“Zādhān bin ‘Umar has narrated: I heard ‘Alī (AlahisSalam) in a
meeting ask people on oath: Who h as heard the Messenger
of Allāh (صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم) say something on the day of Gadhīr Khum?
At this, thirteen men stood up an d they con firmed that
they had heard the Messenger of Allāh (صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم) say this: One
who has me as his master has ‘Alī as h is master.
Ahmad bin Hambal narrated it in al-Musnad (1:84), and Fadā’ilus-sahābah (2:585 # 991); Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (p.604 #
1371); Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-awsat (3:69 # 2131); Bayhaqī, asSunan-ul-kubrā (5:131); Abū Nu‘aym, Hilyat-ul-awliyā’ wa
tabaqāt-ul-asfiyā’ (5:26); Ibn Jawzī, Sifat-us-safwah (1:313);
Haythamī, Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:107); Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (13:158 # 36487); and Shawkānī in Darr-us-sahābah (p.211).
Ibn Kathīr in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:169) has copied the
tradition on the authority of Zādhān Abū ‘Umar and has put the
number of witnesses at twelve.
Ibn Kathīr has put the number of witnesses at thirteen in the
tradition narrated through Zādhān who narrated it on the authority
of Ibn ‘Umar in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (5:462).
“It is related by ‘Abd-ur-Rahmān bin Abī Laylā that
‘Alī (AlahisSalam) addressed (the people) and said: I make the
person swear by Allāh an d Islam to come forward
who may have heard the Prophet (صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم) say on the day of
Ghadīr Khum while holding my hand: O Muslims! Am I
not nearer than your lives? All of them said: Why not! O
Messenger of Allāh. He said: One who has me as his
master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Befriend him who
befriends him and be his enemy who is his (‘Alī’s) enemy,
assist him who assists him, help him who help s him and
disgrace him who (wishes to) disgrace him (‘Alī). At this,
more than thirteen persons stood up and bore witness and
those who concealed these facts turned blind or died of
Related by Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (13:131 # 36417).
Ibn Athīr narrated it in Asad-ul-ghābah (3:487) through Abū Ishāq who had said: Yazīd bin Wadī‘ah and ‘Abd-ur-Rahmān bin
Mudlij suffered because they concealed the facts.
Ibn ‘Asākir related it in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:158).
“Asbagh bin Nubātah has narrated that ‘Alī (AlahisSalam) made
people swear in an open plain and asked anyone who had
heard the Prophet (صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم) say this to stand up. At this more
than thirteen person s stood up including Abū Ayy ūb al An sārī, Abū ‘Amrah bin ‘Amr bin Muh san, Abū Zayn ab,
Sahl bin Hunayf, Kh uzaymah bin Thābit, ‘Abdullāh bin
Thābit al-An sārī, Hubshā bin Junādah as-Salūlī, ‘Ubay d
bin ‘Āzib al-An sārī, Nu‘mān bin ‘Ajlān al-An sārī, Thābit
bin Wadī‘ ah al-Ansārī, Abū Fadālah al-An sārī an d ‘Abdur-Rahmān bin ‘Abd Rab al-Ansārī ((رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)). All of them said:
We bear witness that we heard from the Messenger of
Allāh (): Beware! Allāh is my Guardian and I am
the guardian of the believers. I warn you! One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Befriend
him who befriends him (‘Alī) an d be his enemy who is his
(‘Alī’s) enemy, love him who loves him (‘Alī), bear
malice towards him who bears malice towards him and
help him who helps him (‘Alī).”
Ibn Athīr narrated it in Asad-ul-ghābah fī ma‘rifat-is-sahābah
(3:465); and Tahāwī in Mashkal-ul-āthār (2:308).
Ibn Athīr narrated it through Ya‘lā bin Murrah in Asad-ulghābah fī ma‘rifat-is-sahābah (2:362) and mentioned Yazīd or
Zayd bin Sharāhīl among the witnesses. Najiyah bin ‘Amr was also
mentioned among the witnesses at another place (5:282). ‘Āmir bin
Laylā has been mentioned in another tradition through Ya‘lā bin
2- The Romans have been defeated.
3- In the lowest part of the earth. But after defeat they will
soon be victorious.
4- Between three or nine years. God’s is the imperative first
and last. On that day the believers will rejoice.
30-The Romans, 2-4
At the time of the descent of the Quran, the Romans were practicing
Christianity while the Persians were Zoroastrians. The Muslim population was grieved to hear that it was the Persians who had won the
war against the Romans since Christians were monotheists. The victory of the Zoroastrians against the believers baffled the Muslims. The
Quran predicted that the Romans (Byzantium) would soon become
victorious and that the believers would rejoice. The expression “beda
seneen” in verse 4 refers to the numbers ranging from three to nine.
The number of followers of Hazrat Muhammadصلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم continued to increase.
Had this statement of the Quran proved to be wrong, the confidence
of the followers in Hazrat Muhammadصلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم would have been shaken and the number of apostates would have grown. For a person not firmly convinced
that the Quran was the revelation of God, such a prediction would be
fatal for the system. If such a prediction were to prove false, it would
have lost more of its authority than it would have gained had it turned
out to be true. But it was God who revealed the Quran. So there was
no risk. Thus the confidence of the followers increased even more.
Yes, self-confidence, daring and categorical prediction! This is either
a proof of wisdom or the foolhardiness of the ignorant. The result
indicates which was which. Those who doubt that this was not a revelation from God may conclude that it was guesswork, without considering the consequences that would put everything in danger.
Something difficult was being heralded. A nation that had lost its
cause was promised a triumph in a subsequent conflict.
Had this prediction turned out to be false, the believers might have
lost faith and given trump cards to the hands of the opponents of the
faithful. None of the accusations by unbelievers of Hazrat Muhammadصلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم attributing to him insanity, necromancy and opportunism- came to be
true as they failed to belie his words. The unbelievers were badly in
need of such accusations. It was certainly more difficult to attack the
Prophetصلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم and his followers with daggers drawn. If the people who
attributed partners to God were able to come forth with such evidence, they would prefer to use it rather than wage wars. So all the
predictions of the Quran came true and no objections could ever be
raised by the unbelievers.
Nevertheless, there have always been and will be people who turn
a blind eye and a deaf ear to the revelations of the Quran. This did not
prevent the Quran from eventually becoming the sovereign power of
the region under the domination of the Prophet during his lifetime.
FROM DESPAIR TO VICTORY
Students of Byzantine (Roman) history should know that the
Byzantine Empire suffered one of its gravest defeats in the 7th century at the time of the descent of the Quran. Although the Byzantines
solved their problems in the coming years, during that time period,
one of the main reasons for their serious downturn was the problem
that the Persians generated.
Historical sources approve the Quranic information. It was
thought that, since the Byzantines had suffered such a defeat, they
could no longer recover. Records speak of Heraclius’s collecting and
melting in a crucible all the gold and silver of the churches to meet
the expenses of the army. The Persians had already occupied
Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Armenia, all places
that had once been under the domination of the Byzantines. In such
a time of despair, the Quran predicted that the Byzantines would triumph within three to nine years. Historical records add that because
of this statement the Prophet and his followers were held in derision,
as there was little hope of the realization of this prediction coming
The Quran was to confirm this like all others. Byzantium won a
victory over the Persians somewhere near the ruins of Nineveh in 627
AD, about nine years after the revelation of the prophecy. The
Persians signed a treaty, according to which they turned over the territories they had occupied.
By cup it is meant that from which water is drunk, as is stated in the narrations.
(186) Hadith 1
Thaabit radiyallahu anhu relates that Anas radiyallahu anhu showed us a large wooden cup, which was lined with metal, and said, “O’ Thaabit, this is the cup of Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam.”
It is said that this cup was sold from the estate of Sayyidina Nadr ibn Anas radiyallahu anhu for eight lakh Dirhams and Imaam Bukhari drank water from it in Basrah. Some say that, that was another cup.
(187) Hadith 2
Anas radiyallahu anhu says, “I gave Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam to drink from this cup all those things which are drunk; Nabeedh, milk, etc.”
Nabeedh is a drink made by soaking dates, raisins, etc. in water until these things (become soft and) give off its effect. It is a tonic and gives strength. Dates, etc. were soaked for Sayyidina Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam at night and he drank it in the morning. It was also sometimes used the next day, provided it did not ferment and become intoxicating.
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 226:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
I heard Allah’s Apostle saying regarding Ramadan, “Whoever prayed at night in it (the month of Ramadan) out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.”
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 227:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah’s Apostle said, “Whoever prayed at night the whole month of Ramadan out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.” Ibn Shihab (a sub-narrator) said, “Allah’s Apostle died and the people continued observing that (i.e. Nawafil offered individually, not in congregation), and it remained as it was during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr and in the early days of ‘Umar’s Caliphate.” ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Abdul Qari said, “I went out in the company of ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab one night in Ramadan to the mosque and found the people praying in different groups. A man praying alone or a man praying with a little group behind him. So, ‘Umar said, ‘In my opinion I would better collect these (people) under the leadership of one Qari (Reciter) (i.e. let them pray in congregation!)’. So, he made up his mind to congregate them behind Ubai bin Ka’b. Then on another night I went again in his company and the people were praying behind their reciter. On that, ‘Umar remarked, ‘What an excellent Bid’a (i.e. innovation in religion) this is; but the prayer which they do not perform, but sleep at its time is better than the one they are offering.’ He meant the prayer in the last part of the night. (In those days) people used to pray in the early part of the night.”
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 228:
(the wife of the Prophet) Allah’s Apostle used to pray (at night) in Ramadan.
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 229:
That he was informed by ‘Aisha, “Allah’s Apostle went out in the middle of the night and prayed in the mosque and some men prayed behind him. In the morning, the people spoke about it and then a large number of them gathered and prayed behind him (on the second night). In the next morning the people again talked about it and on the third night the mosque was full with a large number of people. Allah’s Apostle came out and the people prayed behind him. On the fourth night the Mosque was overwhelmed with people and could not accommodate them, but the Prophet came out (only) for the morning prayer. When the morning prayer was finished he recited Tashah-hud and (addressing the people) said, “Amma ba’du, your presence was not hidden from me but I was afraid lest the night prayer (Qiyam) should be enjoined on you and you might not be able to carry it on.” So, Allah’s Apostle died and the situation remained like that (i.e. people prayed individually). “
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 230:
Narrated Abu Salama bin ‘Abdur Rahman:
that he asked ‘Aisha “How was the prayer of Allah’s Apostle in Ramadan?” She replied, “He did not pray more than eleven Rakat in Ramadan or in any other month. He used to pray four Rakat —- let alone their beauty and length—-and then he would pray four —-let alone their beauty and length —-and then he would pray three Rakat (Witr).” She added, “I asked, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Do you sleep before praying the Witr?’ He replied, ‘O ‘Aisha! My eyes sleep but my heart does not sleep.”
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 231:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, “Whoever fasted the month of Ramadan out of sincere Faith (i.e. belief) and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his past sins will be forgiven, and whoever stood for the prayers in the night of Qadr out of sincere Faith and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven .”
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 232:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
Some men amongst the companions of the Prophet were shown in their dreams that the night of Qadr was in the last seven nights of Ramadan. Allah’s Apostle said, “It seems that all your dreams agree that (the Night of Qadr) is in the last seven nights, and whoever wants to search for it (i.e. the Night of Qadr) should search in the last seven (nights of Ramadan).”
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 233:
Narrated Abu Salama:
I asked Abu Sa’id, and he was a friend of mine, (about the Night of Qadr) and he said, “We practiced Itikaf (seclusion in the mosque) in the middle third of the month of Ramadan with the Prophet . In the morning of the 20th of Ramadan, the Prophet came and addressed us and said, ‘I was informed of (the date of the Night of Qadr) but I was caused to forget it; so search for it in the odd nights of the last ten nights of the month of Ramadan. (In the dream) I saw myself prostrating in mud and water (as a sign). So, whoever was in l’tikaf with me should return to it with me (for another 10-day’s period)’, and we returned. At that time there was no sign of clouds in the sky but suddenly a cloud came and it rained till rain-water started leaking through the roof of the mosque which was made of date-palm leaf stalks. Then the prayer was established and I saw Allah’s Apostle prostrating in mud and water and I saw the traces of mud on his forehead.”
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 234:
Allah’s Apostle said, “Search for the Night of Qadr in the odd nights of the last ten days of Ramadan.”
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 235:
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
Allah’s Apostle used to practice Itikaf (in the mosque) in the middle third of Ramadan and after passing the twenty nights he used to go back to his house on the 21st, and the people who were in Itikaf with him also used to go back to their houses. Once in Ramadan, in which he practiced Itikaf, he established the night prayers at the night in which he used to return home, and then he addressed the people and ordered them whatever Allah wished him to order and said, “I used to practice Itikaf for these ten days (i.e. the middle 113rd but now I intend to stay in Itikaf for the last ten days (of the month); so whoever was in Itikaf with me should stay at his place of seclusion. I have verily been shown (the date of) this Night (of Qadr) but I have forgotten it. So search for it in the odd nights of the last ten days (of this month). I also saw myself (in the dream) prostrating in mud and water.” On the night of the 21st, the sky was covered with clouds and it rained, and the rain-water started leaking through the roof of the mosque at the praying place of the Prophet . I saw with my own eyes the Prophet at the completion of the morning prayer leaving with his face covered with mud and water.
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 236:
The Prophet said, “Look for (the Night of Qadr).”
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 237:
Allah’s Apostle used to practice Itikaf in the last ten nights of Ramadan and used to say, “Look for the Night of Qadr in the last ten nights of the month of Ramadan ,”
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 238:
Narrated Ibn Abbas:
The Prophet said, “Look for the Night of Qadr in the last ten nights of Ramadan ,’ on the night when nine or seven or five nights remain out of the last ten nights of Ramadan (i.e. 21, 23, 25, respectively).”
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 239:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:
Allah’s Apostle said, “The Night of Qadr is in the last ten nights of the month (Ramadan), either on the first nine or in the last (remaining) seven nights (of Ramadan).” Ibn ‘Abbas added, “Search for it on the twenty-fourth (of Ramadan).”
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 240:
Narrated ‘Ubada bin As-Samit:
The Prophet came out to inform us about the Night of Qadr but two Muslims were quarreling with each other. So, the Prophet said, “I came out to inform you about the Night of Qadr but such-and-such persons were quarreling, so the news about it had been taken away; yet that might be for your own good, so search for it on the 29th, 27th and 25th (of Ramadan).
Volume 3, Book 32, Number 241:
With the start of the last ten days of Ramadan, the Prophet used to tighten his waist belt (i.e. work hard) and used to pray all the night, and used to keep his family awake for the prayers.