MUAAWIYA IN HISTORY OF AL-TABARI

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Everything here is from the History of al-Tabari. Use the link to read more and educate yourself. After reading what I have presented here, you will see and understand the kind of regime Mua’awiya was running. A regime that oppressed and persecuted those who praised Imam Ali, a regime that forced the people to curse and disavow Imam Ali, a regime that blamed Imam Ali and his companions of the murder of Uthman, a regime that suppressed any opposition by killing or emprisonment, a regime that used the blood of Uthman to justify their actions, a regime that cursed Imam Ali during every Khutbah, a regime that had nothing to do with Islam, indeed.

Year 42 (APRIL 26, 662-APRIL 14, 663):

In this year Mu’awiyah made Marwan b. al-Hakam governor of al-Madinah, and Marwan appointed ‘Abdallah b. al-Harith b. Nawfal as judge. Khalid b. al-‘As b. Hisham was (the governor) in charge of Mecca; al-Mughirah b. Shu’bah was in charge of al-Kufah on his” behalf, while Shurayh super-vised rendering judgment there. ‘Abdallah b. ‘Amir was in charge of al-Basrah, while ‘Amr b. Yathribi was in charge of rendering judgment, and Qays b. al-Haytham was in charge of Khurasan on behalf of ‘Abdallah b. ‘Amir.

Mua’awiya made the cursed Marwan al-Hakam governor of al-Madinah!

It was said that in this year Busr b. Abi Artat al-‘Amiri set out for al-Madinah, Mecca, and al-Yaman. He killed various Muslims during that journey, according to al-Wagidi…Al-Wagidi claimed that he was told by Dawud b. Hayyan-‘Ata’ b. Abi Marwan: Busr b. Abi Artat stayed at al-Madinah for a month investigating the people. He killed everyone who was said to have helped against ‘Uthman. (According to) ‘Ata b. Abi Marwan-Hanzalah b. ‘Ali al-Aslami: Busr found some of the Banu Ka’b and their youths at one of their wells, so he threw them in it.

Year 47 (MARCH 3, 667-FEBRUARY 19, 668):

In this year also, ‘Abdallah b. ‘Amr b. al-‘Aas was dismissed from ( the governorship of) Egypt, and Mu’awiyah b. Hudayj was put in charge there . According to al-Wagidi, Mu’awiyah b. Hudayj set out westward; he was an ‘Uthmani. ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr, who had come from al-Iskandariyyah, marched past him, saying to him, “0 Mu’awiyah (b. Hudayj), indeed, by my life, you took your reward from Mu’awiyah. You killed Muhammad b. Abi Bakr in order to be made governor of Egypt, and you have become its governor.” Mu’awiyah b. Hudayj replied, “I only killed Muhammad b. Abi Bakr for what he did to ‘Uthman.” At that ‘Abd al-Rahman replied, “However, if you were seeking (revenge for] the blood of’Uthman, you would not have participated in what Mu’awiyah did, since ‘Amr b. al-‘As treated al-Ash’ari the way he did. You were the first person to jump up and declare allegiance to Mu’awiyah.

Year 51 (JANUARY 18, 671-JANUARY 7, 672): Hujr b. ‘Adi’s Execution

Hisham b. Muhammad-Abu Mikhnaf-al-Mujalid b. Said, al-Saq’ab b. Zuhayr, Fudayl b. Khadij, and al-Husayn b. ‘Ugbah al-Maradi have all told me some of this narrative, so their account was combined with what I transmitted of the narrative about Hujr b. ‘Adi al-Kindi and his companions: When Mu’awiyah b. Abi Sufyan put al-Mughirah b. Shu’bah in charge of al-Kufah in Jumada 41 (September 2-October 30, 661), he summoned him. After praising and glorifying God, he said, “Now then, indeed a forbearing person has been admonished in the past. Al-Mutalammis has said: A forbearing person has been admonished in the past, and man was taught only in order to learn. The wise might do what you want without instruction. Although I have wanted to advise you about many things, I left them alone, trusting in your discernment of what pleases me, what helps my regime and what sets my subjects on the right path. I would continue to advise you about a quality of yours – do not refrain from abusing ‘Ali and criticizing him, nor from asking God’s mercy upon ‘Uthman and His forgiveness for him. Continue to shame the companions of ‘Ali, keep them at a distance , and don’t listen to them, Praise the faction of ‘Uthman, bring them near, and listen to them.”
At that al-Mughirah responded, “I have experienced (others), and (they) have experienced me. Before working for you I worked for others. I do not mind rejection, nor promotion, nor demotion. After you have experienced (me), you will praise or blame [me).”
Mu’awiyah replied, “No, we shall praise if God wills.”
Al-Mughirah remained governor of al-Kufah for Mu’awiyah for seven years and (some) months. He was the best behaved and the most (strongly) in favor of well-being, in spite of the fact that he would not stop blaming ‘Ali for what had happened and for killing ‘Uthman. He continued to curse those who had killed the latter, while he called for mercy and forgiveness for ‘Uthman and vindication for his companions.
When Hujr b. ‘Adi heard that, he used to say, “May God rebuke and curse you instead.” Then he stood up and said, “Indeed, God, Almighty and Great, says, ‘Be custodians in fairness, witnesses for God.’ I testify that the one you rebuke and condemn is more deserving of merit, and the one you vindicate and extol is more entitled to blame.”
Al-Mughirah would then tell him, “0 Hujr, your arrow was shot; now I am governor over you. 0 Hujr, woe unto you. Fear the regime. Fear its wrath and its power. Indeed the fury of the regime can destroy many of the likes of you.” Then he would desist and forgive Hujr. He continued thus until, at the end of his governorship, al-Mughirah arose and said what he used to say about ‘Ali and Mu’awiyah, which was, “O God, have mercy on ‘Uthman b. ‘Affan and don’t punish him, but reward him for his best work. For, indeed, he acted according to Your Book and the example (sunnah) of Your Prophet. He united our speech, and prevented our blood from being shed, and yet, he was wrongly killed. 0 God, have mercy also on his adherents, supporters, friends, and those who seek vengeance for him.” He would also call for ‘Uthman’s murderers (to be punished).
At that, Hujr b. ‘Adi jumped up, and let out a scream at al-Mughirah that everyone who was in the mosque and outside of it heard, saying, “You certainly do not understand what men burn for, because of your senility. 0 man, Order our rations and stipends for us, for you have certainly withheld them from us, and that is not your right, and no one who preceded you has desired that. You have become passionate about blaming the Commander of the Faithful and praising the criminals.” At that, more than two-thirds’ of the people stood up with him saying, “By God. Hujr was right and honest. Order our rations and stipends for us, for this talk of yours doesn’t do us any good, and it gives us nothing profitable.” And they increased this kind of talk.
At that, al-Mughirah descended (from the pulpit) and entered (the governor’s residence). When his folk asked permission to attend him, he admitted them, and they said, “Why do you leave this man alone who makes this statement and whose insolence is so bold during your regime. Indeed, you acquire two faults thereby. The first is the degradation of your regime. The other is that if it should reach Mu’awiyah, it would make him angry with you.” ‘Abdallah b. Abi ‘Agil al-Thaqafi was the most severe of them (in) speaking to him about the matter of Hujr and its importance. Al-Mughirah answered, “I have killed him. He will come to a governor after me, and will regard him like me and treat him in the same way as you see him treating. As a result, that governor will seize Hujr at once, and kill him in an evil way. Indeed my appointed time draws near, and my actions have become weak. I do not want to start the people of this city killing the best among themselves and shedding their blood. They are fortunate thereby, while I am miserable. Mu’awiyah will grow strong in this world, while al-Mughirah will be humbled on the Day of Resurrection. But, I shall receive those who are pleasing and forgive those who are displeasing. I shall praise the prudent and admonish the impudent until death should separate me from them. They will remember me if they should put officials to the test after me.”
(According to) Abu Mikhnaf-‘Uthman b. ‘Uqbah al-Kindi-a shaykh of the district who related this account: By God we put them to the test, and found him to be the best of them. He was the most commendable toward the innocent, the most forgiving toward those who were offensive, and the most receptive to excuses.

According to the above account, it was a common practice by the governors of Mua’awiya, and as instructed by Muaawiya, to remind the people of the murder of Uthman in order to keep their hatred towards Imam Ali strong and rooted, and to shame and be hostile to his companions. They praised Uthman and his companions, supplicated that Allah had mercy on them, and they blamed Imam Ali for the killing of Uthman, called for latter’s murders to be punished, and cursed them. Despite Hujr’s heroic stand against al-Mughira’s claims and in defense of Imam Ali, the latter refused to harm Hujr ibn Adi. al-Mughira died the same year and Ziyad ibn Abu Sufyan become the governor of Basra and Kufa. Ziyad would also, and I quote al-Tabari, mention Uthman and his companions, and praise them, and mention his murderers, and curse them. Hujr would then get up and do as he had done to al-Mughirah.

(According to) Hisham-‘Awanah: Al-Mughirah became governor of al-Kufah in Jumada 41(661/662), and he died this year. Al-Kufah and al-Basrah were then combined for Ziyad b. Abi Sufyan. Ziyad advanced until he entered the citadel at al-Kufah. Then he ascended the pulpit, and after he had praised and extolled God, he said, “Now then, indeed, we have been put to the test and we have tested. We have ruled and rulers have ruled us, and we have found that this matter would only be set right in the end by that which set it right at the beginning: tractable obedience, the same in secret as openly, when people are absent as when they are present, and [in] their hearts as [on] their tongues. We found that only flexibility without weakness and strength without violence would reform the people. As for myself, by God, I shall not undertake a matter with you unless I carry it out to its smallest detail. There is no lie to which God and the people are witness greater than the lie of an imam upon the pulpit.” Then he mentioned ‘Uthman and his companions, and praised them, and mentioned his murderers, and cursed them. Hujr then got up and did as he had done to al-Mughirah.

Whenever Ziyad would return to al-Basrah he would put ‘Amr b. al-Hurayth in charge of al-Kufah. When he had returned to al-Basrah, he heard that the partisans of ‘Ali had gathered to Hujr and had openly cursed and disavowed Mu’awiyah, and that they had thrown pebbles at ‘Amr b. al-Hurayth. At that, he set out for al-Kufah and, upon arriving there, he entered the citadel. Then he went out and ascended the pulpit wearing a robe of silk brocade and a green silk scarf, having parted his hair, while Hujr was sitting in the mosque surrounded by more of his companions than before. After Ziyad had praised and extolled God, he said, “Now then, injustice and transgression have fatal consequences. Indeed, these (people) gathered and did evil. They felt safe from me, so they took liberties with me. I swear by God, if you do not straighten out, I shall cure you with your [own] medicine.” He continued “I shall have accomplished nothing if I don’t protect the plaza of al-Kufah from Hujr and make him an example for whoever should come after him. Woe unto your mother, 0 Hujr! You found a wolf for dinner.”

When he (Ziyad) had finished (the prayers), he wrote to Mu’awiyah about the matter of Hujr and exaggerated it. Mu’awiyah then wrote back to him, “Clamp him in irons, then deliver him to me.” When Mu’awiyah’s letter arrived, and Hujr’s folk wanted to protect him, Hujr said, “No, pay heed and obey instead.” When he had been clamped in irons, he was delivered to Mu’awiyah. When Hujr entered the latter’s presence, he said, “Peace be upon you, 0 Commander of the Faithful, and the mercy of God and His blessings.” But Mu’awiyah replied to him, “Commander of the Faithful! By God, I will not be addressed by you or consider speaking to you. Take him out and behead him.” Upon being taken out from Mu’awiyah’s presence, Hujr said to those who were in charge of dealing with him, “Give me leave until I perform two prostrations.” They replied, “Perform them.” When he had performed two prostrations which he shortened, he said, “Lest you suppose that I am doing other than what I am, I would have liked for my prostrations to take longer than they did. These two prostrations are as good as any previous devotions.” Then he told whomever of his folk attended him, “Don’t undo the irons, and don’t wash the blood off of me. I may meet Mu’awiyah in the future on the street.” Then he was brought forth, and his head was cut off.

The prisoners being referred to here are the companions of Hujr:

Mu’awiyah then sent Hudbah b. Fiyyad al -Quda’i of the Banii Salaman b. Sa’d, al-Husayn b. ‘Abdallah al-Kilabi, and Abu Sharif al-Baddi, and they brought the prisoners in the evening. When al-Khath’ami saw al-A’war, he said, “Half of us will be killed and half saved.” Sa’d b. Nimran said, “0 God, make me one of those who are saved, as long as You are satisified with me.” ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Hassan al-Anazi said, “0 God, make me one of those whose disgrace honors You , as long as you are satisfied with me. How often I presented myself for killing. God thus has willed what He desired.” The messenger of Mu’awiyah then came to them with orders to release six and to kill eight, telling them, “We have been ordered to let you disavow ‘Ali and curse him. If you do so, we shall release you; and if you refuse, we shall kill you. The Commander of the Faithful also declares that he has been allowed to shed your blood by the testimony of the people of your city against you, although he has refrained from that. So renounce this man, and we shall release you.’They replied, “0 God, we shall not do that.” He then ordered for their graves to be dug, and their shrouds to be brought. They spent the entire night worshipping, so, when morning came, Mu’awiyah’s men said, “Hey you! We saw you last night prolonging worship and doing it well, so inform us of what you have to say about ‘Uthman.” They replied, “He was the first who deviated in judgment and acted wrongly.” At that, Mu’awiyah’s men declared, “The Commander of the Faithful knew you better.” They then stood up in front of the prisoners saying, “Denounce this man!” They replied, “We vindicate him instead, and denounce whoever denounces him.” At that, every man took one of them in order to kill him. When Qabisah b. Dubay’ah fell into the hands of Abu Sharifah al-Baddi, he told the latter, “The (former] hatred has been changed to peace between my folk and your folk, so let someone else kill me .” So Abu Sharifah answered him, “Kinship helped you,” and took al-Hadrami and killed him, while al-Quda’i killed Qabisah b. Dubay’ah.

Then Hujr told them, “Leave me alone so I may perform ablutions.” They told him to do so. When he finished, he told them, “Leave me alone so I can make two prostrations. I certainly swear to God that I have never performed ablutions without making two prostrations.” They told him to worship, and he did so. Then he stopped, saying, “By God, I never worshipped more quickly than this, and if you think that I have no anxiety about death, I would have liked to prolong it.” Then he added, “0 God, we appeal to You for help against our community, since the Kufans have testified against us, and since the Syrians are killing us. However, by God, if you killed me here, I would be the first Muslim horseman to perish in this valley, and the first Muslim man at whom its dogs barked .” When al-A’war Hudbah b. Fiyad strode to him with his sword, Hujr’s sinews trembled, and al-A’war declared, “Certainly not! You claimed that you were not anxious about death. I will leave you, so renounce your companions.” But Hujr replied, “Why shouldn’t I be anxious, since I see a grave dug, a shroud spread out, and a sword unsheathed. By God, if I were anxious about killing I would not say that which angers the Lord .” At that, al-A’war killed him, and they began to kill them one by one until they had killed six.

Below shows an instance of how Mua’awiya (and his governors) used to ask the people of their opinions about Ali and how he would persecute them if their answers favored Ali:

‘Abd al-Rahman b. Hassan al-‘Anazi and Karim b. ‘Afif al-Khath’ami then said, “Send us to the Commander of the Faithful, and we shall say what he does about this man.” When they sent to Mu’awiyah informing him of their statement, he sent word back to them, “Bring both of them to me .” When they had entered his presence, al-Khath’ami exclaimed, “God! God! O Mu’awiyah, indeed, you will be transported from this transitory abode to the eternal abode hereafter, then questioned about what you hoped to gain by killing us and why you shed our blood.” Mu’awiyah inquired, “What do you say about ‘Ali?” He replied, “I say what you do about him,” adding, “Shall I renounce the faith of ‘Ali who used to worship God along with it?” He then fell silent, and Mu’awiyah did not want to answer him. Shamir b. ‘Abdallah of the Banii Quhafah got up, asking, “0 Commander of the Faithful, give me my cousin.” Mu’awiyah replied, “You have him, except I am going to imprison him for a month.” Shamir would send word to Mu’awiyah every two days and intercede with him, and the latter told him, “Indeed, I would think you were precious for Iraq if the likes of you were among them .” Then Shamir brought him up again, so Mu’awiyah said, “We have commuted your cousin’s sentence for you.” He then summoned al-Khath’ami and released him on condition that he would not enter al-Kufah as long as he was ruler . Mu’awiyah then said, “Choose whichever Arab land you would prefer for me to send you to.” Al-Khath’ami chose Mosul. He used to say, “If Mu’awiyah should die, I would come to the city.” But he died a month before Mu’awiyah.
Then Mu’awiyah turned to ‘Abd al-Rahman al-‘Anazi, and asked him, “0 brother of the Rabi’ah, what do you say about ‘Ali?” He replied, “Let me alone, and don’t question me. That would be better for you.” Mu’awiyah rejoined, “By God, I shall not leave you alone until you tell me about him.” ‘Abd al-Rahman declared, “I testify that he was one of those who frequently remember God, order what is right, stand up for justice, and forgive the people.” Mu’awiyah continued, “What then do you say about ‘Uthman?” He replied, “He was the first to open the gate of injustice and lock the gates of righteousness.” Mu’awiyah declared, “You have condemned yourself.” ‘Abd al-Rahman answered, “No, I have killed you instead.” None of the Rabi’ah in the valley would speak when Shamir al-Khath’ami talked about Karim b. ‘Afif al-Khath’ami, and none of Shamir’s folk would speak to him about Karim. Mu’awiyah then sent ‘Abd al-Rahman to Ziyad, and wrote to him, “Now then, indeed, this al-‘Anazi is the worst one you sent, so give him the punishment he deserves, and kill him in the worst way.” When he was brought to Ziyad, Ziyad sent him to Quss al-Natif, and he was buried alive there.

Hujr’s Companions Who Were Killed:

Hujr b. ‘Adi, Sharik b. Shaddad al-Hadrami, $ayfi b. Fasil alShaybani, Qabisah b. Dubay’ah al-‘Absi, Muhriz b. Shihab al-Sa’di, then al-Mingari, Kidam b. Hayyan al-‘Anazi, ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Hassan al-‘Anazi whom he sent to Ziyad so he was buried alive at Quss al-Natif. Thus there were seven who were killed, enshrouded, and prayed over. It is alleged that when al-Hasan heard about the killing of Hujr and his companions, he inquired, “Did they pray over them, bury them, and make them face towards the giblah ?” Upon being told that they had, he remarked, “They were defeated by them, by the Lord of the Ka’bah.”

When Mu’awiyah made the pilgrimage, he passed by ‘A’ishah, so he asked permission to enter her presence, and she admitted him. When he sat down, she asked him, “0 Mu’awiyah, do you trust me not to conceal from you one who would kill you? ” He replied, “I have entered a safe house.” She went on, “0 Mu’awiyah, don’t you fear God because of the killing of Hujr and his companions?” He answered, “It was not I who killed them, rather those who testified against them killed them.”

(According to) Abu Mikhnaf-Zakariyya’ b. Za’idah-Abu Ishaq: I was around people who were saying, “The first disgrace in al-Kufah was the death of al-Hasan b. ‘Ali, the killing of Hujr b. ‘Adi, and the false claim of Ziyad to affinity (with the family of Abu Sufyan].” Abu Mikhnaf (said): It was claimed that at his death (Hujr), Mu’awiyah said, “My day was three times as long because of Ibn Adbar,” that is, Hujr.

(According to) Abu Mikhnaf-al-Saq’ab b. Zuhayr-al-Hasan: Mu’awiyah had four flaws, and any one of them would have been a serious offense: (his) appointment of troublemakers for this community so that he stole its rule without consultation with its members, while there was a remnant of the Companions and possessors of virtue among them; his appointment of his son as his successor after him, a drunkard (and) a winebibber who wears silk and plays tunburs; his allegation about Ziyad, while the Messenger of God has said, “The child belongs to the bed, and the adulterer should be stoned; and his killing of Hujr. Woe unto him twice for Hujr and his companions.”

Ater several attempts by Ziya’s police to arrest Hujr, Ziyad threatened the notables of the Kufaas so that their clans desert Hujr:

(According to) Hisham-Abu Mikhnaf-Ismail b. Nu’aym al-Namiri-Husayn b. ‘Abdallah al-Hamdani: When I was in the police force of Ziyad, he said, “One of you hurry off to Hujr, and summon him.” At that the commander of the police, who was Shaddad b. al-Haytham al-Hilali, told me to go and summon him. When I came to him, saying, “Comply with the governor,” his friends said, “Don’t go to him or show respect.” Upon returning to Ziyad and informing him, he ordered the commander of the police to send men with me, so he sent several men. We then came to Hujr, saying, “Comply with the governor.” When they cursed and reviled us, we returned to Ziyad, and informed him about it. At that, Ziyad rushed to the notables of the Kufans, saying, “0 people of al-Kufah, do you break with one hand while you console with the other? Your bodies are with me, while your affections are with this obsessed, stupid, crazy Hujr. By God, this comes from your plotting and your deceit. By God, demonstrate your innocence to me, or I shall bring against you folk by whom I shall bring about your downfall and your humiliation.” At that, they rushed to Ziyad saying, “God forbid, may He be praised, that we have any other view in this situation than obedience to you and to the Commander of the Faithful. Command us to do whatever will satisfy you and demonstrate our obedience and our disagreement with Hujr.” Ziyad replied, “Then let every one of you go to this group around Hujr and summon your brother, son, relative, and whoever of your clan obeys you, so that you make every one [of them that] you can stand up and leave him.” They did this and made the majority of those (who were) with Hujr b. ‘Adi stand up.

When Ziyad saw that the majority of those with Hujr had stood up and left him, he told Shaddad b. al-Haytham al-Hilali-it is also said, Haytham b. Shaddad-the commander of his police, “Hurry off to Hujr. If he complies with your request], bring him to me, and if not, order whoever is with you to pull out the clubs of the marketplace. Then assault them with the clubs so that you may bring him to me, and beat whoever resists.” Al-Hilali then came to IIujr, saying, “Comply with the governor!” The friends of Hujr replied, “No, there shall be no satisfaction. We shall not comply with him.” Al-Hilali then told his men, “Seize the clubs of the marketplace.” At that, they rushed to pull out the clubs, and advanced with them. ‘Umayr b. Yazid al-Kindi of the Band Hind-that is Abu al-‘Amaratah-said, “Indeed, I am the only man among you who has a sword, and that will not be enough for you.” Hujr asked, “What do you think?” ‘Umayr replied, “Get away from this place, and join your family. Your folk will defend you.”

Zyad’s (police force) inability to catch Hujr frustrated him and started threatening Muhammad ibn al-Asha’ath:

When they were unable to capture Hujr, Ziyad summoned Muhammad b. al-Ash’ath, and told him, “0 Abu Maytha’, by God, either bring Hujr to me or I shall chop down every single palm tree of yours and demolish every single house. Then you will not be safe from me until I cut you to pieces .” He answered, “Grant me a respite so that I may look for him.” Ziyad replied, “I grant you a respite for three days. If you bring him, [fine]; if not, consider yourself doomed.”

Another instance of Zyad questioning people of what they thought of Imam Ali and requesting them to curse Imam Ali:

Qays b. ‘Ubad al-Shaybani also came to Ziyad telling him, “There is a man among us belonging to the Banu Hammam called Sayfi b. Fasil, one of the leaders of Hujr’s companions. He is the most violent of people against you.” When Ziyad had him brought to him, he said to Sayfi, “0 Enemy of God, what do you say about Abu Turab?” Sayfi replied, “I do not know Abu Turab.” Ziyad asked, “What will make you recognize him?” Sayfi answered, “I do not know him.” Ziyad asked, “Don’t you know ‘All b. Abi Talib?” When Sayfi replied that he did, Ziyad responded, “That is Abu Turab.” Sayfi rejoined, “Certainly not! He is Abu al-Hasan and al-Husayn.” At that, the commander of the police said to him, “The amir says to you that he is Abu Turab, and you say ‘no’?” Sayfi responded, “If the amir lied, do you want me to lie and give false testimony as he did?” Ziyad told him, “This also is added to your crime. Bring me the stick!” It was brought and Ziyad asked, “What do you say?” Sayfi answered, “The best words that I was saying about one of God’s servants (I say about the Commander of the Faithful.” Ziyad commanded, “Beat his shoulder with the staff until he hugs the ground.” So Sayfi was beaten until he stayed on the ground. Then Ziyad said, “Stop beating him. What do you say about ‘Ali?” Sayfi replied, “By God, if you slice me up with razors and knives, I would only say what you heard me say.” Ziyad said, “Curse him or I shall certainly behead you.” Sayfi retorted, “Then you have already cut it off, by God. And if you refuse to do anything except cut it off, I will be satisfied with God and you will be wretched.” Ziyad commanded, “Push him by his neck,” and added, “Load him with iron, and cast him into prison.”

Ziyad gathers false testimonies agains Hujr:

Ziyad then summoned the leaders of the fourths,”” saying, “Testify against Hujr about what he did to you.” At that time the leaders of the fourths were ‘Amr b. Hurayth in charge of the fourth of the people of al-Madinah, Khalid b. ‘Urfutah in charge of the fourth of the Tamim and the Hamdan, Qays b. al-Walid b. ‘Abd Shams b. al-Mughirah in charge of the fourth of the Rabi’ah and the Kindah, and Abu Burdah b. Abu Musa in charge of the Madhhij and the Asad. There four testified that Hujr had gathered crowds about him, openly abused the Caliph, and called for war against the Commander of the Faithful. They also swore that he claimed that matters would only be set right by the family of Abu Talib, that he attacked the city and drove out the official of the Commander of the Faithful, excused Abu Turab openly and asked God’s mercy on him, and disavowed Abu Turab’s enemy and the people who fought him. They also testified that those persons who associated with him were the leaders of his companions and had views and concerns similar to his. Then Ziyad ordered them to leave. Qays b. al-Walid returned to him afterwards, saying, “I heard that when they had been escorted out, they reconsidered.” At that, Ziyad sent to the Kunasah (the location of a camel-market in al-Kufah) and, having purchased stubborn camels, he fastened litters upon them. Then he carried those leaders upon the camels in the public plaza from daybreak until evening, declaring, “Whoever wishes, let him reconsider.” But none of them stirred.
When Ziyad had examined the testimony of the witnesses, he said, “I do not consider this testimony to be conclusive, and I would like for there to be more than four witnesses.” (According to) Abu Mikhnaf and al-Harith b. Husayrah-Abu al-Kanud, that is ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Ubayd, and Abu Mikhnaf-‘Abd al-Rahman b. Jundab, and Sulayman b. Abi Rashid Abu al-Kanud, these were the names of the witnesses: In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful, this is what Abu Burdah b. Abi Musa testified against him before God, Lord of both worlds. He testified that Hujr b. ‘Adi refused obedience, withdrew from the community, cursed the Caliph, called for war and civil discord, and gathered crowds about himself, summoning them to violate the oath of allegience (bay’ah) and depose the Commander of the Faithful, Mu’awiyah. In the baldestway, he also disbelieved in God, Almighty and Great. Ziyad then said, “Give similar testimony. By God, I shall certainly endeavor to cut the thread of the necks of treacherous fools.” At that the leaders of the fourths gave similar testimony to that of Abu Burdah, and there were four of them.
Ziyad then summoned the people, saying, “Give similar testimony to that of the leaders of the fourths.” When he read the document to them, the first person to stand up was ‘Unaq b. Shurahbil b. Abi Dahm al-Taymi of the Taym Allah b. Tha’labah, saying, “Include my name.” At that, Ziyad said, “Start with the names of Quraysh, then write the name of ‘Unaq among the witnesses, and whoever else we and the Commander of the Faithful recognize as having sincere advice and integrity.”

Abu Mikhnaf (said): ‘Abdallah b. Khalifah al-Ta’i had accompanied Hujr b. ‘Adi. When Ziyad sought ‘Abdallah, he dropped out of sight. Ziyad then sent the police for him, who at that time were people of the Hamra ‘, and they arrested him. At that, his sister, al-Nawar, went out saying, “0 kinfolk of Tayyi’! Do you surrender your spearheads and your tongue? ‘Abdallah b. Khalifah!” The Ta’is then assaulted the police, struck them, and snatched ‘Abdallah b. Khalifah from them. When the police returned to Ziyad and informed him, the latter fell upon ‘Adi b. Hatim while he was in the mosque , saying, “Bring me ‘Abdallah b. Khalifah.” ‘Adi asked, “What’s the matter with him?” When Ziyad told him, he said, “This is something that happened in a tribal district I do not know .” Ziyad demanded, “By God, bring him to me.” ‘Adi retorted, “No, by God, I shall never bring him to you. I brought you my cousin whom you killed. By God, if he were beneath my feet, I would not lift them off of him.” At that, Ziyad ordered ‘Adi to the prison. Every Yamani or Raba’! in al-Kufah then came to Ziyad and interceded with him, saying, “You do this to ‘Ad! b. Hatim, a Companion of the Messenger of God.” Ziyad replied, “I would release him under one condition.” They asked, “What is it?” He said, “That his cousin should leave me and not enter al-Kufah as long as I have authority here.” When ‘Adi was informed of that, he agreed and sent for ‘Abdallah b. Khalifah, saying, “0 my nephew, indeed this [manj has been insistent in your case, and has refused everything except your exile from your city as long as he has authority. So get to the two mountains.” At that, ‘Abdallah b. Khalifah left and began to write to ‘Adi, and ‘Adi began to encourage him…

How Ziyad ibn Summayah (whom Muaawiya renamed ibn Abu Sufyan) died:

I was told by ‘Abdallah b. Ahmad al -Marwazi-his father-Sulayman-‘Abdallah b. al-Mubarik–‘Abdallah b. Shawdhab -Kathir b. Ziyad: Ziyad wrote to Mu’awiyah, “Indeed, I have seized Iraq with my left hand while my right hand is empty.” So Mu’awiyah added al-‘Arad to him, which is the Yamamah and what is adjacent to it. At that, Ibn ‘Umar prayed against him, so Ziyad caught the plague and died. When he heard the news, Ibn ‘Umar said, “Off with you, Ibn Sumayyah, for this world does not remain for you, and you did not attain the other [world].”

Mua’awiya secures the Baya’at for his son Yazid:

I was told by al-Harith-‘Ali: When Ziyad died, Mu’awiyah called for a document about appointing Yazid as his successor and read it to the people. In the event of his death, Yazid would be heir apparent. He was able to get the people to acknowledge Yazid except for five persons.
I was told by Ya’qub b. Ibrahim-Ismail b. Ibrahim-Ibn ‘Awn-a man at Nakhlah: he people acknowledged Yazid b. Mu’awiyah except for al-Husayn b. ‘Ali, Ibn ‘Umar, Ibn al-Zubayr, ‘And al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr, and Ibn ‘Abbas. So when Mu’awiyah came (to al-Madinah) he sent for al-Husayn b. ‘Ali, saying, “0 cousin, the people have been able to acknowledge Yazid except for five persons of the Quraysh whom you lead. 0 cousin, what is your purpose in disagreeing?” He replied, “Do I lead them?” Mu’awiyah replied that he did. Al-Husayn said, “So send for them, and if they acknowledge [Yazid], I would be one of them, and if not, don’t be rushing me into something.” Mu’awiyah asked, “And would you do so?” When al-Husayn replied that he would, Mu’awiyah then obliged him not to inform anyone about their conversation. Although that was difficult for him, al-Husayn granted that, and then left. Ibn al-Zubayr had a man wait for al-Husayn in the street, who said, “Your brother, Ibn al-Zubayr asks you, ‘What happened?”‘ He continued thus with al-Husayn until he got something out of him. Then, after (meeting with) al-Husayn, Mu’awiyah sent for Ibn al-Zubayr, saying to him, “The people have been able to do this except for five persons of the Quraysh. You lead them, 0 cousin, so what is your purpose in disagreeing?” Ibn al-Zubayr asked, “Do I lead them?” When Mu’awiyah replied that he did, Ibn al-Zubayr said, “So send for them, and if they acknowledge, I would be one of them, and if not, don’t be rushing me into something.” Mu’awiyah asked, “And would you do so?” When he replied that he would, Mu’awiyah obliged him not to inform anyone of their conversation. He replied, “0 Commander of the Faithful, we are in the sanctuary of God, Almighty and Great, and the pact of God, praise Him, is serious.” So he refused him and left. Then, after Ibn alZubayr, Mu’awiyah sent for Ibn ‘Umar and spoke with him in words that were softer than those he had used with his companion, saying, “Indeed, I fear that I would leave the community of Muhammad after me like sheep without a shepherd. It has been possible for the people to do this except for five persons of Quraysh, whom you lead. So what is your purpose in disagreeing?” Ibn ‘Umar replied, “What would you think about something that will avoid censure and spare blood while you achieve your purpose thereby?” Mu awiyah replied, “I would like that.” Ibn ‘Umar said, “Set up your throne publicly, then I will come and acknowledge you on condition that I will enter after you into whatever the community shall agree upon. For, by God, if the community should agree upon an Abyssinian slave after you, I would do the same.” Mu’awiyah asked, “And would you do so?” He answered that he would. Then he left, and arriving at his home, he shut his door. People began to come but he would not admit them. Mu’awiyah then sent for ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr saying, “0 lbn Abi Bakr, by what hand or foot do you come to disobey me?” He replied, “I hope that it would be good for me.” Mu’awiyah responded, “By God, I intended to kill you.” He answered, “If you do so, may God cause a curse to follow you in this world for it and make you enter the fire in the next (world] for it.” The man at Nakhlah did not mention Ibn ‘Abbas.

Year 60: Mua’awiya’s will to his son Yazid:

During this year also, Mu’awiyah imposed the declaration of allegiance to his son, Yazid, on the delegation that came to him with ‘Ubaydallah b. Ziyad. When Mu’awiyah became ill this year, he entrusted to his son, Yazid, what he did concerning the group that had refused to declare allegiance to Yazid when he had summoned them to do so. Mu’awiyah’s agreement was what Hisham b. Muhammad related according to Abu Mikhnaf -‘Abd al-Malik b. Nawfal b. Musahiq b. ‘Abdallah b. Makhramah: When Mu’awiyah became sick with the illness from which he perished, he summoned his son, Yazid, saying: O my son, I have spared you the effort, made things smooth for you, subdued enemies for you, subjected the necks of the Arabs for you, and created unity for you. I am only afraid that four individuals of Quraysh might challenge you for this matter which was established for you al-Husayn b. ‘Ali, ‘Abdallah b. ‘Umar, ‘Abdallah b. al-Zubayr, and ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr. As far as ‘Abdallah b. ‘Umar is concerned, he is a man whom righteousness has overwhelmed, and if no one else were left, he would acknowledge you. As far as al-Husayn is concerned, the people of Iraq will not leave him alone until they make him rebel. If he rebels against you, and you should defeat him, then pardon him, because he has close kinship and a great claim. As far as Ibn Abi Bakr is concerned, he is a man, who, if he should see his companions doing something, he would do likewise . He is only interested in women and pleasure. As for the one who crouches for you as a crouching lion and tricks you as a sly fox, and if an opportunity enables (him] he would spring, that is Ibn al-Zubayr. If he does that to you, and you are able to overpower him, then tear him limb from limb.

Here is another version of the will, in the same book:

(According to) Hisham-‘Awanah: We have heard in another account that when Mu’awiyah was on the verge of death, which was in this year, Yazid was absent. Mu’awiyah summoned al-Dahhak b. Qays al-Fihri, who was the head of his police, and Muslim b. ‘Uqbah al-Murri and counseled them saying: Tell Yazid my testament: Pay attention to the people of the Hijaz for they are your root. Honor whomever of them should come to you, and take care of whomever is absent. Pay attention to the people of Iraq, and if they ask you to dismiss one of their officials every day, do so. For I would rather have a governor be dismissed than for one hundred thousands swords to be unsheathed against you. Pay attention to the people of Syria , for they are your entourage and your leather bag. If something should befall you from your enemy, be victorious with them . When you are successful with them, return the people of Syria to their land. For if they should stay in another land than their own, they would take on other characteristics than their own. I only fear three persons of the Quraysh-Husayn b. ‘All, ‘Abdallah b. Umar, and ‘Abdallah b. al-Zubayr. As far as Ibn ‘Umar is concerned, he is a man whom religion has overwhelmed, so he would not ask anything from you. As far as al-Husayn b. ‘Ali is concerned, he is an insignificant man, and I hope that God would protect you from him by means of those who killed his father and deserted his brother. He has close kinship, a great claim, and is a relative of Muhammad. I don’t think the people of Iraq would leave him alone until they make him rebel. If you should overpower him pardon him, for if I were his master, I would pardon him. As far as Ibn al-Zubayr is concerned, he is a heaving reptile, so if he appears to you, stick to him unless he asks for peace from you. If he does, then accept [it] and spare the blood of your folk as much as you can.

The following happened during the reign of Yazid:

Qays b. Mushir went toward al-Kufah with the letter. However, when the letter reached al-Qadisiyyah , al-Husayn b. Tamim apprehended Qays b. Mushir and sent him to Ubaydallah b. Ziyad. Ubaydallah b. Ziyad ordered him, “Go up on the palace and curse the liar, the son of a liar.” Qays went up and said: “People, this man, al-Husayn b. `Ali, the best of God ‘s creatures, the son of Fatimah, the daughter of the Apostle, (is nearby). I am his messenger to you. I left him at al-Hajir. Answer him!” Then he cursed `Ubaydallah b. Ziyad and his father, and prayed for forgiveness for `All b. Abi Talib. `Ubaydallah ordered him to be thrown from the top of the palace . They threw him; he was smashed to pieces and killed.

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