The Life of Imam Hasan AlahisSalam part-5

Al‐Hasan (a.s) spent a part of his childhood with his grandfather Allah’s Apostle (a.s) until hismental powers expanded, and his faculties grew. He was tranquil and delighted. Every day he
received life with smiling mouth, bliss, and happiness. He received love and affection from his
grandfather (a.s). He was magnified and honored by the old companions of his grandfather. He
saw the expansion of Islam and many forays. He saw the people entering the religion of Allah in
groups. During that time the thrones of polytheism were destroyed, and the forces of the infidels
were defeated. The Islamic troops invaded Mecca, which was the strongest and the most fortified
city in the Arab Peninsula. Islam became strong and widespread. It had a high entity. The waves of
conquest included most peoples on earth. Delight covered the hearts of the Muslims because of
this victory through which Allah made them strong and supported them. Ahlul Bayt were the most
delighted and happy with these victories accomplished by Islam.
However, this tranquil state did not last long, for the time frowned and darkened at their (the
Ahlul Bayt) faces. It invaded their hearts with vague fear and black fears. That was because it was
time for the Prophet (a.s) to depart to Allah and to move to His Holy Presence. The vanguards and
signs of departure appeared before him. They are as follows:
1. The first sign of his leaving the world was that the Revelation came down to him and brought
him this verse (surely you shall die and they (too) shall surely die).[1] The verse moved the hidden
apprehension in his soul; so, the Muslims heard him announcing his death, saying: “I wish I knew
when that would be!” After this verse the Sura of al‐Nasr came down to him; so, he kept silent
between takbir (saying Allah is great!) and the recitation. He would say: “Glory be to Allah and
praise belongs to Him! I seek forgiveness of Allah and turn towards Him!”
Fear and impatience overcame the hearts of the Muslims; so, their hearts before their tongues
rushed to ask him about that terrible state. He (a.s) answered them, saying: “My death has been
announced!”[2] When the Muslims heard that, their hearts were cut into pieces, their strength
collapsed, their eyes were covered with a flow of tears, a tremor shook their entity and spread
[1] Qur’an, 39, 30.
[2] Ibn Shahrashub, al‐Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 127.  
among them impatience and fear.
2. The Qur’an was revealed to him twice during that year; so, he felt the inevitable death[1], and
then he began announcing his death and his leaving the world. Due to this news the hearts were
cracked; the bitterest kinds of ordeals and misfortunes prevailed the Muslims.

The Farewell Pilgrimage

The Prophet (a.s) spared no effort to guide the Muslims to the right path. When he (a.s) came to
know about his departure to the Abode of Immortality, he thought that he had to complete his
sacred message and to put a sound plan that would guarantee, after him, his community
happiness and success. For this reason he (a.s) made his last pilgrimage, better known as the
Farewell Pilgrimage, in the year 10 A. H. He spread among those who went to the Sacred House of
Allah (the Kaaba) that his meeting with them would be the last time. He said to them: “I do not
know; perhaps, I will never meet you at this standing place after this year!” Then he went around
the masses and made them know that which would guarantee their happiness and success,
saying: “O People! I am leaving with you the Two Weighty Things‐that is the Book of Allah and my
family, my household.”[2]
He compared his pure family to the Book. He regarded clinging to them as salvation against
afflictions and deviation. If the community had followed his words and cleaved to them,
inclinations and misfortunes would not have befallen them, abasement and disgrace would not
have afflicted them, and they would not disagreed. The nation would not have branched into
sects and parties; every sect rejoicing in what they had with them.[3]

The Declaration at Ghadir Khum
After the Prophet (a.s) had finished the rituals of the hajj, he headed for Medina. When his
procession reached Ghadir Khum, Gabriel came down and ordered him to halt at the desert and
to appoint Imam Ali as a successor after him and as an authority over his community. The
Presented by  &
Command of the Heaven had an affair of great importance. The Revelation came down to him
carrying this verse: O Apostle, make known what has been revealed to you from your Lord. If you
do not do it, you will not have made known His message. Allah will protect you from the
people.[4] The Prophet became confused due to this
[1] Al‐Khasa’is al‐Kubra, vol. 2, p. 368.
[2] Al‐Turmidhi, Saheeh, vol. 2, p. 308.
[3] Qur’an, 30, 32.
[4] Ibid., 5, 67.
This verse was revealed on the Day of al‐Ghadir. This has been  

warning and this threat. If he had not carried out what Allah had intended in respect of appointing
Imam Ali, he would not have made known Allah’s message, and all his efforts would have been
lost. So he (a.s) undertook carrying out that even if he would anger those craving after the
caliphate and those turned away from the Imam (a.s). He (a.s) put the burdens of the journey and
stopped at that desert place. It was a day of intense heat, to the extent that the travelers wrapped
their cloaks around their feet because of the scorching hot ground. Then he (a.s) ordered the
masses to come together. When they gathered, he led them in prayer. When he had finished his
prayers, he ordered them to gather the saddles of the camels, that he might use them as a pulpit.
They did to him what he wanted, and he went up on them. The number of those present was one
hundred thousand or more. They turned to him through their hearts before their ears, that they
might listen to that which he would say to them. Firstly, the Prophet (a.s) explained to them his
holy jihad and his arduous efforts in respect of guiding them and saving them from polytheism
and slavery. Secondly, he reminded them of a group of Islamic precepts and religious manners. He
ordered them to put them into practice. After that he said to them: “Therefore, see how you
would obey me in respect of the Two Weighty Things (Allah’s Book, and the Prophet’s family).”
One of the people asked him: “What are the Two Weighty Things, O Allah’s Apostle?”
The Prophet (a.s) answered him, saying: “The great weighty thing is the Book of Allah. One end of
it is in the hand of Allah, the Great and Almighty, and the other end is in your hand; therefore
cling to it lest you should go astray. The other small (weighty thing) is my family. The Sublime and
Omniscient has informed me that they shall never part from each other till they reach me by the
Pool. So I asked my Lord to do that for them; therefore, do not go ahead of them lest you should
perish, and do not lag behind them lest you should perish.”
Then he took Ali’s hand and lifted it, to the extent that the whiteness of their armpits appeared.
He informed all the people, saying: “O People, am I not worthier of you than yourselves?”
They answered him: “Allah and His Apostle know best!”
So he (a.s) said: “Most surely, Allah is my Guardian, and I am the guardian of the believers, and I
am worthier of them than themselves; therefore, whoever mentioned by al‐Wahidi in his Asbab
al‐Nuzool, and by al‐Fakhr al‐Razi in his al‐Tafseer al‐Kabeer, and by others.  
I am his guardian, Ali is his guardian.” He said that three or four times. Then he said: “O Allah,
befriend whoever befriends him, love whoever loves him, hate whoever hates him, support
whoever supports him, desert whoever deserts him, and turn the truth with him wherever he
turns! Those present should inform those absent!”[1]
In his sermon, the Prophet greatly honored Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful (a.s) and
entrusted him with the great office of the caliphate. After he (a.s) had ended his holy speech,
Hassaan bin Thabit asked him to allow him to recite before him one of his wonderful poems on
that immortal occasion. The Prophet permitted him, and he rushed, saying:
On the day of al‐Ghadir he summoned them and made them answer at Khumm.
Listen to the Apostle as he calls.
He said: Who is your master and friend?”
They answered without showing any signs of opposition:
“Allah is our master and you are our friend. You will never find any disobedience from us to you.”
He said to him: “Arise, Ali, I am content that you should be Imam and guide after me.”
Whomsoever I am his guardian, this man is his guardian.
Therefore, be faithful helpers and followers of him.”
There he prayed: “O Allah, befriend his friend and be hostile to whoever opposes Ali.” [2]
Then all the Muslims pledged allegiance to Imam Ali and congratulated him on his being the
Commander of the faithful. The Prophet (a.s) ordered his wives to go to and to congratulate him
(Imam Ali).[3] Among those who congratulated him was Umar bin al‐Khattab. He shook hands
with him and said to him: “Well done! Well done, O Ibn Abi Talib, you have become my
[1] The Declaration at Ghadir Khum is among the authentic traditions ensured by many ways of
transmission. The Muslims have unanimously agreed on narrating it. Its chain of authorities and
its meaning were searched by the genius of Islam, His Eminence, al‐Hujjah al‐Amini, may Allah
protect him, in his immortal encyclopedia al‐Ghadir. He has limited the first volume of his book to
the research on that. In the rest volumes he has mentioned a large group of the poets who lauded
the declaration at Ghadir Khumm. He has written their biographies and mentioned their literary
and scientific works.
[2] Al‐Ghadir, vol. 2, p. 34.
[3] Ibid., vol. 1, p. 271.
Quoted from Roudat al‐Safa, vol. 2, p. 273, by Khawand Shah, a historian.

master and the master of every believing man and believing women.”[1] On that day, which was
immortal in the world of the truth and virtue, this sacred verse was revealed: This day I have
perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a
The great favor was perfected and the religion was completed through appointing Imam Ali, the
Commander of the faithful and the Imam of the pious, as a successor. With that the Prophet (a.s)
took the final step to keep the Islamic society and the Islamic law. He did not leave the community
to remain perplexed and to be prevailed by chaos and corruption; rather, he appointed over it a
great figure (Imam Ali) to guide it to the straight path.  
Most surely the pledge of allegiance (to Imam Ali) at Ghadir Khumm was among the most reliable
proofs (for his Imamate), and it was the most manifest of them in explaining that the office of the
succession and the Imamate was entrusted to Imam Ali, the Commander of the faithful (a.s).
Imam al‐Hasan used it as a proof on his father’s right of the succession. That was during his
sermon he delivered after his making peace with Mu‘awiya. In the sermon he has mentioned:
“Allah has honored us, we the Ahlul Bayt; He has selected and chosen us, taken away the
uncleanness from us, and thoroughly purified us. When the people divided into two sects, Allah
placed us among the better one from Adam to my grandfather (a.s). When Allah appointed him
for the prophethood, chose him for the message, revealed His Book to him, and commanded him
to ask people to believe in Allah, my father was the first to respond to Allah and His Messenger.
He was the first to believe in Allah and His Apostle (a.s). In His Book Allah has revealed to His
appointed Prophet: Is he then who has with him clear proof from his Lord, and a witness from Him
recites it…? Therefore, it was my grandfather who had a clear proof from his Lord, and it was my
father who recited it, and he was a witness from Him.” He added: “This community heard my
grandfather say: ‘If a community entrusts its affair to a man while there is one more
knowledgeable than he is, its affair is in vain unless it resorts to him whom it has left.’ And it heard
him say to my father: ‘You are to me as Harun was to Musa except that there is no prophet after
me.’ It saw and heard him when he took my father by the hand and said to him: ‘Whoever I am his
guardian, Ali is to be his guardian. O Allah, befriend whoever befriends him, and be hostile
[1] Ahmed, Musnad, vol. 4, p. 281.
[2] Qur’an, 5, 3. The revelation of the Sura on the Day of Ghadir Khum has been mentioned by al‐
Sayuti in his al‐Durr al‐Manthur, and by al‐Khateeb al‐Baghdadi in his al‐Tarikh, vol. 8, p. 290.
Other historians have mentioned that.  
to whoever opposes him.’ Then he ordered those present to inform those absent.”[1]
Books of history are full of the proofs of the Ahlul Bayt, peace be on them, and of their leading
followers about the pledge of allegiance to Imam Ali (a.s) at Ghadir Khum, where he was
entrusted with the Islamic caliphate. However, the people turned away from the tradition and
interpreted it according to their tendencies and wishes.
The Prophet seeks Forgiveness for the dead in the Cemetery of al‐Baqee’
When Allah’s Apostle (a.s) had performed the hajj, he returned to Medina. He resided in it for
some days. Suspicions and worries surrounded him, and he was sleepless. He sent for Abu
Muhayba[2] in the dark night. When Abu Muhayba came, the Prophet ordered him to accompany
him to the cemetery of al‐Baqee’. He said to him: “I have been commanded to ask Allah to forgive
the dead at the cemetery of al‐Baqee‘. For this reason I sent for you to go with me.”
The Prophet (a.s) walked until he reached the cemetery of al‐Baqee‘. He greeted the dead and
congratulated them on that they had. Then he told them about the black afflictions that would
befall his community after him. He said: “Assalamu ‘alaykum, O people of the graves. I want to tell
you about what the people will face; the afflictions have come like the the black night. Their last
follows their first. The last is more wicked than the first!”  
Then the Prophet began telling Abu Muhayba about his leaving the world, saying to him: “I have
been given the keys of the treasuries in the world and immortality therein and the Garden after
that, but I have chosen meeting my Lord and the Garden.”
“May my father and mother die for you,” retorted Abu Muhayba, “why do you not take the keys
of the treasuries in the world and be immortal therein and the Garden after that?”
However the Prophet (a.s) explained to him his urgent wish for meeting Allah, saying: “No, by
Allah, I have chosen to meet my Lord.” Then he asked Allah to forgive the dead at the cemetery of
al‐Baqee, and then he went home.[3]
[1] Al‐Ghadir, vol. 1, p. 197.
[2] Abu Muhayba was the Prophet’s retainer. The Prophet had bought and released him.
[3] Ibn Hisham, Syrah, vol. 3, p. 93. Al‐Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 3, p. 190. In his Bihar al‐Anwar, vol. 6, p.
121, al‐Majlisi has mentioned: “When Allah’s Apostle (a.s.) felt the illness, he took Ali, peace be on
him, by the hand and headed for the cemetery of al‐Baqee‘ and asked Allah to forgive the dead
wherein. He was accompanied by a group.  

The Regiment of Usama
When the Prophet (a.s) came to know that his meeting with his Lord was close at hand, he tried to
reinforce the caliphate of Imam Ali (a.s) that he had declared at Ghadir Khum. Likewise, he tried to
put an end to the riot and the mutiny, that the affairs might go well with the Imam (a.s) after his
(the Prophet) death. As a result he thought that the best way to carry that out was through
making his capital empty of all those opposing the Imam (a.s) and sending them to the field of
jihad to invade the Romans. Accordingly, he ordered his companions to get ready for that. He did
not permit any of his companions to stay even Abu Bakr, Umar, Abu Ubayda, and Basheer bin
Sa’d.[1] He appointed Usama as a commander over them.[2] That was on Safar 26th, the year 11
A. H. He said to Usama: “Go to the place where your father had been killed. Let the horses walk on
them. I have appointed you as a commander over this regiment. In the morning invade the people
of Ubna[3]. Destroy them by fire. Go quickly, that you may precede the news. If Allah grants you a
victory over them, then stay with them for a short time. Take guides with you, and advance the
spies and the vanguards.”
On the 28th of Safar, the Prophet’s condition became critical. He suffered from intense fever and
headache. It was said that they resulted from the food he had had at Khaybar. He would say: “I
am still having pain due to the food I had had at Khaybar.”[4]  
On the 29th of Safar, the Prophet came to know that his companions mutinied (against Usama)
and deserted (him). So he, though ill, went out and urged of people.”
[1] Kanz al‐‘Ummal, vol. 5, p. 312. Ibn Sa‘d, Tabaqat, vol. 4, p. 46. Tarikh al‐Khamees.
[2] His full name is Usama bin Zayd bin Haritha bin Sharajil bin Ka‘b bin ‘Abd al‐‘Uzza al‐Kalbi. His
mother was Umm Ayman, whose name was Baraka. She was the retainer and nursemaid of Allah’s
Apostle (a.s.). (The historians) have differed over Usama’s age on the day when Allah’s Apostle
(a.s.) died. It was said that he was twenty years old. It was said that he was nineteen years old;
and it was said that he was eighteen years old. After the death of the Prophet (a.s.) he lived in
Wadi al‐Qura, and then he returned to Medina. He died at al‐Jurf at the end of the caliphate of
Mu‘awiya. The year of his death was fifty‐eight or fifty nine A. H. It was said that it was fifty‐four
A. H. This has been mentioned in the book al‐Isti‘ab, vol. 1, pp. 34‐35. Unfortunately, Usama
deviated from the truth. The reason for that is that he did not pledge allegiance to Imam Ali, the
Commander of the faithful, when the caliphate returned to him. He deviated from the
Commander of the faithful due to the gifts and the plentiful money the Umayyad gave to him.
[3] Ubna is a district of al‐Balqa’ of the land of Syria, between ‘Asqalan and al‐Ramla. It is
neighboring Mu’ta, where Zayd bin Harith and Ja’far bin Abi Talib were martyred.
[4] Al‐Hakim, Mustadrak, vol. 3, p. 58.  
them to go. Then he himself handed the standard to Usama and said to him: “Invade in the name
of Allah, and in the way of Allah, and fight against those who disbelieve in Allah!”  
Usama took the standard and handed it over to Burayda. He camped at al‐Jurf. However, the
people refused to follow him. They mutinied against him and deserted him. Umar said to him:
“Allah’s Apostle (a.s) has died while you are a commander over me!”[1] The people bitterly
criticized the Prophet (a.s) for appointing Usama as a commander over them. They refused to join
his regiment. The Prophet, who suffered from severe fever and headache, heard of that, and he
became angry. He tied his head with a head cloth and went out wearing his cloak. He was sad
because he came to know that the means he prepared for his purpose failed and was
unsuccessful. So he went up on the pulpit. That was on the 5th of Rabee‘ al‐Awal. He showed his
serious displeasure and strong anger towards those who did not carry out his orders, saying: “O
people, what is the statement of some of you in respect of my appointing Usama as a commander
(over you)? If you criticize me for my appointing Usama as a commander, then you will criticize
me for my appointing his father as a commander before him. By Allah, he was worthy of the
leadership, and his son, after him, is worthy of it.”
He came down the pulpit and went into his house.[2] Then he commanded the people to join the
regiment of Usama, saying: “Supply the regiment of Usama. Carry out the regiment of Usama.
May Allah curse whoever lags behind the regiment of Usama!”
These strict orders did not move them; and this great care from the Prophet (a.s) did not change
their determination, though they came to know that he was in his last hours. They were slow in
going out. They lagged behind the regiment, and apologized to the Prophet (a.s) with different
excuse. The Prophet (a.s) did not excuse them and showed toward them anger and displeasure.
Whoever carefully considers this important event concludes the following:
[1] Al‐Sirah al‐Halabiya, vol. 3, p. 34. Other traditionists and historians have mentioned that.
[2] Ibid., vol. 3, p. 34.  
1. The Prophet (a.s) took great care of sending the people out of Medina (Yathrib) and cursed
those who were slow to join the regiment of Usama. This clearly indicates his long‐desired
objective, which is that he intended to make his capital empty of the party opposing Imam Ali, the
Commander of the faithful (a.s) that the affairs might go well with him, and that he might
undertake the succession calmly and peacefully.
2. The people lagged behind the regiment and criticized the Prophet for his appointing Usama.
This means nothing except that they intended to win the authority and the government, and to
strengthen the rules of their policy. If they had gone to invading and left the capital of the Prophet
(a.s), the caliphate would have escaped them, and they had had no room to declare their mutiny
and their disagreement.
3. The Prophet (a.s) did not entrust the leadership of the regiment to the old, prominent men
from among his companions, for he intended to take care of the future, to protect it from the
disorders and the afflictions after him. If he had entrusted the leadership to them, they would
have used it as means for their right of the caliphate and of their demanding the government. As a
result he (a.s) closed this window before them, lest the unity of the community should crack and
its security become disordered.
Usama was then seventeen years old or more. As for the reasons that the Prophet (a.s) appointed
him as a commander while he was still young, they are as follows:
A. He closed all doors to disagreement and criticizing (him for) appointing Imam Ali (a.s) as a
successor, for he was still young, because Usama was younger than Imam ali; nevertheless, the
Prophet entrusted him with the most important military office in his troops.  
B. He abrogated the advance in years and paid no attention to deserving high offices through it,
for it would deprive those with qualifications and talents. He wanted the affairs of the community
and the leadership over it to be undertaken by those who had qualifications, determination, and
administration. He (a.s) declared this reformative idea, saying: “Whoever heads a group of the
Muslims while he sees that there is among them someone better than he is, betrays Allah, His
Apostle, and the Muslims.”[1] He has also said: “Whoever employs someone as a governor over
the Muslims and he sees that there is someone more appropriate for that than he is among them,
most surely betrays Allah, His Apostle, and the Muslims.”[2]
[1] Al‐Bayqahi, Sunan, vol. 10, p. 111. Majjma‘ al‐Zawa’id.
[2] Al‐Baqlani, Tamhid, p. 190.  
Certainly, Islam takes great care of appointing the best of people and greatest of them in
qualifications over the government, for one should put the public interests before his eyes and be
honest in collecting taxes from people, and in what he spends on public utilities. He should
behave toward people with behavior based on pure justice. That can not be carried out through
advance in years; rather it could be carried out through knowledge of what the community needs
in all public fields.[1]
C. Through his appointing Usama as a commander, the Prophet (a.s) held back the caprice of
those opposing Imam Ali, subjugated them, destroyed their morale, and sent them far away.
However, they realized what he (a.s) had planned through appointing Usama as a commander.
Accordingly, they lagged behind his regiment and went on staying at al‐Jurf until Allah’s Apostle
(a.s) joined the High Comrade.
These are some points man can conclude if he carefully considers the regiment of Usama. They
clearly indicate the objective of the Prophet (a.s) when he calmly and peacefully intended to pave
the way to Imam Ali (a.s) after his death.[2] They also clearly indicate the dangerous plot that
people made against his successor and guardian (Imam Ali). We will mention that in detail in the
chapters that follow.

His Illness becomes more critical
His fever became so intense that he felt a flame in his body because of that. He was covered with
velvet. When one of his wives or of those who came to visit him put his hand on the velvet, she or
he felt the heat.[3] They put a container of cool water by him. He put his hand into the container
and put it on his face. The Muslims hurried to visit him while they were impatient and perplexed.
His room was full of them. So he announced his death to them and advised them to follow that
which would guarantee their happiness and success. He said to them: “O People, I feel I am going
to die very soon, and I had previously informed you as my duty, and to leave no excuse for you,
that: I am leaving with you the book of Allah, the Great and Almighty, and my family, my
[1] We have in detail explained this subject‐matter in our book Nizam al‐Hukum wa al‐Idara fi al‐
[2] Imam Sharaf al‐Deen, al‐Muraja‘at wa al‐Nas wa al‐Ijtihad. He has wonderfully analyzed the
Regiment of Usama.
[3] Haykal, Hayat Muhammed, p. 484.  
Then he took Ali’s hand and said: “This is Ali. Ali is with the Qur’an, and the Qur’an is with Ali. They
shall never separate from one another till they will come to me by the Pool.”[1]
The community had to follow the words and the viewpoints of the Prophet (a.s) concerning Imam
Ali. Muslims had to hand the leadership to the Imam, for he would follow the way of the Qur’an
and would rule according to what Allah had revealed. If Muslims had done that after the death of
Allah’s Apostle (a.s), they would have been safe from all setbacks, afflictions, and misfortunes, and
Islam would have advanced with balance and firm steps, and the principles of truth and justice
would have prevailed the world.
The Prophet (a.s) was critically ill; nevertheless, he wore his turban and went out to announce the
justice he brought through asking the people to retaliate if he had aggressed against any of them.
He went up on the pulpit and explained to the Muslims the arduous efforts he rendered to direct
and guide them. And then he said: “Most surely my Lord decided and took an oath that no
injustice of a wrongdoer would escape Him; therefore, I adjure you before Allah, if any man of you
has got any kind of injustice from Muhammad, then let him rise and punish me! Retaliation in this
world is more lovable to me than that in the hereafter in the presence of the angels and the
Those present fell silent and gave no answer. They became astonished and forgot their own
selves. A terrible silence prevailed over them. Which one of them had got injustice from Allah’s
Apostle (a.s) or right against him, while he was the legislator of the great justice and model of
Divine kindness? The people became sad because they came to know that his words showed that
he would leave the world. However, a man called Sawada bin Qays claimed that Allah’s Apostle
(a.s) had flogged him and he wanted to retaliate. Accordingly, the Prophet (a.s) ordered Bilal to
bring him the whip, that Sawada might punish him. Bilal set out and was out of breath, for such a
kind of justice controlled his feelings. He walked through the streets of Medina shouting at the top
of his voice: “O people, settle retaliations with each other in this world, for Allah’s Apostle (a.s)
had given (you) retaliation from his own soul.”
Then he went to the house of the Prophet (a.s). He took the whip to the Prophet (a.s). The
Prophet ordered Bilal to give the whip to Sawada to punish him (the Prophet). It is worth
mentioning that the Prophet was terribly ill.
[1] Ibn Hajar, al‐Sawa‘iq al‐Muhriqa.  
Sawada walked towards the Prophet with shaking legs. The greatness and dignity of the Prophet
covered him, so he said to him: “O Allah’s Apostle, uncover your belly!”
The Prophet (a.s) uncovered his belly, and Sawada said to him in a weak voice: “O Allah’s Apostle,
will you permit me to put my mouth on your belly (to kiss it)?”  
The Prophet (a.s) gave him a permission, and he put his mouth on the belly of Allah’s Apostle (a.s)
while his tears were flowing down his cheeks. He said: “I seek protection with the place of the
retaliation of Allah’s Apostle from the fire on the Day of the Fire!” Thus the Prophet (a.s) asked
him: “Sawada, will you retaliate or pardon me?” “I will pardon you, O Allah’s Apostle,” retorted
So the Prophet (a.s) raised his hands towards the heaven and invoked Allah for him, saying: “O
Allah, pardon Sawada just as he has pardoned Your Prophet!”[1]
Fatima feels Sorrow
Grief encompassed the Prophet’s daughter, misfortune befell her, and sadness harmed her
tender, tortured heart. She saw her father suffering from the severest pain and anguish, and she
heard him saying: “Oh! What anguish!” Her heart was full of agony and sadness, so she answered
him: “Oh! What agony I have due to your agony!”
He looked at her and saw her eyes filled with tears. He had pity on her and said: “There will be no
anguish on your father after this day!” When his condition became worse, the condition of al‐
Zahra’ changed. She became pale, weak, and confused. Cares, troubles, pain, and sadness
surrounded her. When he saw her, his heart cracked. He wanted to remove sadness from her
heart, so he made her sit by him. He whispered to her something. When she heard his saying, she
burst into tears. Then he (a.s) whispered to her something else, and she received it with similes,
cheerfulness, and content. A’isha, the Prophet’s wife, was astonished at this deed, and she said: “I
have never seen (a day) like this day when rejoicing is similar to sadness!”
[1] Bihar al‐Anwar, vol.6, p. 1035.  
She asked her about what Allah’s Apostle (a.s) had said to her, and she refused to answer her.
When the days passed, Fatima told A’isha about the reason for that weeping and rejoicing, saying:
“Allah’s Apostle said: “Gabriel used to revise the Qur’an with me once a year. This year he has
revised it with me twice. I can only consider that death is at hand.”
This was the reason for her agony and weeping. As for the reason for her delight, she said: “He
told me that I would be the first of his family to join him and that it would be not a long time for
me after him before I would be with him. That made the grief go from me…He said to me, ‘Are
you not satisfied to be the principal of the women of this community?”
The Prophet (a.s) removed from his beloved daughter sorrow through telling her that the
separation between them would not be long. When she came to know that the meeting of her
father with his Lord would be at hand, she set off to her house and brought her two sons while
she was weeping bitterly. She said to him: “Father, these are your two sons. Give them some thing
as inheritance.”
“As for al‐Hasan,” he replied, “he has my form and nobility. As for al‐Husayn, he has my generosity
and bravery.” Al‐Hasan left him while he inherited from him his form and nobility; and the master
of martyrs inherited from him his generosity and bravery. Is there an inheritance on the earth
better than this inheritance that had the perfection and nobility of the prophethood? According to
his inheritance, al‐Hasan was a symbol of Prophet Muhammad’s dignity and a model of the
prophetic nobility. It has been narrated that he had the signs of prophets and radiance of kings.
The Prophet gives what he has as Alms
Before his illness, the Prophet (a.s) had seven dinars. He feared that he would die while he still
had them. So he ordered his family to give the dinars as alms. As they were busy taking care of
him and looking after him, they forgot to carry out his order. When he recovered consciousness,
he asked them about what they had done regarding the money. They said that the dinars were
still with them. He asked them to bring those dinars. When they brought them, he put them on
the palm of his hand and said: “What shall Muhammad say to his Lord when he meets Him and
they are still with him?” Then he gave the dinars to the poor as alms, and he had nothing of them.

The great Disaster
The Prophet (a.s) looked through the unseen and gathered that his community after him would be
afflicted with discords like the dark night and with black misfortunes, and that it would renegade
after faith. He regarded that as too great. He became sad and sorrowful while he was living his last
hours when he came to know about the great plot schemed against his guardian, his successor,
and the gate of the city of his knowledge (Imam Ali). That was when he came to know that the
people lagged behind the Army of Usama and were slow to join it. So, he (a.s) thought that he had
to follow another way to save his community from going astray and to protect his nation from
discords and errors. He (a.s) said: “Bring me ink and parchment so that I may write a document for
you, after which you will never go astray.”[1]
What great this favor was! What a valuable chance it was! If the people had seized it and hurried
to carry it out, they would have protected themselves and the following generations from going
astray. But they deprived themselves of happiness, closed the windows of mercy and guidance
before them and before the following generations. The life in this world had deceived them, and
they rushed upon authority. They knew the objective of the Prophet (a.s). They came to know that
he would appoint Ali as his guardian. Through that they realized that their goals and their
interests would be lost, so one of them said to the Prophet (a.s) with impudence and vainglory:
“Allah’s Book is sufficient for us!”
Whoever carefully considers this answer understands their plot and their plans aiming at
removing Imam Ali from the personnel of government. If they had thought that Allah’s Apostle
(a.s) would not entrust him with the caliphate or that he would entrust him with protecting the
borders and religious rites, they would not have given him such an imprudent answer and would
not have refused his request. However, they came to know his objective, so they did their best to
destroy and corrupt it. Anyway, many disagreements and disputes took place among them.
Accordingly, the women who were behind the curtain said to the men: “Do you not hear what
Allah’s Apostle say?”
Umar became excited and shouted at them lest the affair should escape him, saying: “Indeed you
are like the mistresses of Yusuf (Prophet Joseph). If he becomes ill, you press your eyes; and when
he gets well, you ride his neck!”
Allah’s Apostle (a.s) looked at Umar because his speech had annoyed him. He said to him: “Leave
them, for they are better than you.”
[1] Ahmed, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 355. Other than him has mentioned the tradition.  
The people who wanted to carry out the Prophet’s request were about to be successful, but one
of the opponents spoiled their affairs through saying terrible words: “Most surely the Prophet is
Which mishap like this one that befell Islam? Which misfortune like this one that afflicted the
Muslims? Is it right to decide that the Prophet (a.s) was delirious? Indeed, the people returned to
the pre‐Islamic times. They forgot the position of the Prophet (a.s) and said to him bad, rude
words. We belong to Allah and to Him is our return! Surely it was the greatest misfortune whose
terror caused hearts to melt. They came between the Muslims and their happiness and sent good
far from them. When Ibn Abbas remembered the event, his tears poured down his face. He sighed
and said: “Thursday! Thursday! Allah’s Apostle (a.s) said: ‘Bring me ink and parchment so that I
may write a document for you, after which you will never go astray.’ But they said that Allah’s
Apostle was delirious!”[2]  
They did not hear the verses of the Qur’an while they were recited to them by day and night and
were proof of the infallibility of the Prophet (a.s). Allah, the Most High, has said: “Your companion
does not err, nor does he go astray; nor does speak of desire. It is naught but revelation that is
revealed; the Lord of Mighty Power has taught him.” [3] He, the Exalted, has also said: “Most
surely it is the word of an honored messenger, the possessor of strength having an honorable
place with the Lord of the Dominion, One (to be obeyed), and faithful in trust. And your
companion has not gone mad.” [4] There are other verses indicating that he was not delirious.
However, the life in this world deceived the people, and they admired its embellishment.
Accordingly, they deviated from the right way, turned away from the laws of justice, made the
community get worse and worse in the fields of ignorance and deception, and closed before them
the doors of mercy and guidance.
[1] Al‐Bukhari has mentioned the event several times in his book (al‐Saheeh), vol. 4, pp. 69‐99, vol.
6, p. 8. But he has hidden the name of the person who said these words. In his book Gharib al‐
Hadith, Ibn al‐Athir has mentioned that it was ‘Umar bin al‐Khattab who said these words. During
his speech with Ibn Abbas, ‘Umar admitted that he had prevented the Prophet (a.s.) from writing
(some thing) concerning Ali and his family. This has been mentioned in the book Sharh Nahjj al‐
Balagha, vol. 3, p. 114, by Ibn Abi al‐Hadeed.
[2] Ahmed, Musnad, vol. 1, p. 355.
[3] Qur’an, 53, 2‐5.
[4] Ibid., 81, 19‐22.  

To the High Comrade
When the Prophet (a.s) was about to die, Allah sent him the Angel of Death to raise his pure soul
to the Garden and to the farthest nabk‐tree. The Angel of Death came and asked permission from
the Household of the Revelation to come in to Allah’s Apostle (a.s). However, Fatima al‐Zahra’ told
him that the Prophet (a.s) was distracted from him because he had fainted due to his intense
illness. After a while, he repeated his request, so Allah’s Apostle (a.s) recovered consciousness and
said to his daughter: “Do you know him?” “No, O Allah’s Apostle,” replied Fatima. “He is the one
who builds graves, destroys houses, and makes people separate from each other,” he retorted.  
Fatima’s entity collapsed; perplexity surrounded her. She wept with bitter tears. She said in a
weak voice with sad tones: “Woe! The last of the prophets has died! What a misfortune! The best
of the pious has died! The master of the chosen ones has been separated (from us)! Alas! The
Revelation has ceased from the Heaven! Indeed, today, I have been deprived of speaking with
Allah’s Apostle (a.s) had mercy on his daughter, so he sent her words of comfort, saying: “Do not
weep, for most surely you will be the first of my family to follow me.”[1]
The Prophet (a.s) permitted the Angel of Death to enter. When he stood before him, he said: “O
Allah’s Apostle (a.s) most surely Allah has sent me to you and ordered me to obey you in all that
which you command me. If you command me to take your soul, I will take it, and if you command
me to leave it, I will leave it.”
“Will you do that, O Angel of Death?” asked the Prophet (a.s).  
“I have been commanded to obey you in all that which you command me of.”
Then Gabriel entered and said “O Ahmed, indeed Allah has yearned for you!”[2]
When the household of the Prophet (a.s) came to know that the Prophet would leave them in
those moments, the misfortune astounded them, and they became very sad. Al‐Hasan and al‐
Husayn came and bent down to the Prophet to bid farewell to him. They shed tears. They kissed
him, and he kissed them. Imam Ali (a.s) tried to put them aside, but the Prophet (a.s) said to him:
“Let them enjoy me, and let me enjoy them, for they will face a misfortune after me.”
[1] Durrat al‐Nasiheen, p. 66.
[2] Ibn Sa‘d, Tabaqat, vol. 2, p. 48.  
Then the Prophet turned to those who came to visit him and said to them: “Indeed I have left with
you Allah’s Book and my family, my household. Whoever loses Allah’s Book is like one who loses
my Sunna (my sayings and practices), and whoever loses my Sunna is like one who loses my
family; most surely they shall never separate from each other until they reach me by the Pool.”[1]
Then he summoned his guardian and successor and said to him: “Ali, put my head in your lap, for
the order of Allah (of my death) has come. When my soul departs, take it with your hand and rub
your face with it. Then turn me toward the qibla. Carry out my command and pray over me as the
first of the people. Do not leave me until you have buried me in my grave. Seek the help of Allah,
the Great and Almighty.”
Imam Ali (a.s) took the head of the Prophet (a.s) and put it in his lap and put his right hand under
his jaw. The Prophet (a.s) permitted the Angel of Death to receive his Holy Soul. When the
Prophet’s soul was going out, the Imam took it with his hand and rubbed his face with it.[2] He
announced the Prophet’s death to those present.
On that day immortal in the world of sadness, the standards of justice were folded, the lamps of
perfection and virtue were extinguished, and the humanity was not afflicted with a disaster like
that one before. The great Savior died; the Light that enlightened the way to man and guided him
to the straight path was veiled. The dreams of the Muslims dispersed before that terrible
misfortune, for the people had no comfort after Allah’s Apostle (a.s), and sorrow had neither limit
nor end due to missing him. Muhammad went away from this world, and the light of his face
departed too. So the tongues set out to lament over him, the eyes wept for him; the crying and
lamentation from the house of the Prophet (a.s) became loud. The greatest of his household in
agony and
[1] Al‐Khawarizmi, Maqtal al‐Husayn, vol. 1, p. 144.
[2] Al‐Manaqib, vol. 1, p. 29. Traditions ensured by many lines of transmission have been reported
on that Allah’s Apostle (a.s.) died in the lap of Ali, peace be on him. It has been mentioned in the
book Kanz al‐‘Ummal, vol. 4, p. 55, that Abu Ghatafan said: “I asked Ibn Abbas: In whose lap did
the Prophet (a.s.) die? And he answered: ‘He died while he was leaning on Ali’s chest.’ Then I said
to him that ‘Urwa related to me on the authority of Aa’isha, who said that Allah’s Apostle (a.s.)
died (while his head) was between her chest and her neck. ‘Do you believe that?,’ he asked me,
‘by Allah, Allah’s Apostle, died (while he was leaning) on Ali’s chest. It was he (Ali) who washed
him.’” This narration has also been mentioned by Ibn Sa‘d, in his Tabaqat, vol. 2, p. 51.  
misfortune was his daughter Fatima al‐Zahra. She came down to his body. She was astonished‐
minded due to the intense sorrow and sadness. She wept bitterly and said: “O father! I am
announcing your death to Gabriel! O father! Paradise is your shelter! O father! You have
responded to your Lord’s invitation!”[1]
The tragic news spread all over the City of Allah’s Apostle (a.s) and made it move from side to side
in sadness. The Muslims gathered and were perplexed. The misfortune silenced them, and the
terrible event befell them. They were either silent, crying, astonished, or lamenting. They faced
endless pain.
Imam Ali (a.s) who was surrounded by pain and sadness, rose and began preparing the Prophet
(a.s) for burial. He washed him[2] and said: “May my father and mother be sacrificed for you! How
good you are dead or alive!”[3]
After Imam Ali (a.s) had prepared the Prophet (a.s) for burial, he put him down. It was Allah who
was the first to pray over him, then Gabriel, then Mikaiel, then Israfiel, and then the angels group
by group.[4] Then the Muslims came in to bid farewell to the Prophet and to pray over him.[5]
After performing
[1] Ibn Maja, Sunan. In it he has been mentioned: “Hammad bin Zayd said: ‘I have seen Thabit,
who related the tradition. When he related it, he wept to the extent that his ribs differed.’”
[2] Wafa’ al‐Wafa’, vol. 1, p. 227. In Kanz al‐‘Ummal, vol. 4, p. 53, it has been mentioned: “(Iman)
Ali washed Allah’s Apostle (a.s.). Al‐Fadhl and Usama were giving him water from behind a
curtain.” In the book it has also been mentioned: “The people have differed over his shroud. It
was said that he was shrouded with three garments. It was said that he was shrouded in a Yemeni
garment (shroud) and shirt. They have also mentioned other narrations on his shroud.” It has
been narrated that Aba Qalla‘a would say: “Do you not wonder at their differing over the shroud
of Allah’s Apostle (a.s.)?”
[3] Ibn Sa‘d, Tabaqat, vol. 2, part 2, p. 63.
[4] Hulyat al‐Awliya’, vol. 4, p. 77.
[5] Kanz al‐‘Ummal, vol. 4, p. 54. In it he has been mentioned: “When Imam (Ali), the Commander
of the faithful, peace be on him, put the great body on the bed to pray over it, he said to the
Muslims: ‘None should lead you in prayer, for he (the Prophet) is your Imam (Whether he is) dead
or alive.’ Accordingly, the people came in group by group and prayed over him in ranks. There was
no Imam before them. (Imam Ali), the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, was standing
beside the corpse and saying: ‘assalamu ‘alayka O Prophet, Allah’s mercy and blessings be upon
you! O Allah, we bear witness that he has made known what was revealed to him, showed
sincerity towards his community, struggled in the way of Allah until Allah made dear His religion
and His words became perfect. O Allah, place us among those who follow that which been
revealed to him, make us firm after him, and let us gather with him.’ The people said: ‘Amen!
Amen!’ The men, the women, and the boys prayed over him.” (The historians) have differed over
the date of his death (a.s.). It was said that he died on Rabee‘ al‐Awal 12th. This has been
mentioned in the book the prayer over him, Imam Ali dug the grave. When he had finished
diggingthe grave, al‐Mughira threw his ring into it and said to Imam Ali (a.s):
“My ring!” The Imam (a.s) said to his son al‐Hasan: “Go down and give him the ring.” Al‐Hasan
(a.s) did that. Al‐Mughira intended to enter the Sacred Grave after the Commander of the faithful
had gone out of it. He intended to pride himself on his companions that he was the last of the
people to bid farewell to Allah’s Apostle. However, Imam Ali (a.s) knew his purpose, and thus he
ordered al‐Hasan to enter the grave, and he was the last of the people to bid farewell to Allah’s
Apostle (a.s).[1]
Imam Ali (a.s) and buried the great body in its final‐resting place. Then he stood by the grave to
water it with the tears of his eyes. He said some words indicating his deep sadness: “Patience is
good (toward all things) except toward you! Impatience (toward all things) is ugly except toward
you! The misfortune is great! Misfortunes before and after you are not important!”[2]
The great terror and painful misfortune melted the heart of al‐Hasan (a.s) while he was still young.
His beautiful bloom of youth withered. He saw the Prophet, who was kind to him, being buried in
his grave. He saw his parents astonished and sorrowful at the death of the great Prophet. This
event left in his soul severe pain and strong sadness. The Prophet (a.s) went to the High Comrade
while al‐Hasan was at the age of seven years.[3] At this age the mental powers of a child grow. At
it the mind of a child is like a camera conveying in the inner soul many views and pictures and
planting in it sadness and happiness passing by it. Besides, some clever children may have abilities
and readiness for understanding deeds and attitudes. At that time some important events
accompanied al‐Hasan. They took place before the death of his grandfather, the Apostle (a.s).
Among them is that the people refused to join the regiment of Usama, did not respond to the
Prophet (a.s) when he requested ink and parchment to write for his community a document that
would protect them from discords and going astray. Without doubt al‐Hasan understood the
purpose of that. He came to know of the plots that people schemed against his father. This
attitude left in his soul hidden sadness, and he criticized the people for their usurping the rights of
his father. We will explain that in the Time of the two Sheikhs.
<‐‐‐‐‐ Wafa’ al‐Wafa’, vol. 1, 226‐227. It was said that he died on Safar 28th. This has been
mentioned by al‐Tabrasi’s A‘lam al‐Wara, p. 7. It was said that he died in Rabee‘ al‐Awal 2nd. This
has been mentioned by Ibn Wadih in his Tarikh, vol. 1, p. 93. Narrations other than these have
also been mentioned.
[1] Ibn Sa‘d, Tabaqat, vol. 2, p. 77.
[2] Muhammed ‘Abda, Nahjj al‐Balagha, vol. 3, 224
[3] Kashf al‐Ghumma, p. 154.  




Everything here is from the History of al-Tabari. Use the link to read more and educate yourself. After reading what I have presented here, you will see and understand the kind of regime Mua’awiya was running. A regime that oppressed and persecuted those who praised Imam Ali, a regime that forced the people to curse and disavow Imam Ali, a regime that blamed Imam Ali and his companions of the murder of Uthman, a regime that suppressed any opposition by killing or emprisonment, a regime that used the blood of Uthman to justify their actions, a regime that cursed Imam Ali during every Khutbah, a regime that had nothing to do with Islam, indeed.

Year 42 (APRIL 26, 662-APRIL 14, 663):

In this year Mu’awiyah made Marwan b. al-Hakam governor of al-Madinah, and Marwan appointed ‘Abdallah b. al-Harith b. Nawfal as judge. Khalid b. al-‘As b. Hisham was (the governor) in charge of Mecca; al-Mughirah b. Shu’bah was in charge of al-Kufah on his” behalf, while Shurayh super-vised rendering judgment there. ‘Abdallah b. ‘Amir was in charge of al-Basrah, while ‘Amr b. Yathribi was in charge of rendering judgment, and Qays b. al-Haytham was in charge of Khurasan on behalf of ‘Abdallah b. ‘Amir.

Mua’awiya made the cursed Marwan al-Hakam governor of al-Madinah!

It was said that in this year Busr b. Abi Artat al-‘Amiri set out for al-Madinah, Mecca, and al-Yaman. He killed various Muslims during that journey, according to al-Wagidi…Al-Wagidi claimed that he was told by Dawud b. Hayyan-‘Ata’ b. Abi Marwan: Busr b. Abi Artat stayed at al-Madinah for a month investigating the people. He killed everyone who was said to have helped against ‘Uthman. (According to) ‘Ata b. Abi Marwan-Hanzalah b. ‘Ali al-Aslami: Busr found some of the Banu Ka’b and their youths at one of their wells, so he threw them in it.

Year 47 (MARCH 3, 667-FEBRUARY 19, 668):

In this year also, ‘Abdallah b. ‘Amr b. al-‘Aas was dismissed from ( the governorship of) Egypt, and Mu’awiyah b. Hudayj was put in charge there . According to al-Wagidi, Mu’awiyah b. Hudayj set out westward; he was an ‘Uthmani. ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr, who had come from al-Iskandariyyah, marched past him, saying to him, “0 Mu’awiyah (b. Hudayj), indeed, by my life, you took your reward from Mu’awiyah. You killed Muhammad b. Abi Bakr in order to be made governor of Egypt, and you have become its governor.” Mu’awiyah b. Hudayj replied, “I only killed Muhammad b. Abi Bakr for what he did to ‘Uthman.” At that ‘Abd al-Rahman replied, “However, if you were seeking (revenge for] the blood of’Uthman, you would not have participated in what Mu’awiyah did, since ‘Amr b. al-‘As treated al-Ash’ari the way he did. You were the first person to jump up and declare allegiance to Mu’awiyah.

Year 51 (JANUARY 18, 671-JANUARY 7, 672): Hujr b. ‘Adi’s Execution

Hisham b. Muhammad-Abu Mikhnaf-al-Mujalid b. Said, al-Saq’ab b. Zuhayr, Fudayl b. Khadij, and al-Husayn b. ‘Ugbah al-Maradi have all told me some of this narrative, so their account was combined with what I transmitted of the narrative about Hujr b. ‘Adi al-Kindi and his companions: When Mu’awiyah b. Abi Sufyan put al-Mughirah b. Shu’bah in charge of al-Kufah in Jumada 41 (September 2-October 30, 661), he summoned him. After praising and glorifying God, he said, “Now then, indeed a forbearing person has been admonished in the past. Al-Mutalammis has said: A forbearing person has been admonished in the past, and man was taught only in order to learn. The wise might do what you want without instruction. Although I have wanted to advise you about many things, I left them alone, trusting in your discernment of what pleases me, what helps my regime and what sets my subjects on the right path. I would continue to advise you about a quality of yours – do not refrain from abusing ‘Ali and criticizing him, nor from asking God’s mercy upon ‘Uthman and His forgiveness for him. Continue to shame the companions of ‘Ali, keep them at a distance , and don’t listen to them, Praise the faction of ‘Uthman, bring them near, and listen to them.”
At that al-Mughirah responded, “I have experienced (others), and (they) have experienced me. Before working for you I worked for others. I do not mind rejection, nor promotion, nor demotion. After you have experienced (me), you will praise or blame [me).”
Mu’awiyah replied, “No, we shall praise if God wills.”
Al-Mughirah remained governor of al-Kufah for Mu’awiyah for seven years and (some) months. He was the best behaved and the most (strongly) in favor of well-being, in spite of the fact that he would not stop blaming ‘Ali for what had happened and for killing ‘Uthman. He continued to curse those who had killed the latter, while he called for mercy and forgiveness for ‘Uthman and vindication for his companions.
When Hujr b. ‘Adi heard that, he used to say, “May God rebuke and curse you instead.” Then he stood up and said, “Indeed, God, Almighty and Great, says, ‘Be custodians in fairness, witnesses for God.’ I testify that the one you rebuke and condemn is more deserving of merit, and the one you vindicate and extol is more entitled to blame.”
Al-Mughirah would then tell him, “0 Hujr, your arrow was shot; now I am governor over you. 0 Hujr, woe unto you. Fear the regime. Fear its wrath and its power. Indeed the fury of the regime can destroy many of the likes of you.” Then he would desist and forgive Hujr. He continued thus until, at the end of his governorship, al-Mughirah arose and said what he used to say about ‘Ali and Mu’awiyah, which was, “O God, have mercy on ‘Uthman b. ‘Affan and don’t punish him, but reward him for his best work. For, indeed, he acted according to Your Book and the example (sunnah) of Your Prophet. He united our speech, and prevented our blood from being shed, and yet, he was wrongly killed. 0 God, have mercy also on his adherents, supporters, friends, and those who seek vengeance for him.” He would also call for ‘Uthman’s murderers (to be punished).
At that, Hujr b. ‘Adi jumped up, and let out a scream at al-Mughirah that everyone who was in the mosque and outside of it heard, saying, “You certainly do not understand what men burn for, because of your senility. 0 man, Order our rations and stipends for us, for you have certainly withheld them from us, and that is not your right, and no one who preceded you has desired that. You have become passionate about blaming the Commander of the Faithful and praising the criminals.” At that, more than two-thirds’ of the people stood up with him saying, “By God. Hujr was right and honest. Order our rations and stipends for us, for this talk of yours doesn’t do us any good, and it gives us nothing profitable.” And they increased this kind of talk.
At that, al-Mughirah descended (from the pulpit) and entered (the governor’s residence). When his folk asked permission to attend him, he admitted them, and they said, “Why do you leave this man alone who makes this statement and whose insolence is so bold during your regime. Indeed, you acquire two faults thereby. The first is the degradation of your regime. The other is that if it should reach Mu’awiyah, it would make him angry with you.” ‘Abdallah b. Abi ‘Agil al-Thaqafi was the most severe of them (in) speaking to him about the matter of Hujr and its importance. Al-Mughirah answered, “I have killed him. He will come to a governor after me, and will regard him like me and treat him in the same way as you see him treating. As a result, that governor will seize Hujr at once, and kill him in an evil way. Indeed my appointed time draws near, and my actions have become weak. I do not want to start the people of this city killing the best among themselves and shedding their blood. They are fortunate thereby, while I am miserable. Mu’awiyah will grow strong in this world, while al-Mughirah will be humbled on the Day of Resurrection. But, I shall receive those who are pleasing and forgive those who are displeasing. I shall praise the prudent and admonish the impudent until death should separate me from them. They will remember me if they should put officials to the test after me.”
(According to) Abu Mikhnaf-‘Uthman b. ‘Uqbah al-Kindi-a shaykh of the district who related this account: By God we put them to the test, and found him to be the best of them. He was the most commendable toward the innocent, the most forgiving toward those who were offensive, and the most receptive to excuses.

According to the above account, it was a common practice by the governors of Mua’awiya, and as instructed by Muaawiya, to remind the people of the murder of Uthman in order to keep their hatred towards Imam Ali strong and rooted, and to shame and be hostile to his companions. They praised Uthman and his companions, supplicated that Allah had mercy on them, and they blamed Imam Ali for the killing of Uthman, called for latter’s murders to be punished, and cursed them. Despite Hujr’s heroic stand against al-Mughira’s claims and in defense of Imam Ali, the latter refused to harm Hujr ibn Adi. al-Mughira died the same year and Ziyad ibn Abu Sufyan become the governor of Basra and Kufa. Ziyad would also, and I quote al-Tabari, mention Uthman and his companions, and praise them, and mention his murderers, and curse them. Hujr would then get up and do as he had done to al-Mughirah.

(According to) Hisham-‘Awanah: Al-Mughirah became governor of al-Kufah in Jumada 41(661/662), and he died this year. Al-Kufah and al-Basrah were then combined for Ziyad b. Abi Sufyan. Ziyad advanced until he entered the citadel at al-Kufah. Then he ascended the pulpit, and after he had praised and extolled God, he said, “Now then, indeed, we have been put to the test and we have tested. We have ruled and rulers have ruled us, and we have found that this matter would only be set right in the end by that which set it right at the beginning: tractable obedience, the same in secret as openly, when people are absent as when they are present, and [in] their hearts as [on] their tongues. We found that only flexibility without weakness and strength without violence would reform the people. As for myself, by God, I shall not undertake a matter with you unless I carry it out to its smallest detail. There is no lie to which God and the people are witness greater than the lie of an imam upon the pulpit.” Then he mentioned ‘Uthman and his companions, and praised them, and mentioned his murderers, and cursed them. Hujr then got up and did as he had done to al-Mughirah.

Whenever Ziyad would return to al-Basrah he would put ‘Amr b. al-Hurayth in charge of al-Kufah. When he had returned to al-Basrah, he heard that the partisans of ‘Ali had gathered to Hujr and had openly cursed and disavowed Mu’awiyah, and that they had thrown pebbles at ‘Amr b. al-Hurayth. At that, he set out for al-Kufah and, upon arriving there, he entered the citadel. Then he went out and ascended the pulpit wearing a robe of silk brocade and a green silk scarf, having parted his hair, while Hujr was sitting in the mosque surrounded by more of his companions than before. After Ziyad had praised and extolled God, he said, “Now then, injustice and transgression have fatal consequences. Indeed, these (people) gathered and did evil. They felt safe from me, so they took liberties with me. I swear by God, if you do not straighten out, I shall cure you with your [own] medicine.” He continued “I shall have accomplished nothing if I don’t protect the plaza of al-Kufah from Hujr and make him an example for whoever should come after him. Woe unto your mother, 0 Hujr! You found a wolf for dinner.”

When he (Ziyad) had finished (the prayers), he wrote to Mu’awiyah about the matter of Hujr and exaggerated it. Mu’awiyah then wrote back to him, “Clamp him in irons, then deliver him to me.” When Mu’awiyah’s letter arrived, and Hujr’s folk wanted to protect him, Hujr said, “No, pay heed and obey instead.” When he had been clamped in irons, he was delivered to Mu’awiyah. When Hujr entered the latter’s presence, he said, “Peace be upon you, 0 Commander of the Faithful, and the mercy of God and His blessings.” But Mu’awiyah replied to him, “Commander of the Faithful! By God, I will not be addressed by you or consider speaking to you. Take him out and behead him.” Upon being taken out from Mu’awiyah’s presence, Hujr said to those who were in charge of dealing with him, “Give me leave until I perform two prostrations.” They replied, “Perform them.” When he had performed two prostrations which he shortened, he said, “Lest you suppose that I am doing other than what I am, I would have liked for my prostrations to take longer than they did. These two prostrations are as good as any previous devotions.” Then he told whomever of his folk attended him, “Don’t undo the irons, and don’t wash the blood off of me. I may meet Mu’awiyah in the future on the street.” Then he was brought forth, and his head was cut off.

The prisoners being referred to here are the companions of Hujr:

Mu’awiyah then sent Hudbah b. Fiyyad al -Quda’i of the Banii Salaman b. Sa’d, al-Husayn b. ‘Abdallah al-Kilabi, and Abu Sharif al-Baddi, and they brought the prisoners in the evening. When al-Khath’ami saw al-A’war, he said, “Half of us will be killed and half saved.” Sa’d b. Nimran said, “0 God, make me one of those who are saved, as long as You are satisified with me.” ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Hassan al-Anazi said, “0 God, make me one of those whose disgrace honors You , as long as you are satisfied with me. How often I presented myself for killing. God thus has willed what He desired.” The messenger of Mu’awiyah then came to them with orders to release six and to kill eight, telling them, “We have been ordered to let you disavow ‘Ali and curse him. If you do so, we shall release you; and if you refuse, we shall kill you. The Commander of the Faithful also declares that he has been allowed to shed your blood by the testimony of the people of your city against you, although he has refrained from that. So renounce this man, and we shall release you.’They replied, “0 God, we shall not do that.” He then ordered for their graves to be dug, and their shrouds to be brought. They spent the entire night worshipping, so, when morning came, Mu’awiyah’s men said, “Hey you! We saw you last night prolonging worship and doing it well, so inform us of what you have to say about ‘Uthman.” They replied, “He was the first who deviated in judgment and acted wrongly.” At that, Mu’awiyah’s men declared, “The Commander of the Faithful knew you better.” They then stood up in front of the prisoners saying, “Denounce this man!” They replied, “We vindicate him instead, and denounce whoever denounces him.” At that, every man took one of them in order to kill him. When Qabisah b. Dubay’ah fell into the hands of Abu Sharifah al-Baddi, he told the latter, “The (former] hatred has been changed to peace between my folk and your folk, so let someone else kill me .” So Abu Sharifah answered him, “Kinship helped you,” and took al-Hadrami and killed him, while al-Quda’i killed Qabisah b. Dubay’ah.

Then Hujr told them, “Leave me alone so I may perform ablutions.” They told him to do so. When he finished, he told them, “Leave me alone so I can make two prostrations. I certainly swear to God that I have never performed ablutions without making two prostrations.” They told him to worship, and he did so. Then he stopped, saying, “By God, I never worshipped more quickly than this, and if you think that I have no anxiety about death, I would have liked to prolong it.” Then he added, “0 God, we appeal to You for help against our community, since the Kufans have testified against us, and since the Syrians are killing us. However, by God, if you killed me here, I would be the first Muslim horseman to perish in this valley, and the first Muslim man at whom its dogs barked .” When al-A’war Hudbah b. Fiyad strode to him with his sword, Hujr’s sinews trembled, and al-A’war declared, “Certainly not! You claimed that you were not anxious about death. I will leave you, so renounce your companions.” But Hujr replied, “Why shouldn’t I be anxious, since I see a grave dug, a shroud spread out, and a sword unsheathed. By God, if I were anxious about killing I would not say that which angers the Lord .” At that, al-A’war killed him, and they began to kill them one by one until they had killed six.

Below shows an instance of how Mua’awiya (and his governors) used to ask the people of their opinions about Ali and how he would persecute them if their answers favored Ali:

‘Abd al-Rahman b. Hassan al-‘Anazi and Karim b. ‘Afif al-Khath’ami then said, “Send us to the Commander of the Faithful, and we shall say what he does about this man.” When they sent to Mu’awiyah informing him of their statement, he sent word back to them, “Bring both of them to me .” When they had entered his presence, al-Khath’ami exclaimed, “God! God! O Mu’awiyah, indeed, you will be transported from this transitory abode to the eternal abode hereafter, then questioned about what you hoped to gain by killing us and why you shed our blood.” Mu’awiyah inquired, “What do you say about ‘Ali?” He replied, “I say what you do about him,” adding, “Shall I renounce the faith of ‘Ali who used to worship God along with it?” He then fell silent, and Mu’awiyah did not want to answer him. Shamir b. ‘Abdallah of the Banii Quhafah got up, asking, “0 Commander of the Faithful, give me my cousin.” Mu’awiyah replied, “You have him, except I am going to imprison him for a month.” Shamir would send word to Mu’awiyah every two days and intercede with him, and the latter told him, “Indeed, I would think you were precious for Iraq if the likes of you were among them .” Then Shamir brought him up again, so Mu’awiyah said, “We have commuted your cousin’s sentence for you.” He then summoned al-Khath’ami and released him on condition that he would not enter al-Kufah as long as he was ruler . Mu’awiyah then said, “Choose whichever Arab land you would prefer for me to send you to.” Al-Khath’ami chose Mosul. He used to say, “If Mu’awiyah should die, I would come to the city.” But he died a month before Mu’awiyah.
Then Mu’awiyah turned to ‘Abd al-Rahman al-‘Anazi, and asked him, “0 brother of the Rabi’ah, what do you say about ‘Ali?” He replied, “Let me alone, and don’t question me. That would be better for you.” Mu’awiyah rejoined, “By God, I shall not leave you alone until you tell me about him.” ‘Abd al-Rahman declared, “I testify that he was one of those who frequently remember God, order what is right, stand up for justice, and forgive the people.” Mu’awiyah continued, “What then do you say about ‘Uthman?” He replied, “He was the first to open the gate of injustice and lock the gates of righteousness.” Mu’awiyah declared, “You have condemned yourself.” ‘Abd al-Rahman answered, “No, I have killed you instead.” None of the Rabi’ah in the valley would speak when Shamir al-Khath’ami talked about Karim b. ‘Afif al-Khath’ami, and none of Shamir’s folk would speak to him about Karim. Mu’awiyah then sent ‘Abd al-Rahman to Ziyad, and wrote to him, “Now then, indeed, this al-‘Anazi is the worst one you sent, so give him the punishment he deserves, and kill him in the worst way.” When he was brought to Ziyad, Ziyad sent him to Quss al-Natif, and he was buried alive there.

Hujr’s Companions Who Were Killed:

Hujr b. ‘Adi, Sharik b. Shaddad al-Hadrami, $ayfi b. Fasil alShaybani, Qabisah b. Dubay’ah al-‘Absi, Muhriz b. Shihab al-Sa’di, then al-Mingari, Kidam b. Hayyan al-‘Anazi, ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Hassan al-‘Anazi whom he sent to Ziyad so he was buried alive at Quss al-Natif. Thus there were seven who were killed, enshrouded, and prayed over. It is alleged that when al-Hasan heard about the killing of Hujr and his companions, he inquired, “Did they pray over them, bury them, and make them face towards the giblah ?” Upon being told that they had, he remarked, “They were defeated by them, by the Lord of the Ka’bah.”

When Mu’awiyah made the pilgrimage, he passed by ‘A’ishah, so he asked permission to enter her presence, and she admitted him. When he sat down, she asked him, “0 Mu’awiyah, do you trust me not to conceal from you one who would kill you? ” He replied, “I have entered a safe house.” She went on, “0 Mu’awiyah, don’t you fear God because of the killing of Hujr and his companions?” He answered, “It was not I who killed them, rather those who testified against them killed them.”

(According to) Abu Mikhnaf-Zakariyya’ b. Za’idah-Abu Ishaq: I was around people who were saying, “The first disgrace in al-Kufah was the death of al-Hasan b. ‘Ali, the killing of Hujr b. ‘Adi, and the false claim of Ziyad to affinity (with the family of Abu Sufyan].” Abu Mikhnaf (said): It was claimed that at his death (Hujr), Mu’awiyah said, “My day was three times as long because of Ibn Adbar,” that is, Hujr.

(According to) Abu Mikhnaf-al-Saq’ab b. Zuhayr-al-Hasan: Mu’awiyah had four flaws, and any one of them would have been a serious offense: (his) appointment of troublemakers for this community so that he stole its rule without consultation with its members, while there was a remnant of the Companions and possessors of virtue among them; his appointment of his son as his successor after him, a drunkard (and) a winebibber who wears silk and plays tunburs; his allegation about Ziyad, while the Messenger of God has said, “The child belongs to the bed, and the adulterer should be stoned; and his killing of Hujr. Woe unto him twice for Hujr and his companions.”

Ater several attempts by Ziya’s police to arrest Hujr, Ziyad threatened the notables of the Kufaas so that their clans desert Hujr:

(According to) Hisham-Abu Mikhnaf-Ismail b. Nu’aym al-Namiri-Husayn b. ‘Abdallah al-Hamdani: When I was in the police force of Ziyad, he said, “One of you hurry off to Hujr, and summon him.” At that the commander of the police, who was Shaddad b. al-Haytham al-Hilali, told me to go and summon him. When I came to him, saying, “Comply with the governor,” his friends said, “Don’t go to him or show respect.” Upon returning to Ziyad and informing him, he ordered the commander of the police to send men with me, so he sent several men. We then came to Hujr, saying, “Comply with the governor.” When they cursed and reviled us, we returned to Ziyad, and informed him about it. At that, Ziyad rushed to the notables of the Kufans, saying, “0 people of al-Kufah, do you break with one hand while you console with the other? Your bodies are with me, while your affections are with this obsessed, stupid, crazy Hujr. By God, this comes from your plotting and your deceit. By God, demonstrate your innocence to me, or I shall bring against you folk by whom I shall bring about your downfall and your humiliation.” At that, they rushed to Ziyad saying, “God forbid, may He be praised, that we have any other view in this situation than obedience to you and to the Commander of the Faithful. Command us to do whatever will satisfy you and demonstrate our obedience and our disagreement with Hujr.” Ziyad replied, “Then let every one of you go to this group around Hujr and summon your brother, son, relative, and whoever of your clan obeys you, so that you make every one [of them that] you can stand up and leave him.” They did this and made the majority of those (who were) with Hujr b. ‘Adi stand up.

When Ziyad saw that the majority of those with Hujr had stood up and left him, he told Shaddad b. al-Haytham al-Hilali-it is also said, Haytham b. Shaddad-the commander of his police, “Hurry off to Hujr. If he complies with your request], bring him to me, and if not, order whoever is with you to pull out the clubs of the marketplace. Then assault them with the clubs so that you may bring him to me, and beat whoever resists.” Al-Hilali then came to IIujr, saying, “Comply with the governor!” The friends of Hujr replied, “No, there shall be no satisfaction. We shall not comply with him.” Al-Hilali then told his men, “Seize the clubs of the marketplace.” At that, they rushed to pull out the clubs, and advanced with them. ‘Umayr b. Yazid al-Kindi of the Band Hind-that is Abu al-‘Amaratah-said, “Indeed, I am the only man among you who has a sword, and that will not be enough for you.” Hujr asked, “What do you think?” ‘Umayr replied, “Get away from this place, and join your family. Your folk will defend you.”

Zyad’s (police force) inability to catch Hujr frustrated him and started threatening Muhammad ibn al-Asha’ath:

When they were unable to capture Hujr, Ziyad summoned Muhammad b. al-Ash’ath, and told him, “0 Abu Maytha’, by God, either bring Hujr to me or I shall chop down every single palm tree of yours and demolish every single house. Then you will not be safe from me until I cut you to pieces .” He answered, “Grant me a respite so that I may look for him.” Ziyad replied, “I grant you a respite for three days. If you bring him, [fine]; if not, consider yourself doomed.”

Another instance of Zyad questioning people of what they thought of Imam Ali and requesting them to curse Imam Ali:

Qays b. ‘Ubad al-Shaybani also came to Ziyad telling him, “There is a man among us belonging to the Banu Hammam called Sayfi b. Fasil, one of the leaders of Hujr’s companions. He is the most violent of people against you.” When Ziyad had him brought to him, he said to Sayfi, “0 Enemy of God, what do you say about Abu Turab?” Sayfi replied, “I do not know Abu Turab.” Ziyad asked, “What will make you recognize him?” Sayfi answered, “I do not know him.” Ziyad asked, “Don’t you know ‘All b. Abi Talib?” When Sayfi replied that he did, Ziyad responded, “That is Abu Turab.” Sayfi rejoined, “Certainly not! He is Abu al-Hasan and al-Husayn.” At that, the commander of the police said to him, “The amir says to you that he is Abu Turab, and you say ‘no’?” Sayfi responded, “If the amir lied, do you want me to lie and give false testimony as he did?” Ziyad told him, “This also is added to your crime. Bring me the stick!” It was brought and Ziyad asked, “What do you say?” Sayfi answered, “The best words that I was saying about one of God’s servants (I say about the Commander of the Faithful.” Ziyad commanded, “Beat his shoulder with the staff until he hugs the ground.” So Sayfi was beaten until he stayed on the ground. Then Ziyad said, “Stop beating him. What do you say about ‘Ali?” Sayfi replied, “By God, if you slice me up with razors and knives, I would only say what you heard me say.” Ziyad said, “Curse him or I shall certainly behead you.” Sayfi retorted, “Then you have already cut it off, by God. And if you refuse to do anything except cut it off, I will be satisfied with God and you will be wretched.” Ziyad commanded, “Push him by his neck,” and added, “Load him with iron, and cast him into prison.”

Ziyad gathers false testimonies agains Hujr:

Ziyad then summoned the leaders of the fourths,”” saying, “Testify against Hujr about what he did to you.” At that time the leaders of the fourths were ‘Amr b. Hurayth in charge of the fourth of the people of al-Madinah, Khalid b. ‘Urfutah in charge of the fourth of the Tamim and the Hamdan, Qays b. al-Walid b. ‘Abd Shams b. al-Mughirah in charge of the fourth of the Rabi’ah and the Kindah, and Abu Burdah b. Abu Musa in charge of the Madhhij and the Asad. There four testified that Hujr had gathered crowds about him, openly abused the Caliph, and called for war against the Commander of the Faithful. They also swore that he claimed that matters would only be set right by the family of Abu Talib, that he attacked the city and drove out the official of the Commander of the Faithful, excused Abu Turab openly and asked God’s mercy on him, and disavowed Abu Turab’s enemy and the people who fought him. They also testified that those persons who associated with him were the leaders of his companions and had views and concerns similar to his. Then Ziyad ordered them to leave. Qays b. al-Walid returned to him afterwards, saying, “I heard that when they had been escorted out, they reconsidered.” At that, Ziyad sent to the Kunasah (the location of a camel-market in al-Kufah) and, having purchased stubborn camels, he fastened litters upon them. Then he carried those leaders upon the camels in the public plaza from daybreak until evening, declaring, “Whoever wishes, let him reconsider.” But none of them stirred.
When Ziyad had examined the testimony of the witnesses, he said, “I do not consider this testimony to be conclusive, and I would like for there to be more than four witnesses.” (According to) Abu Mikhnaf and al-Harith b. Husayrah-Abu al-Kanud, that is ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Ubayd, and Abu Mikhnaf-‘Abd al-Rahman b. Jundab, and Sulayman b. Abi Rashid Abu al-Kanud, these were the names of the witnesses: In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful, this is what Abu Burdah b. Abi Musa testified against him before God, Lord of both worlds. He testified that Hujr b. ‘Adi refused obedience, withdrew from the community, cursed the Caliph, called for war and civil discord, and gathered crowds about himself, summoning them to violate the oath of allegience (bay’ah) and depose the Commander of the Faithful, Mu’awiyah. In the baldestway, he also disbelieved in God, Almighty and Great. Ziyad then said, “Give similar testimony. By God, I shall certainly endeavor to cut the thread of the necks of treacherous fools.” At that the leaders of the fourths gave similar testimony to that of Abu Burdah, and there were four of them.
Ziyad then summoned the people, saying, “Give similar testimony to that of the leaders of the fourths.” When he read the document to them, the first person to stand up was ‘Unaq b. Shurahbil b. Abi Dahm al-Taymi of the Taym Allah b. Tha’labah, saying, “Include my name.” At that, Ziyad said, “Start with the names of Quraysh, then write the name of ‘Unaq among the witnesses, and whoever else we and the Commander of the Faithful recognize as having sincere advice and integrity.”

Abu Mikhnaf (said): ‘Abdallah b. Khalifah al-Ta’i had accompanied Hujr b. ‘Adi. When Ziyad sought ‘Abdallah, he dropped out of sight. Ziyad then sent the police for him, who at that time were people of the Hamra ‘, and they arrested him. At that, his sister, al-Nawar, went out saying, “0 kinfolk of Tayyi’! Do you surrender your spearheads and your tongue? ‘Abdallah b. Khalifah!” The Ta’is then assaulted the police, struck them, and snatched ‘Abdallah b. Khalifah from them. When the police returned to Ziyad and informed him, the latter fell upon ‘Adi b. Hatim while he was in the mosque , saying, “Bring me ‘Abdallah b. Khalifah.” ‘Adi asked, “What’s the matter with him?” When Ziyad told him, he said, “This is something that happened in a tribal district I do not know .” Ziyad demanded, “By God, bring him to me.” ‘Adi retorted, “No, by God, I shall never bring him to you. I brought you my cousin whom you killed. By God, if he were beneath my feet, I would not lift them off of him.” At that, Ziyad ordered ‘Adi to the prison. Every Yamani or Raba’! in al-Kufah then came to Ziyad and interceded with him, saying, “You do this to ‘Ad! b. Hatim, a Companion of the Messenger of God.” Ziyad replied, “I would release him under one condition.” They asked, “What is it?” He said, “That his cousin should leave me and not enter al-Kufah as long as I have authority here.” When ‘Adi was informed of that, he agreed and sent for ‘Abdallah b. Khalifah, saying, “0 my nephew, indeed this [manj has been insistent in your case, and has refused everything except your exile from your city as long as he has authority. So get to the two mountains.” At that, ‘Abdallah b. Khalifah left and began to write to ‘Adi, and ‘Adi began to encourage him…

How Ziyad ibn Summayah (whom Muaawiya renamed ibn Abu Sufyan) died:

I was told by ‘Abdallah b. Ahmad al -Marwazi-his father-Sulayman-‘Abdallah b. al-Mubarik–‘Abdallah b. Shawdhab -Kathir b. Ziyad: Ziyad wrote to Mu’awiyah, “Indeed, I have seized Iraq with my left hand while my right hand is empty.” So Mu’awiyah added al-‘Arad to him, which is the Yamamah and what is adjacent to it. At that, Ibn ‘Umar prayed against him, so Ziyad caught the plague and died. When he heard the news, Ibn ‘Umar said, “Off with you, Ibn Sumayyah, for this world does not remain for you, and you did not attain the other [world].”

Mua’awiya secures the Baya’at for his son Yazid:

I was told by al-Harith-‘Ali: When Ziyad died, Mu’awiyah called for a document about appointing Yazid as his successor and read it to the people. In the event of his death, Yazid would be heir apparent. He was able to get the people to acknowledge Yazid except for five persons.
I was told by Ya’qub b. Ibrahim-Ismail b. Ibrahim-Ibn ‘Awn-a man at Nakhlah: he people acknowledged Yazid b. Mu’awiyah except for al-Husayn b. ‘Ali, Ibn ‘Umar, Ibn al-Zubayr, ‘And al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr, and Ibn ‘Abbas. So when Mu’awiyah came (to al-Madinah) he sent for al-Husayn b. ‘Ali, saying, “0 cousin, the people have been able to acknowledge Yazid except for five persons of the Quraysh whom you lead. 0 cousin, what is your purpose in disagreeing?” He replied, “Do I lead them?” Mu’awiyah replied that he did. Al-Husayn said, “So send for them, and if they acknowledge [Yazid], I would be one of them, and if not, don’t be rushing me into something.” Mu’awiyah asked, “And would you do so?” When al-Husayn replied that he would, Mu’awiyah then obliged him not to inform anyone about their conversation. Although that was difficult for him, al-Husayn granted that, and then left. Ibn al-Zubayr had a man wait for al-Husayn in the street, who said, “Your brother, Ibn al-Zubayr asks you, ‘What happened?”‘ He continued thus with al-Husayn until he got something out of him. Then, after (meeting with) al-Husayn, Mu’awiyah sent for Ibn al-Zubayr, saying to him, “The people have been able to do this except for five persons of the Quraysh. You lead them, 0 cousin, so what is your purpose in disagreeing?” Ibn al-Zubayr asked, “Do I lead them?” When Mu’awiyah replied that he did, Ibn al-Zubayr said, “So send for them, and if they acknowledge, I would be one of them, and if not, don’t be rushing me into something.” Mu’awiyah asked, “And would you do so?” When he replied that he would, Mu’awiyah obliged him not to inform anyone of their conversation. He replied, “0 Commander of the Faithful, we are in the sanctuary of God, Almighty and Great, and the pact of God, praise Him, is serious.” So he refused him and left. Then, after Ibn alZubayr, Mu’awiyah sent for Ibn ‘Umar and spoke with him in words that were softer than those he had used with his companion, saying, “Indeed, I fear that I would leave the community of Muhammad after me like sheep without a shepherd. It has been possible for the people to do this except for five persons of Quraysh, whom you lead. So what is your purpose in disagreeing?” Ibn ‘Umar replied, “What would you think about something that will avoid censure and spare blood while you achieve your purpose thereby?” Mu awiyah replied, “I would like that.” Ibn ‘Umar said, “Set up your throne publicly, then I will come and acknowledge you on condition that I will enter after you into whatever the community shall agree upon. For, by God, if the community should agree upon an Abyssinian slave after you, I would do the same.” Mu’awiyah asked, “And would you do so?” He answered that he would. Then he left, and arriving at his home, he shut his door. People began to come but he would not admit them. Mu’awiyah then sent for ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr saying, “0 lbn Abi Bakr, by what hand or foot do you come to disobey me?” He replied, “I hope that it would be good for me.” Mu’awiyah responded, “By God, I intended to kill you.” He answered, “If you do so, may God cause a curse to follow you in this world for it and make you enter the fire in the next (world] for it.” The man at Nakhlah did not mention Ibn ‘Abbas.

Year 60: Mua’awiya’s will to his son Yazid:

During this year also, Mu’awiyah imposed the declaration of allegiance to his son, Yazid, on the delegation that came to him with ‘Ubaydallah b. Ziyad. When Mu’awiyah became ill this year, he entrusted to his son, Yazid, what he did concerning the group that had refused to declare allegiance to Yazid when he had summoned them to do so. Mu’awiyah’s agreement was what Hisham b. Muhammad related according to Abu Mikhnaf -‘Abd al-Malik b. Nawfal b. Musahiq b. ‘Abdallah b. Makhramah: When Mu’awiyah became sick with the illness from which he perished, he summoned his son, Yazid, saying: O my son, I have spared you the effort, made things smooth for you, subdued enemies for you, subjected the necks of the Arabs for you, and created unity for you. I am only afraid that four individuals of Quraysh might challenge you for this matter which was established for you al-Husayn b. ‘Ali, ‘Abdallah b. ‘Umar, ‘Abdallah b. al-Zubayr, and ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr. As far as ‘Abdallah b. ‘Umar is concerned, he is a man whom righteousness has overwhelmed, and if no one else were left, he would acknowledge you. As far as al-Husayn is concerned, the people of Iraq will not leave him alone until they make him rebel. If he rebels against you, and you should defeat him, then pardon him, because he has close kinship and a great claim. As far as Ibn Abi Bakr is concerned, he is a man, who, if he should see his companions doing something, he would do likewise . He is only interested in women and pleasure. As for the one who crouches for you as a crouching lion and tricks you as a sly fox, and if an opportunity enables (him] he would spring, that is Ibn al-Zubayr. If he does that to you, and you are able to overpower him, then tear him limb from limb.

Here is another version of the will, in the same book:

(According to) Hisham-‘Awanah: We have heard in another account that when Mu’awiyah was on the verge of death, which was in this year, Yazid was absent. Mu’awiyah summoned al-Dahhak b. Qays al-Fihri, who was the head of his police, and Muslim b. ‘Uqbah al-Murri and counseled them saying: Tell Yazid my testament: Pay attention to the people of the Hijaz for they are your root. Honor whomever of them should come to you, and take care of whomever is absent. Pay attention to the people of Iraq, and if they ask you to dismiss one of their officials every day, do so. For I would rather have a governor be dismissed than for one hundred thousands swords to be unsheathed against you. Pay attention to the people of Syria , for they are your entourage and your leather bag. If something should befall you from your enemy, be victorious with them . When you are successful with them, return the people of Syria to their land. For if they should stay in another land than their own, they would take on other characteristics than their own. I only fear three persons of the Quraysh-Husayn b. ‘All, ‘Abdallah b. Umar, and ‘Abdallah b. al-Zubayr. As far as Ibn ‘Umar is concerned, he is a man whom religion has overwhelmed, so he would not ask anything from you. As far as al-Husayn b. ‘Ali is concerned, he is an insignificant man, and I hope that God would protect you from him by means of those who killed his father and deserted his brother. He has close kinship, a great claim, and is a relative of Muhammad. I don’t think the people of Iraq would leave him alone until they make him rebel. If you should overpower him pardon him, for if I were his master, I would pardon him. As far as Ibn al-Zubayr is concerned, he is a heaving reptile, so if he appears to you, stick to him unless he asks for peace from you. If he does, then accept [it] and spare the blood of your folk as much as you can.

The following happened during the reign of Yazid:

Qays b. Mushir went toward al-Kufah with the letter. However, when the letter reached al-Qadisiyyah , al-Husayn b. Tamim apprehended Qays b. Mushir and sent him to Ubaydallah b. Ziyad. Ubaydallah b. Ziyad ordered him, “Go up on the palace and curse the liar, the son of a liar.” Qays went up and said: “People, this man, al-Husayn b. `Ali, the best of God ‘s creatures, the son of Fatimah, the daughter of the Apostle, (is nearby). I am his messenger to you. I left him at al-Hajir. Answer him!” Then he cursed `Ubaydallah b. Ziyad and his father, and prayed for forgiveness for `All b. Abi Talib. `Ubaydallah ordered him to be thrown from the top of the palace . They threw him; he was smashed to pieces and killed.



According to Abu Hurayra :
“Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘I have been sent in the best
age of the children of Adam , ages passed upon until I came in
the age, in which I am.’”
Reported by al-Bukhari and Ahmad.

هللِ صلی . عَنِ الْمُطَّلِبِ بْنِ أَبِي وَدَاعَةَ رضی اهلل عنو قَالَ : جَا َء الْعَبَّاسُ إِلَی رَسُوْلِ ۲/۱۴
خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ فَجَعَلَنِي فِي خَيْرِىِمْ فِرْقَةً، ثُمَّ جَعَلَهُمْ فِرْقَػتػَيْنِ فَجَعَلَنِي فِي هللَ الْمُطَّلِبِ ، إِنَّ بْنِ عَبْدِ هللِ عَلَيْکَ السَّالَ مُ، قَالَ : أَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ هللِ فَػقَالَ : مَنْ أَنَا؟ فَػقَالُوْا: أَنْتَ رَسُوْلُ اهلل عليو وآلو وسلم فَکَااَنَّوُ سَمِعَ شَيْئًا، فَػقَامَ النَّبِيُّ صلی اهلل عليو وآلو وسلم عَلَی الْمِنْبَرِ
رَوَاهُ التػّْرْمِذِيُّ وَأَحْمَدُ. وَقَالَ أَبػُوْ عِيْسَی: ىَذَا حَدِیْثٌ حَسَنٌ. رِىِمْ نَػفْسًا. خَيْرِىِمْ بَػيْتًا وَخَيْ ي فِي خَيْرِىِمْ فِرْقَةً، ثُمَّ جَعَلَهُمْ قَػبَائِلَ، فَجَعَلَنِي فِي خَيْرِىِمْ قَبِيػْلَةً، ثُمَّ جَعَلَهُمْ بُػيػُوْتًا فَجَعَلَنِ | صلى الله عليه وسلم

Set forth by al-Bukhari in al-Sahih Bk.: al-Manaqib [The Virtues], Ch.:
Qualities of Prophet, 3/1305, $ 3364. Ahmed b. Hanbal in al-Musnad , 2/373, $
8844, 9381. Abu Ya’la in al-Musnad, 11/431 $ inShu’ab al-Iman,
2/139, $ 1392, and in Dala’il al-Nubuwa, 1/175. Ibn Sa’d in al-Tabaqaat al-Kubra,
1/24. Ibn Hibban in Tabqaat al-Muhaditheen bi Asbahan, 4/275. al-Qazi Ayaz in
al-Shifa 1/125. Ibn Asakir in Tarikh al-Medina al-Damishq, 43/95 Ibn Kathir in al￾Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, 2/256, and in Tafseer al-Quran al-Azeem, 2/174. al￾kaisarani in Tadhkra al-Hufaz, 4/1254.

According to al-Muttalib b. Abi Wada’a : “Al-Abbas came to Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم, for he
seemed to have heard something (indecent from disbelievers and
was in a rage), so the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم stood on the pulpit and said;
‘Who am I?’ They said: ‘You are Allah’s Messenger. Peace be
upon you!’ He said: ‘I am Muhammad, the son of Abd Allah b.
Abd al-Muttalib. Allah 9 created creatures, so He put me among
the best of them (the human beings). Then He divided them into
two segments (the Arabs and non-Arabs). Then He made them
tribes and He put me among the best of them (the tribe of
Quraysh). Then He made them households and He put me
among the best household (Banu Hashim), and the best of them as
a linage. (So I am the most exalted of the entire creation, my
lineage, my tribe, my household and personal glory,)’”
Reported by al-Tirmidhi and Ahmad. Al-Tirmidhi said: ‘This
is a fine tradition.’

هللِ صلی فَجَعَلَنِي فِي خَيْرِىِمْ قَبِيْالً ثُمَّ جَعَلَهُمْ بُػيػُوْتًا فَجَعَلَنِي فِي خَيْرِىِمْ بَػيْتًا ثُمَّ قَالَ رَسُوْل خَلَقَ خَلْقَوُ فَجَعَلَهُمْ فِرْقَػتػَيْنِ فَجَعَلَنِي فِي خَيْرِ الْفِرْقَػتػَيْنِ ثُمَّ جَعَلَهُمْ قَػبَائِلَ هللَ النَّاسُ، إِنَّ ااَیُّػهَا صلی اهلل عليو وآلو وسلم ثُمَّ قَالَ : هللِ عليو وآلو وسلم ااَنَّ قػَوْمًا نَالُوْا مِنْوُ فَػغَضِبَ رَسُوْلُ . عَنْ رَبِيػْعَةَ بْنِ الْحَرَثِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ رضی اهلل عنو قَالَ : بَػلَغَ النَّبِیَّ صلی اهلل ۱۵ / ۳
رَوَاهُ الْحَاکِمُ. عليو وآلو وسلم: ااَنَا خَيػْرُکُمْ قَبِيْالً وَخَيػْرُکُمْ بَػيْتًا. اهلل

. According to Rabiyah b. al-Harith b. Abd al-Muttalib :
 came to know that some people say indecent
words to him. So, Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم, stood in rage, then He
said; ‘O people! Indeed, Allah 9 has created creatures, so, He
divided them into two segments (the Arabs and non-Arabs) and
kept me in the best segment. Then He made them tribes and He
put me among the best of them (the tribe of Quraysh). Then He
made them households and He put me among the best household
(Banu Hashim).’ Then Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘So, I am the
exalted among you in my tribe and in my household.’”
Reported by al-Hakim.

هللِ صلی اهلل صلی اهلل عليو وآلو وسلم: ااَیُّػهَا النَّاسُ مَنْ ااَنَا؟ قَالُوْا: ااَنْتَ رَسُوْلُ هللِ رَسُوْلُ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ رضی اهلل عنو قَالَ : قَالَ . عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ بْنِ رَبِيػْعَةَ بْنِ ۴/۱۶
رَوَاهُ ااَحْمَدُ وَالطَّبػَرَانِيُّ وَالْحَاکِمُ وَأَبػُوْ نػُعَيْمٍ وَابْنُ ااَبِي شَيْبَةَ، وَرِجَالُوُ رِجَالُ الصَّحِ يْحِ. خَيْرِىِمْ بَػيْتًا، وَااَنَا خَيػْرُکُمْ بَػيْتًا وَخَيػْرُکُمْ نَػفْسًا. ، ثُمَّ جَعَلَهُمْ بُػيػُوْتًا فَجَعَلَنِي مِنْ خَيْرِ الْفِرْقَػتػَيْنِ، ثُمَّ جَعَلَهُمْ قَػبَائِلَ فَجَعَلَنِي مِنْ خَيْرِىِمْ قَبِيػْلَةً تعالیٰ خَلَقَ خَلْقَوُ، فَجَعَلَنِي مِنْ خَيْرِ خَلْقِوِ، ثُمَّ فَػرَّقَػهُمْ فِرْقَػتػَيْنِ فَجَعَلَنِي مِنْ هللَ قَػبػْلَهَا، ااَالَ إِنَّ فَمَا سَمِعْنَاهُ قَطُّ یَػنْتَمِي بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ . قَالَ : هللِ عليو وآلو وسلم قَالَ : ااَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ

14 Set forth by al-Tirmidhi in al-Sunan, Bk.: al-Fada’il al-Rasool [The Virtues of
Messenger of Allah], Ch.: The virtues of Prophet, 5/ 584, $ 3608. Ahmed b.
Hanbal in al-Musnad , 1/210, $ 1788. al-Bayhaqi in Dala’il al-Nubuwa, 1/149. al￾Daylami in Musnad al-Firdus, 1/41, $ 95. al-Husyani in al-Bayan al-Ta’reef, 1/178,
$ 466. al-Hindi in Kanz al-U’maal 11/415, $ 3195. al-Qazi Ayaz in al-Shifa 1/126.
15 Set forth by al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak, 3/275 $ 5077. al-Suyuti in al-Durr
al-Manthur, 4/330.

According to Abd al-Muttalib b. Rabiyah b. al-Harith b.
Abd al-Muttalib :
“Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘O people! Who am I?’ They
said: ‘You are Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم!’ He said: ‘I am Muhammad,
the son of Abd Allah b. Abd al-Muttalib.’ The narrator said; ‘we
never heard him saying like it before.’ (Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said
🙂 ‘Beware! Allah 9 has created creatures, so He put me among
the best of them (the human beings). Then He divided them into
two segments (the Arabs and non-Arabs) and put me in the best
segment. Then He made them tribes and He put me among the
best of them (the tribe of Quraysh). Then He made them
households and He put me among the best household (Banu
Hashim), and I am the best among you in household and as a
Reported by al-Tirmidhi, Ahmad, al-Hakim, Abu Nua’ym and
Ibn Abi Shayba. The narrators are authentic.
هلل . عَنْ ااَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِکٍ وَعَنْ ااَبِي بَکْرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ ىِشَامٍ رضي ا ۵/۱۷
هللِ صلی اهلل عليو نَا، نَحْنُ بَػنُو النَّضْرِ بْنِ کِنَانَةَ. قَالَ : وَخَطَبَ رَسُوْلُ وَإِنَّا لَنْ نَػنْتَفِيَ مِنْ آبَائِ ذَلِکَ، فَػقَالَ إِنَّمَا کَانَ یَػقُوْلُ ذَاکَ الْعَبَّاسُ، وَااَبُػوْ سُفْيَانَ بْنُ حَرْبٍ إِذَا قَدِمَا الْمَدِیػْنَةَ لِيَأْمَنَا بِ صلی اهلل عليو وآلو وسلم، ااَنَّ رِجَاالً مِنْ کِنْدَةَ یَػزْعَمُوْنَ ااَنَّوُ مِنػْهُمْ، عنهما قَاالَ : بَػلَغَ النَّبِيَّ
ا وَخَرَجْتُ مِنْ نِکَاحٍ، وَلَمْ ااَخْرُجْ مِنْ سِفَاحٍ، مِنْ لَدُنْ آدَمَ، حَتَّی انػْتػَهَيْتُ إِلَی ااَبِي وَااُمّْي، فَااَنَ مِنْ بَػيْنِ ااَبَػوَیْنِ، فػَلَمْ یُصِبْنِي شَيئٌ مِنْ عَهْدِ الْجَاىِلِيَّةِ. فِي خَيْرِىِمَا، فَااُخْرِجْتُ هللُ جَعَلَنِيَ يْنِ إِالَّ بْنِ کِنَانَةَ، بْنِ خُزَیْمَةَ، بْنِ مُدْرِکَةَ، بْنِ إِلْيَاسَ، بْنِ مُضَرَ، بْنِ نِزَارٍ، وَمَا افػْتػَرَؽَ النَّاسُ فِرْقَػتػَ بْنِ لُواَيّْ، بْنِ غَالِبِ ، بْنِ فِهْرِ، ابْنِ مَالِکِ ، بْنِ النَّضْرِ، قُصَيّْ، بْنِ کِالَ بِ ، بْنِ مُرَّةَ، بْنِ کَعْبِ ، ، بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ ، بْنِ ىَاشِ مِ، بْنِ عَبْدِ مَنَاؼِ ، ابْنِ هللِ وآلو وسلم، فَػقَالَ : ااَنَا مُحَمَّدُ، بْنُ عَبْدِ
حَاکِمُ وَالْبػَيػْهَقيُّ وَاللَّفْظُ لَوُ وَابْنُ عَسَاکِرَ. رَوَاهُ الْ خَيػْرُکُمْ نَػفْسًا وَخَيػْرُکُمْ ااَبًا.

16 Set forth by Ahmed b. Hanbal in al-Musnad , 4/165. al-Hakim in al￾Mustadrak, 3/275 $ 5077. Ibn Abi Shayba in al-Musannaf, 6/303, $
31639.Abu Nu’aym in Dala’il al-Nubuwa, 1/58, $ 16.Ibn Abi A’sim in al￾Sunnah 2/632, $ 1497. al-Tabarani in al-Mu’jam al-Kabir, 20/286 $ 675,676.
al-Shybani, in al-A’had al-Mathani, 1/318 $ 439.Ibn Kathir in Tafseer al￾Quran al-Azeem, 2/174. al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur, 3/294, 295, 4/128,


Anas b. Malik reported from Abu Bakr b. Abd al￾Rahman b. Hisham : “Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم came to know that some people from Banu
kinda think that he (Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم) belong to their tribe.
He (Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: al-Abbas and Abu Sufyan b. al￾Harb too used to say the same when they came to Medina, so that
they may get refuge. We don’t separate ourselves from our
fathers; we belong to the household of Banu Nadr b. Kinanah.’
He (the narrator) said; Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم gave sermon and
said; ‘I am Muhammad, the son of Abd Allah b. Abd al-Muttalib
b. Hashim b. Abd Munaf b. Qasai b. Kilab b. Murrah b. Ka’b b.
Luwye b. Ghalib b. Fihr b. Malik b. Nadr b. Kinanah b.
Khuzymah b. Mudrikah b. Ilyas b. Mudr b. Nizaar. Whenever
there was a division of people into two segments, I have been put
in the best of them. So, I have born to my parents, (the
fornications) of the era of ignorance was not involved. I have
emanated from a marriage and not from any fornication from the
time of Adam . Until my father (Abd Allah ) and my
mother (Amina ) gave birth to me (the sanctity of my linage has
remained intact). So, I am the best among you as a person and in
Reported by al-Hakim and al-Bayhaqi. This is the wording of
Ibn al-Asakir.
هللِ صلی اهلل عليو نَاءِ رَسُوْلِ ما قَالَ : إِنَّا لَقُعُوْدٌ بِفِ هلل عنه بْنِ عُمَرَ رضي ا هللِ . عَنْ عَبْدِ ۶/۱۸
هللَ إِنَّ وآلو وسلم فذکر الحدیث إلی اان قال: عَنِ النَّبِيّْ صلی اهلل عليو وآلو وسلم قَالَ :
رَوَاهُ الطَّبػَرَانِيُّ وَالْحَاکِمُ وَالْبػَيػْهَقِيُّ وَااَبػُوْ نػُعَيْمٍ. حَبَّ الْعَرَبَ فَلِحُبّْي أَحَبػَّهُمْ وَمَنْ أَبػْغَضَ الْعَرَبَ فَلِبػُغْضِي أَبػْغَضَهُمْ. فَمَنْ أَ قُػرَیْشًا، وَاخْتَارَ مِنْ قُػرَیْشٍ بَنِي ىَاشِ مٍ، وَاخْتَارَنِي مِنْ بَنِي ىَاشِ مٍ، فَأَنَا مِنْ خِ يَارٍ إِلَی خِ يَارٍ، الْخَلْقِ بَنِي آدَمَ، فَاخْتَارَ مِنْ بَنِي آدَمَ الْعَرَبَ، وَاخْتَارَ مِنَ الْعَرَبِ مُضَرَ، وَاخْتَارَ مِنْ مُضَرَمِنَ ارَ وَخَلَقَ االْاَرْضِيْنَ سَبػْعًا، فَاخْتَارَ الْعُلْيَا وَأَسْکَنػَهَا مَنْ شَاءَ مِنْ خَلْقِوِ، ثُمَّ خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ وَاخْتَ وَاتِ سَبػْعًا، فَاخْتَارَ الْعُلْيَا فَسَکَنػَهَا وَأَسْکَنَ سَائِرَ سَمَاوَاتِوِ مَنْ شَاءَ مِنْ خَلْقِوِ خَلَقَ السَّمٰ

17 Set forth by al-Bayhaqi in Dala’il al-Nubuwa, 1/174. al-Husyani in al￾Bayan al-Ta’reef, 1/294, $ 784. Ibn Asakir in Tarikh al-Medina al-Damishq,
3/29. al-Hakim in Ma’rif al-Uloom hadith, 1/171. Ibn Kathir in al-Bidayah wa
al-Nihayah, 2/255. al-Manawy in Faiz al-qadeer, 3/37.

According to Abd Allah b. Umar :
“We were sitting in the veranda of the house of Allah’s
Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم, and he (the narrator) reported an extensive report
from Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم that He said: ‘Allah 9 has created seven skies,
and selected the most high among them and (He is) established
(His sovereignty) on it. He allowed those who He selected from
his creations to reside in his Skies. He Created seven (levels of)
earth and allowed those who He selected from his creations to
reside on it. Then he created creatures and selected the children of
Adam from the creation. From the children of Adam He
selected the Arabs. He selected Mudr from Arabs, He selected
Quraysh among Arabs, He selected Banu Hashim among Quraysh
and selected me from Banu Hashim. So, I am from the best
towards the best. If someone loves Arabs, that love is because of
loving me. And if someone hates Arabs, that hate is because of
hating me.’”
Reported by al-Tabarani, al-Hakim and al-Bayhaqi and Abu
رَوَاهُ ااَبػُوْ نػُعَيْمٍ. بًا الَ تَػتَشَعَّبُ شُعْبَتَانِ إِالَّ کُنْتُ فِي خَيْرِىِمَا. مُهَذَّ تعالیٰ یَػنػْقُلُنِي مِنْ ااَصْالَ بٍ طَيّْبَةٍ إِلَی ااَرْحَاٍم طَاىِرَةٍ صَافِيًا هللُ یَػلْتَقِ ااَبَػوَايَ فِي سِ فَاحٍ لَمْ یَػزَلِ صلی اهلل عليو وآلو وسلم: لَمْ هللِ عنهما قَالَ : قَالَ رَسُوْلُ هلل . عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رضي ا ۱۹ / ۷

18 Set forth by al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak, 4/83 $ 6953. Abu Nu’aym in Dala’il
al-Nubuwa, 1/25. al-Tabarani in al-Mu’jam al-Awsat, 6/199 $ 6182, and in
Mu’jam al-Kabir 12/455, $ in Shu’ab al-Iman, 2/139, 229, $
1393, 1606 and in Dala’il al-Nubuwa, 1/170. Ibn A’dyi in al-Kamil, 2/248, $
422. al- Haythami in Majma al-Zawa’id, 8/215. al-Hakim in Ma’rif al-Uloom
hadith, 1/166.

According Ibn Abbas :
“Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘My parents never met
without marriage, Allah 9 has transferred me from pious
backbones to pure wombs. Whenever, there was a division of
segments into two, I have been put in the best among them.’”
Reported by Abu Nu’aym.

هللِ صلی اهلل عليو وآلو وسلم: رَسُوْلُ قَال : َ قَال هلل عنہما َ عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رضي ا ۸/۲۲.
وَاهُ ابْنُ سَعْدٍ کَمَا قَالَ السُّيػُوْطِيُّ رَ آدَمَ إِالَّ کُنْتُ فِي خَيْرِىِمَا. هللُ ، مَا افػْتػَرَؽَ شُعْبَتَانِ مُنْذُ خَلَقَ هللِ بَنِي ىَاشِ مٍ بػَنػُوْ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ وَ رُ الْعَرَبِ مُضَرُ، وَخَيػْرُ مُضَرَ بػَنػُوْ عَبْدِ مَنَاؼٍ ، وَخَيػْرُ بَنِي عَبْدِ مَنَاؼٍ ، بَػنػُوْ ىَاشِ مٍ، وَخَيػْرُ خَيػْ

19 Set forth by Abu Nu’aym in Dala’il al-Nubuwa, 1/24. Al-Kylaa’yi in al-Iktifa
1/11, al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur, 4/328, al-Manawy in Faiz al-qadeer,

According Ibn Abbas :
“Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘The best among Arabs are
Banu Mudr, Banu Abd Munaaf are the best among Banu Mudr,
and Banu Hashim are the best among Banu Abd Munaaf, and the
best among Banu Hashim are Banu Abd al-Muttalib. By Allah!
Whenever, there was a division of segments into two within the
children of Adam , I have been put in the best among them.’”
Reported by Ibn Sa’d as narrated by al-Suyuti.
هللِ صلی اهلل عليو وآلو وسلم: : قَالَ رَسُوْلُ قَالَ عنو هلل رضي ا . عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِیٍّ ۲۱ / ۹
رَوَاهُ ابْنُ سَعْدٍ وَالْبػَيػْهَقِيُّ. . اخْتَارَنِي مِنْ بَنِي ىَاشِ مٍ اخْتَارَ الْعَرَبَ فَاخْتَارَ مِنػْهُمْ کِنَانَةَ ثُمَّ اخْتَارَ مِنػْهُمْ قُػرَیْشًا ثُمَّ اخْتَارَ مِنػْهُمْ بَنِي ىَاشِ مٍ ثُمَّ هللَ إِنَّ

According to Muhammad b. Ali :
“Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘Indeed Allah 9 has selected
the Arabs. So, He selected Kinanah from them. Then, He
selected Quraysh among them. He then selected Banu Hashim
among them. Therefore, He selected me from Banu Hashim.’”
Reported by Ibn Sa’d and al-Bayhaqi.
آدَمَ هللُ ذَلِکَ النػُّوْرُ وَتُسَبّْحُ الْمَػالَ ئِکَةُ بِتَسْبِيْحِ وِ، فَػلَمَّا خَلَقَ یَخْلُقَ الْخَلْقَ بِااَلْفَي عَامٍ یُسَبّْحُ تَػعَالَی قَػبْلَ ااَنْ هللِ عنهما ااَنَّ قُػرَیْشًا کَانَتْ نُػوْرًا بَػيْنَ یَدَيِ هلل . عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رضي ا ۲۲ / ۱۲
هللِ صلی اهلل عليو وآلو وسلم: عليو السالم. ااَلْقَی ذَلِکَ النػُّوْرَ فِي صُلْبِوِ. قَالَ رَسُوْلُ  رَوَاهُ أَبػُوْ سَعْدٍ وَالسُّيػُوْطِيُّ. قَطُّ. االْاَرْحَامِ الطَّاىِرَةِ حَتَّی ااَخْرَجَنِي مِنْ بَػيْنِ ااَبَػوَيَّ لَمْ یَػلْتَقِيَا عَلَی سِفَاحٍ یَػنػْقُلُنِي مِنَ االْاَصْالَ بِ الْکَرِیْمَةِ إِلَی هللُ وَقُذِؼَ بِي فِي صُلْبِ إِبػْرَاىِيْمَ عليو السالم ثُمَّ لَمْ یَػزَلِ لْبِ نُػوْحٍ عليو السالم، نِي فِي صُ عليو السالم. وَجَعَلَ إِلَی االْاَرْضِ فِي صُلْبِ آدَمَ هللُ فَااَىْبَطَنِيَ

20 Set forth by al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur, 4/296, and in al-khas’is al￾Kubra, 1/64. al-Halabi in al-Seerath, 1/46.
21 Set forth by Ibn Sa’d in al-Tabaqaat al-Kubra, 1/20. al-Bayhaqi in al-Sunan
al-Kubra, 7/134, $ 13543. al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur, 4/329.

According Ibn Abbas :
“Before the creation of the creatures, (the tribe) Quraysh
were in the form of light in front of Allah 9. That light used to
glorify (Almighty Allah 9) and the Angles joined in glorifying
(Allah9) with it. When Almighty Allah 9created Adam , He
kept that light in his backbone. Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘Allah
9 have sent me to the earth in Adam’s backbone and then put
me in the backbone of Noah and then He put me in the
backbone of Abraham . Allah 9 has transferred me from pious
backbones to pure wombs, until have been emanated from my
parents and (I have not emanated) not from any fornication.’”
Reported by Abu Sa’d and al-Suyuti.
رَوَاهُ ابْنُ سَعْدٍ وَالسُّيػُوْطِيُّ. اخْتَارَنِي مِنْ بَنِي عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ . مِنَ الْعَرَبِ ، ثُمَّ اخْتَارَ بَنِي ىَاشِ مٍ مِنْ قُػرَیْشٍ ، ثُمَّ اخْتَارَ بَنِي عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبِ مِنْ بَنِي ىَاشِ مٍ، ثُمَّ رِ ثُػلُثٍ مِنػْهَا، ثُمَّ اخْتَارَ الْعَرَبَ مِنَ النَّاسِ ، ثُمَّ اخْتَارَ قُػرَیْشًا النّْصْفَ عَلَی ثَػالَ ثَةٍ فَکُنْتُ فِي خَيْ االْاَرْضَ نِصْفَيْنِ فَجَعَلَنِي فِي خَيْرِىِمَا، ثُمَّ قَسَمَ هللُ صلی اهلل عليو وآلو وسلم قَالَ : قَسَمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيّْ بْنِ حُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيّْ بْنِ ااَبِي طَالِبٍ رضي اهلل عنهم: ااَنَّ النَّبِيَّ ۱۱/۲۳.

. According to Muhammad b. Ali b. Husayn b. Ali b. Abu
Talib :
“Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘Allah 9 has divided the earth into two
equal half and put me in the best half. Then He divided one half
into three and I am in the best from the three. Then he selected
Arabs among people. So, He selected Quraysh among Arabs. He
then selected Banu Hashim among Quraysh. Then, He selected
Banu Abd al-Muttalib among Banu Hashim. Therefore, He
selected me from Banu Abd al-Muttalib.’”
Reported by Ibn Sa’d and al-Suyuti.
هللِ صلی اهلل عليو رَسُوْلُ قَالَ : قَال اهلل عنو َ رَضی بْنِ عُبػَيْدِ بْنِ عُمَيْرٍ هللِ . عَنْ عَبْدِ ۲۴ / ۱۲
رَوَاهُ ابْنُ سَعْدٍ وَالسُّيػُوْطِيُّ. تَارَنِي مِنْ بَنِي ىَاشِ مٍ. وَاخْ قػُرَیْشٍ مِنْ ىَاشِ مٍ بَنِي وَاخْتَارَ کِنَانَةَ مِنْ قُػرَیْشًا وَاخْتَارَ الْعَرَبِ مِنَ کِنَانَةَ فَاخْتَارَ الْعَرَبَ اخْتَارَ هللَ إِنَّ وسلم وآلو

22 Set forth by Abu Sa’d al-Nishapuri in Sharf al-Mustafa, 1/304 $ 78. al￾Suyuti in al-Durral-Manthur, 4/298, and in al-khas’is al-Kubra, 1/66. al￾Halabi in al-Seerath, 1/42.
23 Set forth by Ibn Sa’d in al-Tabaqaat al-Kubra, 1/20. al-Suyuti in al-Durr al￾Manthur, 4/329.

According to Abd Allah b. Ubayd b. Umair :
“Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘Indeed Allah 9 has selected
the Arabs. So, He selected Kinanah from Arabs. Then, He
selected Quraysh among Kinanah, He then selected Banu Hashim
among Quraysh and He selected me from Banu Hashim.’”
Reported by Ibn Sa’d and al-Suyuti.
هللِ صلی اهلل عليو وآلو وسلم . عَنْ قَػتَادَةَ رضی اهلل عنو قَالَ : ذُکِرَ لَنَا ااَنَّ رَسُوْلَ ۱۳/۲۵
رَوَاهُ ابْنُ سَعْدٍ وَالسُّيػُوْطِيُّ. ااَنْ یػَبػْعَثَ نَبِيِّا نَظَرَ إِلَی خَيْرِ أَىْلِ االْاَرْضِ قَبِيػْلَةً فَػيَبػْعَثُ خَيػْرَىَا رَجُالً . هللُ قَالَ : إِذَا ااَرَادَ

According to Qatada :
“It was reported to us that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم said:
‘When Allah 9 intends to send a Prophet, He would select the
best tribe from the earth and then He gives Prophethood to the
best among them.’”
Reported by Ibn Sa’d and al-Suyuti.
ابْنُ عَسَاکِرَ وَالسُّيػُوْطِي. رَوَاهُ خَرَجْتُ مِنْ ااَفْضَلِ حَيػَّيْنِ مِنَ الْعَرَبِ : ىَاشِ مٌ وَزُىْرَةُ. رَجْتُ مِنْ صُلْبِ ااَبِي آدَمَ، وَلَمْ تَػزَلْ تُػنَازِعُنِيَ االْاُمَمُ کَابِرًا عَنْ کَابِرٍ حَتَّی خَ مُذْ قَطُّ بَغِيّّ وَلَدَتْنِي مَا هللِ صلی اهلل عليو وآلو وسلم: رَسُوْلُ قَال : َ قَال اهلل عنو َ . عَنْ ااَبِي ىُرَیػْرَةَ رضی ۲۶ / ۱۴

24 Set forth by Ibn Sa’d in al-Tabaqaat al-Kubra, 1/21. al-Suyuti in al-Durr al￾Manthur, 4/329.
25 Set forth by Ibn Sa’d in al-Tabaqaat al-Kubra, 1/24. al-Suyuti in al-Durr al￾Manthur, 4/330.

According to Abu Hurayra :
“Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: ‘I have not emanated from
any impure woman (none of my mothers were indulged in
fornication) from the time I have been put in the backbone of
Adam . I have always been kept among the best, until I took
birth in the two noble families of Arabs: Hashim and Zuhra.’”
م تَصَ ر ِ فًافِيالْو ج وْدِ ِبِإذٌِْ خَ الِقِهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَص ْ ل ٌ فِيکَوْ ىِهِ ث الثَالُِ ُ اَلْفَصل ُ .


Now ews soon spread like wild fire in Mecca that Hussain along with his Ahle-Bait would leave for Iraq very soon.

The Bani Hashim were much concerned and uneasy about the fresh journey, the outcome of which was fraught with danger. Several people came to Husain to request him to desist from such a journey. They even said that if he was determined in his resolve, he should at least leave behind his children and ladies while embarking on a journey so fraught with danger.

Umar bin Abdurrehman bin Haris bin Hisham came to visit Imam Husain and said, “I have come to you with a sincere request and I pray that I may, with all the best wishes, share this request to you. If you consider me to be your well wisher then, I will tell you, otherwise I will maintain silence.

The Imam said, “Make haste brother! Tell me your request, hesitate not! By God I do not consider you to be a deceiver or a traitor nor a selfish person.’

Umar Ibne Abdurrehman said, “I have heard that you are going towards Iraq. I am scared that you may reach such a town where the rulers and their officers may be awaiting your

arrival. All the wealth and treasury will be in their control. People are zealous slaves of wealth. I am apprehensive that the very people who have promised to help you, the people whom you consider to be friends, may not rise up to your expectations. I apprehend they may instead join forces with your enemies.”

Abdullah Ibne Abbas next came to meet Imam Husain and said.

“O son of my unclel People are saying that you intend to go Iraq. Please tell me your programme?”

Husain replied, “I resolve to leave for Iraq in two to three days.”

Ibne Abbas did not support the idea and said, “I will pray to God that He may desist you from this idea. Tell me! Are you going to a place where people have killed their ruler and have turned out their enemies? Are they in control of their towns? If it is like that then you should certainly go! But if their commander is still ruling over them and the people are paying taxes to them, then they are inviting you to fight and quarrel. I am afraid they are telling lies and they will be your adversaries. They will leave you friendless and will come indeed to fight against you and make you weary and tired of life.”

The Imam replied briefly, “I will solicit to God for goodness and welfare and seek the answer from omens (Istakhara). Whatever he wills, will be done.”

When Ibne Abbas came out after meeting Imam Husain he met Ibne Zubair. Inspite of his refusal to pay allegiance to Yazeed, Zubair had not left Mecca.

Ibne Abbas again visited Imam Husain in the evening and repeatedly entreated and requested the Imam.

“O remembrance of my uncle, I try to be patient but I am unable to control myself, I am apprehensive and consider this journey of yours to be precursor of calamity and misfortune. People of Iraq are cunning and deceitful. Why don’t you stay put in this city itself?”

“You are the commander of the people of Hejaz. If the people of Iraq are truthful then write a letter to them saying that they chase away their enemy, then you should go to them.”

But Husain was resolute is his decision. Consequently, Ibne Abbas was compelled to say, “Since you are going, please don’t take your ladies and children along with you. By God, I am afraid that they may murder you like they did Usman. His wives and children were witness to the scene. But Imam Husain did not accept the proposal.

The time of departure of Husain was approaching fast. People were looking at them with affection, but with resignation too.

At last, an attempt to desist him from the impending journey was made by Abdullah Ibne Jafar, the revered husband of Janabe Zainab. He sent a letter to Imam Husain through his sons Aun and Mohammed.

“I entreat you in the name of God, when you read my letter please give up your plan of embarking on this journey. 1 am afraid that this journey may result in your destruction and ruin and bring distress to your family. If you are martyred, then the divine light from the face of this earth will disappear. You are the role model for all Momineen. You are the object of desire of all seekers of righteousness. Please don’t embark on this journey in haste. I intend to follow my letter and meet you soon.

“You are the splendour and the light of the earth and centre of seekers of righteousness and supporter of true believers.”

This is also not conceivable that Abdullah might have thought that before going to meet Husain and having a dialogue with him he should go to meet the governor of Mecca who was Yazeed’s representative. After dispatching the letter, he did go to meet Umroo bin Saeed and consulted him. Abdullah asked Umroo to write a letter to Husain and assure him of security, help and good wishes.

Umroo replied, “You feel free to write whatever you feel like and I will put my seal on the letter.” Abdullah wrote letter on his behalf and the ruler put his seal on it. At that time, Abdullah said, “It will be appropriate if you send this letter through your brother Yahya to Husain so that he may surmise that this effort is from your side.

Umroo accepted this advice and Yahya carried this letter to Husain.

Husain gave a courteous reply to the letter but remained firm in his resolve to continue the journey.

I have relinquished my life in order to follow the divine orders of Allah. I stand resolute in my intentions.”