Bibi Ruqaiyeh Khatun

A documentary on Bibi Ruqaiyeh Khatun (s), daughter of Imam Musa Kazim (a). Her shrine is located atop a picturesque hill in Natanz, Iran.

Open Preaching part 1

First Revelation regarding the Preaching

“And warn your tribe of near kindred.” (26:214]. This was the first Verse to be revealed in this concern. It is included in Surat Ash-Shu’ara’ (Chapter 26 – The Poets) which relates the story of Moses from his early days of Prophethood going through his migration with the Children of Israel, their escape from Pharaoh and his folk, and the drowning Pharaoh and his armies. This Chapter in fact narrates the different stages that Moses se passed through in his struggle with Pharaoh and the mission of calling his people unto Allâh. Moreover, it includes stories that speak about the terrible end in store for those who belied the Messengers such as the people of Noah, ‘Ad, Thamud. Abraham, Lut, and Ahlul-Aikah (Companions of the Wood A group of people who used to worship a tree called Aikah). These stories are mentioned along with that of Pharaoh and his people in order to teach those who spread falsehood of the cases of those who did the same before them and their end. It also lets them know the awaiting punishment from Allâh if they continue spreading falsehood, and it lets the believers know that the good end is for them, not the supporters of evil.

Calling the closest Kinspeople

In obedience to Allâh’s Commands, Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ called his kinsmen of Bani Hashim with a group of Bani Al-Muttalib bin ‘Abd Manaf. The audience counted forty-five men. Abu Lahab immediately took the initiative and addressed the Prophet ﷺ”These are your uncles and cousins, speak to the point, but first of all you have to know that your kinspeople are in a position to withstand all the Arabs. You must bear in

mind that your relatives are sufficient for you. If you follow their tradition, it will be easier for them than to face the other clans of Quraish supported by other Arabs. Verily. I have never heard of anyone who has incurred more harm on his kinspeople than you.” Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ kept silent and said nothing in that meeting He invited them to another meeting and managed to secure audience. He then stood up and delivered a short speech explaining quite clearly what the special issue was. He said: “I celebrate Allâh’s praise, I seek His help, I believe in Him. I put my trust in Him, I bear witness that there is no god to be worshipped but Allâh with no associate. A guide can never lie to his people. I swear by Allâh that there is no god but He, that I have been sent as a Messenger to you in particular, and to all the people in general. I swear by Allâh that you will die just as you sleep, you will be resurrected just as you wake up. You will be called to account for your deeds. It is then either Hell forever or the Garden (Paradise) forever.”

Hazrat Abu Talib replied: “We love to help you, accept your advice and believe in your words. These are your kinspeople whom you have gathered and I am one of them but I am the fastest to do what you like. Do what you have been ordered. I shall protect and defend you.

Abu Lahab then said to Hazrat Abu Talib: “I swear by Allâh that this is a bad thing You must stop him before the others do.” Hazrat Abu Talib, however, answered: “I swear by Allâh to protect him as long as I am alive.”

On Mount

As-Safa After the Prophetﷺ became sure of Hazrat Abu Talib’s commitment to his protection while he called the people unto Allâh, he stood up on Mount As-Safa one day and called out loudly: “Ya Sabahah! *).

Groups of the Quraish came to him. He called them to Tauhid, faith in Allâh, his Messengership and the Day of Resurrection.

Allâh’s Messenger ﷺtrascended Mount As-Safa and started to call: “O Bani Fihr! O Bani ‘Adi (two clans of Quraish).” Many people gathered and those who could not, sent somebody to report to them, Abu Lahab was also present. The Prophet ﷺ said: “You see, if I were to tell you that there were some horsemen in the valley planning to raid you, will you believe me?” They said: “Yes, we have only witnessed the truth from you.” He said: “I am a warner to you before a severe torment.” Abu Lahab promptly replied: “Perish you all the day! Have you summoned us for such a thing?” The Verses were immediately revealed on that occasion :

Perish the two hands of Abi Lahab…” (111:1) Muslim reported another part of this story on the authority of Abu Hurairah dengan He said: “When the following Verses were revealed:

“And warn your tribe of near kindred.” (26:214) Allâh’s Messengerﷺ called all the people of Quraish; so they gathered and he gave them a general warning. Then he made a particular reference to certain tribes, and said: “O Quraish, rescue yourselves from the Fire; O people of Bani Ka’b, rescue yourselves from the 🔥.

Shouting the Truth and the Polytheists’ Reaction

The Prophet’s ﷺvoice kept reverberating in Makkah until the following Verse was revealed:

“Therefore proclaim openly, that which you are commanded, and turn away from Al-Mushrikun (polytheists).”

[15:94] Then Allâh’s Messenger ﷺbegan to proclaim the invitation to Islam at the gatherings and assemblies of the idolaters. He would recite from Allâh’s Book to them, saying as the Messengers say to their peoples:

“O people! Worship Allâh, you have no god but Him.” [7:59] Then he began worshipping Allâh right before their eyes, praying aloud in the courtyard of the Ka’bah during the daytime while they watched. All of this resulted in increased acceptance of the call. people were entering Allahs’ religion one after another.

This caused enmity to develop between the converts and their relatives, and it all made the Quraish shudder in disgust over what they saw.

An Advisory Council to hinder Pilgrims from Prophet ﷺ call

During those days, the Quraish had another serious concern; the proclamation of the Call had only been a few months old when the season of pilgrimage was soon to come. Quraish knew that the Arab delegates were coming within a short time. They agreed that it was necessary to think about a device that could push away the Arab pilgrims from the new faith preached by Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ They went to see Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah to plan something on this issue. Al-Walid invited them to agree on a unanimous resolution that could enjoy the approval of them all. However, they were at disagreement. Some suggested that they should describe him as Kahin, i.e., soothsayer; but this suggestion was turned down on grounds that his words were not so rhymed. Others proposed to publicize him as Majnun, i.e., possessed by jinn; this was also rejected because no signs peculiar to that state of mind were detectable if they claimed so. “Why not say he is a poet?” Some said. Here again they could not reach a common consent, alleging that his words were totally outside the lexicon of poetry. “OK then; let us accuse him of practicing witchcraft.” was a fourth suggestion. Here also Al-Walid showed some reluctance saying that the Prophet ﷺ was known to have never involved himself in the practice of blowing on the knots, and admitted that his speech was sweet tasting, root and branch. He, however, found that the most plausible charge to be levelled against Prophet ﷺ was witchcraft. The ungodly company adopted this opinion and agreed to propagate one uniform formula to the effect that he was a magician so powerful and commanding in his art that he would successfully separate son from father, man from his brother, wife from her husband and man from his clan.’

It is noteworthy in this regard to say that Allâh revealed sixteen Verses as regards Al-Walid and the cunning method he devised to manipulate the people expected to arrive in Makkah for pilgrim age. Allâh says:

“Verily, he thought and plotted; so let him be cursed! How he plotted! And once more let him be cursed, how he plotted! Then he thought; then he frowned and he looked in a bad tempered way; then he turned back and was proud: then he said: ‘This is nothing but magic from that of old; this is nothing but the word of a human being!'” (74:18

25]”) As for Allâh’s Messengerﷺ he would go to the people who gathered during the Hajj season, following them to their camps in “Ukaz, Majannah and Dhul-Majaz, inviting them to Allâh. Abu Lahab, who would shadow the Prophet’s steps crying aloud, “Do not listen to him for he is a liar; he is an apostate.” Nevertheless, Hazrat Muhammad ﷺmanaged to create a stir in the whole area, and even to convince a few people to accept his Call.

Attempts made to check the Onward March of Islam

Having fully perceived that Hazrat Muhammad ﷺcould never be prevented from his Call, Quraish, in a desperate attempt to suppress the tidal wave of the Call, turned to other cheap means acting from base motives:

1 Taunting, degrading, ridiculing, belying and laughter-instigating cheap manners, all of which intended towards the new converts in general, and the person of Hazrat Muhammad ﷺin particular, with he aim of dragging the spirit of despair into their morale, and slowing their continuous struggle

2 Distorting Muhammad’s teachings, creating doubts, circulating false propaganda, forging groundless allegations concerning his doctrines, person and character, and going to excess in such a manner in order to screen off any scope of sound consideration from the public.

3 Contrasting the Qur’ân with the mythology of the ancients in order to distract people’s interests from Allâh’s Words. It is narrated that An-Nadr bin Harith, went to Heerah where he got conversant with the traditions of the kings of Persia and the accounts of people like Rustum and Isphandiyar, and then

the Messenger’s steps in whatever audiences the later held to preach the new faith and to caution people against Allâh’s wrath. An-Nadr would directly follow the Prophetﷺ and narrate to the same audience long tales about those people of Persia. He would then always add to his talk a question cunningly inquiring if he did not surpass Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ Ibn ‘Abbas avotion related that An-Nadr used to purchase female singers who would, through their bodily charms and songs, entice away from Islam anyone developing the least attachment to the Prophet ﷺ this regard, Allâh revealed:

“And of mankind is he who purchases idle talks (1.e. music, singing, etc.) to mislead (men) from the path of Allah.


At the beginning of the fourth year of the Call, and for a period of some months, the polytheists confined their harassment tactics to those mentioned above. After they realized that they could not restrict the inflow of people to Islam without persecuting the believers and torturing them, they arranged for another meeting. This time after consultation, the campaign of persecuting the Muslims and torturing them to get them to leave their religion was approved. Each of the leaders began persecuting anyone in their tribe found to be following the religion of Islam. Whenever Abu Jahl heard of the conversion of a man of high birth with powerful friends, he would degrade his good sense and intellect, undermine his judgment; and threaten him with terrible consequences if he was a merchant. If the new convert was socially weak, he would beat him mercilessly and put him to unspeakable tortures The uncle of ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan used to wrap ‘Uthman inte in a mat of palm leaves, and set fire under him. When Umm Mus’ab bin ‘Umair heard of her son’s conversion, she put him to starvation and then expelled him from her house. He used to enjoy full luxurious easy life, but as the outcome of the tortures he had to bear, his skin became marked with wrinkles and his suffering showed. (4) Bilal to the slave of Umaiyah bin Khalaf, was severely beaten by his master when the latter came to know of his conversion to Islam. Sometimes a rope was put around his neck and street boys were made to drag him through the streets and even across the hillocks of Makkah. At times he was subjected to prolonged deprivation of food and drink. Once he was bound during the

hottest part of the day and placed in the valley in Makkah. Then Umaiyah had a giant stone brought and placed it upon his chest He said, “By Allâh! I will not stop until you are dead or until you reject Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ and worship Lat and ‘Uzza.” Yet while Bilal was suffering, he said only, “One, One.” Abu Bakr bilion was passing by, moved by pity, he purchased and released him from slavery in Another victim of the cruelty of Quraish was ‘Ammar bin Yasir a freed slave of Bani Makhzum. He, along with his mother and father, embraced Islam in its early phase. They were repeatedly made to lie on the burning sand and were beaten severely. ‘Ammar in it was at times thrown on embers. The Prophet ﷺonce passed by while they were being tortured and said:

“O family of Yasir! Be patient, you will certainly find your

place in Paradise.” Yasir vote the father, died because of repeated tortures. Sumaiyah Radiallahu anhoo Hazrat Ammar’s mother was bayoneted to death by Abu Jahl himself. and thus merited the title of the first woman martyr in Islam. ‘Ammar in i himself was subjected to various modes of torture and was always threatened to continuous severe suffering unless he abused Muhammad and made an open confession of error to Al-Lat and ‘Uzza.

“Whoever disbelieved in Allâh after his belief, except him who is forced thereto and whose heart is at rest with Faith.” [16:106112)

pagans would also throw some of the Companions into the animal enclosures and then drag them into the hot sun. They would put iron armor on some of them and throw them upon boulders to fry in the sun.

No one would let his conversion to Islam be known about, except that he would have to undergo severe torture and suffering for the sake of Allâh.

Abu Fakih. Aflah Radiallahu anhoo a freed slave of Bani Abdud-Dar, was another of those helpless victims. The Makkan polytheists used to lay him down on very hot sand placing a stone on his back so that he could not move, leaving him like that until he would lose his sense of reason. They also used to tie his legs with rope and drag him around a lintel until they thought he was dead. Abu Bakr editing also passed him while he was being tortured, and he purchased his freedom for the sake of Allâh.” The oppressors used to fasten his feet with a rope and drag him in the streets of Makkah..Khabbab bin Al-Aratt Radiallahu anho was the slave of Umm Anmar bint Saba’ Al-Khuza’iyah. He was also an easy victim to similar brutality on every possible occasion. He experienced exemplary torture and maltreatment. He would be taken by his hair and dragged, twisted by his neck and thrown into fire. Then they would drag him through the fire and not stop until his back would be burnt. Even the women converts were not spared, and the list is too long to include all of them. Zanirah . An-Nahdiyah Radiallahu anhoo and her daughter, Umm ‘Ubais and many others had their full share of persecution at the hand of the oppressors – ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab included – of course before his conversion to Islam. Abu Bakr a wealthy believer, purchased and freed some of those slaves, just as he did with regard to Bilal and ‘Amir bin Fuhairah .

The pagans would also throw some of the Companions into the animal enclosures and then drag them into the hot sun. They would put iron armor on some of them and throw them upon boulders to fry in the sun.

No one would let his conversion to Islam be known about, except that he would have to undergo severe torture and suffering for the sake of Allâh.

As for the Prophet ﷺ, it was not easy to harm him because he had such significance, nobility and matchless perfection of character that prevented even his enemies from committing any act of foolishness against him. He had, as well. Hazrat Abu Talib, his uncle, who came from : noble descent and had a very great clan to support him. This situation was a source of great worry to the infidels, but they felt that they could no longer exercise patience or show any tolerance before a frightening power marching steadily to cancel their religious office and worldly authority.