arafah) and brought forth every soul that He is to create up to the Day of Resurrection; then He (Allah) obtained the covenant. (Ibn Jubayr) said: then he recited: “And (remember) when thy Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their reins, their seed, and made them testify of themselves, (saying): Am I not your Lord? They said: Yea, verily! We testify.” (That was) lest ye should say at the Day of Resurrection: Lo! of this we were unaware; Or lest you should say: (It is) only (that) our fathers ascribed partners to Allah of old [and we were (their) seed after them.]” (Al-Qur’an 7:172-3)
Sa’id Ibn Sulayman al-Wasiti informed us saying: Mansur i.e. Ibn Abi al-Aswad informed us on the authority of ‘Ata Ibn al-Sa’ib, he on the authority of Sa’id Ibn Jubayr, he on the authority of Ibn `Abbas; he said:
Allah created Adam on a mound, then touched his reins and brought forth every soul that He is to create upto the Day of Resurrection, saying: “Am I not your Lord? They said: Yea, verily. “He (Ibn `Abbas) said: Allah says: “We testify. (That was) lest ye should say at the Day of Resurrection: Lo! of this we were unaware.” (Al-Qur’an 7:172) Sa’id Ibn Jubayr says: They hold the view, the covenant was made that day.
He (Ibn Sa’d) said: Abu Hudhayfah al-Nahdi Musa Ibn Mas’ud informed us (saying): Zuhayr Ibn Muhammad informed us on the authority of `Abd Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn `Aqil, he on the authority of `Abd al-Rahman Ibn Yazid al-Ansari, he on the authority of Abu Lubabah Ibn `Abd al-Mundhir:
Verily the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)said: Friday is the chief of days and greatest of them before Allah. He created Adam in that day, he was cast on the earth in that day and in that day Allah made him die. (Al-Tabari, Vol.I,p.57)
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: `Affan Ibn Muslim informed us (saying): Hammad Ibn Salamah informed us on the authority of Muhammad Ibn `Umar, he on the authority of Abu Salamah, he on the authority of `Abd Allah Ibn Salam; he said:
Allah created Adam in the later part of Friday. (Al-Tabari, Vol.I,p.58)
The first part created of Adam was his head, and his body was created which he was seeing. He (Salman) said: His two feet still remained when it was the time of `Asr (the declining day), then he said: O Lord of the night! quicken, the night is approaching, and Allah said: “for man was very hasty”. (Al-Qur’an 17:11) Probably a mistake or misprint since in the Qur’an the verse runs. The second verse on the subject is (“Man is made of haste”). (Al-Qur’an 21:37); Al-Tabari quotes the verse correctly. See Vol. I,p.58
Adam was extracted out of the earth.
Anshana khalqan akhar (and then produced it as another creation); (Al-Qur’an 23:14) he said: some (people) say it refers to the growth of hair, while others say it refers to the blowing of soul (into his body).
Hammed Ibn Khalid al-Khayyat informed us on the authority of Mu`awiyah Ibn Salih, he on the authority of Rashid Ibn Sa’d; he said: `Abd al-Rahman Ibn Qatadah al-Sulami, who was one of the Companions of the Prophet, related to us: I heard the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)saying:
Verily Allah created Adam, then He brought forth his seed from his reins and said: They will be in the heavens and I care not and they will be in the hell and I care not. Thereupon a man said: Then why should we do anything at all? He (Prophet) replied: for what is destined to happen.
The first part of Adam through which spirit passed were his eyes and nostrils; when the soul passed to other parts he sneezed, and Allah onsprired him to praise Him, which he did and Allah said to him: May your Lord show you mercy. Then Allah said to him: O Adam ! go to this group and say to them: Peace be on you, and see what they reply. He did accordingly, then he came back to the All Powerful Allah, Who asked him, although He is Omniscient, what they had said, He (Adam) said: they replied: On you be the peace and blessing of Allah. Then He (Allah) said to him: O Adam ! this will be (the form of) your greeting and that of your children. (Al-Tabari, Vol.I,p 48-9)
When spirit was blown into Adam, he sneezed and said: All praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. Then Allah said: May thy Lord bless thee! Ibn `Abbas said: His mercy went before His wrath.
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: `Affan 1bn Muslim and Hasan Ibn Musa al-Ashyab informed us; they said: Hammad Ibn Salamah informed us on the authority of ‘Ali Ibn Zayd, he on the authority of Yusuf Ibn Mihrán, he on the authority of Ibn `Abbas; he said:
When Allah created Adam, his head touched the sky, then Allah established him on the earth and reduced him to sixty cubits into seven cubits.
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: ‘Abd al-Wahhab Ibn `Ata al-`Ijli informed us on the authority of Sa’id, he on the authority of Qatadah, he on the authority of al-Hasan, he on the authority of ‘Utayyi, he on the authority of Ubayyi Ibn Ka’b, he on the authority of the Prophet(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم); he (Prophet) said:
Verily Adam was very tall like a plam having thickly grown hair, but when he committed the error, his nakedness became apparent to him and prior to it he had not seen it; so he began running in the heaven and a tree obstructed his path, and he said to it: Let me go. The tree said: No! I’ll not let you go. The Prophet said: The Lord said to him: O Adam ! do you escape from me? He said: I feel ashamed, before Thee. (Al-Tabari, Vol.I,p.80)
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Said Ibn Sulaymŕn informed us: `Abbŕd Ibn al `Awwŕm informed us on the authority of Said Ibn Abi ‘Arubah, he on the authority of Qatadah, he on the authority of a1-Hasan AlahisSalam, he on the authority of Ubayyi Ibn Ka`b:
Who made a similar narration but did not ascribe it to the Prophet.
Adam was tall, of brown complexion, having curly hair as on a high palm-tree.
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Yahyá Ibn al-Sakan informed us: Hammad Ibn Salamah informed us: `Ali Ibn Zayd Ibn Jud’An informed us on the authority of Sa’id Ibn al-Musayyib; he said: The Prophet, may Allah’s peace be on him, said:
The people of heaven will enter it without clothes, beardless, having curly hair, with collyrium applied to their eyes and with the stature of Adam, sixty cubits into seven cubits.
Adam wept for heavens for three hundred years.
‘Amr Ibn al-Haytham and Háshim Ibn al-Qasim al-Kinani informed us; they said: Al-Mas`udi informed us, on the authority of Abu `Umar al-Shami, he on the authority of `Ubayd Ibn al-Khashkhash, he on the authority of Abu Dharr; he said:
I asked the Prophet, may Allah’s peace be on him, who was the first Prophet? He replied: It was Adam. I said: Was he a Prophet? He said: Yes! the one with whom Allah had talked. He (Abu Dharr) said: How many of them are Mursal (Messengers)? He (Prophet) replied: A large number, that is three hundred and fifteen. (315)
He (Ibn Sa`d) said: Abu Salamah Musá Ibn Ismŕ`il al-Tabudhaki informed us: Hammŕd Ibn Salamah informed us on the authority of `Abd Allah Ibn ‘Uthman Ibn Khuthaym, he on the authority of Sa’id Ibn Jubayr, he on the authority of Ibn `Abbas; he said:
Adam had four children comprising of two twins, one male and one female in each pair. The sister born with the agriculturist was pretty and the other born with the herdsman was ugly. So the agriculturist said: I have better claim on her. The herdsman said: I have better claim on her. The herdsman said: Woe to thee ! dost thou want preference over me because of her beauty. Come on! Let us each make an offering. If thy offering is accepted, thou wilt have better claim on her, and if my offering is accepted I shall have better claim on her. He (Ibn `Abbas) said: Both of them offered offerings and the herdsman offered a white ram with large eyes, strong horns, while the agriculturist brought forth some food. The ram was accepted and it was preserved in the heaven for forty autumns and the same ram was slaughtered by Ibrahim. Thereupon the agriculturist said (to the herdsman): I shall kill thee. The herdsman replied: “Even if thou stretch out thy hand against me to kill me, I shall not stretch out my hand against thee to kill thee, Lo! I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds. Lo! I would rather thou shouldst bear the punishment of the sin against me and thine own sin and become of the owners of the fire. That is the reward of the evildoers.” (Al-Qur’an 5:28-29) Then he kill him. The sinners among Adam’s children are the progeny of this tansgressor. (Al-Tabari, Vol.I,p.70)
He (Ibn Said) said: Musŕ Ibn Ismá`il informed us: Hammŕd Ibn Salamah informed us on the authority of `Ali Ibn Zayd, he on the authority of Yusuf Ibn Mihran, he on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas; he said:
Adam used to wed his daughter of one twin pair with the son of the other and vice versa.
He (lbn Sa`d) said: Hafs Ibn `Umar al-Hawdi informed us: Isháq Ibn al-Rabi` informed us on the authority of al-Hasan, he on the authority of `Utayyi, he on the authority of Ubayyi Ibn Ka`b; (he said):
Verily when the hour of Adam’s death approached, he said to his sons: O my sons ! find a fruit of the heaven which I urgently desire. His sons went out, and they were searching fruit for his disease. In the meantime they met the angels of Allah, who asked them: O sons of Adam ! what do you want? They said: Our father wants a heavenly fruit so we are seeking it. They said: Go back, the command of Allah has been carried out; their father had expired. Then the angels seized Adam, washed his body, perfumed it and enshrouded it, and they dug a grave and prepared a burial place. Then an angel came forward to say funeral prayers; other angels stood in a row behind him, and Adam’s children behind them. Then they placed the body in the grave and levelled it. Then they said: O children of Adam ! this is your way and this will be your practice.
He (lbn Sa`d) said: Sa’id Ibn Sulayman informed us: Hushaym informed us: Yunus Ibn `Ubayd informed us on the authority of Hasan who said: `Utayyi al-Sa`di informed us on the authority of Ubayyi lbn Ka`b; he said:
When Adam was on the point of his death he said to his sons: Go and find out a heavenly fruit. His sons went out. When they came face to face with the angels, they said: Whither do you intend (to go)? They said: Our father had sent us to bring forth a heavenly fruit. They said: Go back, it is over. They returned accompanied by the angels till they came near Adam. When Eve saw them (angels) she was scared and came near Adam to be close to him. Adam said to her: Be away from me, because of thee I suffered, make room between me and the angels of my Lord. So they extracted his soul, then washed his body, enshrouded it and perfumed it. Then they said funeral prayers over him and digging a pit they interred him and said: O children of Adam ! this is the practice to be followed for your dead.
He (lbn Sa`d) said: Khálid Ibn Khidŕsh Ibn `Ajlŕn informed us: `Abd Allah lbn Wahb informed us on the authority of ‘Amr Ibn al-Hŕrith, he on the authority of Yazid Ibn Abi Habib, he on the authority of one who narrated on the authority of Abu Dharr; he said:
I heard the Prophet, may Allah bless him, saying: Allah created Adam out of three kinds of soil, black, white and fertile.
Once I went out and heard people say that al-Hasan had said; so I met him and said: O Abu Sa’id! Was Adam created for sky or for earth? He said: O Abu Manazil ! what do you mean by this? He was created for the earth. I (al-Hadhdha) said: Do’nt you see if he had abstained from eating the fruit of (the prohibited tree). He said: Since he was created for the earth it was necessary for him to eat it.
The tree through which Adam was put to trial was vine; and the same is the cause of trial for his progeny.
He (Ibn Sa’d) said: Khalid Ibn Khidash informed us: `Abd Allah Ibn Wahb informed us on the authority of Sa’id Ibn Abi Ayyub, he on the authority of Ja’far Ibn Rabi’ah and Ziyad, Mawlá of Mus’ab; they said:
The Prophet was asked if Adam was a Prophet or an angel. He replied: A Prophet who had discourse with Allah.
He (lbn Sa`d) said: Knhŕlid Ibn Khidash informed us: `Abd Allah Ibn Wahb informed us on the authority of lbn Lahi`ah, he on the authority of Harith Ibn Yazid Ibn `Ali Ibn Rabáh, he on the authority of ‘Uqbah Ibn ‘Amir, hč on the authority of Apostle of Allah; verily he said:
All human beings are the seeds of Adam an Eve. As the weight of a short measure of a sa will not bring advantage to anyone so Allah will not ask about your genealogy on the Day of Resurrection. The most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is the most pious of you.
Adam was externed from the Paradise between the Zuhr (afternoon) and `Asr (the declining of day) prayers. His stay in de Paradise had been half the day of the next world, and the day there is equal to one thousand years based on the calculation made by the people of this world. He was cast down on a mountain in India known as Nawdh and Eve cast at Juddah. Adam came down from Paradise bringing its breeze, which stuck to its trees and valleys and filled it with perfume. It is through the breeze which descended with Adam that perfumes grew, And they say that myrtle came down with him and the Black Stone also descended with him, and that it was more white than ice, and also Moses` staff which was of myrtle-wood from the Paradise and was ten cubits in length equal to the height of Moses. Myrrh and libanum also came with him. Then he was provided with anvil, hammer and pincers. When Adam descended down on the mountain, he saw an iron-bar on the mountain. So he said: It is from this. Then he began to break with the hammer the trees which had been old and withered. Then he kindled fire and burnt the iron-bar till it melted and the first thing made out of it was a knife with which he began to work, then he built an oven which was inherited by Nuh, and from this oven gushed out boiling water bringing torment in India.
When Adam made a pilgrimage (hajj) he placed the Black Stone at the mountain of Abu Qubays. It emitted light in dark nights as the bright moon, and illuminated Makkah. Only four years before Islam when menstruating women and unclean people touched it, it grew black and the Quraysh cast it down from Abu Qubays. Adam made forty pilgrimages from India to Makkah on foot. When Adam was cast down his head touched the sky and so he became bald and his children inherited that baldness. The beasts of the land were afraid of him and became wild. Adam could hear the voice of angels on that mountain and could feel the air of the heaven, so his body began to diminish in length till it was sixty cubits; this was his height till his death. None of his children was ever equal to him in beauty except Joseph. Then Adam said: O my Lord! I was Thy neighbour in Thy abode and there is no Lord to me except Thee and no Protector except Thee; I was eating every thing in comfort and living wherever I liked. Then Thou made me descend on this holy mountain where I heard the voices of the angels and saw them circumambulating round the Throne and felt the air and perfume of the Paradise, than Thou cast me on this land and diminished my stature to sixty cubits and I ceased to hear the voices (of the angels) and see them, and the air of the Paradise vanished. Thereupon Allah the Most Blessed and the Most High, replied: O Adam ! on account of your sins I did this with you. When Allah noticed the nakedness of Adam and Eve.
He commanded him to slaugther a male sheep out of the eight pairs which Allah had cast from the Heavens. So Adam took the male sheep and slaughtered it. Then he obtained its wool which Eve span. Then Adam along with Eve weaved it. So Adam weaved a garment for himself and a shift and a head-covering for Eve. Both of them dressed themselves in their garments and met together on the day of Jam’a and therefore the day was named Jam’a ; they recognised each other at `Arafah and so it was named `Arafah. They wept for what they had lost, for two hundred years, and they did not eat nor drank anything for forty days. Then they began to eat and drink, and at that time they were on the mountain of Nawdh on which Adam was thrown down. He did not go to Eve for one hundred years, then he cohabited with her and she conceived and bore the first-born twins, Qabil (Cain) and his sister Lubud. Then she conceived again and bore another twins Habil (Abil) and his sister Iqlima. When they attained puberty, Allah commanded Adam to wed the first-born male to the second-born female and vice versa. By chance the twin-sister of Qabil was beautiful and the twin-sister of Habil was ugly. Adam made this proposal knows to Eve who put it before her sons. Habil consented to the proposal and Qabil resented it and said: It is not command of Allah, O Adam ! but it is thy proposal. Then Adam asked them to present an offering (adding that) he whose offering would be consumed by celestial fire would have better claim (to win Lubud). Both of them agreed.
Then Habil who was the owner of goats brought forth the best of them as well as butter and milk. Qabil, on the other hand was a tiller of land and took a sheaf of the worst quality. Then both of them ascended the mountain of Nawdh and Adam was with them. They presented their offerings and Adam prayed to his Lord; Qabil said to himself: I care little for the acceptance of my offering, but I shall never allow Habil to marry my sister. In the meantime celestial fire descended and consumed the offering made by Habil, leaving aside that of Qabil because he was not clean of heart. Then Habil went out and Qabil came to him, when (Habil) was with his flock and said to him: I shall slay you. He (Habil) said: Why will you kill me? He replied: Because Allah accepted thy offering and rejected mine and returned it to me, and that you will marry my beautiful sister, and I shall have to marry your ugly sister, and after today people will talk that you are superior to me. Habil said to him: “Even if thou stretch out thy hand against me to kill me, I shall not stretch out my hand against thee to kill thee, Lo ! I fear Allah, the Lord of the Worlds, Lo ! I would rather thou shouldst bear the punishment of the sin against me and thine own sin and become one of the owner of the Fire, That is the reward of evil-doers.” (Al-Qur’an 5:28-29) As regards his saying: My sin signifies that thou shall be a sinner when thou killest me, which will be added to thy sins before killing me. Thereupon he killed him and then became repentant. He left his body and did not inter it. Then Allah sent a raven scratching up the ground, to show him how to hide his brother’s naked corpse. (Al-Qur’an 5:31)
He had killing him in the evening and next morning he was thinking what to do with it (corpse). Suddenly he saw a raven scratching the earth for a dead raven. Then he said to himself: Woe to me ! I did not even have the understanding of this raven to hide the naked corpse of my brother. (al-Tabari, Vol.I,p.68) As he said, Woe to me, he became repentant. Then he took Qabil in his hand and descended from the mountain of Nawdh. Thereupon Adam said to Qabil: Get out, you will always be frightened whenever you will come across some one and you will not feel peaceful. So none of his children passed by him but struck him. Once one of his sons who was blind came to him with his son, and the boy said to him that there was his father Qabil towards whom he (blind son) threw a stone which hit Qabil, and he died forthwith. Thereupon the blind man’s son informed him that as a result of his throwing the stone his father Qabil had died. The blind man slapped his son who also succumbed to injury. Then the blind man said: Woe to me, I killed my father with my stone, and my son with my slap.
Subsequently Eve conceived and bore Shith and his twin sister ‘Azura. He was named Hibat Allah (the gift of Allah); this name was derived from Habil, so Gabriel said to her when she gave birth to him: This is the gift of Allah in exchange for Habil and it is in Arabic Shith, in Syriac Shath and in Hebrew Sheth. Adam made his will for him. The day when Shith was born Adam was one hundred and thirty years old. “And when be covered her she bore a light burden, and she passed (unnoticed) with it”. (Al-Qur’an, 7:189)
Then he said: She stood and sat. Then Satan came to her in disguise and said to her: O Eve ! what is this inside of you. She replied: I know not. Then he said: May be one of the beasts like these. Then she said: I know not. Then he drew away from her till she felt some heaviness in her. Thereupon he appeared again before her and said: 0 Eve ! how do you feel? She said: I am afraid it may be deformed like one with which you have frightened me, I can’t remain standing when I stand. Then he suggested: If I pray to Allah I hope He will form him a human being like you and Adam, only if you name him after me. She said: Yes. Then he turned away from her and she said to Adam: An informer came to me and said to me that in my womb was a beast, and I also feel some burden and fear it may be as he has informed me. There was no worry to Adam and Eve save this, till she delivered it. About this Allah says: “They cried unto Allah, their Lord, saying: If Thou givest unto us aright we shall be of the thankful”. (Al-Qur’an, 7:189)
This was their prayer before the delivery. When a perfect boy was born to them, he (Satan) came to her and said: Will you not name him after me as you have promised? She asked him: What is your name? His name was ‘Azazil. If he had mentioned this name she would have recognized him, so he said: My name is Harith. Thereupon she gave him the name of `Abd al-Harith who died, and Allah said: “But when He gave them aright, they ascribed unto Him Partners in respect of that which He had given them. High is He, Exalted above all that they associate (with Him).” (Al-Qur’an, 7:190, cf. al-Tabari, Vol. I, p. 75)
Subsequently Allah revealed to Adam: There is a sanctuary opposite to my Throne, so go and erect a house for me and circumambulate round it as you have seen the angels doing round My Throne, and there I shall accept thy prayer and of thy sons who obey Me. Thereupon Adam said: O Lord ! how can I? I have no power and I have no guidance. Then Allah sent an angel who led Adam to Makkah. But on the way when Adam passed by a garden or a place pleasing to him he said to the angel to get down, but he said: Go on. At length he halted at Makkah. And on the way wherever he halted, it became a populated place, and from where he passed on, it became a wilderness and desolate. Then the House (of Allah) was built with (material obtained from) five mountains-Sina, Zaytun. Lubnan, and Judi. Its plinth was made from Hira. When he had completed the work, the angel led him to `Arafat and instructed him in all the rituals which people perform even today. Then he returned to Makkah and circumambulated round the Ka`bah for a week. After that he returned to India and died on the mountain of Nawdh. Then Shith said to Gabriel to say funeral prayers over Adam. He said to him: Come forward and say funeral prayers over your father, and recite, Allah is great, thirty times, five as a part of obsequies and twenty-five in honour of Adam. Adam did not die as long as the number of his children and grand-children had not touched forty thousand people at Nawdh. Adam noticed in them adultery, drinking and disturbances, so he commanded the descendants of Shith and Qabil not to intermarry. The children of Shith kept Adam in a cave and appointed a watchman that none of the children of Qabil might approach him. And the persons who visited him and asked him to pray to Allah were the children of Shith. Then Adam’s age was nine hundred and thirty six years. (The Bible gives his age as 900 years only, vide Genesis: Chapter V, verse 6)
After that a hundred persons of the children of Shith said: Lo ! we should see what our cousins i.e., the children of Qŕbil are doing. Then the group of one hundred persons descended from the mountain and came across the same number of ugly women of the children of Qabil who detained them. They stayed there as long as Allah willed. Then another party of a hundred men decided to discover what had happened to their men. They also descended down the mountain and the women detained them also. Then all the members of the Shith family descended and sin spread as they intermarried and mixed together and the children of Qabil multiplied in large numbers till they filled the whole earth and they were the same who were drowned in Nuh’s deluge.
Shith Ibn Adam begot Anush (Cf. Genesis V, 7) (Enos) and many others but with Shith left a will in favour of Anush. Then Anush begot Qaynan (Cf. Genesis V, 9) (Cainan) and many others but Anush left a will in Qaynan’s favour. Then Qaynan begot Mahalŕlil (Mahalaleel) (Cf. Genesis V, 12) and a large number but the will was in his favour. Then Mahalalil begot Yaridh (Jared) (Cf. Genesis V, 15); and he is called al-Yŕridh also. There were sonny children but the will was in his favour. During his days idols were made, and whoever liked abandoned Islam. Then Yaridh begot Khanukh (Enoch), (Cf. Genesis V, 18) who is the Prophet Idris, and many others