What is Sadaqah al-Fitr (Fitrah)?

 

 

 

Image result for fitrana

 

What is sadaqah al-fitr?

Sadaqah al-fitr is a sadaqah that is wajib to be given by every Muslim who is alive at the end of the month of Ramadan and who has at least nisab amount of money or goods apart from his fundamental needs. It is also called fitrah.

Sadaqah al-fitr (fitrah) means sadaqah given by man as gratitude in order to gain rewards.

Fitrah is a means of the acceptance of fasting by Allah and salvation from the agonies of death and torture in the grave. It helps the poor to meet their needs and be happy on the day of eid. From this point of view, fitrah is a humane charity and civilized duty.

Image result for fitrana

For whom is it wajib to pay fitrah?

The necessary conditions for paying fitrah are as follows: to be a Muslim, to be a free person (not a slave), to have nisab amount of money or goods apart from his fundamental needs. It is not necessary to be sane and to have reached the age of puberty for fitrah. The fitrahs of the rich mentally ill people and children need to be given by their guardians.   

If a person’s goods of nisab amount are destroyed after fitrah becomes wajib for him, it is necessary for him to pay fitrah.

When is it necessary to pay fitrah?

Fitrah becomes wajib on the first day of eid al-fitr beginning from the dawn. The mustahab way of giving fitrah is to give it after dawn and before leaving the eid prayer. However, there is no drawback to giving fitrah a few days or even months before eid. Thus, it helps the poor to meet their needs for eid beforehand. It is necessary to pay the fitrahs that have not been paid on time as soon as possible.  

This is the view of Imam Abu Hanifa. According to the other three imams, fitrah becomes wajib on the last day of Ramadan after the sun sets. It is not permissible to pay it after the eid prayer.

It is not wajib for a person who dies or who becomes poor before the dawn on the first day of eid al-fitr to pay fitrah. It is wajib to pay fitrah for a rich person who dies after dawn. It is paid from his inheritance.

If the money or goods of nisab amount are destroyed after fitrah becomes wajib and before fitrah is paid, it is necessary to pay fitrah. 

Sadaqah Al-Fitr, Fidya /Fitrana Amount Fixed in Pakistan

Who needs to give fitrah?

A Muslim who has nisab amount needs to give fitrah for himself, his children who are poor and his servant. According to Abu Hanifa, the fitrahs of rich children are paid from the children’s money. According to Imam Muhammad, it is given by their father.

The fitrah of a child who has reached the age of puberty but who is not sane is given by his father. Fitrah is not paid for a child who has not been born yet.

A person does not have to pay fitrah for his father, mother, grandfather and grandmother even if they live together with him. The same thing is valid for the relatives. A grandfather does not have to pay fitrah for the poor children of his son whether their father is alive or not. 

A person does not have to pay fitrah for his wife and his child who has reached the age of puberty and who is sane. For, such people are responsible people and can manage their own affairs. However, it is permissible for the husband or father to pay their fitrah by taking permission from them. However, what is essential for everybody is to pay their own fitrah. 

According to Imam Shafii, even if a woman is rich, her fitrah is paid by her husband. It is necessary for a person to have niyyah (intention) for fitrah just like zakah. It has to be given to the poor and become the property of the poor. It is not necessary to say that what you give is fitrah.  

A person cannot give fitrah to his wife/her husband or to his/her child or father/mother. For instance, a woman cannot give fitrah to her husband, father or son who is poor.

How is fitrah paid?

A person can give his fitrah to a poor person but a fitrah cannot be divided in order to be given to more than one person. A few people can gather their fitrahs and give them to one poor person.

A few people can gather their fitrahs and give them to a few poor in a mixed way. They do not have to give each fitrah separately. However, it is regarded better to give them separately.

A person should give his fitrah to one of the poor people of the area where he lives. It is makruh to send fitrah to other places.  

What is the amount of fitrah?

Fitrah is given based on 4 food items mainly:  

1 – Wheat or wheat flour. The amount of wheat that is wajib to give is half sa’ (520 dirhams: 1667 gr.)

2 – Barley or barley flour. The amount of barley that is wajib to give is one sa’ (1040 dirhams: 3333 gr.)

3 – All kinds of raisin. The amount of raisin that is wajib to give is one sa’ (3333 gr.)

4 – Dry dates. The amount of dates that is wajib to give is 1 sa’ (3333 gr.)

Fitrah can be given based on one of these four food items. Fitrah can be given in kind as dates, wheat, grapes or their equivalent as money. It is better to pay their equivalent as money.

When a person pays fitrah, he can pay it based on one of these four items considering his wealth. For instance, a person who is very rich needs to pay his fitrah based on dates because the one with the highest price among the four items is dates. What is appropriate for his wealth is to pay fitrah based on dates. The item on which fitrah to be paid is based varies in accordance with the degree of wealth. The religious authorities declare the equivalent of these 4 items every year in the month of Ramadan. It is possible to pay fitrah based on those amounts.

Is there a difference between the amount of wealth that necessitates fitrah and zakah?

Yes, there is. The rich person who is to pay zakah needs to own the nisab amount of money or property for one year but there is no such condition for fitrah. If a person has the nisab amount of money or property on the last day when fitrah can be given, it becomes wajib for him to pay fitrah. 

Today, the amount of zakah is usually based on gold for zakah. It is better for the amount of fitrah to be based on silver. This is the reason why fitrah is paid for more people than zakah.

A person who cannot perform fasting due to old age or an illness in Ramadan is not exempted from paying fitrah. He has to fulfill this wajib deed. 

Fitrah can be given to the non-Muslims living in the Islamic countries but it cannot be given to the non-Muslims living in the non-Muslim countries.

The decree of fitrah is owning it. Fitrah is not regarded to have been paid before the poor obtains it.

Hadees:
Bandah Kehta hai Mera Maal Mera Maal,
Magar Use To Us Maal Se 3 Hi Qisam ke
Fayede Hain.
Jo Kha Kar Fana Kiya, Jo Pahen Kar Purana Kiya,
Aur Jo Ataa (Garibo ko De kar) Kar Ke Akhirat Ke Liye Jama kiya
 ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺋﻖ، ﺑﺎﺏ
ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎﺳﺠﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻨﺔﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ، ﺻﻔﺤﮧ 1582- ، ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ
ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ,2959-
Hadees:
Mere Pas Uhad Pahad Ke Barabar Sona Ho To
Mujhe Pasand Nahi Ki Usme Ka Kuch 3 Raat
Tak Mere Pas Rahe.
Haan Agar Dain (Qarz)
Ho To Kuch Rakh Lun (Taki Jiska Qarza Ho Use De Sakun)
 ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺋﻖ، ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ
ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺮﻧﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ
ﺍﺣﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺫﻫﺒﺎ، ﺟﻠﺪ 4- ، ﺻﻔﺤﮧ 232- ، ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ
ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ 4645- ،
Hadees:
Saqdah Karna Allah Ke Gazab (Jalal) Ko
Bujhata hai aur Buri Maut Se Bachata hai,
{Tizmiri, Volume-2, Page-146, Hadees No-664}
Hadees:
ALLAH Farmata hai,
Aye Ibne Adam (Hazrat Adam Ki Awlado) Apna
Maal Mere Pas Jama Kar Wo Na Jalega Na Dubega,
Na Chori Hoga,
Mai Tujhe Pura Dunga
Jab Tujhe Uski Sakht Zarurat Hogi
{Shahbul iman, jild-3, Page-211, Hadees No-3342}
Hadees:
Sadqah Burai Ke 70 Darwazon Ko Band Karta Hai
{Al Mojamul kabeer, Jild-4, Page-273, Hadees No-4402}
Hadees:
Sakhi (Sadqa Karnewala) Admi Allah Se
Qareeb Hai,
Jannat Se Qareeb Hai,
Logo Se Qareeb Hai 
Aur
Jahnnam Se Door Hai,
Bakheel (Kanjoos) Allah Se Jannat Se Logo Se Door hai
Aur
Jahannam Se Nazdeek Hai
{Jame Tirmizi, Jild-3, page-387, Hadees No-1968}
HADEES:
Abdullah Bin Umar ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﺗﻌﺎﻟٰﯽ ﻋﻨﮧ Se
Riwayat Hai Huzoor E Pak ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ
ﻭﺳﻠﻢ Ne Zakate Fitr 1 Saa (Arab Ka Wazan)
Khurma Ya Jao Gulam O Azad Mardo Aurat
Chote Aur Bade Musalmano Par Muqarrar Ki..
Aur Ye Hukm Farmaya Ki Namaz Se Phele Ada Kar De
 ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﯼ، ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ، ﺟﻠﺪ1- ،
ﺻﻔﺤﮧ 507- ، ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ 1503- ،
Hadees:
Bande Ka Roza Aasman O Zameen Ke Beech Mu’allaq (Latka) Rehta Hai Jab Tak Sadqae Fitr Ada Na Kare.
{Bahar-E-Shariat, Hissa-5, Page-935}
Mas’ala:
Sadqae Fitr Wajib Hai, Iska WAQT Umr Bhar
Hai,
Agar Pehle Nahi Diya Tha To Ab De.
Na Dene Se Uska Hukm Saqit Nahi Hoga, Aur
Takheer Se Dega To Qaza Bhi Nahi Kehlayega,
Magar Sunnat Ye Hai Ki Namaze Eid Se Qabal Ada Kare
(Bahar-E-Shariat, Hissa-5, Sadqae Fitr Ka Bayan, Page-935).
Mas’ala:
Eid Ke Din Subhe Sadiq Hote Hi Sadqae Fitr
Wajib Hota Hai,
Lihaza Jo Shakhs Subah Hone Se Pehle Mar Gaya Ya Gani (Sahebe Nisab) Tha
Ab Faqeer Ho Gaya,
Ya Subah Tuloo Hone Ke Bad Kafir Musalman Hua,
Ya Bachcha Paida
Hua,
Ya Faqeer Tha To Gani Ho Gaya,
To Wajib Na Hua,
Aur Agar Koi Subah Tuloo Hone Ke
Bad Mara To uska Sadqae Fitr Wajib Hai, 
Aur
Subah Tuloo Hone Se Pehle Kafir Musalman
Hua Ya Bachcha Paida Hua,
Ya Faqeer Gani Hua
To in sab pe sadqae Fitr Wajib Hai
{Alamgeeri Volume-1, Page-192}
Mas’ala:
Sadqae Fitr Har Musalman Azad Malike Nisab
Par Jiska Nisab Hajate Asliya Ke ILAWA Ho
Uspe Wajib Hai.
Sadqae Fitr Ke Liye AQIL (AQAL WALA) Balig
Aur
Maal Ka Naami Hona Shart Nahi
Na Maal Par Eik Saal Guzarna Bhi Zaroori Nahi,
{Durr-E-ukhtar, Volume-3, Page-362}.
Mas’ala:
Sadqae Fitr Ke Liye MAAL Ka Baqi Rehna Bhi Shart Nahi.
Maal Hilak Hua Tab Bhi Sadqa Dena wajib
Rahega
{Durr-E-Mukhtar, Volume-3, Page-366}.
Mas’ala:
Sadqae Fitr Ke Liye Roza rakhna Shart Nahi.
Kisi Uzr (Majburi)
Ya Safar
Ya Marz
Ya Budhape Ki Wajah Se Ya Maz’allah Bila Wajah Roza Chhod Diya Tab Bhi Wajib hai
{Bahar-E-Shariat, Hissa-5, Page-936}.
Mas’ala:
Sadqae Fitr Unhi Ko Diya Jaye Jinhe Zakat Dee Jati Hai.
Jinhe Zakat Dena Jayez Nahi Unhe Sadqae Fitr Bhi Nahi De Sakte.
Aamil (Jise Badshahe islam Ne Zakat Wasool
Karne Ka Kaam Diya Hai) Ko Sadqae Fitr Lena Jayez Nahi Haan Zakat Le Sakta Hai.
{Durr-E-Mukhtar, Volume-3, Page-379}.
NABI-E-PAK NE EK SHAKHS KO HUKM FARMAYA:
MAKKAH KI GALIYO ME JAAKAR YE ELAAN KARDO
KE SADQA-E-FITR WAJIB HAI
(TIRMIZI) 
Jab Tak Sadqa-E-Fitra
Ada Nahi Kiya Jata
Bande Ka Roza Zamino Aasman Ke Drmiyan Muallak (Latka) Rehta He
(Kanzul Ummal,Jild-8) 
JAB TAK BANDA SADQA-E-FITRA ADA NAHI KARTA TABTAK USKA ROZA QUBUL NAHI HOTA HAI
(SUNNI BAHISHTI ZEWAR) 
QUR’AN:
AYE IMAANWALO!
HUM NE JO TUMHE RIZQ DIYA HAI
US ME SE KHARCH KARO.
(PARA-2 SURAH-BAQRAH AAYAT-254)
ROZA AASMAN & ZAMEEN KE BICH LATAKTA RAHTA HAI
JAB TAK SADQAE FITR ADA NA KIYA JAAYE
(MISHKAT) 
SADQA IS TARAH GUNAHO KO BUJA DETA HAI
JIS TARAH PAANI AAG KO BUJA DETA HAI.
(MISHKAT JILD-1, SAFA-14) 
SADQA ALLAH Taala Ke Gusse Ko Thanda Karta Hai
Aur Buri Maut Se Bachata Hai.
(Tirmizi)
*Sadaqa-E-Fitr*
BIWI Ne Bagair Hukme SHAUHAR
Agar
SHAUHAR Ka FITRA Ada Kar Diya To Ada Na Huwa.
(RADDUL MUKHTAR)
Jab Tak SADQAE-FITR Ada Na Kiya Jaye Bande Ka Roza Zameen-o-Aasmaan Me Muallaq(LATKATA) Raheta He
(Kanzul Ummal) 
Sadqa-E-Fitr: 2.045 Kg. Ghehu Ya Uski Qimat 
Mas’ala:
Sadqae Fitr Ka WAQT Umr Bhar He Yani Ada Na Kiya Tha To Ab Ada Kare
Magar Sunnat Eid Ki Namaz Se Pehle Hai
(DURRE MUKHAR Vol:3,Page:362) 
1ADMI KA FITR
1HI MOHTAJ KO DENA BEHTAR HE
1SE ZIYADA KO BHI DENA JAIZ HE
FITRA KE MUSTAHIQ WO LOG HE JO ZAKAT KE MUSTAHIQ HE
(Sunni Bahesti Zewar) 
Sarwar-E-Qaynat Janabe Mohommad Mustfa Swallalaho Alayhi Wasallam ne irshad farmaya ki
“Bande ka roza Aasman wa Zamin ke darmiyan  muallak rehta he jab tak sadqae fitr ada na kare.
{Ibne asakar,Sunni Bahishti Zewar}
Mard malike nisab par apni tarafse aur apne chote bachche ki tarafse sadqae fitr wazib he jabke bachcha khud sahibe nisab na ho aur maa par khud apna sadqa wazib he jabki malike nisab ho. Chote bachcho ki tarafse sadqa dena Maa par wazib nahi.
{Raddulmuhtar,Sunni Bahishti zewar}
Aaqil Balig hona sadqae fitr me shart nahi. To nabalig ya pagal agar malike nisab he to un par sadqae fitra wazib he unka wali unke mal se ada kare.
{Raddulmuhtar,Sunni Bahishti Zewar}
Eid ke din subah sadiq hote hi Sadqa-E-Fitr har Musalman malike nisab mard wa aurat par jiski nisab hazate asliya se farig ho, wazib hota he aur sunnat yah he ke Eid ki namaz se pehle ada kar diya jaye.
{Durre Mukhtar,Sunni Bahishti Zewar}
Jo subah sadiq shuru hone ke bad mara uska sadqae fitr wazib he
{Qanoon-E-Shariat}
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