6- Have you not seen what your Lord did to the Aad.
7- Of Eram with lofty pillars,
8- The like of which were not produced in the land.
89-The Dawn, 6-8
There are many passages where the Aad people are mentioned in the
Quran. The Prophet Hud was sent to the Aad people to warn them
against attributing a partner to God. The Aad people, however,
turned a deaf ear on the Prophet’s warning and continued their practice. The Aad community lived in the city of Eram, a city built on
beautiful tall pillars, which was destroyed by a storm.
At the beginning of the 1990s the leading papers in the world covered the story of a discovery of towering importance under such headings as “Discovery of a Sumptuous Arabian City,” “Legendary
Arabian City Unearthed.” What made this archaeological finding
more significant was the mention of its name in the Quran. This discovery confounded those who had insisted that the existence of the
Aad community was only legendary.
The city in question was discovered by an amateur archaeologist,
Nicholas Clapp. Based on written evidence, he set off to unearth the
lost city. After long efforts he managed to persuade NASA to have
satellite photographs taken of the region in question ; these photographs resulted in the eventual discovery.
As the ruins came to be unearthed, it was concluded that the site
corresponded to the city of the Aad people mentioned in the Quran.
Among the unearthed ruins were the tall pillars described in the
Quran. Dr. Zarins claims that what made this city referred to as Eram different from others of its time was these pillars described in the
Quran. The other accounts related to this event exactly tallied with
the archaeological findings.
DESTRUCTION OF AAD
6- And the Aad were destroyed by a furious, roaring storm…
24- So when they saw it as a cloud advancing towards their
valley, they said: “This cloud will give us rain.” No, it is
what you were trying to hasten! The wind that carries the
46-The Dunes, 24
When the Aad people saw the cloud that was to bring punishment to
them, they thought it was a rain cloud. The sandstorm was seen from
afar as a rain cloud. The destruction of the Aad people is often referred
to in the Quranic verses. The city in question was unearthed following an excavation that went deep down into the ground. The description in the Quran is in accord with the evidence of the burial of the
city of the Aad people under dunes of sand.
21- Remember the brother of Aad. When he warned his
people at the dunes, but there have been warners before
him and after him. “You shall not worship any except God.
I fear for you the retribution of a great day.”
46-The Dunes, 21
“Ahqaf” is the plural of “hiqf” (dune of sand). Some commentators mention the name as a proper noun. But this does not change its
signification in any way. Historical data and archaeological findings
clearly refer to the Aad people and the city Eram with tall pillars mentioned in the Quran. The unearthing of the city is a recent affair. The
Quran says that there have been instances in the past from which we
have to derive lessons and archaeology as a science provides us evidences to prove the truth revealed in the Quran.
15- As for Aad, they behaved arrogantly on earth, against
all truth, and said, “Who is more powerful than we?” Did
they not see that God who created them is more powerful
than they? Yet they refused to believe Our signs.
16- So We sent upon them a furious wind for several miserable days to afflict them with a humiliating retribution in
this life. But the retribution of the Hereafter is more
humiliating, and there will be no help for them.
A few of the eating and table manners of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam are mentioned in this chapter. Five ahaadith are mentioned herein.
(130) Hadith Number 1.
Kaa’b bin Maalik Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says: “Rasulullah Sallallabu ‘Alayhi Wasallam licked his fingers thrice (after eating)”.
After eating it is mustahab to lick the fingers before washing the hands. According to some authorities, due to this narration it is mustahab to lick the fingers thrice. Mulla ‘Ali Qaari says three times is not meant here, but that three-fingers should be licked, as will be stated in another narration. Therefore, another narration of Sayyidina Kaa’b bin Maalik Radiyallahu ‘Anhu is also mentioned in this chapter. Some cormmentators of the hadith say that it is a separate etiquette to lick the fingers thrice, so that it becomes completely clean, and in another narration where three fingers are mentioned, is also one of the etiquettes.
(131) Hadith Number 2.
Anas Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says: “Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam used to lick his three fingers after having eaten”.
It was the noble habbit of Sayydina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam to eat with three fingers only. Although we find in a few narrations that he used five fingers also. In most narrations the three fingers; thumb, and middle fingers are mentioned. The benefit of eating with three fingers is that the amount taken (rnorsel) will be less, and one will not eat more. Imaam Nawawi says: ‘We gather from these ahaadith that it is mustahab to eat with three fingers’. For this reason the fourth and fifth fingers should not be used unnecessarily. But if such food is eaten, where it is difficult to use only the three fingers, then there is no harm in using more. Mulla ‘Ali Qaari has written that to eat with five fingers is a sign of greediness. Many a time due to the morsel being big, it results in the stomach being unnecessarily strained, it is also the reason for food getting stuck in the throat.
(132) Hadith Number 3.
Abu Juhayfah Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says: “Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallain said: ‘I do not lean and eat”‘.
This hadith has been discussed in a previous chapter.
(133) Haadith Number 4.
Ka’b bin Maalik Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says: “It was the noble habit of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallamn to use three fingers whilst eating and-he also licked them”.
It has been mentioned in some narrations that he first licked the middle finger, then the sha-haadah finger, then the thumb. It was the noble habit of the master to use these three fingers. The ‘ulama have
mentioned many benefits in this method (sequence). The first is that the licking of the fingers will run in a manner where it goes to the right. The Sha-haadah finger will be on the right of the middle finger. The second is that the middle finger is long, therefore it will be more contaminated. For this reason it is oppropriate to begin with this finger. Khattaabi says: ‘Some foolish people do not like to lick the fingers, and think it disgraceful, but they do not reason that the food that is on the finger is the same that they have been eating, there is nothing new on it’. Ibn Hajar says: ‘If someone thinks of his own deed as disgraceful, it could be discussed. But to think of any act of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallasm as disgraceful, could be dangerous and may even lead to kufr (disbelief). -Jam’ul Wasaa-il. In reality these things have alot to do with habit. If one has a habit of something, it does not matter, and one will not even take notice of it. This is why if one naturally feels these deeds to be disgraceful, then too one should try to form a habit of it, (and should remind one’s self that it is sunnah of Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam)). Once when this humble servant went to Hijaaz (Saudi Arabia), a few who had not been to India asked me surprisingly and with great astonishment, that we hear that there is a fruit in India known as the Mangoe. We hear such disgusting things about it that it surprises us. It is put to the mouth and sucked, it is removed then put to the mouth and sucked again, It is again removed looked at, and sucked again. They were describing it with such disgust that it seemed they were about to vomit. An Indian will not feel anything disgusting about it. There are many such examples. One takes a spoonfull of custard and puts it into the mouth, then puts the same spoon which has some saliva on it, into the plate again, eating from it a second and third time. There are countless other instances where a person is used to a certain way and manner and does not feel the least disgusted about it.
(134) Hadith Number 5
Anas bin Maalik (Radiyallahu anhu) says: “Dates were presented to Rasulullah (Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam). I saw him eating them. Due to hunger he was sitting on the support of something and not on his own support”.
That means he was supporting his back on a wall or something. It has been prohibited in the Ahaadith to lean on something and eat. Here it was due to weakness, therefore it cannot be said that it is contrary to the ahaadith prohibiting it, nor can it be reasoned from this hadeeth that it is permissable to lean and eat.
Volume 3, Book 37, Number 486:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, “Procrastination (delay) in paying debts by a wealthy man is injustice. So, if your debt is transferred from your debtor to a rich debtor, you should agree.”
Volume 3, Book 37, Number 487:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, “Procrastination (delay) in paying debts by a wealthy person is injustice. So, if your debt is transferred from your debtor to a rich debtor, you should agree.”
Volume 3, Book 37, Number 488r:
Narrated Salama bin Al-Akwa:
Once, while we were sitting in the company of Prophet, a dead man was brought. The Prophet was requested to lead the funeral prayer for the deceased. He said, “Is he in debt?” The people replied in the negative. He said, “Has he left any wealth?” They said, “No.” So, he led his funeral prayer. Another dead man was brought and the people said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Lead his funeral prayer.” The Prophet said, “Is he in debt?” They said, “Yes.” He said, “Has he left any wealth?” They said, ”Three Dinars.” So, he led the prayer. Then a third dead man was brought and the people said (to the Prophet ), Please lead his funeral prayer.” He said, “Has he left any wealth?” They said, “No.” He asked, “Is he in debt?” They said, (“Yes! He has to pay) three Diners.’, He (refused to pray and) said, “Then pray for your (dead) companion.” Abu Qatada said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Lead his funeral prayer, and I will pay his debt.” So, he led the prayer.
Volume 3, Book 37, Number 488h:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, “An Israeli man asked another Israeli to lend him one thousand Dinars. The second man required witnesses. The former replied, ‘Allah is sufficient as a witness.’ The second said, ‘I want a surety.’ The former replied, ‘Allah is sufficient as a surety.’ The second said, ‘You are right,’ and lent him the money for a certain period. The debtor went across the sea. When he finished his job, he searched for a conveyance so that he might reach in time for the repayment of the debt, but he could not find any. So, he took a piece of wood and made a hole in it, inserted in it one thousand Dinars and a letter to the lender and then closed (i.e. sealed) the hole tightly. He took the piece of wood to the sea and said. ‘O Allah! You know well that I took a loan of one thousand Dinars from so-and-so. He demanded a surety from me but I told him that Allah’s Guarantee was sufficient and he accepted Your guarantee. He then asked for a witness and I told him that Allah was sufficient as a Witness, and he accepted You as a Witness. No doubt, I tried hard to find a conveyance so that I could pay his money but could not find, so I hand over this money to You.’ Saying that, he threw the piece of wood into the sea till it went out far into it, and then he went away. Meanwhile he started searching for a conveyance in order to reach the creditor’s country.
One day the lender came out of his house to see whether a ship had arrived bringing his money, and all of a sudden he saw the piece of wood in which his money had been deposited. He took it home to use for fire. When he sawed it, he found his money and the letter inside it. Shortly after that, the debtor came bringing one thousand Dinars to him and said, ‘By Allah, I had been trying hard to get a boat so that I could bring you your money, but failed to get one before the one I have come by.’ The lender asked, ‘Have you sent something to me?’ The debtor replied, ‘I have told you I could not get a boat other than the one I have come by.’ The lender said, ‘Allah has delivered on your behalf the money you sent in the piece of wood. So, you may keep your one thousand Dinars and depart guided on the right path.’ “
Volume 3, Book 37, Number 489:
Narrated Said bin Jubair:
Ibn Abbas said, “In the verse: To every one We have appointed ‘ (Muwaliya Mawaliya means one’s) heirs (4.33).’ (And regarding the verse) ‘And those with whom your right hands have made a pledge.’ Ibn ‘Abbas said, “When the emigrants came to the Prophet in Medina, the emigrant would inherit the Ansari while the latter’s relatives would not inherit him because of the bond of brotherhood which the Prophet established between them (i.e. the emigrants and the Ansar). When the verse: ‘And to everyone We have appointed heirs’ (4.33) was revealed, it cancelled (the bond (the pledge) of brotherhood regarding inheritance).” Then he said, “The verse: To those also to whom your right hands have pledged, remained valid regarding co-operation and mutual advice, while the matter of inheritance was excluded and it became permissible to assign something in one’s testament to the person who had the right of inheriting before.
Volume 3, Book 37, Number 490:
Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf came to us and Allah’s Apostle established a bond of brotherhood between him and Sad bin Rabi’a.
Volume 3, Book 37, Number 491:
I heard Anas bin Malik, “Have you ever heard that the Prophet said, ‘There is no alliance in Islam?’ ” He replied, “The Prophet made alliance between Quarish and the Ansar in my house.”
Volume 3, Book 37, Number 492:
Narrated Salama bin Al-Akwa:
A dead person was brought to the Prophet so that he might lead the funeral prayer for him. He asked, “Is he in debt?” When the people replied in the negative, he led the funeral prayer. Another dead person was brought and he asked, “Is he in debt?” They said, “Yes.” He (refused to lead the prayer and) said, “Lead the prayer of your friend.” Abu Qatada said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I undertake to pay his debt.” Allah’s Apostle then led his funeral prayer.
Volume 3, Book 37, Number 493:
Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah:
Once the Prophet said (to me), “If the money of Bahrain comes, I will give you a certain amount of it.” The Prophet had breathed his last before the money of Bahrain arrived. When the money of Bahrain reached, Abu Bakr announced, “Whoever was promised by the Prophet should come to us.” I went to Abu Bakr and said, “The Prophet promised me so and so.” Abu Bakr gave me a handful of coins and when I counted them, they were five-hundred in number. Abu Bakr then said, “Take twice the amount you have taken (besides).”
Volume 3, Book 37, Number 494:
(wife of the Prophet) Since I reached the age when I could remember things, I have seen my parents worshipping according to the right faith of Islam. Not a single day passed but Allah’s Apostle visited us both in the morning and in the evening. When the Muslims were persecuted, Abu Bakr set out for Ethiopia as an emigrant. When he reached a place called Bark-al-Ghimad, he met Ibn Ad-Daghna, the chief of the Qara tribe, who asked Abu Bakr, “Where are you going?” Abu Bakr said, “My people have turned me out of the country and I would like to tour the world and worship my Lord.” Ibn Ad-Daghna said, “A man like you will not go out, nor will he be turned out as you help the poor earn their living, keep good relation with your Kith and kin, help the disabled (or the dependents), provide guests with food and shelter, and help people during their troubles. I am your protector. So, go back and worship your Lord at your home.” Ibn Ad-Daghna went along with Abu Bakr and took him to the chiefs of Quraish saying to them, “A man like Abu Bakr will not go out, nor will he be turned out. Do you turn out a man who helps the poor earn their living, keeps good relations with Kith and kin, helps the disabled, provides guests with food and shelter, and helps the people during their troubles?”
So, Quraish allowed Ibn Ad-Daghna’s guarantee of protection and told Abu- Bakr that he was secure, and said to Ibn Ad-Daghna, “Advise Abu Bakr to worship his Lord in his house and to pray and read what he liked and not to hurt us and not to do these things publicly, for we fear that our sons and women may follow him.” Ibn Ad-Daghna told Abu Bakr of all that, so Abu- Bakr continued worshipping his Lord in his house and did not pray or recite Qur’an aloud except in his house. Later on Abu Bakr had an idea of building a mosque in the court yard of his house. He fulfilled that idea and started praying and reciting Qur’an there publicly. The women and the offspring of the pagans started gathering around him and looking at him astonishingly. Abu Bakr was a softhearted person and could not help weeping while reciting Qur’an. This horrified the pagan chiefs of Quraish. They sent for Ibn Ad-Daghna and when he came, they said, “We have given Abu Bakr protection on condition that he will worship his Lord in his house, but he has transgressed that condition and has built a mosque in the court yard of his house and offered his prayer and recited Qur’an in public. We are afraid lest he mislead our women and offspring. So, go to him and tell him that if he wishes he can worship his Lord in his house only, and if not, then tell him to return your pledge of protection as we do not like to betray you by revoking your pledge, nor can we tolerate Abu Bakr’s public declaration of Islam (his worshipping).”
‘Aisha added: Ibn Ad-Daghna came to Abu Bakr and said, “You know the conditions on which I gave you protection, so you should either abide by those conditions or revoke my protection, as I do not like to hear the ‘Arabs saying that Ibn Ad-Daghna gave the pledge of protection to a person and his people did not respect it.” Abu Bakr said, “I revoke your pledge of protection and am satisfied with Allah’s protection.” At that time Allah’s Apostle was still in Mecca and he said to his companions, “Your place of emigration has been shown to me. I have seen salty land, planted with date-palms and situated between two mountains which are the two ,Harras.” So, when the Prophet told it, some of the companions migrated to Medina, and some of those who had migrated to Ethiopia returned to Medina. When Abu Bakr prepared for emigration, Allah’s Apostle said to him, “Wait, for I expect to be permitted to emigrate.” Abu Bakr asked, “May my father be sacrificed for your sake, do you really expect that?” Allah’s Apostle replied in the affirmative. So, Abu Bakr postponed his departure in order to accompany Allah’s Apostle and fed two camels which he had, with the leaves of Samor trees for four months.
Volume 3, Book 37, Number 495:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
Whenever a dead man in debt was brought to Allah’s Apostle he would ask, “Has he left anything to repay his debt?” If he was informed that he had left something to repay his debts, he would offer his funeral prayer, otherwise he would tell the Muslims to offer their friend’s funeral prayer. When Allah made the Prophet wealthy through conquests, he said, “I am more rightful than other believers to be the guardian of the believers, so if a Muslim dies while in debt, I am responsible for the repayment of his debt, and whoever leaves wealth (after his death) it will belong to his heirs. “
- आयते ततहीर “अल्लाह पाक का इरादाह यही है कि, ऐ एहलेबैत (नबी के घर वालों) तुम्हें हर नापाकी से दूर रखे, और पूरी तरीके से तुम्हें खूब पाक व सुथरा कर दे।”
(सूरह अल-अहज़ाब, आयत नं.-33)
हजरत अबु सईद खुदरी (र.ज.) फरमाते हैं, कि एहलेबैत से मुराद यहाँ इस आयत में “हजरत मौला अली शेरे खुदा (क.व.क.), हजरत खातूने जन्नत फातिमा
जहरा (स.अ.), हजरत इमाम हसन (अ.स.) व हजरत इमाम हुसैन (अ.स.)
“रिवायत है कि एक रोज़ हजरत फातिमा जहरा (स.अ.) गोश्त के समोसे बना कर हुजूर (अ.स.) की खिदमत में लाई, तो हुजूर सल्लाहो अलैहे-वा-आलिही वसल्लम ने फरमाया कि ऐ जाने पिदर ‘अली हसन व हुसैन (अ.मु.स.) को बुलाओ ताकि हम सब मिल कर खाँऐ जब सब आ गये और खाना खा लिया तो हुजूर (अ.स.) ने उन चारों और खुद को अपनी कमली में दाखिल करके फरमाया. “ऐ अल्लाह ! यह मेरी एहलेबैत है इन से रिज्स (नापाकी) को दूर फरमा और इनको पाकीज़ा रख” उसी वक्त यह आयते ततहीर नाजिल हुई (सुब्हान-अल्लाह)। बाज तफ्सीरों में लिखा है जब हुजूर (अ.स.) नमाज के वक्त दरे फातिमा जहरा (ए.ज.अ.) पर गुज़र फरमाते तो फरमाते –
السلام عليكم يا أهل البيت الصلوة انمايريد اللہ ليذهب عنكم الرجس أهل البيت
(तफ्सीरे हुसैनी, जिल्द-2, सफा-600)
नोट- (अल्लाह ने इस आयत में एहलेबैत-ए-पाक की पाकीजगी व उनकी तहारत का जिक्र किया है। और हुजूर सल्लाहो अलेहे-वा-आलिही वसल्लम ने जब अपनी कमली (मुबारक चादर) में चारों नूफूसे नूरानी को दाखिल किया तो उस मुबारक कमली में पांच नूफूसे नूरानी जलवा अफरोज थे, (i) हुजूर (स.अ.वा.व.), (ii) हज़रत अली (आ स.) (iii) हजरत फातिमा ज़हरा (स.अ.), (iv) हजरत इमाम हसन (अ.स.), (v) हज़रत इमाम हुसैन (अ.स.) थे, तो इसलिए कमली में तन थे पाँच और नाजिल हुई. आयत उनकी शान में उनकी पाकी व तहारत के चरचे के लिए, इसलिए एहले इश्क ने कुरआन-ओ-हदीस के मुताबिक उनको ‘पंजतन पाक’ कहा।
इसलिए इन पाँच मुबारक हस्तियों को एक साथ पंजतन पाक भी कहते हैं।
क्योंकि अल्लाह ने इनको पाक रखा है और उनकी पाकी का ऐलान फरमाया है। इसका यह भी मतलब नहीं के सहाबा-ए-कराम (र.ज.अ.) की कोई शान नहीं है। वह भी अपने-अपने दर्जे पर फायज हैं, और उनको हुजूर (अ.स.) ने अपने करम से नवाजा है, लेकिन पंजतन पाक वह हैं जिनको खुद अल्लाह ने अजल से पाक किया है और उनकी पाकी का ऐलान खुद फरमाया है, इसलिए पंजतन पाक से किसी क मुकाबला नहीं हो सकता। अल्लाह ने पंजतन पाक को इस तरह पाक किया है कि उनको पाकी का दरिया बना दिया है। अल्लाह ने खुद इरादा किया है, और अल्ला का इरादा तब से है, जब से अल्लाह है।)
- आयते मवद्दत व अजरे रिसालत
“ऐ महबूब । आप फरमा दीजिए, कि मैं अपने इस कारे रिसालत पर तुम से कोई ‘उजरत’ नहीं माँगता मगर मेरी क़राबत (एहलेबैत) की मवद्दत (मुहब्बत)”
(सूरह अश-शूरा, आयत नं. 23)
हज़रत इब्ने अब्बास (र.ज.) फरमाते हैं, कि जब नबी करीम सल्लाहो अलेहे-वा आलिही वसल्लम पर यह आयते करीमा नाजिल हुई, तो मैंने नबी करीम सल्लाहो अलैहे-वा-आलिही वसल्लम’ से पूछा के यह कराबत वाले (एडलेत) कौन हैं. जिन की मवद्दत के लिए अल्लाह ने इस आयत में हुक्म फरमाया है, तो नबी करीम सल्लाहो अलैहे-वा-आलिही वसल्लम ने इरशाद फरमाया “मह कराबत (एहलेबैत) वाले लोग हज़रत अली (क.व.क.), हजरत खातूने जन्नत फातिमा ज़हरा (स.अ.), और मेरे दोनों बेटे हजरत इमाम हसन (अ.स.) हजरत इमाम हुसैन (अ.स.) हैं’ (मजमउल कबीर, जिल्द-3. सफा 39 हदीस-2641)
नोट- अल्लाह तआला ने एहलेबैत की मवद्दत व मुहब्बत हम पर इस आयते कुरआनी से फर्ज की है, और फर्ज ही नहीं की बल्कि उनकी मुहब्बत को अजरे रिसालत करार दिया. क्योंकि हुजूर (अ.स.) ने इरशाद फरमाया है, कि मैं अपने इस कारे रिसालत पर तुम से कोई ‘उजरत नहीं मांगता मगर मेरी क़ाबत (यानी एहलेबैत) से मवद्दत (मुहब्बत) रखो”, तो हुजूर (अ.स.) ने अपनी उम्मत से अपनी रिसालत-ओ-तबलीग़-ए -दावते हक पर कोई उजरत नहीं मांगी मगर अपनी उम्मत से उसके बदले में अपनी एहलेबैत से मवद्दत रखने को फरमाया, तो एहलेबैत-ए-अतहर (अ.स.) की मुहब्बत(मवदत) अजरे रिसालत करार पाई। यह अजरे रिसालत पूरी उम्मत के लिए है न कि किसी एक फिरका मखसूस) के लिए।
और यहाँ इस आयत में मुहब्बत की जगह मवद्दत आया है, तो किताबचे का ख्याल करते हुए के तवील न हो और दूसरे मनाकिब ज्यादा से ज्यादा आ सके बहुत ही मुखतसर में बयान है कि
“मवद्दत उसे कहते हैं जहाँ मुहब्बत हर हाल में रखना वाजिब हो”।