Al-Isra’ and Al-Mi’raj
Prophet’sﷺ Night Journey to Jerusalem and then Ascension through the spheres of the heavens.As for its exact date, there is a difference of opinion about it. The following are the views about when it occurred:
1. The Night Journey occurred during the year in which Allah honored Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ declare Prophethood. This view was chosen by At-Tabari.
2. It occurred five years after the declaration of Prophet ﷺ Prophethood. This is the view preferred by An-Nawawi and Al-Qurtubi.
3. It was the night of the 27th of Rajab during the tenth year of declaration of Prophethood. This view was chosen by ‘Allamah Al-Mansurpuri.
4. It was 16 months prior to the migration to Madinah, during Ramadan of the twelfth year of declaration of Prophethood.
5. It was one year and two months prior to the migration to Madinah, meaning in Al-Muharram during the thirteenth year of declaration of Prophethood
6. It was one year prior to the migration, during Rabi’ul-Awwal in the 13th year of declaration of Prophethood.
The first three views are based on the death of Hazrat Khadijah Radiallahu anhoo in which was in Ramadan during the tenth year of declaration of Prophethood. She passed before the five daily prayers were made obligatory, and there is no difference of opinion over the fact that the five prayers were made obligatory during the Night Journey.”
As for the remaining three views, there is no sign indicating a preference for one over the other, except that the context of Surat Al-Isra’ supports that the Night Journey was very late on the time
The Imams of Hadith narrate a number of details about this event, the following of which is a summary: Ibn Al-Qaiyim said: “Allâh’s Messengerﷺ was carried physically – from the Sacred Mosque in Makkah to Bait Al-Maqdis in Jerusalem, riding on Al-Buraq in the company of Gabriel . There he alighted, tied the horse to a ring in the gate of the Mosque and led the Prophets in prayer. Then during that night he ascended from Bait Al-Maqdis to the lowest heaven. Gabriel sought permission to enter. It was opened and he saw Adam AlahisSalam the forefather of mankind. The Prophet ﷺ greeted him
and Adam AlaihisSalam welcomed him, returned his greeting, and expressed his faith in Hazrat Muhammad’sﷺ Prophethood. He saw the souls of martyrs on his right and those of the wretched on his left. Gabriel then ascended with the Prophetﷺ contact to the second heaven, sought entry and there he saw and greeted John, son of Zacharia AlahisSalam (Yahya bin Zakariya x) and Jesusb , son of Mary. They returned his greeting. welcomed him and expressed their faith in his Prophethood. Then they reached the third heaven where they saw Joseph AlaihisSalam (Yusuf
and greeted him. The latter welcomed the Prophetﷺ returned his greeting, and expressed faith in his Prophethood. The Prophet ﷺ, in the company of Gabriel , then reached the fourth heaven where he met the Prophet Idris AlaihisSalam and greeted him. Idris AlahisSalam Has returned the greeting and expressed faith in his Prophethood. Then he was carried to the fifth heaven where he met the Prophetﷺ Aaron (Harun ) AlahisSalam and greeted him. The latter
returned the greeting and expressed faith in his Prophethood. In the sixth heaven he met Moses (AlahisSalam) and greeted him. The latter returned the greeting and expressed faith in his Prophethood. Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ on leaving, saw that Moses AlaihisSalam began to weep. He asked about the reason. Moses AlahisSalam the answered that he was weeping because he witnessed a man sent after him as a Messenger ( Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ Auliya Allah who was able to lead more of his people to Paradise than he himself did. Then Prophet Muhammadﷺ reached the seventh heaven and met Abraham (AlahisSalam) and greeted him. The latter returned the salutation and expressed faith in his Prophethood. Then he was carried to Sidratul-
Muntaha (the remotest lote tree) and was shown Al-Bait. Al-Ma’mur ((the much frequented house) encompassed daily by seventy thousand angels, so that the angels who once encompassed it would not have their turn again till the Resurrection). He was then presented before Allâh. He was brought near such that he was at the distance of two bow’s length or less. Allah revealed to His Nabi as He willed, ordaining fifty daily prayers for him. On his return, he spoke to Moses AlahisSalam informing him that his followers had been enjoined to pray fifty times a day. Moses AlahisSalam
addressing the Prophet ﷺsaid: “Your followers cannot perform so many prayers. Go back to your Lord and ask for decrease in number.” The Prophet ﷺ turned to Gabriel , he nodded, “Yes, if you desire,” and ascended with him till Allâh the Almighty, Glorious is He, reduced the prayers by ten. He then descended and reported that to Moses AlaihisSalam, who again urged him to request a further reduction.
his Lord to reduce the number still further. He went again and again at the suggestion of Moses AlahisSalam for reduction in the number of prayers till these were reduced to only five. Moses AlaihisSalam again asked him to implore for more reduction, but he said: “I feel ashamed now of repeatedly asking my Lord for reduction.
‘In some of the narrations it is reported that his chest was also split on this occasion. Among the things the Prophet me witnessed during this event are the following:
He was presented with milk and wine. He chose the milk, it was said, “You have chosen the Fitrah
or – you took the Fitrah. Had you selected the wine, your nation would have been misled.” The Prophet ﷺ two manifest rivers, the Nile and the Euphrates – and two hidden ones. It appears that the two manifest rivers, the Nile and the Euphrates, symbolically describe the area in whose fertile valleys, Muhammad’s ﷺMessage will settle. The two hidden rivers being those in Paradise. He had the opportunity to see Malik, the keeper of Hell, with a cheerless frowning face. He saw Paradise and the Fire. He saw those who unjustly consume the property of orphans. They have snouts similar to those of camels, swallowing red-hot stones and then issuing out of their backs. There were also the people who take interest and usury with bellies too big to be able to move around; they are trodden by the people of Pharaoh when these are admitted into Hell. In the same abode, he saw the adulterers offered a tasty fatty meat and a rotten smelly one but they chose the latter. The licentious women were also there hanging from their breasts. The ‘Night Journey’ raised a good deal of stir among the people and the disbelieving audience plied Hazrat Muhammadﷺ with all sorts of questions. He told them that he saw the camels of Makkan merchants going to and fro. He also guided them to some of their animals that went astray. He informed them that he had drunk some of their water while they were fast asleep and left the container covered.  The disbelievers, however, found it a suitable opportunity to laugh at the Muslims and their creed. They pestered the Prophetﷺ with questions as to the description of the Mosque at Jerusalem, where he had never gone before and, to the astonishment of many, the Prophet’sﷺ replies furnished the most accurate information about that city. He supplied them with all the news about their caravans and the routes of their camels.
However, all this increased in them nothing but flight from the Truth, and they accepted nothing but disbelief. For the true Muslims, however there was nothing unusual about the Night Journey. The disbelievers on their part went to see Abu Bakr cent on account of this event, and he readily said: “Yes, I do verify it.” It was on this occasion that he earned the title of As-Siddiq (the verifier of the truth).