Ṭulaqāʾ (Arabic: طُلَقاء, literally: the emancipated) was a group of the Quraysh and enemies of the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم who were given amnesty by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم after the Conquest of Mecca. Abu Sufyan and Mu’awiya were the most prominent members of Tulaqa’.
“Tulaqa'” literally means emancipated prisoners. Terminologically speaking, it refers to a group of the Quraysh who were emancipated after the Conquest of Mecca, although they deserved punishments. They include Abu Sufyan, Sahl b. ‘Amr, Huqaytib b. ‘Abd al-‘Uzza, and Mu’awiya b. Abi Sufyan. On some accounts, before the Conquest of Mecca, Tulaqa’ said: “leave Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم with his own people [or relatives]. If he defeats them, then we will convert to Islam too, and if they defeat him, then they have saved us from him.”
Banu Umayya (except who accept islam before conquest of Mecca) were called “Tulaqa'” after they were called so by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. When she was captivated after the Battle of Karbala, lady Zaynab سلام اللہ علیہا delivered a sermon in which she referred to Yazid as “Ibn al-Tulaqa'” (the son of the Emancipated). In later periods, Banu Umayya were referred to by some people as “Hizb al-Tulaqa'”.
Imam Ali’s (a) Reference to Tulaqa’
In the Battle of Siffin, Imam Ali عليه السلام delivered a sermon addressed to his companions in which he characterized Tulaqa’ as follows: “prepare for a battle with enemies who are Tulaqa’ and children of Tulaqa’. They reluctantly converted to Islam and have always fought with Islam.” Imam Ali عليه السلام referred to them as enemies of the Qur’an and the tradition of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, heretics, and bribers.
According to al-Baladhuri, ‘Hazrat Umar b. al-Khattab (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) believed that Tulaqa’ and their children were not qualified for governmental positions.