“‘Umar ((رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)) said: one who has Allāh’s Messenger
) as his master has ‘Alī as his master.
“ Sālim narrates: ‘Umar was asked why he always
treated ‘Alī (AlahisSalam) differently from other Companions ((رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)).
(At this) ‘Umar () replied: Indeed that (‘Alī) is my
Related by Muhib Tabarī in ar-Riyād-un-nadrah fī manāqib-il-
Ibn ‘Asākir narrated it in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:178).
“Yazīd bin ‘Umar bin Muwarriq narrates: At one
occasion I was in Syria when ‘Umar bin ‘Abd-ul-‘Azīz
((رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)) was ladling out his blessings to the people. So I went
to him, he asked me which tribe did I belong to? I said: to
Quraysh. He asked: which (branch) of the Quraysh? I said:
Banī Hāshim. He asked: which (family) of Banī Hāshim.
The narrator say s: I kept silent. He asked (again): which
family of Banī Hāshim? I said: (the family) of master
(mawlā) ‘Alī. He asked me: who is ‘Alī? I kept quiet. The
narrator says he placed his han d on my chest an d said: By
Go d! I am a slave of ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (AlahisSalam). And then
added: I have heard countless people say that they heard it
from the Prophet (صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم
): one who has me as his master has
‘Alī as his master. Then he asked Muzāhim: How much
are yo u giving to the people of this category? He rep lied:
hundred or two h undred dirhams. At this h e said: give him
fifty dinār on account of his nearness to ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (AlahisSalam) — an d ( according to the tradition) narrated by Ibn
Abī Dāwūd (he directed that he should be p aid) sixty dinār
— an d (facing him) he said: you go back to your city and
you will get your share equal to that of your tribesmen.
Abū Nu‘aym related it in Hilyat-ul-awliyā’ wa tabaqāt-ul-asfiyā’ (5:364); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (48:233; 69:127);
and Ibn Athīr in Asad-ul-ghābah fī ma‘rifat-is-sahābah
“It is narr ated by Zuhrī that Abū Junay dah Jun da‘ bin
‘Amr bin Māzin said: I heard the Prophet (صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم
who so deliberately lied about me will go to hell
straightaway. I have heard it my self or I may grow deaf in
both ears. The Prophet (صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم
) returned from Hajjat-ulwadā‘ and arrived at Ghadīr Kh um, and addressed the
people. He said while holding ‘Alī’s hand: one who has
me as his guardian has this (‘Alī) as h is guardian. O
Allāh! Befriend him who befriends him (‘Alī) an d be his
enemy who is h is (‘Alī’s) enemy.
“‘Ubay dullāh said: I said to Zuhrī: Don’t say these
things in Syria, otherwise, yo u will hear so much against
‘Alī (AlahisSalam) that your ears will get sore. (In reply to it) Zuhrī said: By Go d! There are so many qualities of ‘Alī (AlahisSalam) safe
and secure with me that if I narrate them I may be
3- Those who disbelieved said, “There is no coming of the
Hour for us.” Say, “No, by my Lord, the knower of the
unseen, it will certainly come upon you.”
50- If We give him a taste of mercy after suffering some
adversity, he says, “This belongs to me. I do not think that
the Hour will come. Even if I am returned to my Lord, I
will find in Him better things.” Certainly We will inform
the disbelievers of all their works and We will afflict them
with severe retribution.
In the first part of our work we dwelt upon the creation of the universe. The time has come now to examine the end of the world and
the universe as expressed in the Quran. We are fully convinced that
there has been no other book in the entire history of mankind that has
given such a detailed account of the beginning and end of the world.
Delve into all the books in history preceding scientific data and you
will see that there is none like the Quran. It was said that the Quran
would provide the signs and evidence; here they are, then! Will these
not suffice for someone who is unbiased?
It is man’s habit, confined in his own time bracket, to consider
everything around him as constant and static. At the time of the
Prophet, speaking of the end of the world, and especially of the universe, would be beyond conception. People ignorant of the fact that
the world was an object flying in space, considered it a safe and sound
place under their feet. They could not have believed that the day
would come when everything would vanish.
As the accumulation of knowledge increased, thanks to scientific
discoveries, it became clear that the end of the universe and of our
world was inevitable. No one of sound mind today would assert that
the world will exist forever. Even if no other celestial phenomenon
occurs, it is certain that once the energy of the sun is exhausted, the
end of the world will become unavoidable. However, the way and the
exact time of this occurrence cannot be predicted.
To give you an example, the laws of thermodynamics indicate that
the end will come. A stove’s heating of a room; our leaving a cup of
tea to cool down are subject to this law. Especially Rudolf Clausius’s
studies have led to the adoption of a measure of the unavailable energy called entropy. The total entropy continuously increases in the universe. The sun’s heat flows toward the cold of the universe and this
process is irreversible…
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS SEEN UNDER
THE LIGHT OF RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY
Will this process go on forever? The answer will be “No.” When heat
reaches a constant temperature, there comes about a static state called
“thermodynamic balance.” The flow of heat from the sun and from
the multitude of stars may last for billions of years, but it is not inexhaustible. At the end of a time bracket, the laws of thermodynamics
will make the activities going on in the universe come to a standstill.
Under the circumstances, we can make the following deductions:
1- That the universe had a beginning, and
2- That it will come to an end one day.
All religions that have expounded belief in one God throughout
history have been defenders of these two arguments. The Quran had
this to say about the beginning and end of the universe. (In the first
three chapters we read the miraculous statements of the Quran about
the beginning of the universe.) On the other hand, materialists claim
that matter has existed since eternity and will continue to exist forever and ever. In other words, they deny the beginning that led to the
THOSE WHO DISBELIEVE IN THE END OF THE UNIVERSE
idea of creation and the end of the world and the universe, the sine
qua non of religion. (In the two verses quoted above we saw the
objections raised at the time of the Prophet against him.) When, as a
result of developments in astrophysics, it became clear that the universe
did have in fact, a beginning and an end, some atheists tried to fit
their theories to the new discoveries. However, it is evident that
before this issue was scientifically established, the atheists were against
this idea. Nevertheless, despite the data provided by scientific studies,
there are still atheists who refuse to believe that the universe had a
beginning and that it will have an end.
The laws of thermodynamics confirm the assertions of monotheistic religions. This is then the scientific evidence supporting the teachings of the three major monotheistic religions regarding the end of
the world. Had the universe existed since eternity, according to the
laws of thermodynamics, all actions in the entire universe would have
come to a standstill by now (according to thermodynamic balance).
The fact that there is still action in the universe shows that the universe had no eternal existence, but that it had a beginning. Given the
fact that there is still action going on in the universe and that it had a
beginning, the end of the universe must come- at least according to
the laws of thermodynamics. However, it appears that we shall not
have to wait for the consequence of the laws of thermodynamics (We
shall come back to this point in Chapter 68 and 69)
(197) Hadith 1
Ibn Abbas radiyallahu anhu says, “Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam drank Zam-zam water while he was standing.”
Sayyidina Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam has prohibited the drinking of water whilst standing. This shall be discussed in the commentary of the next hadith. For this reason some ulama have prohibited the drinking of Zam-zam also whilst standing. They say that he drank it whilst standing because of the huge crowds and the rush, or as a concession. The well-known view of the ulama is that Zam-zam is not included in this prohibition. It is better to stand and drink it.
(198) Hadith 2
Amr ibn Shu’aib radiyallahu anhu relates from his father, and he from his (Amr’s) grandfather, that he said, “I had seen Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam drinking water whilst standing and also whilst sitting.”
There are many narrations mentioned wherein Sayyidina Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam prohibited the drinking of water whilst standing. A narration of Sayyidina Abu Hurairah radiyallahu anhu is mentioned in Sahih Muslim that Sayyidina Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam said, “No person should stand and drink water, and if one forgetfully stood and drank it, it should be vomited out.” Some ulama have summed both the deed and the prohibition in a few ways. Some ulama are of the opinion that the prohibition came later and repeals the previous law. Some ulama hold the opposite view that the narrations where he stood and drank water repeals the one that prohibits it. According to a well-known saying, the prohibition is not that of a Shar’ee or unlawful nature, but as an etiquette. It is also a blessing and kindness. Ibn Qayyim and others have mentioned the harm that standing and drinking causes. In short, Sayyidina Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam standing and drinking shows it being permissible to do so, and that it is not haraam to stand and drink water. It is best not do so, as this is against the recommended practice and one will be committing a makrooh act by doing so.
(199) Hadith 3
Ibn Abbas radiyallahu anhu says, “I gave Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam Zam-zam water to drink. He stood and drank it.”
This has been discussed in the first hadith of this chapter.
(200) Hadith 4
Nazzaal ibn Sabrah rahmatullahi alaihe says that while he was with Sayyidina Ali in the courtyard (of the Masjid at Kufah), water was brought in a clay pot to him. He took some water in his palms, washed his hands, gargled his mouth, put water in his nose (cleaned it), then made masah of his face, hands and head. Thereafter he stood and drank from it. Then said, “This is the wudhu of a person who is in a state of wudhu. I had observed Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam perform (wudhu) in this manner.”
This hadith is mentioned in brief. The full narration is mentioned in Mishkat from Bukhari. In this hadith it may be possible that in reality he only made masah of the face, hands, etc. And did not actually wash them. To call this wudhu will be metaphorical.
The feet are not mentioned here but presumedly he did masah of them also.
Another elucidation may be that in this hadith the washing of the limbs lightly has been metaphorically explained as masah. This explanation is supported by some narrations where, instead of masah, washing of the face and hands and also the washing of the feet is mentioned. In this case the renewal of wudhu is meant. This exposition is best according to this humble servant.
We also find from this hadith that it is permissible to stand and drink the left over water after wudhu. The permissibility of drinking this water and the water of Zam-zam while standing is mentioned in the kitaabs of fiqh (jurisprudence). Allaamah Shaami has mentioned the experience of some Ulama that it is a tested and proved antidote for diseases. Mulla Ali Qari has mentioned this act as meritorious in the commentary of the Shamaail.
(201) Hadith 5
Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik radiyallahu anhu relates that Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam drank water in three breaths (i.e. in three gulps/sips) and used to say, “It is more pleasing and satisfying in this manner.”
It has been prohibited to drink water in one gulp. The Ulama have written many harmful effects in drinking water in one breath. It especially weakens the muscles and nerves. It is also detrimental for the liver and stomach.
(202) Hadith 6
Sayyidina Ibn Abbas radiyallahu anhu says, “Whenever Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam drank water, he drank it in two breaths.”
In this hadith drinking water in two breaths is intended which apparently seems correct. Sayyidina Ibn Abbas radiyallahu anhu has stated in a hadith of the Prophet sallallahu alaihe wasallam, “Do not drink water only in one breath, but drink it in two or three breaths.” The minimum number of sips one can take is mentioned in this hadith. Sayyidina Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam at times drank water in two sips to show that this was the minimum amount of gulps one could take. Another explanation may be this that in the hadith it meant that two breaths should be taken whilst drinking water. If two breaths are taken whilst drinking water, then all the water will naturally be drunk in three gulps. By this explanation there remains no contradiction between this and the last hadith.
(203) Hadith 7
Sayyidatina Kabshah bint Thabit radiyallahu anha narrates, “Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam visited my home. A leather water bag was hanging there, Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam stood and drank water from the mouth of the water bag. I got up and cut out the mouth (portion) of the bag.”
Imam Nawawi has mentioned two reasons from Imam Tirmizi for cutting the mouth portion of the water bag:
1. Tabarrukan (for barakah), because the mubaarak saliva of Sayyidina Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam had come in contact with it and she wanted to keep it.
2. She did not want anybody else to drink from the same portion where Sayyidina Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam had drank. The reason being respect and courtesy. It will be disrespectful if someone else drank from the same place. There are two things mentioned in this hadith. One is standing and drinking which has already been discussed in Hadith 4. The second is that it is reported in the Bukhari from Sayyidina Anas radiyallahu anhu that it has been prohibited to drink from the mouth of a water bag. Therefore we shall take this hadith to show the permissibility of doing so. It is related in a hadith that a person was drinking from a water bag and a snake came out from it. On hearing this Sayyidina Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam forbade the drinking of water direct from a water bag.
According to this hadith, the drinking of water in this manner apparently seems to have taken place in the early period. A special note should be made here. One of the reasons of prohibiting the drinking of water in this manner is that every person’s mouth is not such that if it touches a water bag etc. it will not leave a smell. Certainly there are mouths whose saliva is a cure of diseases, and which is more tastier than everything in the world and creates more happiness than everything else. Therefore the drinking of Sayyidina Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam from a water bag cannot be compared with others.
(204) Hadith 8
Sayyidina Thumaamah ibn Abdullah radiyallahu anhu says, “Sayyidina Anas ibn Malik drank water in three breaths, and claimed that Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam also drank water in the same manner.”
(205) Hadith 9
Sayyidina Anas radiyallahu anhu reports, “Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam went to my mother, Umme Sulaim’s house. A leather water bag was hanging there. Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam stood and drank water from it. Umme Sulaim radiyallahu anha stood up and cut off that portion of the bag.”
The same type of incident of Sayyidatina Kabshah radiyallahu anha has been related in another hadith. It is however difficult to sit and drink from a water bag which is hanging. These are things that are done in times of necessity. A few ahaadith reported on the incident of Sayyidatina Umme Sulaim radiyallahu anha that she said, while cutting off the mouth piece of the water bag from which Sayyidina Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam had drank, “No one shall put their mouth on it and drink from it again.” We understand from this that she did it out of love and respect for Sayyidina Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam.
(206) Hadith Number 10
Sayyidina Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqaas radiyallahu anhu says, “Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam drank water while standing.”
This was not a habit, he did it now and then due to some reason. This has been discussed already.