Jung e Siffin part 2

Muavia’s conspiracy In the paradigm of Hadith, the blood of all the people, i.e. noble or ignoble, small or big, learned or illiterate, man or woman, is the same. It is not at all allowed that for the revenge of one man’s murder, whatsoever great the man may be, more than one man should be assassinated. Only the murderer will be killed. As against this, according to the kufriyati tradition, had there been a murder of a great or important man, many men were being killed as a revenge of that death. Islam, at a stroke, abolished this cruel tradition.

Imam Suyutis writes in Tarikh-e-Khulfa, that Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam stayed in Basra for fifteen days after the battle of Jamal (Jung-e-Jamal) and then, left for Kufa.

Translation: “After this, Tulaqa Muavia Ibn-e-Abu Sufyan contrived a conspiracy taking his Shami (Syrian) friends in his favour. When Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam came to know about this, he left to face the challenge and during the month of Safar of Hijri 37, there was an encounter in Siffin. The fight went on for many days. At last, the people of Syria (Sham) invited the commandments of the Holy Quran and kept it on the raised lance. This was Amr Ibn-e-Aas’s cunning trick. Now, the people withdrew themselves from the fighting and cursed it.”

This is as brief a report of the war of Siffin as possible. Detailed reports are given in other historical books. To give a real picture of all the events, some more details of the events and facts are given below.
Tulqa-Muavia had been the Governor of Syria (Sham) for twenty years. Hazrat Uthman during his reign, extended the area of Muavia’s region, which included Lebanon, Jordan and present Israeli area. Because of his rule for so long, his impact on the people was so much, as if he was the king of all the people, may they be black or white. Legally, he was under the authority of Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo But, when Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam wrote him a letter to accept authority as a resident representative of Hazrat Uthman and to work under him, he refused it. Instead, he created obstacles in the system and demanded the revenge of Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo murder first. He demanded that the culprit should be caught and crucified or, he should be handed over to them so that, they could kill him. He added they would not accept the supremacy of any authority unless the demands were met with. In fact; they had no right to think in this direction. This was open disobedience of Caliph’s orders which was against the Islamic Jurisprudence (Haram). Everybody knew that Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam did not become Caliph on his own. Because the emigrants and Ansars repeatedly requested, and there was no contestant for the post, he accepted the proposal. Consequently, he was unanimously nominated as a Khalifa-e-Rashid (Caliph). No election was conducted. Everyone took a spiritual oath (bait) from his hand. And, right from the beginning, anyone was accepted as Caliph only on the bait of Muhajirin and Ansars. It was because, in the matters of virtues like truthfulness, open-heartedness, purity of intention, the welfare of Islam, the safety of Muslims and foresightedness for the religion etc., these people were far ahead from any other group. Hence, when these people appointed anyone as a Caliph (Khalifa-e-Rashid), it had to be accepted by all without any shadow of hesitation. In the time to come, this tradition became the guiding principle. Thus, as the above description implies, Muavia also should have, without any disagreement, accepted that tradition. After accepting the spiritual supremacy only, anyone can propose his point. Without accepting the supremacy of Caliphate, none had any right to put any proposal nor there any justifiable ground to do so.

When he believed that Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam was a Caliph, then, he, along with his people, should accept him with respect and take spiritual oath at his hand.

As it has been explained in detail above, the very purpose of the revenge of Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo death itself was against the constitution and system. In Islamic jurisprudence, there is no room for anyone to rise for the revenge of the killed one. In the paradigm of Islamic governance, it is not at all legitimate for any layman to come ahead for the revenge and kill anyone as a culprit according to his wish. Nor anyone can pressurize government with the condition that if the culprit is not handed over to him to assassinate, he, with his people, would not accept the government as a legal one and, would not respect it or its laws.

Not only the Holy Quran, Hadith and the Islamic Law but, none of the world’s constitutions can consider this to be a proper procedure. But Tulaqa Muavia was obstinate about it. Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam wrote letters for the settlement of the disputes. In one of his letters he wrote:

The people, who have received initiatory (bait) from Hazrat Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo and Hazrat Umar Radiallahu anhoo have taken the oath of bait on my hand. After this, nobody has a right to raise doubt. The right to select Caliph is with the Ansars and the emigrants. You also perform oath like the Ansars and emigrants(muhajirins), because, that only is in your favour and is beneficial to you.”

After such a proper and suitable proposal, they should have accepted the bait. But Tulaqa Muavia had a different target which prevented him from taking the oath. He realized that to fulfil the purpose, and he should take Amr Ibn-e-Aas in his support. On his demand, Muavia handed him over the kingdom of Egypt, with a written treaty. Now, Amr Ibn e – Aas contrived a very terrible and deadly scheme wherein; he alleged Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam Caliphate, who was the greatest of the ascetic-like men of that time, as one of the killers of Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo. There are so many couplets of Holy Quran about him. None other has so many Hadiths as are for the description of Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam. On this point, all the Muslims unanimously and firmly believe that there is, and will be, none who has acquired so great a height as Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam has obtained in the sphere of spiritualism and morality. It is a matter of sheer pity that Amr Ibn-e-Aas had woven a conspiracy convicting such a beloved person of Allah, the Almighty, as one of the killers of Hazrat Uthman. He alerted Amir-e-Muavia that there was a risk in going against a person like Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam. Hence, he advised Amire-Muavia that first of all, he should convince the intelligent people of Syria, and they should be taken in confidence. Their brains should be washed, and anyhow, they should be convinced that Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam was active as one of the killers of Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo

The negotiations were implemented, and the plotting was so much propagated that the whole of the Syrian region came under Amir-eMuavia’s banner to take the revenge of Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo death. His intention, in fact, was not the revenge of Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo killing, but, he wanted to take the revenge from the Caliph of the time. Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam again sent a proposal for a treaty of peace, but Muavia did not respond at all. He wrote one letter to Amr Ibn-e-Aas also, wherein he wrote, “Do not be tempted by the worldly benefits, consequently staining your life. Do not support Muavia in his vicious mission. Leave him at once and stop spoiling your present and future life.” But this was to no result.
Muavia narrated the situation of Syria to Abdullah Ibn-e-Jurer Bijali Radiallahu anhoo, the messenger of Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam. He showed the messenger the dissected fingers of Hazrat Nayela, Hazrat Uthman’s present wife, and Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo shirt-stained with blood, which he managed to get from Medina Munavvara and hung in the Jama Masjid of Damascus. While seeing these objects, the Syrians kept on weeping because their sentiments were out of control. They repeated loudly and collectively, “Ali has assassinated Hazrat Uthman. We will fight with him. We will kill him, and, if it is not possible, we will sacrifice our lives.”

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