Maula Ali Alaihisalam ne Jab Amr bin Abde wudd ko Zarb lagaya to Us Zarb Ke lagne ke Baad Uski Khopdi, Badan, Zeen, aur Ghode Samet Do Tukde ho Gaye Tab Huzoor SallAllahu ta’ala wa’ala Alaihi wa Sallam ne Farmaya
افضل من عمل امتی الی یوم القیامة Yani “Ali Alaihisalam ka Ye Ek Waar Meri Puri Ummat ke Yaum e Qayamat tak kiye Jaane Wale Aamal se Afzal hai”
(“Tafseer Kabeer Jild 32 Safah 31, Hadrat Imam Fakhruddin Raazi رضی اللہ تعالی عنه Mutawaffa (٦٠٦) 606 Hijri”.)
Hazrat Imam Sayyid Shareef Jurjani Raziallahu Ta’ala anhu Mutawaffa (٨١٦) 816 Hijri Ne Ek Riwayat yu Farmayi ke Huzoor Nabi-e-Akram SallAllahu ta’ala wa’ala Alaihi wa Sallam ne Farmaya
لضربة علي خیر من عبادة الثقلین Ya’ni “Ali (AlaihisSalam) ki Yaume Khandak ki Ek Zarb Jinno aur Insano ki Ibadat se Afdal hai”
It is a severe mistake to call a civil war, to the battle that Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam fought, against the Traitors (Ahl-e-Bagha’avat)
It is obligatory to fight against the traitors, and it is the duty of the (Ummat) the lineage to stand with the Imam. The duties regarding this have been narrated and made compulsory for the followers of Islam in the Holy Book:
Translation: (Al-Hujurat) But if one group of the people oppresses the other group, then fight against the one that oppresses until it returns to the ordinance (i.e. to respect the Khalifa) of Allah.
It is the order from Allah, the Almighty that “give a fight to the rebels.” And, the real implication of this order is that its implementation is compulsory. On this point, all the experts on Islamic Jurisprudence say that the fight with the rebels is obligatory. Imam Sarkhasi has proved this with the help of arguments. He had detailed discussions with other experts on this subject.
Usually, it was obligatory on all the Caliphs to give a fight to the rebels, and those who, without any reason, created obstacles in the way of Caliph. But in this respect, Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam responsibility was much more than that of others, because he had been given ecial orders by Huzur ﷺ to challenge and fight with the rebels who were against Islam and Caliph. By quoting Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam words, Imam Sarkhasi says, “I am ordered to fight against the rebels, agitators and non-believers.”
This Hadith has been described in innumerable ways and with different meanings. The experts of Hadith have extensively discussed and stated this Hadith with reference to Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam in their works, e. g. Imam Tabrani in Moajam Awsat, Muhaddith Ibn-e-Adi in Al-Kamil, Hafiz Abdul Gani Ibn-e-Saeed in Izah-ul-Ashkal, Imam Abu Naeem in Kitab-ul Hijja, Hafiz Ibn-e-Munda in Gharaib-e-Sho’aba and Hafiz Ibn-e-Asakir in Muta’addad Turuq wa Asnad, have given sufficient room in their works as seen above. But, Imam Bazzar in his work and Imam Tabrani in Moajam-e-Awsat, have given this Hadith more importance than others. Following are the words:
Translation: Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam has stated that Huzurﷺ had taken a promise from me that I should fight with the agitators, enemies and the rebels of Islam.’ Now a deep thought should be given to the fact that how serious Huzur site must be regarding this, that, he made Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam pledge that he would fight with the enemies, agitators and the rebels of Islam. Hence, to fight against them has great religious importance. Now, think over the following words:
i. This battle is the order of Allah, the Almighty. It has been stated in the Quran that the rebels should be fought against.
Looking to this fact, to declare war against the mutineers is the duty of a true Muslim. Not to do this would be a misdeed or a sin.
Huzurﷺ also had ordered Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam as it has been given in the Hadith. Thus, it is one of the most important commands.
iv. Huzurﷺ also had taken a commitment of its implementation from Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam. To the infringement of the commitment made to Huzur ﷺ was great disobedience and its consequences were very unpalatable. Huzur ﷺ taking a commitment from the people showed what a great importance the war against the unbelievers а was in his eyes.
Now let us see who is a true Muslim. Is the person who does not stand shoulder to shoulder with Hazrat Alids in the mission of denying the path of rebels and rogues who are bent upon misleading people from the path of Allah? Or will a Muslim also describe this war as merely a war and consequently will spoil his life after death? Let us see one more Hadith on this war wherein the characteristics of rebels and atheists have been fully explained:
Translation: Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam gave an explanation that, “I have been ordered to fight against three types of people, and they are the unjust or cruel (Qasitin), oathbreakers or rebels (Nakishin) and people creating obstacles in the way of Allah (Marikin).” Qasitin were the people from Ahl-e-Sham (Syrian). He had also explained who the Nakishin were. Marikin were the people of Neharvan, i. e. they were Harvi people.
Khilafat-e-Murtazavi AlaihisSalam took place during the dark age, full of revolts and riots. Severe oppositions came up during his time. But there were all disputes and quarrels, and there was an order to fight against that.
During the period of those fine conditions all over the society, the tug of war between right and wrong was seen everywhere. On one side, there was a Khalifa, a staunch lover and practitioner of truth, and on the other hand, there was a movement of the revenge of Hazrat Uthman Radiallahu anhoo murder. This created a whirl-wind against the Khalifa. The movements were going on in all four directions around the Khalifa but, one, i.e. Jange-Jamal was a unique one, for, it comprised of the big pillars like Hazrat Ayesha SalamUllahAlaiha Hazrat Talha Radiallahu anhoo and Hazrat Zubair Radiallahu anhoo. Due to some misguidance and misunderstandings, these gentries were adding fuel to the fire to the movement against the Khalifa. Of course, it was all in vain. This battle is known as a Jang-e-Jamal. That is because Jamal is an Arabic word for camel, and Hazrat Ayesha SalamUllahAlaiha it was riding on the camel. Their group was called Asaha’ab-e-Jamal. In Hadith, this group has been described as Nakishin meaning Bait Shikan (oathbreaker), because they had declared war against Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam by disconnecting themselves from the Bait-e-Hazrat Ali AlahisSalam
Another war was going on at the battle-field of Siffin where, Tulaqa Muavia was fighting against the representative of truth, i.e. Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam, with his army. In Hadith, they are described as the rebels and Qasitin meaning Arbab-e-Zulm (Lords of Cruelty). Huzur it had ordered Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam to fight with the Nakishin (oathbreaker), Qasitin (unjust) and Marikin (obstinate) people.
Views of Ahl-e-Sunnat group towards these people
As Hadith has given a verdict, the truth was on the side of Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam The people against him were on the wrong track. In the same way, the people of Ahl-e-Sunnat at large, state that Saiyadna Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam was on the right path whereas, Asha’ab-e-Jamal along with Muavia Tulaqa and party were on the wrong path. Their fight against Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam was sedition. Following four points were according to Islamic theology:
(i) Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam was a proper person as Caliph (Khalifa); (ii) hence, those who fought against him were seditionists-traitors. Those who fought against Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam are the traitors of religion. (iii) Whatever negotiations took place between Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and the traitors, were those, which were normally favourable towards the traitors. (iv) As Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam was a respected person, his actions and behaviour should be, and was, absolutely according to the rules and regulations only. So, whatever actions he took against the traitors were considered to be based on the Islamic mandates of the constitution. It has been referred to in Kitab-us-Sair, Vol-1.
Translation: The children of traitors should neither be killed nor their property is distributed in the army because Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam had said on the day of Jamal-battle, “No traitors’ children should be captured nor their wives’ veil (hijab) should be lifted, nor their property should be snatched. In connection with the traitors, Hazrat Ali’space order will be the last word.”
It is Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam actual implementations and interpretations that give the essence about all the religious, theological and spiritual problems and any ambiguity about them, which he had narrated about the Asaha’ab-e. Jamal. Imam Sarkhasi has quoted so many such examples, each one with details, and as a proof of these, he has given testimony of Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam life, beliefs and instructions. At many places, he has analysed these illustrations and wrote that the religious leader referred to above is Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam. These are the words of the writer:
1. With reference to the rebels, Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam is a religious leader.
(Mabsut Vol. 1) II. With reference to the rebels, Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam only is being followed. (Mabsut Vol.1)
Based on these facts, some Sheikhs have noted that, had there not been Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam, we would have never known how the revenge could be taken from the believers. Allama Shami writes in Radul Mukhtar Vol-3.
Some experts of Islamic philosophy (Mashaikh-e-Fiqh) have said that had there not been Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam we would have never known the relation between the battles and Ahl-e-Kibla (believers). We would never have known that Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam and his companions were on the right path, whereas, the people who were against him, were the rebels.
Hazrat-e-Imam Hanifa said, (explanation of Islamic Philosophy (Fiqh) by Akbar Ali Qari):
Translation: Had there not been Hazrat Ali AlaihisSalam, we would never have come to know what type of line of action should be taken against the rebels.
हुजूर सल्लल्लाहु अलैहि वसल्लम के विसाल शरीफ़ के वक्त जिब्रईल अमीन हाज़िर हुए और अर्ज करने लगे- या रसूलल्लाह! आज आसमानों पर हुजूर के इस्तिकबाल की तैयारियां हो रही हैं। खुदा तआला ने जहन्नम के दारोगा मालिक को हुक्म दिया है कि मालिक मेरे हबीब की रूह मुत्तहरा आसमानों पर तशरीफ ला रही है। इस एजाज़ में दौज़ख़ की आग बुझा दो और हूराने जन्नत से फ़रमाया है कि तुम सब अपनी आरास्तगी करो और सब फ़रिश्तों को हुक्म दिया है कि ताज़ीम रूहे मुस्तफ़ा के लिये सब सफ़-ब-सफ खड़े हो जाओ और मुझे हुक्म फ़रमाया है कि मैं जनाब की खिदमत में हाजिर होकर आपको बशारत दूं कि तमाम अंबियाए और उनकी उम्मतों पर जन्नत हराम है जब तक कि आपकी उम्मत जन्नत में दाखिल न हो जाये। कल क्यामत को अल्लाह तआला आपकी उम्मत पर आपके तुफैल इस बख्रिशश व मग्फ़िरत की बारिश फ़रमायेगा कि आप राज़ी हो जायेंगे।(मदारिजुनुबुब्वः जिल्द २, सफा २५४) सबक : हमारे हुजूर सल्लल्लाहु अलैहि वसल्लम का एजाज़ व इकराम दोनों आलम में है। जिन्न व बशर, हूर व मलाइक सभी हुजूर के खुद्दाम व लशकरी हैं। आप दोनों आलम के बादशाह हैं।