The Emigration of the Prophet ﷺ
When the wicked decision had been made by the criminals to kill the Prophet Gabriel stelle was sent down to Muhammad to reveal to him the plot of the Quraish and give him his Lord’s Permission to leave Makkah. Hazrat Aishah Radiallahu anhoo said: “We were sitting in Abu Bakr’s house at noon, someone said to Abu Bakr, ‘Here comes Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ with his head covered during a time in which he never came before.’ Hazrat Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo said, ‘May my father and mother be sacrificed for him! By Allâh! He is not coming at this hour except for something important.” She continued: Allâh’s Messengerﷺ came and sought permission to enter after which he was permitted. He entered and said to Hazrat Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo:
‘Tell those with you to leave.’ “Only your people are here, may my father be sacrificed for you, O Messenger of Allah!’ said Hazrat Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo He said:
‘I have been given permission to emigrate.’ Hazrat Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo said, ‘May my father be sacrificed for you. May I accompany you, O Messenger of Allah?’ He said yes. After concluding the plans for the emigration Allâh’s Messengerﷺ the returned to his house to await nightfall.
Monitoring the Home of Allâh’s Messengerﷺ
To make the necessary preparations for the implementation of their devilish plan, the chiefs of Makkah had chosen eleven men: Abu Jahl bin Hisham, Hakam bin Abul-‘As, ‘Uqbah bin Abi Mu’ait.. An-Nadr bin Al-Harith, Umaiyah bin Khalaf, Zam’ah bin Al-Aswad, Tu’aimah bin ‘Adi, Abu Lahab, Ubai bin Khalaf, Nabih bin Al-Hajjaj and his brother Munbih bin Al-Hajjaj.
Ibn Ishaq said: All were on the alert. As night advanced, they posted assassins around the Prophet’s house.” Thus they kept watch all night long, waiting to kill him the moment he left his house early in the morning, as the Prophetﷺ used to rise early and go to Al-Masjid Al-Haram to offer prayer; peeping now and then through a hole in the door to make sure that he was still lying in his bed. Abu Jahl, the great enemy of Islam, used to walk about proudly and arrogantly mocking at Hazrat Muhammad’s ﷺwords saying to the people around him: “Hazrat Muhammad ﷺclaims that if you follow him, he will appoint you rulers over the Arabs and nonArabs and in the Hereafter your reward will be Gardens similar to those in Jordan, otherwise, he will slaughter you, and after death you will be burnt in fire.”: He was too confident of the success of his devilish plan. Allâh the All-Mighty, however, in Whose Hand lie the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, does what He desires; He gives help and can never be overpowered. He did exactly what He later said to His Prophetﷺ
, “And (remember) when the disbelievers plotted against you (O Muhammad sate) to imprison you, or to kill you, or to get you out (from your home, i.e., Makkah); they were plotting and Allâh too was planning, and Allâh is the Best of the planners.” (8:30]
The Messenger ﷺ escapes from the House
At that critical time the plans of Quraish totally failed. Despite the tight blockade they laid to the Prophet’s ﷺ house, the Prophet ﷺ and ‘Ali AlahisSalam were inside the house. The Prophetﷺ told ‘Ali AlahisSalam to sleep in his bed and cover himself with his green garment and
assured him full security under Allâh’s protection and told him that no harm would come to him. The Prophetic then came out of the room and cast a handful of dust at the assassins and managed to work his way through them reciting Verses of the Noble Qur’an:
“And we have put a barrier before them, and a barrier behind them, and we have covered them up, so that they
cannot see.” [36:9) He proceeded direct to the house of Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo who immediately accompanied him and both set out southwards, climbed up the lofty peak of Mountain Thawr, and decided to take refuge in a cave.
The assassins who laid siege to the house were waiting for the zero hour when someone came and informed them that the Prophet ﷺhad already left. Those at the door peeked in and saw Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam sleeping, thinking that it was the Prophet ﷺ In the morning when ‘Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam arose they asked him where the Prophet ﷺ was, but he informed them that he had no idea. This created a stir in the whole town. The Prophet ﷺhad thus left his house during the night on the 27th of Safar, during fourteenth year of declaration of Prophethood: corresponding to the 12th or the 13th of September 622 c.e. He went to the home of his friend and most trusted companion and supporter Hazra rAbu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo and left with him hastily before the beginning of Fajr.
Knowing already that the Quraish would mobilize all of their potential to find him, he instead of taking the road to Madinah in north side of Makkah as the polytheists would expect, he walked along a road least expected lying south of Makkah and leading to Yemen. He walked for 5 miles until he reached a rough rocky mountain called Thawr. There his shoes were worn out, some said he used to walk tiptoe in order not to leave a trail behind him. Hazrat Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo carried him up the mountain to a cave named after the mountain, Thawr.
The Events at the Cave
Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo is first entered exploring the cave to be sure that it was safe, closed all holes with pieces torn off from his clothes, cleaned it and then asked the Prophet ﷺ to step in. The Prophet ﷺwent in and immediately laid his head in Hazrat Abu Bakr’s Radiallahu anhoo lap and fell asleep. Suddenly Hazrat Abu Bakr’s Radiallahu anhoo foot was stung by a poisonous insect. It hurt so much that his tears fell on the Prophet’s ﷺ face. The Prophetﷺ immediately applied his saliva on Abu Bakr’s foot and the pain left immediately. They confined themselves to this cave for three nights, Friday, Saturday and Sunday ‘Abdullah, the son of Hazrat Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo would go to see them after sunset, stay the night there, inform them of the latest situation in Makkah, and then leave in the early morning to mix with the Makkans as usual and not to draw the least attention to his secret activities. ‘Amir bin Fuhairah, while in the company of other shepherds of Makkah tending his master Hazrat Abu Bakr’s Radiallahu anhoo flock, used to quietly go away unobserved every evening with a few goats to the cave and furnished its inmates with a plentiful supply of milk.
The Quraish, on the other hand, were quite bewildered and annoyed when the news of the escape of the two companions was confirmed. They then went to see Asma’ Abu Bakr’s daughter, but here also their attempts went in vain. While at her door Abu Jahl slapped the girl so severely that her earring broke each one.
The notables of Makkah summoned an emergency meeting to determine the future course of action and explore all areas that could help arrest the two men. They decided to block all routes leading out of Makkah and imposed heavy armed guard over all potential exits. A price of 100 camels was set upon the head of
Horsemen, infantry and tracers of tracks searched the country. Once they even reached the mouth of the cave where the Prophetﷺ and Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo were hiding, but Allâh prevented them from being seen. Al-Bukhari recorded Anas bin Malik narrating from Abu Bakr artist that he said, “I said, ‘O Prophet of Allâh!ﷺ If some of them lower their sight they will see us.” The Prophetﷺ replied:
“Silence Abu Bakr! What do you think of those two with whom the Third is Allâh.”
It was really a Divine miracle, the pursuers were only a few steps from the cave.
On the Road to Madinah
For three days HazratvMuhammad ﷺand Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo lived in the cave and the Quraish continued their frantic efforts to get hold of them. A person called ‘Abdullah bin Uraiqit, who had as yet not embraced Islam, but was trusted by Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo and had been hired by him as a guide, reached the cave after three nights according to a plan bringing with him Abu Bakr’s two camels. His report satisfied the noble ‘fugitives’ that the search had been slowed up. The opportunity to depart had arrived. Here Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo offered the Prophetﷺ centres the swift animal to ride on. The latter agreed provided that he would pay its price. They took with them the food provisions that Asma’ home, daughter of Abu Bakr , brought and tied in a bundle of her waistband, after tearing it into two parts, hence the title attached to her: “Asma’ of the two waistbands.”: The Prophetﷺ Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo and ‘Amir bin Fuhairah departed. and their guide ‘Abdullah bin Uraiqit led them through the seldom used ways along the coastal route. That was in Rabi’ul-Awwal. Ist year A.H., i.e., September 16, 622 C.E. The little caravan travelled through many villages on their way to Quba: In this context, it is relevant to introduce some interesting incidents that their very tiring journey featured:
1. Al-Bukhari reported that Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said. “We travelled the whole night and also the next day till midday. when nobody could be seen on the way (because of the severe heat). Then there appeared a long rock having shade beneath it, and the sunshine had not come to it yet. So, we dismounted there and I levelled a place and covered it with an animal hide or dry grass for the Prophetﷺ in to sleep on (for a while). I then said, ‘Sleep. O Allâh’s Messengerﷺ, and I will guard you.’ So, he slept and I went
out to guard him. Suddenly, I saw a shepherd coming with his sheep to that rock with the same intention we had had. When he came to it, I asked (him). ‘To whom do you belong, O boy?” He replied, ‘I belong to a man from Madinah or Makkah, I said, ‘Do your sheep have milk?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Will you milk them for us?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ He caught hold of an ewe and I asked him to dean its teat from dust, hair and dirt. (The subnarrator said that he saw Al-Bara’ striking one of his hands with the other, demonstrating how the shepherd removed the dust.) The shepherd milked a little milk in a wooden container and I had a leather container which I carried for the Prophet ﷺ to drink and perform the ablution from. I went to the Prophetﷺ hating to wake him up, but when I reached there, the Prophet ﷺhad already woken up, so I poured water over the middle part of the milk container, till the milk was cold. Then I said, ‘Drink, o Allâh’s Messenger!ﷺ’ He drank till I was pleased. Then he asked, Has the time for our departure come?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ So, we departed after midday.”
2. Whoever asked Hazrat Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo atents about the identity of his honorable companion, he would reply that he was a man who guided him on his way. The questioner would think that Hazrat Muhammad ﷺwas a guide, in terms of roads, whereas Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo used to mean guide to the way of righteousness.
- They were followed by Suraqah bin Malik Suraqah said: “While I was sitting in one of the gatherings of my tribe Banu Mudlij, a man from them came to us and stood up while we were sitting, and said, ‘O Suraqah! No doubt, I have just seen some people far away on the seashore, and I think they are Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ and his Companions.'”‘ Suraqah added, “I too realized that it must have been them. But I said, ‘No, it is not them, but you have seen soand-so, and so-and-so whom we saw set out.’ I stayed in the gathering for a while and then got up and left for my home, and
ordered my slave-girl to get my horse which was behind a hillock and keep it ready for me. Then I took my spear and left by the back doot of my house dragging the lower end of the spear on the ground and keeping it low. Then I reached my horse, mounted it and made it gallop. When I approached them, my horse stumbled and I fell down from it. Then I stood up, got hold of my quiver and took out the divining arrows and drew lots as to whether 1 should harm them or not, and the lot which I disliked came out. But I remounted my horse and let it gallop, giving no importance to the divining arrows. When I heard the recitation of the Qur’ân by Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ than who did not look hither and thither while Hazrat Abu Bakr ﷺ was doing it often, suddenly the forelegs of my horse sank into the ground up to its knees, and I fell down from it. Then I rebuked it and it got up but could hardly take out its forelegs from the ground, and when it stood up straight again, its forelegs caused dust to rise up in the sky like smoke. Then again I drew lots with the divining arrows, and the lot which I disliked. came out. So I called upon them to feel secure. They stopped and I remounted my horse and went to them. When I saw how I had been stopped from harming them, it came to my mind that the cause of Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ (i.e., Islam) will become victorious. So I said to him, ‘Your people have announced a reward equal to the blood money for
your head.’ Then I told them all the plans the people of Makkah had made concerning them. Then I offered them some journey-food and goods but they refused to take anything and did not ask for anything, but the Prophet gehen said. “Do not tell others about us.’ Then I requested him to write for me a statement of security and peace. He ordered ‘Amir bin Fuhairah who wrote it for me on a piece of skin, and then Allâh’s Messenger proceeded on his way.”:In a version by Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo, he said: We emigrated while the Makkans were in pursuit of us. None caught up with us except Suraqah bin Malik bin Ju’sham on a horse. I said: “O Messenger of Allâh,ﷺ this one has caught up with us.” The Prophet ﷺreplied:
“Don’t grieve, verily, Allâh is with us.” (9:40)
4. The party continued its journey until it reached two isolated tents belonging to a woman called Umm Ma’bad Al-Khuza’iyah. She was a gracious lady who sat at her tent-door with a mat spread out for any chance traveller that might pass by the way. Fatigued and thirsty, the Prophet ﷺand his companions wanted to refresh themselves with food and some milk. The lady told them that the herd was out in the pasture and the goat standing nearby was almost dry. It was a rainless year. The Prophetﷺ untouched its udders, reciting over them the Name of Allâh, supplicated, and to their great joy. there flowed plenty of milk out of them. The Prophet ﷺfirst offered that to the lady of the house, and he shared what was left with the members of the party. Before he left, he milked the goat, filled the container and gave it to Umm Ma’bad. Later on, her husband arrived with slender goats hardly having any milk in their udders. He was astonished to see milk in the house. His wife told him that a blessed man passed by the way, and then she gave details about his physical appearance and manner of talk. Here Abu Ma’bad realized on the spot that the man was the one whom the Quraish were searching for and asked her to give a full description of him. She gave a wonderful account of his physique and manners, to which we will go in detail later in the process of talking about his attributes and merits. Abu Mabad, after listening to his wife’s account, expressed a sincere wish to accompany the Prophetﷺ whenever that was possible, and composed his admiration in verses of poetry that echoed all over Makkah to such an extent that the people therein thought it was a jinn repeating words in their ears. Asma’ to, daughter of Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo, on hearing those lines, got to know that the two companions were heading for Madinah.’ The
short poem opened with thanksgiving to Allâh having given them (the Ma’bads) the chance to host the Prophet ﷺfor a while. If then gave an account of the delight that would settle in the heart of the Prophet’s ﷺcompanion whosoever he was; it closed with an invitation to all mankind to come and see by themselves Umm Ma’bad, her goat and the container of milk that would all testify to the truthfulness of the Prophet ﷺ
5. On his way to Madinah, the Prophet ﷺmet Buraidah bin AL Husaib Al-Aslami and about eighty others. He and those with him accepted Islam. The Prophetﷺ prayed the Night prayer and they prayed behind him. Buraidah Radiallahu anhoo remained in the land of his people until the Prophetﷺ arrived after the battle of Uhud. ‘Abdullah bin Buraidah is reported that the Prophetﷺ used to be optimistic without counting on omens, so when Buraidah and about seventy people of his tribe Sahm, met up with him while riding, he asked him, “From which people are you?” He replied. “From Aslam.” So he said to Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo “Then we are safe.” Then he asked him, “From which branch?” He replied, “From Banu Sahm.” So he said to Abu Bakr “Your victory has come.
6 Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ passed by Abu Aws Tamim bin Hajar or Abu Tamim Aws bin Hajar Al-Aslami at Quhdawat between AlJuhafah and Harsha in Al-‘Arj. He was dragging some of their provisions behind the camel that was slowing them down. So. Aws began to carry the goods with his camel and he sent a boy named Mas’ud to help them. He accompanied them to be sure that the route was safe until they entered Madinah. Then Allâh’s Messengerﷺ returned Mas’ud to his master and told him to tell Aws to rein his camel as that of a horse and he did so. When the pagans came on the Day of Uhud, Aws sent Mas’ud bin Hunaidah from Al-‘Arj to Allâh’s Messengerﷺ things to inform him about their movements. This was mentioned by Makula according to AtTabari. He accepted Islam after Allâh’s Messenger ﷺarrived at Madinah while he remained in Al-‘Arj.
7. It was during this time that they met Az-Zubair lette at the head of a caravan of Muslims returning from Syria. Az-Zubair presented to them two white garments which they thankfully accepted.
On Monday, 8th Rabi’ul-Awwal, the fourteenth year of declaration of Prophethood, i.e., September 23rd. 622, Allâh’s Messengerﷺ arrived at Quba
‘Urwah bin Az-Zubair said: “When the Muslims of Madinah heard the news of the departure of Allâh’s Messenger from Makkah, they started going to Harrah every morning. They would wait for him until the heat of the noon forced them to return. One day after waiting for a long time, they returned home, and when they went into their houses, a Jew climbed up the roof of one of the forts of his people to look for something. He saw Allâh’s Messenger and his companions dressed in white clothes, emerging out of the desert mirage. The Jew could not help shouting at the top of his lungs, ‘O you Arabs! Here is your great man that you have been waiting for.’ So the Muslims rushed to their arms and received Allâh’s Messenger at the summit of Harrah.
Ibn Al-Qaiyim said: “The shouts of Allâhu Akbar (Allâh is the Most Great) resounded among Banu ‘Amr bin ‘Auf and the Muslims from their joy at his arrival, and they went out to meet him. So
they and their animals came out to pay him the respects . He was surrounded by them all around and tranquility enveloped him while Allâh revealed to him
“…then verily, Allâh is his Maula (Lord, Master or Protector). and Gabriel, and the righteous among the believers. – and
furthermore, the angels – are his helpers.” (66:47(1) ‘Urwah bin Az-Zubair said: “The Prophet ﷺ turned with them to the right and went to the quarters of Banu ‘Amr bin ‘Awf, and this was a Monday during the month of Rabi’ul-Awwal. Hazrat Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo stood receiving the people while Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ sat and was silent. Some of the Ansar who came and had not yet seen Allâh’s Messenger ﷺbegan greeting Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo. But when the sunlight fell on Allâh’s Messengerﷺ , and Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo came forward to shade him with his sheet, only then did the people come to know Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ It was really an unprecedented day in Madinah. The Jews could perceive concretely the trueness of their prophecy in the Book of Habakkuk: “God came from Teman and the Holy One from mount Faran.
Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ stayed in Quba’ with Kulthum bin Al-Hadm hospitable chief of the tribe of ‘Amr bin ‘Awf. Some say he stayed with Sa’d bin Khaithamah Radiallahu anhoo, but the first view is what is correct. ‘ Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam stayed in Makkah for three days to return the trusts on behalf of the Prophet ﷺ to their respective owners. After that he started his journey of emigration to catch up with him at Quba”. Allâh’s Messengerﷺ stayed in Quba’ for four days. Monday. Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday. He built the Masjid in
reported that he stayed in Quba’ for twenty-four nights (1/61) or some ten odd
Quba’ and prayed in it. This was the first Masjid founded upon piety to be built after his declaration of Prophethood began. On the fifth day, Friday, he mounted by the Order of Allâh, along with Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo this He sent a message to Bani An-Najjar, his maternal uncles, to come and accompany him and Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo to Madinah. He rode towards the new headquarters amidst the cordial greetings of his Madinese followers who had lined his path. He halted at a place in the valley of Banu Salim bin ‘Awf and there he performed his Friday prayer with a hundred others.”
Entering Madinah Meanwhile the tribes and families of Madinah, the new name for Yathrib and a short form of ‘The Messenger’s Madinah (City)’, came streaming forth, and vied with one another in inviting the noble visitor to their homes. The girls of the Madinese used to chant beautiful verses of welcome rich in all meanings of obedience and dutifulness to the new Messenger. Though not wealthy, every Ansar (Helper) was wholeheartedly eager and anxious to receive the Messenger series in his house. It was indeed triumphal procession. Around the camel of Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ and his immediate followers, rode the chiefs of the city in their best garments and in glittering armor, everyone saying: “Alight here, o Messenger of Allâhﷺ, and stay with us.” Hazrat Muhammad ﷺused to answer everyone courteously and kindly:
“Leave it (camel) on its way, for it is commanded (by Allâh).” The camel moved onward with loosed rein, reached the site of the Prophetic Mosque and knelt down. He did not dismount until it rose up again, went on forward, turned back and then returned to kneel down in the very former spot. Here, he alighted in an area
inhabited by Banu An-Najjar, a tribe related to the Prophet ﷺfrom 216 the maternal side. In fact, it was his wish to honor his maternal uncles and live among them. The fortunate host, Abu Ayyub Al-Ansari de stepped forward to his mount, so he brought him into his home and As’ad bin Zurarah took the reigns of the mount while he wante was still on it.
In the narration of Anas Prophet said:
that Al-Bukhari recorded, the
“Which is the nearest of our houses of our kith and kin?” Abu Ayyub said, “Mine, O Allâh’s Messengerﷺ! This is my house and this is my gate.” The Prophetﷺ then said:
“Go and prepare a place for our midday rest.” Abu Ayyub said, “Get up (both of you) with Allâh’s blessings.” A few days later, there arrived the Prophet’sﷺ spouse Sawdah Radiallahu anhoo. his two daughters Fatimah and Umm Kulthum Radiallahu anhoo Usamah bin Zaid, Umm Aiman, ‘Abdullah
son of Abu Bakr with Abu Bakr’s house-hold including ‘Aishah Zainab
was not able to emigrate and stayed with her husband Abul-“As till Badr Battle. ” Hazrat Aishah Radiallahu anhoo said: “When Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ arrived in Madinah. both Abu Bakr and Bilal fell ill. I went to both of them and said, ‘O my father, how do you feel? O Bilal, how do you feel?’ Whenever Abu Bakr’s fever got worse, he would say, ‘Everybody is staying alive
among his people yet death is nearer to him than his shoe laces.’ And whenever fever deserted Bilal, he would say
aloud. “Would that I could stay overnight in a valley, wherein I would be surrounded by Idhkhir and Jalil (two good-smelling grasses); would that I could drink one day the water of Majannah; and would that Shamah and Tafil (two mountains at Makkah) would
appear to me.’ Then I went to Allâh’s Messengerﷺ and told him about that. He said:
‘O Allâh, make it healthy, and bless its Sa’ and Mudd (ie..
two measurements) and take away its fever to Al-Juhfah.Here ends this phase of his life, completing the phase of the Islamic call, that is, the Makkan phase.