अमरीका क्यों मानता है रुमी का लोहा

मौलाना मुहम्मद जलालुद्दीन रूमी (३० सितम्बर, १२०७) फारसी साहित्य के महत्वपूर्ण लेखक थे जिन्होंने मसनवी में महत्वपूर्ण योगदान किया। इन्होंने सूफ़ी परंपरा में नर्तक साधुओ (गिर्दानी दरवेशों) की परंपरा का संवर्धन किया। रूमी अफ़ग़ानिस्तान के मूल निवासी थे पर मध्य तुर्की के सल्जूक दरबार में इन्होंने अपना जीवन बिताया और कई महत्वपूर्ण रचनाएँ रचीं। कोन्या (मध्य तुर्की) में ही इनका देहांत हुआ जिसके बाद आपकी कब्र एक मज़ार का रूप लेती गई जहाँ आपकी याद में सालाना आयोजन सैकड़ों सालों से होते आते रहे हैं।

रूमी के जीवन में शम्स तबरीज़ी का महत्वपूर्ण स्थान है जिनसे मिलने के बाद इनकी शायरी में मस्ताना रंग भर आया था। इनकी रचनाओं के एक संग्रह (दीवान) को दीवान-ए-शम्स कहते हैं।

इनका जन्म फारस देश के प्रसिद्ध नगर
बाल्ख़ में सन् 604 हिजरी में हुआ था। रूमी के पिता शेख बहाउद्दीन अपने समय के अद्वितीय पंडित थे जिनके उपदेश सुनने और फतवे लेने फारस के बड़े-बड़े अमीर और विद्वान् आया करते थे। एक बार किसी मामले में सम्राट् से मतभेद होने के कारण उन्होंने बलख नगर छोड़ दिया। तीन सौ विद्वान मुरीदों के साथ वे बलख से रवाना हुए। जहां कहीं वे गए, लोगों ने उसका हृदय से स्वागत किया और उनके उपदेशों से लाभ उठाया। यात्रा करते हुए सन् 610 हिजरी में वे नेशांपुर नामक नगर में पहुंचे। वहां के प्रसिद्ध विद्वान् ख्वाजा फरीदउद्दीन अत्तार उनसे मिलने आए। उस समय बालक जलालुद्दीन की उम्र ६ वर्ष की थी। ख्वाजा अत्तार ने जब उन्हें देखा तो बहुत खुश हुए और उसके पिता से कहा, “यह बालक एक दिन अवश्य महान पुरुष होगा। इसकी शिक्षा और देख-रेख में कमी न करना।” ख्वाजा अत्तार ने अपने प्रसिद्ध ग्रन्थ मसनवी अत्तार की एक प्रति भी बालक रूमी को भेंट की।

वहां से भ्रमण करते हुए वे बगदाद पहुंचे और कुछ दिन वहां रहे। फिर वहां से हजाज़ और शाम होते हुए लाइन्दा पहुंचे। १८ वर्ष की उम्र में रूमी का विवाह एक प्रतिष्ठित कुल की कन्या से हुआ। इसी दौरान बादशाह ख्व़ाजरज़मशाह का देहान्त हो गया और शाह अलाउद्दीन कैकबाद राजसिंहासन पर बैठे। उन्होंने अपने कर्मचारी भेजकर शेख बहाउद्दीन से वापस आने की प्रार्थना की। सन् ६२४ हिजरी में वह अपने पुत्र सहित क़ौनिया गए और चार वर्ष तक यहां रहे। सन ६२८ हिजरी में उनका देहान्त हो गया।

रूमी अपने पिता के जीवनकाल से उनके विद्वान शिष्य सैयद बरहानउद्दीन से पढ़ा करते थे। पिता की मृत्यु के बाद वह दमिश्क और हलब के विद्यालयों में शिक्षा प्राप्त करने के लिए चले गये और लगभग १५ वर्ष बाद वापस लौटे। उस समय उनकी उम्र चालीस वर्ष की हो गयी थी। तब तक रूमी की विद्वत्ता और सदाचार की इतनी प्रसिद्ध हो गयी थी कि देश-देशान्तरों से लोग उनके दर्शन करने और उपदेश सुनने आया करते थे। रूमी भी रात-दिन लोगों को सन्मार्ग दिखाने और उपदेश देने में लगे रहते। इसी अर्से में उनकी भेंट विख्यात साधू शम्स तबरेज़ से हुई जिन्होंने रूमी को अध्यात्म-विद्या की शिक्षा दी और उसके गुप्त रहस्य बतलाये। रूमी पर उनकी शिखाओं का ऐसा प्रभाव पड़ा कि रात-दिन आत्मचिन्तन और साधना में संलग्न रहने लगे। उपदेश, फतवे ओर पढ़ने-पढ़ाने का सब काम बन्द कर दिया। जब उनके भक्तों और शिष्यों ने यह हालत देखी तो उन्हें सन्देह हुआ कि शम्स तबरेज़ ने रूमी पर जादू कर दिया है। इसलिए वे शम्स तबरेज़ के विरुद्ध हो गये और उनका वध कर डाला। इस दुष्कृत्य में रूमी के छोटे बेटे इलाउद्दीन मुहम्मद का भी हाथ था। इस हत्या से सारे देश में शोक छा गया और हत्यारों के प्रति रोष और घृणा प्रकट की गयी। रूमी को इस दुर्घटना से ऐसा दु:ख हुआ कि वे संसार से विरक्त हो गये और एकान्तवास करने लगे। इसी समय उन्होंने अपने प्रिय शिष्य मौलाना हसामउद्दीन चिश्ती के आग्रह पर ‘मसनवी’ की रचना शुरू की। कुछ दिन बाद वह बीमार हो गये और फिर स्वस्थ नहीं हो सके। ६७२ हिजरी में उनका देहान्त हो गया। उस समय वे ६८ वर्ष के थे। उनकी मज़ार क़ौनिया में बनी हुई है।

रूमी की कविताओं में प्रेम और ईश्वर भक्ति का सुंदर समिश्रण है। इनको हुस्न और ख़ुदा के बारे में लिखने के लिए जाना जाता है।

माशूक चूँ आफ़्ताब ताबां गरदद।
आशक़ बे मिस्ल-ए-ज़र्र-ए-गरदान गरदद।
चूँ बाद-ए-बहार-ए-इश्क़ जोंबां गरदद।
हर शाख़ के ख़ुश्क नीस्त, रक़सां गरदद।

(प्रेमिका सूरज की तरह जलकर घूमती है और आशिक़ घूमते हुए कणों की तरह परिक्रमा करते हैं। जब इश्क़ की हवा हिलोर करती है, तो हर शाख (डाली) जो सूखी नहीं है, नाचते हुए परिक्रमा करती है)

#Rumi

ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ ﺭﻭﻣﯽ ‏( ﭘﯿﺪﺍﺋﺶ : 1207 ﺀ ﻣﯿﮟ ﭘﯿﺪﺍ ﮨﻮﺋﮯ، ﻣﺸﮩﻮﺭ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﯽ ﺷﺎﻋﺮ ﺗﮭﮯ۔
ﻣﺜﻨﻮﯼ ، ﻓﯿﮧ ﻣﺎ ﻓﯿﮧ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺩﯾﻮﺍﻥ ﺷﻤﺲ ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺰ ﺁﭖ ﮐﯽ ﻣﻌﺮﻑ ﮐﺘﺐ ﮨﮯ، ﺁﭖ ﺩﻧﯿﺎ ﺑﮭﺮ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﭘﻨﯽ ﻻﺯﺍﻭﻝ ﺗﺼﻨﯿﻒ ﻣﺜﻨﻮﯼ ﮐﯽ ﺑﺪﻭﻟﺖ ﺟﺎﻧﮯ ﺟﺎﺗﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ، ﺁﭖ ﮐﺎ ﻣﺰﺍﺭ ﺗﺮﮐﯽ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﮨﮯ۔

ﺍﺻﻞ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺴﯿﻦ ﺣﺴﯿﻨﯽ ﺧﻄﯿﺒﯽ ﺑﮑﺮﯼ ﺑﻠﺨﯽ ﺗﮭﺎ۔ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺁﭖ ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ، ﺧﺪﺍﻭﻧﺪﮔﺎﺭ ﺍﻭﺭ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﺧﺪﺍﻭﻧﺪﮔﺎﺭ ﮐﮯ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺏ ﺳﮯ ﻧﻮﺍﺯﮮ ﮔﺌﮯ۔ ﻟﯿﮑﻦ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﺭﻭﻣﯽ ﮐﮯ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺳﮯ ﻣﺸﮩﻮﺭ ﮨﻮﺋﮯ۔ ﺟﻮﺍﮨﺮ ﻣﻀﺌﯿﮧ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﮧ ﻧﺴﺐ ﺍﺱ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺑﯿﺎﻥ ﮐﯿﺎ ﮨﮯ : ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﺣﺴﯿﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﺣﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻗﺎﺳﻢ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺴﯿﺐ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ ﺑﻦ ﺍﺑﯽ ﺑﮑﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﯾﻖ۔ ﺍﺱ ﺭﻭﺍﯾﺖ ﺳﮯ ﺣﺴﯿﻦ ﺑﻠﺨﯽ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﮐﮯ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺩﺍ ﮨﻮﺗﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ ﻟﯿﮑﻦ ﺳﭙﮧ ﺳﺎﻻﺭ ﻧﮯ ﺍﻧﮩﯿﮟ ﺩﺍﺩﺍ ﻟﮑﮭﺎ ﮨﮯ ﺍﻭﺭ ﯾﮩﯽ ﺭﻭﺍﯾﺖ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﮨﮯ۔ ﮐﯿﻮﻧﮑﮧ ﻭﮦ ﺳﻠﺠﻮﻗﯽ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﮐﮯ ﮐﮩﻨﮯ ﭘﺮ ﺍﻧﺎﻃﻮﻟﯿﮧ ﭼﻠﮯ ﮔﺌﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ ﺟﻮ ﺍﺱ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﮯ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺭﻭﻡ ﮐﮩﻼﺗﺎ ﺗﮭﺎ۔ ﺍﻥ ﮐﮯ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﺑﮩﺎﺅ ﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ ﺑﮍﮮ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻭ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﺗﮭﮯ۔ ﺍﻥ ﮐﺎ ﻭﻃﻦ ﺑﻠﺦ ﺗﮭﺎ ﺍﻭﺭ ﯾﮩﯿﮟ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﺭﻭﻣﯽ 1207 ﺀ ﺑﻤﻄﺎﺑﻖ 6 ﺭﺑﯿﻊ ﺍﻻﻭﻝ 604 ﮪ ﻣﯿﮟ ﭘﯿﺪﺍ ﮨﻮﺋﮯ۔

ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍﺋﯽ ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻢ ﮐﮯ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺷﯿﺦ ﺑﮩﺎﻭﻟﺪﯾﻦ ﻧﮯ ﻃﮯ ﮐﺮﺍﺩﯾﮯ ﺍﻭﺭ ﭘﮭﺮ ﺍﭘﻨﮯ ﻣﺮﯾﺪ ﺳﯿﺪ ﺑﺮﮨﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ ﮐﻮ ﺟﻮ ﺍﭘﻨﮯ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﮯ ﮐﮯ ﻓﺎﺿﻞ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺷﻤﺎﺭ ﮐﯿﮯ ﺟﺎﺗﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎﮐﺎ ﻣﻌﻠﻢ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺍﺗﺎﻟﯿﻖ ﺑﻨﺎﺩﯾﺎ۔ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﮐﻮ ﺍﻧﮩﯽ ﺳﮯ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﮨﻮﺋﮯ۔ ﺍﭘﻨﮯ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﮐﯽ ﺣﯿﺎﺕ ﺗﮏ ﺍﻥ ﮨﯽ ﮐﯽ ﺧﺪﻣﺖ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺭﮨﮯ۔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﮐﮯ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﮐﮯ ﺑﻌﺪ 639 ﮪ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺷﺎﻡ ﮐﺎ ﻗﺼﺪ ﮐﯿﺎ ۔ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺣﻠﺐ ﮐﮯ ﻣﺪﺭﺳﮧ ﺣﻼﻭﯾﮧ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺭﮦ ﮐﺮ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎﮐﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ ﺳﮯ ﺷﺮﻑ ﺗﻠﻤﺬ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﮐﯿﺎ۔

ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﺭﻭﻣﯽ ﺍﭘﻨﮯ ﺩﻭﺭ ﮐﮯ ﺍﮐﺎﺑﺮ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺳﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ۔ ﻓﻘﮧ ﺍﻭﺭ ﻣﺬﺍﮨﺐ ﮐﮯ ﺑﮩﺖ ﺑﮍﮮ ﻋﺎﻟﻢ ﺗﮭﮯ۔ ﻟﯿﮑﻦ ﺁﭖ ﮐﯽ ﺷﮩﺮﺕ ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﺍﯾﮏ ﺻﻮﻓﯽ ﺷﺎﻋﺮ ﮐﮯ ﮨﻮﺋﯽ۔ ﺩﯾﮕﺮﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺑﮭﯽ ﺁﭖ ﮐﻮ ﭘﻮﺭﯼ ﺩﺳﺘﮕﺎﮦ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺗﮭﯽ۔ ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﻋﻠﻤﯽ ﻣﯿﮟ ﮨﯽ ﭘﯿﭽﯿﺪﮦ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺋﮯ ﻭﻗﺖ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﮐﯽ ﻃﺮﻑ ﺭﺟﻮﻉ ﮐﺮﺗﮯ ﺗﮭﮯ۔

ﺷﻤﺲ ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺰ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﮐﮯ ﭘﯿﺮ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺷﺪ ﺗﮭﮯ۔ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﮐﯽ ﺷﮩﺮﺕ ﺳﻦ ﮐﺮ ﺳﻠﺠﻮﻗﯽ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻧﮯ ﺍﻧﮭﯿﮟ ﺍﭘﻨﮯ ﭘﺎﺱ ﺑﻠﻮﺍﯾﺎ۔ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﻧﮯ ﺩﺭﺧﻮﺍﺳﺖ ﻗﺒﻮﻝ ﮐﯽ ﺍﻭﺭ ﻗﻮﻧﯿﮧ ﭼﻠﮯ ﮔﺌﮯ ۔ﻭﮦ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎًَ 30 ﺳﺎﻝ ﺗﮏ ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻢ ﻭ ﺗﺮﺑﯿﺖ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻣﺸﻐﻮﻝ ﺭﮨﮯ۔ ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ ﺭﻭﻣﯽ ؒ ﻧﮯ 3500 ﻏﺰﻟﯿﮟ 2000 ﺭﺑﺎﻋﯿﺎﺕ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺭﺯﻣﯿﮧ ﻧﻈﻤﯿﮟ ﻟﮑﮭﯿﮟ۔

ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﮐﮯ ﺩﻭ ﻓﺮﺯﻧﺪ ﺗﮭﮯ ، ﻋﻼﺅ ﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ، ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﺪ ۔ ﻋﻼﺅ ﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﮐﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺻﺮﻑ ﺍﺱ ﮐﺎﺭﻧﺎﻣﮯ ﺳﮯ ﺯﻧﺪﮦ ﮨﮯ ﮐﮧ ﺍﻧﮩﻮﮞ ﻧﮯ ﺷﻤﺲ ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺰ ﮐﻮ ﺷﮩﯿﺪ ﮐﯿﺎ ﺗﮭﺎ۔ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻭﻟﺪ ﺟﻮ ﻓﺮﺯﻧﺪ ﺍﮐﺒﺮ ﺗﮭﮯ ، ﺧﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺮﺷﯿﺪ ﺗﮭﮯ ، ﮔﻮ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﮐﯽ ﺷﮩﺮﺕ ﮐﮯ ﺁﮔﮯ ﺍﻥ ﮐﺎ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﻧﮧ ﮨﻮﺳﮑﺎ ﻟﯿﮑﻦ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﻇﺎﮨﺮﯼ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻃﻨﯽ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻭﮦ ﯾﮕﺎﻧﮧ ﺭﻭﺯﮔﺎﺭ ﺗﮭﮯ۔ ﺍﻥ ﮐﯽ ﺗﺼﺎﻧﯿﻒ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺳﮯ ﺧﺎﺹ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺫﮐﺮ ﺍﯾﮏ ﻣﺜﻨﻮﯼ ﮨﮯ ، ﺟﺲ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﮐﮯ ﺣﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻭﺭ ﻭﺍﺭﺩﺍﺕ ﻟﮑﮭﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺍﺱ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ ﺳﮯ ﻭﮦ ﮔﻮﯾﺎ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﮐﯽ ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺮ ﺳﻮﺍﻧﺢ ﻋﻤﺮﯼ ﮨﮯ۔

ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﮐﺎ ﺳﻠﺴﻠﮧ ﺍﺏ ﺗﮏ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ﮨﮯ۔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺑﻄﻮﻃﮧ ﻧﮯ ﺍﭘﻨﮯ ﺳﻔﺮﻧﺎﻣﮯ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻟﮑﮭﺎ ﮨﮯ ﮐﮧ ﺍﻥ ﮐﮯ ﻓﺮﻗﮯ ﮐﮯ ﻟﻮﮒ ﺟﻼﻟﯿﮧ ﮐﮩﻼﺗﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ۔ ﭼﻮﻧﮑﮧ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﮐﺎ ﻟﻘﺐ ﺟﻼﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ ﺗﮭﺎ ﺍﺱ ﻟﯿﮯ ﺍﻥ ﮐﮯ ﺍﻧﺘﺴﺎﺏ ﮐﯽ ﻭﺟﮧ ﺳﮯ ﯾﮧ ﻧﺎﻡ ﻣﺸﮩﻮﺭ ﮨﻮﺍ ﮨﻮﮔﺎ ۔ ﻟﯿﮑﻦ ﺁﺝ ﮐﻞ ﺍﯾﺸﯿﺎﺋﮯ ﮐﻮﭼﮏ ، ﺷﺎﻡ ، ﻣﺼﺮ ﺍﻭﺭ ﻗﺴﻄﻨﻄﻨﯿﮧ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﺱ ﻓﺮﻗﮯ ﮐﻮ ﻟﻮﮒ ﻣﻮﻟﻮﯾﮧ ﮐﮩﺘﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ۔ﺩﻭﺳﺮﯼ ﺟﻨﮓ ﻋﻈﯿﻢ ﺳﮯ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﻠﻘﺎﻥ، ﺍﻓﺮﯾﻘﮧ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺍﯾﺸﯿﺎ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻣﻮﻟﻮﯼ ﻃﺮﯾﻘﺖ ﮐﮯ ﭘﯿﺮﻭﮐﺎﺭﻭﮞ ﮐﯽ ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﯾﮏ ﻻﮐﮫ ﺳﮯ ﺯﺍﺋﺪ ﺗﮭﯽ۔ ﯾﮧ ﻟﻮﮒ ﻧﻤﺪ ﮐﯽ ﭨﻮﭘﯽ ﭘﮩﻨﺘﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ ﺟﺲ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺟﻮﮌ ﯾﺎ ﺩﺭﺯ ﻧﮩﯿﮟ ﮨﻮﺗﯽ ، ﻣﺸﺎﺋﺦ ﺍﺱ ﭨﻮﭘﯽ ﭘﺮ ﻋﻤﺎﻣﮧ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﮬﺘﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ۔ ﺧﺮﻗﮧ ﯾﺎ ﮐﺮﺗﮧ ﮐﯽ ﺑﺠﺎﺋﮯ ﺍﯾﮏ ﭼﻨﭧ ﺩﺍﺭ ﭘﺎﺟﺎﻣﮧ ﮨﻮﺗﺎﮨﮯ۔ ﺫﮐﺮ ﻭ ﺷﻐﻞ ﮐﺎ ﯾﮧ ﻃﺮﯾﻘﮧ ﮨﮯ ﮐﮧ ﺣﻠﻘﮧ ﺑﺎﻧﺪﮪ ﮐﺮ ﺑﯿﭩﮭﺘﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ۔ ﺍﯾﮏ ﺷﺨﺺ ﮐﮭﮍﺍ ﮨﻮ ﮐﺮ ﺍﯾﮏ ﮨﺎﺗﮫ ﺳﯿﻨﮯ ﭘﺮ ﺍﻭﺭ ﺍﯾﮏ ﮨﺎﺗﮫ ﭘﮭﯿﻼﺋﮯ ﮨﻮﺋﮯ ﺭﻗﺺ ﺷﺮﻭﻉ ﮐﺮﺗﺎ ﮨﮯ۔ ﺭﻗﺺ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺁﮔﮯ ﭘﯿﭽﮭﮯ ﺑﮍﮬﻨﺎ ﯾﺎ ﮨﭩﻨﺎ ﻧﮩﯿﮟ ﮨﻮﺗﺎ ﺑﻠﮑﮧ ﺍﯾﮏ ﺟﮕﮧ ﺟﻢ ﮐﺮ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﭼﮑﺮ ﻟﮕﺎﺗﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ۔ ﺳﻤﺎﻉ ﮐﮯ ﻭﻗﺖ ﺩﻑ ﺍﻭﺭ ﻧﮯ ﺑﮭﯽ ﺑﺠﺎﺗﮯ ﮨﯿﮟ۔

ﺑﻘﯿﮧ ﺯﻧﺪﮔﯽ ﻭﮨﯿﮟ ﮔﺬﺍﺭ ﮐﺮ ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺒﺎًَ 66 ﺳﺎﻝ ﮐﯽ ﻋﻤﺮ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺳﻦ 1273 ﺀ ﺑﻤﻄﺎﺑﻖ 672 ﮪ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ﮐﺮﮔﺌﮯ۔ ﻗﻮﻧﯿﮧ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺍﻥ ﮐﺎ ﻣﺰﺍﺭ ﺁﺝ ﺑﮭﯽ ﻋﻘﯿﺪﺕ ﻣﻨﺪﻭﮞ ﮐﺎ ﻣﺮﮐﺰ ﮨﮯ۔

ﺍﻥ ﮐﯽ ﺳﺐ ﺳﮯ ﻣﺸﮩﻮﺭ ﺗﺼﻨﯿﻒ ’’ ﻣﺜﻨﻮﯼ ﻣﻮﻻﻧﺎ ﺭﻭﻡ ‘‘ ﮨﮯ۔ ﺍﺱ ﮐﮯ ﻋﻼﻭﮦ ﺍﻥ ﮐﯽ ﺍﯾﮏ ﻣﺸﮩﻮﺭ ﮐﺘﺎﺏ ’’ ﻓﯿﮧ ﻣﺎﻓﯿﮧ ‘‘ ﺑﮭﯽ ﮨﮯ۔

” ﺑﺎﻗﯽ ﺍﯾﮟ ﮔﻔﺘﮧ ﺁﯾﺪ ﺑﮯ ﺯﺑﺎﮞ
ﺩﺭ ﺩﻝ ﮨﺮ ﮐﺲ ﮐﮧ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻧﻮﺭِ ﺟﺎﻥ
ﺗﺮﺟﻤﮧ : ’’ ﺟﺲ ﺷﺨﺺ ﮐﯽ ﺟﺎﻥ ﻣﯿﮟ ﻧﻮﺭﮨﻮﮔﺎ ﺍﺱ ﻣﺜﻨﻮﯼ ﮐﺎ ﺑﻘﯿﮧ ﺣﺼﮧ ﺍﺱ ﮐﮯ ﺩﻝ ﻣﯿﮟ ﺧﻮﺩﺑﺨﻮﺩ ﺍﺗﺮ ﺟﺎﺋﮯ ﮔﺎ ‘‘ “

ﺍﻥ ﮐﮯ 800 ﻭﯾﮟ ﺟﺸﻦ ﭘﯿﺪﺍﺋﺶ ﭘﺮ ﺗﺮﮐﯽ ﮐﯽ ﺩﺭﺧﻮﺍﺳﺖ ﭘﺮ ﺍﻗﻮﺍﻡ ﻣﺘﺤﺪﮦ ﮐﮯ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﮦ ﺑﺮﺍﺋﮯ ﺗﻌﻠﯿﻢ، ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺖ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺋﻨﺲ ﯾﻮﻧﯿﺴﮑﻮ ﻧﮯ
2007 ﺀ ﮐﻮ ﺑﯿﻦ ﺍﻻﻗﻮﺍﻣﯽ ﺳﺎﻝِ ﺭﻭﻣﯽ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﯾﺎ۔ ﺍﺱ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﭘﺮ ﯾﻮﻧﯿﺴﮑﻮ ﺗﻤﻐﺎ ﺑﮭﯽ ﺟﺎﺭﯼ ﮐﯿﺎ۔

=======

अमरीका क्यों मानता है जलालुद्दीन का लोहा
हाल के सालों में फ़ारसी के मशहूर शायर और सूफ़ी दिग्गज जलालुद्दीन मोहम्मद रूमी की लोकप्रियता अमरीका में इतनी बढ़ी है कि कविता प्रेमियों के बीच वो सबसे मशहूर कवि माने जा रहे हैं.

रूमी का जन्म 1207 में ताजिकिस्तान के एक गांव में हुआ था.

उनके जन्म के 800 से ज़्यादा साल बाद भी अमरीका में उनकी रूबाईयों और ग़ज़लों की किताबों की लाखों प्रतियां बिक रही हैं.

दुनिया भर में तो उनके करोड़ों प्रशंसकों की संख्या है ही. रूमी की जीवनी लिख रहे ब्रैड गूच कहते हैं, “रूमी का सभी संस्कृतियों पर असर दिखता है.”

गूच ने रूमी की जीवनी पर काम करने के लिए उन तमाम मुल्कों की यात्रा की है, जो किसी ना किसी रूप में रूमी से जुड़े रहे.

गूच कहते हैं, “रूमी का जीवन 2500 मील लंबे इलाके में फैला हुआ है. रूमी का जन्म ताजिकिस्तान के वख़्श गांव में हुआ. इसके बाद वे उज्बेकिस्तान में समरकंद, फिर ईरान और सीरिया गए. रूमी ने युवावस्था में सीरिया (शाम) के दमिश्क और एलेप्पो में अपनी पढ़ाई पूरी की.”

इसके बाद उन्होंने जीवन के 50 सालों तक तुर्की के कोन्या को अपना ठिकाना बनाया और वहीं रूमी का निधन हुआ था.

शम्स तबरेज़ी का असर
रूमी के मक़बरे पर हर साल 17 दिसंबर को उनके प्रशंसकों (कई राष्ट्राध्यक्षों समेत) का जमावड़ा लगता है. उनकी पुण्यतिथि पर दरवेशी परंपरा के इस आयोजन में दुनिया भर से रूमी प्रशंसक पहुंचते हैं.

रूमी के जीवन में सबसे बड़ा बदलाव 1244 में आया जब वे सूफ़ी संत शम्स तबरेज़ी से मिले. गूच बताते हैं, “तब रूमी 37 साल के थे और अपने पिता और दादा की तरह वे एक मुस्लिम धार्मिक गुरू और विद्धान थे.”

गूच कहते हैं, “रूमी और शम्स में तीन साल तक बेहतरीन दोस्ती रही. दोनों के बीच ये रिश्ता प्रेम का था या फिर मुरशिद-चेले (गुरू-शिष्य) का था, ये स्पष्ट नहीं हो पाया.” लेकिन इस सोहबत ने रूमी को सूफ़ियाना रंग में रंग लिया.

तीन साल बाद शम्स तबरेज़ी अचानक ग़ायब हो गए. रूमी सूफ़ी बन गए.

कहा जाता है कि शायद शम्स की हत्या रूमी के किसी बेटे ने कर दी हो, जो अपने पिता और शम्स की दोस्ती से ईष्या करने लगा हो. इसके बाद रूमी पूरी तरह शायरी में डूब गए.

गूच बताते हैं, “उनकी लगभग सभी रचनाएँ 37 से 67 साल की उम्र में लिखी गईं. उन्होंने शम्स, पैगंबर मोहम्मद और अल्लाह के प्रति प्रेम प्रदर्शित करने वाले करीब 3000 गीत लिखे. इसके अलावा उन्होंने 2000 रूबाईयां भी लिखीं. रूबाई चार पंक्तियों वाला दोहा होता है. साथ ही उन्होंने छह खंडों वाले अध्यात्मिक महाकाव्य मसनवी की रचना भी की.”

शायरी, संगीत और नृत्य
जीवन के इन तीन दशकों में रूमी ने शायरी, संगीत और नृत्य को धार्मिक परंपराओं से जोड़ने का काम किया. गूच कहते हैं, “रूमी जब अध्यात्म में डूबे होते थे या फिर शायरी बोल रहे होते, तो झूमते रहते थे.”

उनकी मृत्यु के बाद उनके इसी अंदाज़ को लोगों ने अध्यात्मिक नृत्य के तौर पर अपनाया. रूमी ने अपनी एक ग़ज़ल में लिखा है, “मैं पहले प्रार्थना-सजदा सुनाता था. अब मैं धुन, शायरी और गीत सुनाता हूं.”

उनकी मौत के सैकड़ों साल बाद रूमी की शायरी सुनाई जाती है, गाई जाती है, इसे संगीत में सजाया जाता है.

ये शायरी संगीत, फ़िल्म, यूट्यूब वीडियो और ट्वीट्स की दुनिया के लिए प्रेरणा स्रोत साबित हो रही है. क्या वजह है कि रूमी की रूबाईयां आज भी लोकप्रिय हैं?

गूच कहते हैं, “रूमी प्रेम और उल्लास के कवि थे. उनकी रचनाएं शम्स के वियोग, प्रेम और विधाता से संबंधित उनके अनुभव और मृत्यु का सामना करते हुए उनके अनुभवों से निकली हैं. रूमी का संदेश सीधे संवाद करता है. एक बार मैंने एक बेहतरीन संदेश देखा, जो रूमी की रचना की एक पंक्ति थी- सही और ग़लत करने के विचार से परे, एक जगह होती है, मैं तुमसे वहीं मिलूंगा.”

नारोपा यूनिवर्सिटी के जैक कैरोएक स्कूल ऑफ डिसइम्बॉडिड पोएटिक्स विभाग की सह-संस्थापक और कवि एने वाल्डमान कहती हैं, “जब हम सूफ़ी परंपरा, परम आनंद और भक्ति भाव के अलावा शायरी की ताक़त को समझने का प्रयास करते हैं तो रूमी काफी रहस्यमयी और विचारोत्तेजक शायर के तौर पर सामने आते हैं.”

रूबाईयां आज भी जीवंत

काव्यशास्त्र की प्रोफेसर एने वाल्डमान कहती हैं, “समलैंगिक परंपरा को भी उनसे बढ़ावा मिला. सैफ़ो से लेकर वॉल्ट व्हिट्मैन तक, वे परमानंद की तलाश करने वाली परंपरा में बने रहे.”

अमरीका में नेशनल लाइब्रेरी सीरीज में रूमी को भी जगह मिली है. इस प्रोजेक्ट की सह प्रायोजक पोएट्स हाउस की कार्यकारी निदेशक ली ब्रीक्केटी कहती हैं, “समय, जगह और संस्कृति के लिहाज से रूमी की रूबाईयां आज भी जीवंत लगती हैं.”

ब्रीक्केटी कहती हैं, “उनकी रचनाएं हमें अपनी उस खोज को समझने में मदद करती हैं, जो प्रेम और परमआनंद के भाव से जुड़ी है.”

ब्रीक्केटी रूमी की रचनाओं की तुलना सौंदर्य और प्रेम की गूंज के लिहाज से शेक्सपीयर से करती हैं.

कोलमैन बार्क्स ने रूमी की रचनाओं का अनुवाद किया है. इन रचनाओं की लोकप्रियता ने ही रूमी की शायरी को अमरीका में सबसे ज्यादा बिकने वाली शायरी बना दिया.

वे कहते हैं, “रूमी की कल्पनाओं में ताज़गी है. उन्हें पढ़ते हुए ऐसा लगता है कि वे कहीं हमारे अंदर से आ रही हैं. उनमें गज़ब का ह्यूमर भी है. उनकी रचनाओं में चंचलता के बीच ही ज्ञान की झलक भी मिलती है.”

1976 में कवि रॉबर्ट ब्लाय ने बार्क्स को रूमी की रचनाओं का वह अनुवाद दिया जो केंब्रिज यूनिवर्सिटी के एजे अरबेरी ने किया था.

ब्लाय ने बार्क्स से कहा था, “इन कविताओं को इनके पिंजरे से रिहा करने की जरूरत है.” इसके बाद बार्क्स ने उस अकादमिक अनुवाद को अमरीकी शैली की आमफहम अंग्रेजी में बदल डाला.

लाखों प्रतियों की बिक्री
इसके बाद 33 सालों में बार्क्स ने 22 खंडों में रूमी की रचनाओं का अनुवाद किया.

इनमें द इंसेशिएल रूमी, एन ईयर विद रूमी, रूमी: द बिग रेड बुक और रूमीस फादर्स स्पिरिच्यूयल डायरी, द ड्राउनड बुक शामिल हैं. इनका प्रकाशन हार्परवन ने किया है. इन किताबों की 20 लाख से ज़्यादा प्रतियां बिक चुकी हैं और उनका 23 भाषाओं में अनुवाद हो चुका है.

बार्क्स रूमी की इस लोकप्रियता के बारे में कहते हैं, “मेरे ख़्याल से दुनिया भर में रूमी को लेकर एक आंदोलन जैसा चल रहा है, जो सभी धर्मों में दिख रहा है. इसके पीछे सांप्रदायिक हिंसा को खत्म कर, धर्म को धर्म से अलग करने वाली दीवारों को हटाने की भावना है. ऐसा कहा जाता है कि 1273 में रूमी को दफ़न करने के समय सभी धर्मों के लोग शामिल हुए थे, क्योंकि वे हर किसी की आस्था को मज़बूत करने में कामयाब हुए थे. रूमी के लेखन में आज भी यही अहम तत्व है.”

रुटर्जस यूनिवर्सिटी में मध्यकालीन सूफीवाद के विद्धान जावेद मोजादेदी कहते हैं, “रूमी फ़ारसी कवियों में प्रयोगधर्मी थे और सूफ़ी दिग्गज थे. उनकी रूबाईयों में रहस्य की गहराई भी है और एक तरह की बोल्डनेस भी है, इसी वजह से वो आज इतने लोकप्रिय हैं.”

मोजादेदी के मुताबिक रूमी की रचनाओं में सबसे पहली ख़ास बात तो ये है कि वे पाठकों से सीधा संवाद करती हैं. इसके अलावा रूमी की रचनाओं में पाठकों को कुछ सीख देने की प्रबल इच्छा भी अभिव्यक्त होती है.

रूमी की तीसरी खास बात है उनकी कल्पनाशीलता है. मोजादेदी के मुताबिक चौथी बात ” सूफ़ी परंपरा तो यह रही है कि प्रेम मिलन के अप्राप्य होने और प्रेमिका के ठुकरा देने के दर्द पर ज़ोर दिया जाए. लेकिन रूमी मिलन को एक उत्सव की तरह मनाते हैं.”

मोजादेदी ने रूमी की सबसे बेहतरीन रचना मसनवी के छह खंडों में से तीन खंडों का अनुवाद भी किया है. रूमी की मसनवी एक ही शायर के लिखे हुए 26 हज़ार अशार की सबसे लंबी आध्यात्मिक काव्य रचना है. मोजादेदी की नज़र में इस्लामी दुनिया में रूमी की मसनवी क़ुरान के बाद सबसे प्रभावी रचना है.

Advertisements

JERUSALEM AND UMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB (RA)

Jerusalem is a city holy to the three largest monotheistic faiths – Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. Because of its history that spans thousands of years, it goes by many names: Jerusalem, al-Quds, Yerushaláyim, Aelia, and more, all reflecting its diverse heritage. It is a city that numerous Muslim prophets called home, from Sulayman and Dawood to Isa (Jesus), may Allah be pleased with them.

During the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ’s life, he made a miraculous journey in one night from Makkah to Jerusalem and then from Jerusalem to Heaven – the Isra’ and Mi’raj. During his life, however, Jerusalem never came under Muslim political control. That would change during the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph of Islam.

Into Syria

During Muhammad ﷺ’s life, the Byzantine Empire made clear its desire to eliminate the new Muslim religion growing on its southern borders. The Expedition of Tabuk thus commenced in October 630, with Muhammad ﷺleading an army of 30,000 people to the border with the Byzantine Empire. While no Byzantine army met the Muslims for a battle, the expedition marked the beginning of the Muslim-Byzantine Wars that would continue for decades.

During the rule of the caliph Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) from 632 to 634, no major offensives were taken into Byzantine land. It was during the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him), that Muslims would begin to seriously expand northwards into the Byzantine realm. He sent some of the ablest Muslim generals, including Khalid ibn al-Walid and Amr ibn al-’As (may Allah be pleased with them) to fight the Byzantines. The decisive Battle of Yarmuk in 636 was a huge blow to Byzantine power in the region, leading to the fall of numerous cities throughout Syria such as Damascus.

In many cases, Muslim armies were welcomed by the local population – both Jews and Christians. The majority of the Christians of the region were Monophysites, who had a more monotheistic view of God that was similar to what the new Muslims were preaching. They welcomed Muslim rule over the area instead of the Byzantines, with whom they had many theological differences.

Capture of Jerusalem

By 637, Muslim armies began to appear in the vicinity of Jerusalem. In charge of Jerusalem was Patriarch Sophronius, a representative of the Byzantine government, as well as a leader in the Christian Church. Although numerous Muslim armies under the command of Khalid ibn al-Walid and Amr ibn al-’As (may Allah be pleased with them) began to surround the city, Sophronius refused to surrender the city unless Umar came to accept the surrender himself.

Having heard of such a condition, Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him)  left Madinah, travelling alone with one donkey and one servant. When he arrived in Jerusalem, he was greeted by Sophronius, who undoubtedly must have been amazed that the caliph of the Muslims, one of the most powerful people in the world at that point, was dressed in no more than simple robes and was indistinguishable from his servant.

Umar was given a tour of the city, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. When the time for prayer came, Sophronius invited Umar to pray inside the Church, but Umar refused. He insisted that if he prayed there, later Muslims would use it as an excuse to convert it into a mosque – thereby depriving Christendom of one of its holiest sites. Instead, Umar prayed outside the Church, where a mosque (called Masjid Umar – the Mosque of Umar) was later built.

The Treaty of Umar (may Allah be pleased with him)

As they did with all other cities they conquered, the Muslims had to write up a treaty detailing the rights and privileges regarding the conquered people and the Muslims in Jerusalem. This treaty was signed by Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) and Patriarch Sophronius, along with some of the generals of the Muslim armies. The text of the treaty read:

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. This is the assurance of safety which the servant of God, Umar, the Commander of the Faithful, has given to the people of Jerusalem. He has given them an assurance of safety for themselves  for their property, their churches, their crosses, the sick and healthy of the city and for all the rituals which belong to their religion. Their churches will not be inhabited by Muslims and will not be destroyed. Neither they, nor the land on which they stand, nor their cross, nor their property will be damaged. They will not be forcibly converted. No Jew will live with them in Jerusalem.

The people of Jerusalem must pay the taxes like the people of other cities and must expel the Byzantines and the robbers. Those of the people of Jerusalem who want to leave with the Byzantines, take their property and abandon their churches and crosses will be safe until they reach their place of refuge. The villagers may remain in the city if they wish but must pay taxes like the citizens. Those who wish may go with the Byzantines and those who wish may return to their families. Nothing is to be taken from them before their harvest is reaped.

If they pay their taxes according to their obligations, then the conditions laid out in this letter are under the covenant of God, are the responsibility of His Prophet, of the caliphs and of the faithful.

– Quoted in The Great Arab Conquests, from Tarikh Tabari

At the time, this was by far one of the most progressive treaties in history. For comparison, just 23 years earlier when Jerusalem was conquered by the Persians from the Byzantines, a general massacre was ordered. Another massacre ensued when Jerusalem was conquered by the Crusaders from the Muslims in 1099.

The Treaty of Umar allowed the Christians of Jerusalem religious freedom, as is dictated in the Quran and the sayings of Muhammad ﷺ. This was one of the first and most significant guarantees of religious freedom in history. While there is a clause in the treaty regarding the banning of Jews from Jerusalem, its authenticity is debated. One of Umar’s guides in Jerusalem was a Jew named Kaab al-Ahbar. Umar further allowed Jews to worship on the Temple Mount and the Wailing Wall, while the Byzantines banned them from such activities. Thus, the authenticity of the clause regarding Jews is in question.

What is not in question, however, was the significance of such a progressive and equitable surrender treaty, which protected minority rights. The treaty became the standard for Muslim-Christian relations throughout the former Byzantine Empire, with rights of conquered people being protected in all situations, and forced conversions never being a sanctioned act.

Revitalization of the City

Umar immediately set about making the city an important Muslim landmark. He cleared the area of the Temple Mount, where Muhammad ﷺascended to heaven from. The Christians had used the area as a garbage dump to offend the Jews, and Umar and his army (along with some Jews) personally cleaned it and built a mosque – Masjid al-Aqsa – there.

Throughout the remainder of Umar’s caliphate and into the Umayyad Empire’s reign over the city, Jerusalem became a major center of religious pilgrimage and trade. The Dome of the Rock was added to complement Masjid al-Aqsa in 691. Numerous other mosques and public institutions were soon established throughout the city.

The Muslim conquest of Jerusalem under the caliph Umar in 637 was clearly an important moment in the city’s history. For the next 462 years, it would be ruled by Muslims, with religious freedom for minorities protected according to the Treaty of Umar. Even in 2012, as fighting continues over the future status of the city, many Muslims, Christians, and Jews insist that the Treaty maintains legal standing and look to it to help solve Jerusalem’s current problems.

THE MIRACLES OF THE NOBLE PROPHET MUHAMMAD (PBUH)

There are many miracles which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) performed related in the Sunnah, or conglomeration of the sayings, deeds, approvals, and descriptions of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon).

The Tree Trunk

In Medina Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon)  used to deliver sermons leaning on a tree stump.  When the number of worshippers increased, someone suggested a pulpit be built so he can use it to deliver the sermon.  When the pulpit was built, he abandoned the tree trunk.  Abdullah ibn Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), one of the companions, gave an eye-witness testimony of what happened. The trunk was heard weeping, the Prophet of Mercy went towards it and comforted it with his hand. [Saheeh Al-Bukhari]

The event is also confirmed through eye-witness testimony transmitted through the ages with an unbroken chain of reliable scholars (hadith mutawatir).

The Flowing of Water

On more than one occasion when people were in dire need of water, the blessing of the Prophet Muhammad saved them. In the sixth year after the he migrated from Mecca to Medina, Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) went to Mecca for pilgrimage.  In the long journey through the desert, people ran out of all water, only the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) was left with a vessel with which he performed ablution for prayers.  He (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) put his hand in vessel, water began flowing from between his fingers.  Jabir bin Abdullah, who witnessed the miracle, says of the fifteen hundred men, ‘We drank it and made ablution.’ [Saheeh Al-Bukhari.]  This miracle has been transmitted with an unbroken chain of reliable scholars (hadith mutawatir).

The sprouting of water from human fingers is similar to the Moses’ miracle of producing water from a rock.

Blessing of Food

On more than one occasion, the Prophet blessed food by either praying or touching it so all present could get their fill.  This happened at times when food and water shortage afflicted Muslims.[ Saheeh Al-Bukhari.]  These miracles took place in the presence of a large number of people and is, thus, not possible to deny.

Healing the Sick

During the expedition of Khyber, Muhammad healed the painful eyes of Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be pleased with him) in front of a whole army. Ali (may Allah be pleased with him), many years later, became the fourth caliph of Muslims. [ Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim]

Prayers Answered

  1. The mother of Abu Hurayra, a close companion of Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon), used to speak ill of Islam and its prophet. One day, Abu Hurayra (may Allah be pleased with him) came weeping to Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) and asked him to pray for his mother to be saved. Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) prayed and when Abu Hurayra (may Allah be pleased with him) returned home he found his mother ready to accept Islam.  She bore the testimony of faith in front of her son and entered Islam. [ Saheeh Muslim]
  1. Jarir ibn Abdullah (may Allah be pleased with him) was commissioned by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) to rid the land of an idol worshipped besides God, but he complained he was could not ride a horse well!  The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) prayed for him, ‘O God, make him a strong horseman and make him one is guides and is guided.’  Jarir (may Allah be pleased with him) testifies he never fell off his horse after the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) prayed for him. [ Saheeh Muslim]

The people were struck with famine during the time of Muhammad.  A man stood up when Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) was delivering the weekly sermon on Friday, and said, ‘O Messenger of God, our wealth has been destroyed and our children are starving.  Pray to God for us.’  Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) raised his hands in prayer.

Those in attendance testify that that the moment he lowered his hands after praying, clouds began to build like mountains!

By the time he stepped down of his pulpit, rain was dripping from his beard!

It rained the whole week till next Friday!

The same man stood up again, complained this time, ‘O Messenger of God, our buildings are destroyed, and our property is drowned, pray to God for us!’

Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon)  raised his hands and prayed, ‘O God, (let it rain) around us, but not on us.’

Those in attendance testify that the clouds withdrew in the direction he pointed, the city of Medina was surrounded by clouds, but there were no clouds over it! [Saheeh Al-Bukhar, Saheeh Muslim]

(4) Here is the beautiful story of Jabir.  He testifies that on one time, the camel he was riding was exhausted because it was used for carrying water.  The camel could hardly walk.  Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) asked him, ‘What’s the matter with your camel?’  On finding out how tired the poor camel was, Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) prayed for the poor animal and from that time, Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him)tells us, the camel was always ahead of others!  Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) asked Jabir, ‘How do you find your camel?’  Jabir responded, ‘It is well, your blessing has reached it!’  Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) bought the camel from Jabir on the spot for a piece of gold, with the condition that Jabir ride it back to the city!  On reaching Medina, Jabir says he brought the camel to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) the next morning.  Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon) gave him the piece of gold and told him to keep his camel! [ Saheeh Al-Bukhar, Saheeh Muslim]

HOW ISLAMIC INVENTORS CHANGED THE WORLD

From coffee to cheques and the three-course meal, the Muslim world has given us many innovations that we in the West take for granted. Here are 20 of their most influential innovations:

(1) The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a certain berry.

He boiled the berries to make the first coffee. Certainly the first record of the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank it to stay awake all night to pray on special occasions. By the late 15th century it had arrived in Makkah and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645.

It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named Pasqua Rosee who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London. The Arabic“qahwa” became the Turkish “kahve” then the Italian “caffé” and then English “coffee”.

(2) The ancient Greeks thought our eyes emitted rays, like a laser, which enabled us to see. The first person to realise that light enters the eye, rather than leaving it, was the 10th-century Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physicist Ibn al-Haitham.

He invented the first pin-hole camera after noticing the way light came through a hole in window shutters. The smaller the hole, the better the picture, he worked out, and set up the first Camera Obscura (from the Arab word“qamara” for a dark or private room).

He is also credited with being the first man to shift physics from a philosophical activity to an experimental one.

(3) A form of chess was played in ancient India but the game was developed into the form we know it today in Persia. From there it spread westward to Europe — where it was introduced by the Moors in Spain in the 10th century — and eastward as far as Japan. The word “rook”comes from the Persian “rukh”, which means chariot.

(4) A thousand years before the Wright brothers, a Muslim poet, astronomer, musician and engineer named Abbas ibn Firnas made several attempts to construct a flying machine. In 852 he jumped from the minaret of the Grand Mosque in Cordoba using a loose cloak stiffened with wooden struts.

He hoped to glide like a bird. He didn’t. But the cloak slowed his fall, creating what is thought to be the first parachute, and leaving him with only minor injuries.

In 875, aged 70, having perfected a machine of silk and eagles’ feathers he tried again, jumping from a mountain. He flew to a significant height and stayed aloft for ten minutes but crashed on landing — concluding, correctly, that it was because he had not given his device a tail so it would stall on landing. Baghdad international airport and a crater on the Moon are named after him.

(5) Washing and bathing are religious requirements for Muslims, which is perhaps why they perfected the recipe for soap which we still use today. The ancient Egyptians had soap of a kind, as did the Romans who used it more as a pomade.

But it was the Arabs who combined vegetable oils with sodium hydroxide and aromatics such as thyme oil. One of the Crusaders’ most striking characteristics, to Arab nostrils, was that they did not wash.

Shampoo was introduced to England by a Muslim who opened Mahomed’s Indian Vapour Baths on Brighton seafront in 1759 and was appointed Shampooing Surgeon to Kings George IV and William IV.

(6) Distillation, the means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points, was invented around the year 800 by Islam’s foremost scientist, Jabir ibn Hayyan, who transformed alchemy into chemistry, inventing many of the basic processes and apparatus still in use today — liquefaction, crystallisation, distillation, purification, oxidisation, evaporation and filtration.

As well as discovering sulphuric and nitric acid, he invented the alembic still, giving the world intense rosewater and other perfumes and alcoholic spirits (although drinking them forbidden, in Islam). Ibn Hayyan emphasised systematic experimentation and was the founder of modern chemistry.

(7) The crank-shaft is a device which translates rotary into linear motion and is central to much of the machinery in the modern world, not least the internal combustion engine. One of the most important mechanical inventions in the history of humankind, it was created by an ingenious Muslim engineer called al-Jazari to raise water for irrigation.

His Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices (1206) shows he also invented or refined the use of valves and pistons, devised some of the first mechanical clocks driven by water and weights, and was the father of robotics. Among his 50 other inventions was the combination lock.

(8) Quilting is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating material in between. It is not clear whether it was invented in the Muslim world or whether it was imported there from India or China.

However, it certainly came to the West via the Crusaders. They saw it used by Saracen warriors, who wore straw-filled quilted canvas shirts instead of armour. As well as a form of protection, it proved an effective guard against the chafing of the Crusaders’ metal armour and was an effective form of insulation — so much so that it became a cottage industry back home in colder climates such as Britain and Holland.

(9) The pointed arch so characteristic of Europe’s Gothic cathedrals was an invention borrowed from Islamic architecture. It was much stronger than the rounded arch used by the Romans and Normans, thus allowing the building of bigger, higher, more complex and grander buildings.

Other borrowings from Muslim genius included ribbed vaulting, rose windows and dome-building techniques. Europe’s castles were also adapted to copy the Islamic world’s — with arrow slits, battlements, a barbican and parapets. Square towers and keeps gave way to more easily defended round ones. The architect of Henry V’s castle was a Muslim.

(10) Many modern surgical instruments are of exactly the same design as those devised in the 10th century by a Muslim surgeon called al-Zahrawi. His scalpels, bone saws, forceps, fine scissors for eye surgery and many of the 200 instruments he devised are recognisable to a modern surgeon.

It was he who discovered that catgut used for internal stitches dissolves away naturally (a discovery he made when his monkey ate his lute strings) and that it can be also used to make medicine capsules.

In the 13th century, another Muslim medic named Ibn Nafis described the circulation of the blood, 300 years before William Harvey discovered it. Muslim doctors also invented anaesthetics of opium and alcohol mixes and developed hollow needles to suck cataracts from eyes in a technique still used today.

(11) The windmill was invented in 634 for a Persian caliph and was used to grind corn and draw up water for irrigation. In the vast deserts of Arabia, when the seasonal streams ran dry, the only source of power was the wind which blew steadily from one direction for months. Mills had six or 12 sails covered in fabric or palm leaves. It was 500 years before the first windmill was seen in Europe.

(12) The technique of inoculation was not invented by Jenner and Pasteur but was devised in the Muslim world and brought to Europe from Turkey by the wife of the English ambassador to Istanbul in 1724. Children in Turkey were vaccinated with cowpox to fight the deadly smallpox at least 50 years before the West discovered it.

(13) The fountain pen was invented for the Sultan of Egypt in 953 after he demanded a pen which would not stain his hands or clothes. It held ink in a reservoir and, as with modern pens, fed ink to the nib by a combination of gravity and capillary action.

(14) The system of numbering in use all round the world is probably Indian in origin but the style of the numerals is Arabic and first appears in print in the work of the Muslim mathematicians al-Khwarizmi and al-Kindi around 825.

Algebra was named after al-Khwarizmi’s book, Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah, much of whose contents are still in use. The work of Muslim maths scholars was imported into Europe 300 years later by the Italian mathematician Fibonacci.

Algorithms and much of the theory of trigonometry came from the Muslim world. And Al-Kindi’s discovery of frequency analysis rendered all the codes of the ancient world soluble and created the basis of modern cryptology.

(15) Ali ibn Nafi, known by his nickname of Ziryab (Blackbird) came from Iraq to Cordoba in the 9th century and brought with him the concept of the three-course meal — soup, followed by fish or meat, then fruit and nuts. He also introduced crystal glasses (which had been invented after experiments with rock crystal by Abbas ibn Firnas).

(16) Carpets were regarded as part of paradise by mediaeval Muslims, thanks to their advanced weaving techniques, new tinctures from Islamic chemistry and highly developed sense of pattern and arabesque which were the basis of Islam’s non-representational art.

In contrast, Europe’s floors were distinctly earthly, not to say earthy, until Arabian and Persian carpets were introduced. In England, as Erasmus recorded, floors were “covered in rushes, occasionally renewed, but so imperfectly that the bottom layer is left undisturbed, sometimes for 20 years, harbouring expectoration, vomiting, the leakage of dogs and men, ale droppings, scraps of fish, and other abominations not fit to be mentioned”. Carpets, unsurprisingly, caught on quickly.

(17) The modern cheque comes from the Arabic “saqq”, a written vow to pay for goods when they were delivered, to avoid money having to be transported across dangerous terrain. In the 9th century, a Muslim businessman could cash a cheque in China drawn on his bank in Baghdad.

(18) By the 9th century, many Muslim scholars took it for granted that the Earth was a sphere. The proof, said astronomer Ibn Hazm, “is that the Sun is always vertical to a particular spot on Earth”. It was 500 years before that realisation dawned on Galileo.

The calculations of Muslim astronomers were so accurate that in the 9th century they reckoned the Earth’s circumference to be 40, 253.4km — less than 200km out. Al-Idrisi took a globe depicting the world to the court of King Roger of Sicily in 1139.

(19) Though the Chinese invented saltpetre gunpowder, and used it in their fireworks, it was the Arabs who worked out that it could be purified using potassium nitrate for military use. Muslim incendiary devices terrified the Crusaders.

By the 15th century they had invented both a rocket, which they called a “self-moving and combusting egg”, and a torpedo — a self-propelled pear-shaped bomb with a spear at the front which impaled itself in enemy ships and then blew up.

(20) Mediaeval Europe had kitchen and herb gardens, but it was the Arabs who developed the idea of the garden as a place of beauty and meditation. The first royal pleasure gardens in Europe were opened in 11th-century Muslim Spain. Flowers which originated in Muslim gardens include the carnation and the tulip.

What is Sadaqah al-Fitr (Fitrah)?

 

 

 

Image result for fitrana

 

What is sadaqah al-fitr?

Sadaqah al-fitr is a sadaqah that is wajib to be given by every Muslim who is alive at the end of the month of Ramadan and who has at least nisab amount of money or goods apart from his fundamental needs. It is also called fitrah.

Sadaqah al-fitr (fitrah) means sadaqah given by man as gratitude in order to gain rewards.

Fitrah is a means of the acceptance of fasting by Allah and salvation from the agonies of death and torture in the grave. It helps the poor to meet their needs and be happy on the day of eid. From this point of view, fitrah is a humane charity and civilized duty.

Image result for fitrana

For whom is it wajib to pay fitrah?

The necessary conditions for paying fitrah are as follows: to be a Muslim, to be a free person (not a slave), to have nisab amount of money or goods apart from his fundamental needs. It is not necessary to be sane and to have reached the age of puberty for fitrah. The fitrahs of the rich mentally ill people and children need to be given by their guardians.   

If a person’s goods of nisab amount are destroyed after fitrah becomes wajib for him, it is necessary for him to pay fitrah.

When is it necessary to pay fitrah?

Fitrah becomes wajib on the first day of eid al-fitr beginning from the dawn. The mustahab way of giving fitrah is to give it after dawn and before leaving the eid prayer. However, there is no drawback to giving fitrah a few days or even months before eid. Thus, it helps the poor to meet their needs for eid beforehand. It is necessary to pay the fitrahs that have not been paid on time as soon as possible.  

This is the view of Imam Abu Hanifa. According to the other three imams, fitrah becomes wajib on the last day of Ramadan after the sun sets. It is not permissible to pay it after the eid prayer.

It is not wajib for a person who dies or who becomes poor before the dawn on the first day of eid al-fitr to pay fitrah. It is wajib to pay fitrah for a rich person who dies after dawn. It is paid from his inheritance.

If the money or goods of nisab amount are destroyed after fitrah becomes wajib and before fitrah is paid, it is necessary to pay fitrah. 

Sadaqah Al-Fitr, Fidya /Fitrana Amount Fixed in Pakistan

Who needs to give fitrah?

A Muslim who has nisab amount needs to give fitrah for himself, his children who are poor and his servant. According to Abu Hanifa, the fitrahs of rich children are paid from the children’s money. According to Imam Muhammad, it is given by their father.

The fitrah of a child who has reached the age of puberty but who is not sane is given by his father. Fitrah is not paid for a child who has not been born yet.

A person does not have to pay fitrah for his father, mother, grandfather and grandmother even if they live together with him. The same thing is valid for the relatives. A grandfather does not have to pay fitrah for the poor children of his son whether their father is alive or not. 

A person does not have to pay fitrah for his wife and his child who has reached the age of puberty and who is sane. For, such people are responsible people and can manage their own affairs. However, it is permissible for the husband or father to pay their fitrah by taking permission from them. However, what is essential for everybody is to pay their own fitrah. 

According to Imam Shafii, even if a woman is rich, her fitrah is paid by her husband. It is necessary for a person to have niyyah (intention) for fitrah just like zakah. It has to be given to the poor and become the property of the poor. It is not necessary to say that what you give is fitrah.  

A person cannot give fitrah to his wife/her husband or to his/her child or father/mother. For instance, a woman cannot give fitrah to her husband, father or son who is poor.

How is fitrah paid?

A person can give his fitrah to a poor person but a fitrah cannot be divided in order to be given to more than one person. A few people can gather their fitrahs and give them to one poor person.

A few people can gather their fitrahs and give them to a few poor in a mixed way. They do not have to give each fitrah separately. However, it is regarded better to give them separately.

A person should give his fitrah to one of the poor people of the area where he lives. It is makruh to send fitrah to other places.  

What is the amount of fitrah?

Fitrah is given based on 4 food items mainly:  

1 – Wheat or wheat flour. The amount of wheat that is wajib to give is half sa’ (520 dirhams: 1667 gr.)

2 – Barley or barley flour. The amount of barley that is wajib to give is one sa’ (1040 dirhams: 3333 gr.)

3 – All kinds of raisin. The amount of raisin that is wajib to give is one sa’ (3333 gr.)

4 – Dry dates. The amount of dates that is wajib to give is 1 sa’ (3333 gr.)

Fitrah can be given based on one of these four food items. Fitrah can be given in kind as dates, wheat, grapes or their equivalent as money. It is better to pay their equivalent as money.

When a person pays fitrah, he can pay it based on one of these four items considering his wealth. For instance, a person who is very rich needs to pay his fitrah based on dates because the one with the highest price among the four items is dates. What is appropriate for his wealth is to pay fitrah based on dates. The item on which fitrah to be paid is based varies in accordance with the degree of wealth. The religious authorities declare the equivalent of these 4 items every year in the month of Ramadan. It is possible to pay fitrah based on those amounts.

Is there a difference between the amount of wealth that necessitates fitrah and zakah?

Yes, there is. The rich person who is to pay zakah needs to own the nisab amount of money or property for one year but there is no such condition for fitrah. If a person has the nisab amount of money or property on the last day when fitrah can be given, it becomes wajib for him to pay fitrah. 

Today, the amount of zakah is usually based on gold for zakah. It is better for the amount of fitrah to be based on silver. This is the reason why fitrah is paid for more people than zakah.

A person who cannot perform fasting due to old age or an illness in Ramadan is not exempted from paying fitrah. He has to fulfill this wajib deed. 

Fitrah can be given to the non-Muslims living in the Islamic countries but it cannot be given to the non-Muslims living in the non-Muslim countries.

The decree of fitrah is owning it. Fitrah is not regarded to have been paid before the poor obtains it.

Hadees:
Bandah Kehta hai Mera Maal Mera Maal,
Magar Use To Us Maal Se 3 Hi Qisam ke
Fayede Hain.
Jo Kha Kar Fana Kiya, Jo Pahen Kar Purana Kiya,
Aur Jo Ataa (Garibo ko De kar) Kar Ke Akhirat Ke Liye Jama kiya
 ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺋﻖ، ﺑﺎﺏ
ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎﺳﺠﻦ ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻣﻦ ﻭﺟﻨﺔﺍﻟﻜﺎﻓﺮ، ﺻﻔﺤﮧ 1582- ، ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ
ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ ,2959-
Hadees:
Mere Pas Uhad Pahad Ke Barabar Sona Ho To
Mujhe Pasand Nahi Ki Usme Ka Kuch 3 Raat
Tak Mere Pas Rahe.
Haan Agar Dain (Qarz)
Ho To Kuch Rakh Lun (Taki Jiska Qarza Ho Use De Sakun)
 ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺋﻖ، ﺑﺎﺏ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻲ
ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﺮﻧﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻯ ﻣﺜﻞ
ﺍﺣﺪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺫﻫﺒﺎ، ﺟﻠﺪ 4- ، ﺻﻔﺤﮧ 232- ، ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ
ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ 4645- ،
Hadees:
Saqdah Karna Allah Ke Gazab (Jalal) Ko
Bujhata hai aur Buri Maut Se Bachata hai,
{Tizmiri, Volume-2, Page-146, Hadees No-664}
Hadees:
ALLAH Farmata hai,
Aye Ibne Adam (Hazrat Adam Ki Awlado) Apna
Maal Mere Pas Jama Kar Wo Na Jalega Na Dubega,
Na Chori Hoga,
Mai Tujhe Pura Dunga
Jab Tujhe Uski Sakht Zarurat Hogi
{Shahbul iman, jild-3, Page-211, Hadees No-3342}
Hadees:
Sadqah Burai Ke 70 Darwazon Ko Band Karta Hai
{Al Mojamul kabeer, Jild-4, Page-273, Hadees No-4402}
Hadees:
Sakhi (Sadqa Karnewala) Admi Allah Se
Qareeb Hai,
Jannat Se Qareeb Hai,
Logo Se Qareeb Hai 
Aur
Jahnnam Se Door Hai,
Bakheel (Kanjoos) Allah Se Jannat Se Logo Se Door hai
Aur
Jahannam Se Nazdeek Hai
{Jame Tirmizi, Jild-3, page-387, Hadees No-1968}
HADEES:
Abdullah Bin Umar ﺭﺿﯽ ﺍﻟﻠﮧ ﺗﻌﺎﻟٰﯽ ﻋﻨﮧ Se
Riwayat Hai Huzoor E Pak ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ
ﻭﺳﻠﻢ Ne Zakate Fitr 1 Saa (Arab Ka Wazan)
Khurma Ya Jao Gulam O Azad Mardo Aurat
Chote Aur Bade Musalmano Par Muqarrar Ki..
Aur Ye Hukm Farmaya Ki Namaz Se Phele Ada Kar De
 ﺻﺤﯿﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﯼ، ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺪﻗﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻄﺮ، ﺟﻠﺪ1- ،
ﺻﻔﺤﮧ 507- ، ﺍﻟﺮﻗﻢ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ 1503- ،
Hadees:
Bande Ka Roza Aasman O Zameen Ke Beech Mu’allaq (Latka) Rehta Hai Jab Tak Sadqae Fitr Ada Na Kare.
{Bahar-E-Shariat, Hissa-5, Page-935}
Mas’ala:
Sadqae Fitr Wajib Hai, Iska WAQT Umr Bhar
Hai,
Agar Pehle Nahi Diya Tha To Ab De.
Na Dene Se Uska Hukm Saqit Nahi Hoga, Aur
Takheer Se Dega To Qaza Bhi Nahi Kehlayega,
Magar Sunnat Ye Hai Ki Namaze Eid Se Qabal Ada Kare
(Bahar-E-Shariat, Hissa-5, Sadqae Fitr Ka Bayan, Page-935).
Mas’ala:
Eid Ke Din Subhe Sadiq Hote Hi Sadqae Fitr
Wajib Hota Hai,
Lihaza Jo Shakhs Subah Hone Se Pehle Mar Gaya Ya Gani (Sahebe Nisab) Tha
Ab Faqeer Ho Gaya,
Ya Subah Tuloo Hone Ke Bad Kafir Musalman Hua,
Ya Bachcha Paida
Hua,
Ya Faqeer Tha To Gani Ho Gaya,
To Wajib Na Hua,
Aur Agar Koi Subah Tuloo Hone Ke
Bad Mara To uska Sadqae Fitr Wajib Hai, 
Aur
Subah Tuloo Hone Se Pehle Kafir Musalman
Hua Ya Bachcha Paida Hua,
Ya Faqeer Gani Hua
To in sab pe sadqae Fitr Wajib Hai
{Alamgeeri Volume-1, Page-192}
Mas’ala:
Sadqae Fitr Har Musalman Azad Malike Nisab
Par Jiska Nisab Hajate Asliya Ke ILAWA Ho
Uspe Wajib Hai.
Sadqae Fitr Ke Liye AQIL (AQAL WALA) Balig
Aur
Maal Ka Naami Hona Shart Nahi
Na Maal Par Eik Saal Guzarna Bhi Zaroori Nahi,
{Durr-E-ukhtar, Volume-3, Page-362}.
Mas’ala:
Sadqae Fitr Ke Liye MAAL Ka Baqi Rehna Bhi Shart Nahi.
Maal Hilak Hua Tab Bhi Sadqa Dena wajib
Rahega
{Durr-E-Mukhtar, Volume-3, Page-366}.
Mas’ala:
Sadqae Fitr Ke Liye Roza rakhna Shart Nahi.
Kisi Uzr (Majburi)
Ya Safar
Ya Marz
Ya Budhape Ki Wajah Se Ya Maz’allah Bila Wajah Roza Chhod Diya Tab Bhi Wajib hai
{Bahar-E-Shariat, Hissa-5, Page-936}.
Mas’ala:
Sadqae Fitr Unhi Ko Diya Jaye Jinhe Zakat Dee Jati Hai.
Jinhe Zakat Dena Jayez Nahi Unhe Sadqae Fitr Bhi Nahi De Sakte.
Aamil (Jise Badshahe islam Ne Zakat Wasool
Karne Ka Kaam Diya Hai) Ko Sadqae Fitr Lena Jayez Nahi Haan Zakat Le Sakta Hai.
{Durr-E-Mukhtar, Volume-3, Page-379}.
NABI-E-PAK NE EK SHAKHS KO HUKM FARMAYA:
MAKKAH KI GALIYO ME JAAKAR YE ELAAN KARDO
KE SADQA-E-FITR WAJIB HAI
(TIRMIZI) 
Jab Tak Sadqa-E-Fitra
Ada Nahi Kiya Jata
Bande Ka Roza Zamino Aasman Ke Drmiyan Muallak (Latka) Rehta He
(Kanzul Ummal,Jild-8) 
JAB TAK BANDA SADQA-E-FITRA ADA NAHI KARTA TABTAK USKA ROZA QUBUL NAHI HOTA HAI
(SUNNI BAHISHTI ZEWAR) 
QUR’AN:
AYE IMAANWALO!
HUM NE JO TUMHE RIZQ DIYA HAI
US ME SE KHARCH KARO.
(PARA-2 SURAH-BAQRAH AAYAT-254)
ROZA AASMAN & ZAMEEN KE BICH LATAKTA RAHTA HAI
JAB TAK SADQAE FITR ADA NA KIYA JAAYE
(MISHKAT) 
SADQA IS TARAH GUNAHO KO BUJA DETA HAI
JIS TARAH PAANI AAG KO BUJA DETA HAI.
(MISHKAT JILD-1, SAFA-14) 
SADQA ALLAH Taala Ke Gusse Ko Thanda Karta Hai
Aur Buri Maut Se Bachata Hai.
(Tirmizi)
*Sadaqa-E-Fitr*
BIWI Ne Bagair Hukme SHAUHAR
Agar
SHAUHAR Ka FITRA Ada Kar Diya To Ada Na Huwa.
(RADDUL MUKHTAR)
Jab Tak SADQAE-FITR Ada Na Kiya Jaye Bande Ka Roza Zameen-o-Aasmaan Me Muallaq(LATKATA) Raheta He
(Kanzul Ummal) 
Sadqa-E-Fitr: 2.045 Kg. Ghehu Ya Uski Qimat 
Mas’ala:
Sadqae Fitr Ka WAQT Umr Bhar He Yani Ada Na Kiya Tha To Ab Ada Kare
Magar Sunnat Eid Ki Namaz Se Pehle Hai
(DURRE MUKHAR Vol:3,Page:362) 
1ADMI KA FITR
1HI MOHTAJ KO DENA BEHTAR HE
1SE ZIYADA KO BHI DENA JAIZ HE
FITRA KE MUSTAHIQ WO LOG HE JO ZAKAT KE MUSTAHIQ HE
(Sunni Bahesti Zewar) 
Sarwar-E-Qaynat Janabe Mohommad Mustfa Swallalaho Alayhi Wasallam ne irshad farmaya ki
“Bande ka roza Aasman wa Zamin ke darmiyan  muallak rehta he jab tak sadqae fitr ada na kare.
{Ibne asakar,Sunni Bahishti Zewar}
Mard malike nisab par apni tarafse aur apne chote bachche ki tarafse sadqae fitr wazib he jabke bachcha khud sahibe nisab na ho aur maa par khud apna sadqa wazib he jabki malike nisab ho. Chote bachcho ki tarafse sadqa dena Maa par wazib nahi.
{Raddulmuhtar,Sunni Bahishti zewar}
Aaqil Balig hona sadqae fitr me shart nahi. To nabalig ya pagal agar malike nisab he to un par sadqae fitra wazib he unka wali unke mal se ada kare.
{Raddulmuhtar,Sunni Bahishti Zewar}
Eid ke din subah sadiq hote hi Sadqa-E-Fitr har Musalman malike nisab mard wa aurat par jiski nisab hazate asliya se farig ho, wazib hota he aur sunnat yah he ke Eid ki namaz se pehle ada kar diya jaye.
{Durre Mukhtar,Sunni Bahishti Zewar}
Jo subah sadiq shuru hone ke bad mara uska sadqae fitr wazib he
{Qanoon-E-Shariat}