The Conquest of Khaibar (In Muharram, 7 A.H.)

Khaibar was a spacious strongly fortified territory, studded with castles and farms, lying at a distance of 60-80 miles north of Madinah, now a village known for its unhealthy climate.

The Reasons for the Battle

After the Hudaibiyah Treaty, the major party of the anti-Islam tripartite coalition, the Quraish, was neutralized. Therefore, the Prophetﷺ considered it an appropriate time to settle his affairs with the other two wings – the Jews and the Najd tribes – in order that peace and security could prevail and the Muslims may devote their time and effort in propagating the Message of Allâh and calling people to embrace it. Khaibar itself had always remained a hotbed of intrigue and conspiracy, and the Jews had always used it as a source of military provocation and an instigation center, so it was given top priority on the Prophet’s agenda of the affairs requiring urgency. The Jews of Khaibar, united by an ancient alliance with the Confederates, provoked Bani Quraizah to practice treachery, maintained contacts with Ghatafan and the Arabians and they even devised an attempt on the Prophet’s life. In fact, the continual afflictions that the Muslims sustained were primarily attributable to the Jews. Envoys were repeatedly sent to them for peaceful settlement, but all in vain. Consequently the Prophetﷺ came to the conclusion that a military campaign was a must in order to solve this problem.

Headed to Khaibar

Ibn Ishaq said: “When Allâh’s Messengerﷺ came back from AlHudaibiyah, he resided in Madinah during the month of DhulHijjah and part of Muharram. Then he left at the end of Muharram for Khaibar.”

Interpreters of the Noble Qur’ân suggest that capturing Khaibar had been a Divine promise implied in Allâh’s Words:

“Allâh has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture, and He has hastened for you this.” [48:20]

i.e., the Hudaibiyah Peace Treaty and the surrender of Khaibar. The hypocrites and people weak of heart had hung back from joining the true Muslims in the Hudaibiyah campaigns, so now Allâh the All-Mighty revealed the following words to His Prophet

Those who lagged behind will say, when you set forth to take the spoils: ‘Allow us to follow you.’ They want to change Allâh’s Words. Say: ‘You shall not follow us; thus Allâh has said beforehand.’ Then they will say: ‘Nay, you envy us.’ Nay, but they understand not except a little.” [48:151

The Number of Soldiers in the Army

For this reason, the Prophet ﷺ invited only those who were willing to fight in the cause of Allâh to accompany him in his march against Khaibar. 1400 men only, who had sworn allegiance in response to his call.

Meanwhile, Siba’ bin ‘Arfatah Al-Ghifari Radiallahu anhoo was chosen to run the affairs of Madinah. Another incident of high significance is the acceptance of Islam by Abu Hurairah Radiallahu anhoo, a venerable Muslim scholar and an authentic narrator of the Prophetic traditions, that occurred during this time.

The Hypocrites alert the Jews

The hypocrites of Arabia took notice of the fresh Islamic intentions so they began to alert the Jews to the imminent military activities. Their chief, ‘Abdullah bin Ubai sent a message

The Conquest of Khaibar

to the Jews of Khaibar warning them against the dangers approaching, and encouraging them to resist the Muslims as they outnumbered the latter and were better equipped. On hearing the news the Jews dispatched Kinanah bin Abul-Huqaiq and Haudhah bin Qais to their former allies, the tribe of Ghatafan requesting military assistance, promising to grant them half the yield of the fruit that their farms could yield if they managed to beat the Muslims.

The Road to Khaibar

The Prophetﷺ marched by way of ‘Isr Mountain and then went forward with the army till he halted in a valley called Ar-Raji’, encamping a day and a night’s journey before the Ghatafan so as to prevent the latter from strengthening the Jews. The guides accompanying him led him to an intersection from which branched out many ways, all leading to his destination. He abstained from following the first three roads on grounds of their ominous names and chose the fourth for its favorable indication.

It is noteworthy that some interesting incidents featured the Muslims’ march towards Khaibar; of which we mention the following:

  1. It has been narrated on the authority of Salamah bin AlAkwa’, who said: We marched upon Khaibar with Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ. We journeyed during the night. One of the men said to my brother ‘Amir: “Won’t you recite to us some of your verses, ‘Amir?” So, he began to chant his verses to urge the camels, reciting:

O Allâh, if you had not guided us, we would have neither been guided rightly nor practiced charity, nor offered prayers.

We wish to lay down our lives for You; so forgive You our lapses, and keep us firm when we encounter (our enemies).

Bestow upon us peace and tranquility, behold, when with a cry they called upon us to help

Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ said: “Who is this driver (of the camels)?”

They said: “It is ‘Amir.” He said: “Allâh will show mercy to him.” A man said: “Martyrdom is reserved for him: O Messenger of Allâh, would that you had allowed us to benefit ourselves from his life.

The Prophet’s Companions had already known that he would never invoke Allâh’s mercy upon a close Companion but to single him out for martyrdom.’

  1. In a spot called As-Sahba’, not far from Khaibar, the Prophet ﷺ observed the Afternoon prayer, and then he called his Companions to have whatever food provisions they had. What they brought was too little to satisfy them all. The Prophetﷺ took it by his hand and it immediately grew in quantity, so they all ate to their fill.

Shortly afterward, he and the others, rinsed their mouths and performed the Evening prayer without performing ablution; 3) he did the same for the Night prayer.’”!

As they reached above Khaibar and looked down upon it he said. “Halt.” The array halted and he said:

“O Allâh! Lord of the seven heavens and what they cover, Lord of the seven earths and what include, Lord of the devils and what they mislead: Indeed we ask You for the good of this town, the good of its people, the good that is in it, and we seek refuge with You from the evil of this town, the evil of its people and the evil that is in it. Proceed in the Name of Allâh.:15]

The Muslim Army surrounds Khaibar

The Muslims camped and slept that night near Khaibar without the Jews realizing their presence. In the morning after the prayer

they mounted and proceeded. The Muslims encountered the Jews when they had come out about their jobs with their axes, spades and strings driving their cattle along. They began to shout in surprise: “Muhammadﷺ has come along with his force!” Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ said:

“Allâh is Great, Khaibar is ruined, Allâh is Great, Khaibar is ruined, Behold! When we descend amidst the people, it will dawn a bad day for those who have been warned (but have not taken heed).

The Fortresses of Khaibar

Khaibar was divided into two sections, the first containing five fortresses or castles:

  1. The fortress of Na’im.
  2. The fortress of As-Sa’b bin Mu’ath.
  3. The fortress of Az-Zubair.
  4. The fortress of Ubai.
  5. The fortress of An-Nizar.

The first three were in the area known as An-Natah, the remainder were in a section called Ash-Shaq. The second section of the city was called Al-Katibah and it had three fortresses:

  1. Al-Qamus, which was the fortress of the family of Abul-Huqaiq from the tribe of Abu An-Nadeer.
  2. The fortress of Al-Watih.
  3. The fortress of As-Sulalim.

There were also other fortresses in Khaibar besides these eight. but they did not reach the size or fortification of these. The fighting occurred only in the first section of the city: in the second section, the three fortresses secured themselves and held their fighters without coming out to face the Muslims.

The Muslim Camp

For encampment, the Prophetﷺ had chosen a certain plot of land he deemed suitable to serve as the headquarters of his army. However, a veteran fighter of his called Hubab bin Al-Mundhir Radiallahu anhoo suggested that they should relocate under the requirements of war and for the sake of providing maximum movement facilities.

Preparing to Fight and the Good News of Victory

When the night entered or thereafter, the Prophet ﷺsaid:

“Tomorrow I will give the banner to a man who loves Allâh and His Messengerﷺ and Allâh and His Messengerﷺ love him.”

In the morning, all of the people gathered around him hoping that they were the one, the Prophetﷺ mentioned during the night. The Prophet ﷺ called for ‘Ali bin Abi Talib Karamulla wajehul kareem is who had a problem with his eyes, so he supplicated for him and the problem left. He then handed the banner to him. ‘Ali on his part, pledged he would fight the enemies until they embraced Islam. The Prophet ﷺ answered him saying: “Proceed upon your way until you enter their midst, then invite them to accept Islam and brief them on their duties towards Allâh. I swear by Allâh that if only one should be guided by you, that would surely outweigh the best camels.”

Date and Route of the Campaign:

Ibn Ishaq suggested that the battle took place in the month of Muharram, 7th A.H. Ibn Ishaq also said when the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) marched from Madinah to Khaibar, he went by way of a place called ‘Isr’ and a mosque was built for him there; then by way of Al­ Sahbih. Then he (S.A.W.) went forward with the army until he hatted in a valley called ‘Al-Raji, halting between the men of Khaibar and Ghatafan tribe so as to prevent the latter reinforcing Khaibar, for they were on their side against the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.). 

In his SahihAl-Bukhari narrated the following narrations that shed light on the battle of Khaibar:

Suwaid Ibn An-Numan (R.A.) narrated:

” In the year of the conquest of Khaibar I went with Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) till we reached Sahba, a place near Khaibar, where Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) offered the `Asr’ prayer and asked for food. Nothing but ‘saweeq’ (Arabic name for Barley’s roasted flour) was brought. He ordered it to be moistened with water. He and all of us ate it and the Prophet (S.A.W.) got up for the evening prayer (Maghrib prayer), rinsed his mouth with water and we did the same, and he then prayed without repeating the ablution.” (Sahih Bukhari: 209)

Prophet (S.A.W.) reached Khaibar:

Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) reached Khaibar before dawn and prayed Fajr in its vicinity. Then he attacked it before the sun rose. The Jewish peasants who came out to work with their cattle, hoes and baskets were surprised to see the Muslims there and exclaimed: “Mohammad and his army!” The Messenger answered: “Allahu Akbar! Khaibar is destroyed. When we descend into the open space of people, evil will be the morning for those who were warned (and heeded not)!

Anas (R.A.) narrated:

‘The Prophet (S.A.W.) set out for Khaibar and reached it at night. He used not to attack if he reached the people at night, till the day broke. So, when the day dawned, the Jews came out with their bags and spades. When they saw the Prophet; they said, “Mohammad and his army!” The Prophet (S.A.W.) said, Allahu-Akbar! (Allah is Greater) and Khaibar is ruined, for whenever we approach a nation (i.e. enemy to fight) then it will be a miserable morning for those who have been warned.” (Sahih Bukhari: 2945)

Anas Ibn Malik (R.A.) also said:

‘We reached Khaibar early in the morning and the inhabitants of Khaibar came out carrying their spades, and when they saw the Prophet (S.A.W.) they said, “Mohammad! By Allah! Mohammad and his army!” The Prophet (S.A.W.) said, “Allahu-Akbar! Khaibar is destroyed, for whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to fight) then evil will be the morning for those who have been warned.” We then got the meat of donkeys (and intended to eat it), but an announcement was made by the announcer of the Prophet, “Allah and His Apostle forbid you to eat the meat of donkeys as it is an impure thing.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4198)

Narrated by Anas Ibn Malik (R.A.):‘The Prophet (S.A.W.) offered the Fajr Prayer near Khaibar when it was still dark and then said, “Allahu-Akbar! Khaibar is destroyed, for whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to fight), then evil will be the morning for those who have been warned.” Then the inhabitants of Khaibar came out running on the roads. The Prophet (S.A.W.) had their warriors killed, their offspring and woman taken as captives. Safiya was amongst the captives, she first came in the share of Dahya Alkali but later on she belonged to the Prophet (S.A.W.). The Prophet (S.A.W.) made her manumission as her ‘Mahr’ (dowry).’ (Sahih Bukhari: 4200)

Failure of Banu Ghatafan:

The Jews took refuge in their strongholds and the Muslims besieged the stronghold of al Naim. Tribe of Ghatafan quickly came to the aid of the Jews of Khaibar who were their allies but they did not join in the fighting for fear that the Muslims might attack their homes. Ibn Ishaq states that they returned to their homes before reaching Khaibar.

Ibn Ishaq suggested that When Ghatafan heard about the Messenger’s (S.A.W.) attack on Khaibar, they gathered together and marched out to help the Jews against him. But after a day’s journey, they heard rumors that their families and properties had been attacked during their absence, so they went back on their tracks and left the way to Khaibar open to the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.).

Ali ibn Talib (R.A.): Carrier of Flag of Muslim’s Army:

Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.) carried the flag of the Muslims for the first two days of the siege of Naim but it did not fall to him and stress and exhaustion overtook them. The following morning, the Prophet (S.A.W.) had prayed Fajr Salah and called Ali Ibn Talib (R.A.) and gave him the flag. Ali carried it on the third day, and he achieved the conquest. One report indicates that the flag-bearer before Ali (R.A.) was Umar ibn Khattab (R.A.), not Abu Bakr Siddiq (R.A.), but this is a weak report.

Salamah ibn Al-Akwa (R.A.) narrated:

`Ali (R.A.) remained behind the Prophet (S.A.W.) during the Ghazwa of Khaibar as he was suffering from eye trouble. He then said, “(How can) I remain behind the Prophet (S.A.W.),” and followed him. So when he slept on the night of the conquest of Khaibar, the Prophet (S.A.W.) said, “I will give the flag tomorrow, or tomorrow the flag will be taken by a man who is loved by Allah and His Apostle and (Khaibar) will be conquered through him, (with Allah’s help)” 

While every one of us was hopeful to have the flag, it was said, “Here is `Ali” and the Prophet (S.A.W.) gave him the flag and Khaibar was conquered through him (with Allah’s Help). (Sahih Bukhari: 4209)

Sahl bin Saad (R.A.) said:

On the day of Khaibar, Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) said, “Tomorrow I will give this flag to a man through whose hands Allah will give us victory. He loves Allah and His Apostle, and he is loved by Allah and His Apostle.”

The people remained that night, wondering as to who would be given it. In the morning the people went to Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) and everyone of them was hopeful to receive it (i.e. the flag). The Prophet said, “Where is `Ali bin Abi Talib?” It was said, “He is suffering from eye trouble O Allah’s Apostle.” He said, “Send for him.” `Ali was brought and Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) spat in his eye and invoked good upon him. So `Ali was cured as if he never had any trouble. Then the Prophet (S.A.W.) gave him the flag. `Ali said “O Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.)! I will fight with them till they become like us.” Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) said,

” Proceed and do not hurry. When you enter their territory, call them to embrace Islam and inform them of Allah’s Rights which they should observe, for by Allah, even if a single man is led on the right path (of Islam) by Allah through you, then that will be better for you than the nice red camels.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4210)

The Prophet (S.A.W.) ordered Ali (R.A.) to call the Jews of Khaibar to Islam. The Prophet (S.A.W.) said to Ali (R.A.): “By Allah, if Allah guides one man (to Islam) through you, it is better for you than the most valuable camels.” [Sahih Muslim: 2406 narrated by Sahl bin Saad (R.A.)]

This clearly shows that the Prophet (S.A.W.) was not eager for the booty of Khaibar rather he was concerned about spreading the message of Islam and removing obstacles from the path of its preparation.

Killing of Marhab:

Mahmud ibn Maslamah Al-Ansari (R.A.) was martyred in the siege of the stronghold of Naim, when Marhab (Jews leader) threw a millstone onto him from the heights of the stronghold. Ali (R.A.) met Marhab in combat and killed him. [Sahih Muslim: 1807 (a)]. Marhab was one of the heroes of the Jews, and his death affected their morale.

Ḥaz̤rat Jābir raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu bayān karte haiṅ ki ġhazwā-e Ḳhaibar ke roz Ḥaz̤rat ʻAlī raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu ne qalʻā-e Ḳhaibar kā darwāzā (ukhār̥ kar) ut̥hā liyā yahāṅ tak ki musalmān qalʻā par char̥h ga’e aur use fateḥ kar liyā aur yeh tajrebā-shudā bāt hai ki is darwāze ko chālīs ādamī mil kar ut̥hāte the.”
              Is ḥadīs̲ ko imām ibn Abī Shaybah, Ḳhaṭib Baġhdādī, Bayhaqī aur ibn ʻAsākir ne riwāyat kiyā hai. imām ʻAsqalānī ne farmāyā: maiṅ kĕhtā hūṅ ki is ḥadīs̲ kī mis̲āl Ḥaz̤rat Abū Rāfiʻ raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se bhī marwī hai jise imām Aḥmad ne apnī musnad meṅ riwāyat kiyā hai lekin is meṅ chālīs ādmiyoṅ kā ẕikr nahīṅ kiyā.
        Imām Muttaqī Hindī ne ise ḥasan kahā hai.

[Aḳhrajah ibn abī Shaybah fī al-Muṣannaf, faḍā’il Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu, 06/374, al-raqm: 32139,
al-Ḳhaṭīb al-Baghdādī fī Tārīḳh Baġhdād, 11/324, al-raqm: 6142,
al-Bayhaqī fī Dalā’il al-Nubuwwah, 04/212,
al-ʻAsqalānī fī Lisān al-mīzān, 04/196,
al-ʻAsqalānī fī Fatḥ al-bārī, 07/478,

Ibn ʻAsākir fī Tārīḳh Madīnaṫ Dimashq, 42/111,
al-Ṭabarī fī Tārīḳh al-umam wa-al-mulūk, 02/137,
Ibn Hishām fī al-Sīrah al-Nabawīyah, 04/306,
al-Hindī fī Kanz al-ʻummāl, 13/60, al-raqm: 36431,
al-Suyūtī fī Tārīḳh al-ḳhulafā’,/167,
Ṭāhir al-Qādrī fī Ḥusnu al-maʻāb fī Ḏh̲ikri Abī Turāb karrama Allāhu waj·hahu al-Karīm,/16_17, al-raqm: 06.]

Conquering of Different Tribe’s Land:

The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.), as Ibn Ishaq narrated, seized the property piece by piece and conquered the forts one by one as he came to them (Khaibar). The first to fall was of Naim; then Al-Qamus the fort of Banu Al-Huqayq. The Messenger (S.A.W.) took captives from them among whom was Safiyah, daughter of Huyayy Ibn Aktab who had been the wife of Kinana Ibn Al-Rabi Ibn Al-Huqayq and two cousins of hers. The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) chose Safiyah for himself (as mentioned above in Sahih Bukhari: 4200).

The conquest of Naim took ten days. Afterward, the Muslims conquered Al-Saab ibn Mudadh in the region of Al-Natah, which contained the richest food in Khaibar. Then came Qalaat Al-Zubayr, which was the last stronghold of Al-Natah. The fugitives from Naim, Al-Saab, and the other Jewish strongholds conquered by the Muslims had gathered in Qalaat Al-Zubayr to face Muslims. However, Muslims cut off the water supply and forced the Jews to come down and fight. They killed ten of the Jews and conquered the stronghold after a siege lasting three days. After they had dealt with the people of Al-Natah, who were strongest of the Jews, the Muslims moved from Al-Raji to Al-Manzilah. 

Position of the Muslims was much stronger after they had defeated the people of Al-Natah and the rest of the Jews of Khaibar were alarmed by the fall of Al-Natah.

When the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) had conquered some of their forts and got possession of some of their property, he came to their two forts Al-Watih and Al­ Sulaim, the last to be taken, and the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) besieged them for some ten nights.

Prophet’s (S.A.W.) marriage with Safiyah bint Huyyay (R.A.):

Anas Ibn Malik (R.A.) said:

The Prophet (S.A.W.) stayed with Safiya bint Huyai for three days on the way of Khaibar where he consummated his marriage with her. Safiya was amongst those who were ordered to use a veil. (Sahih Bukhari: 4212)

In another narration, Anas ibn Malik (R.A.) said that the Prophet (S.A.W.) stayed for three rights between Khaibar and Madinah and was married to Safiyah. I invited the Muslim to his marriage banquet (reception) and there was neither meat nor bread in that banquet but the Prophet (S.A.W.) ordered Bilal to spread the leather mats on which dates, dried yogurt and butter were put. The Muslims said amongst themselves, “Will she (i.e., Safiyah) be one of the mothers of the believers, i.e., one of the wives of the Prophet (S.A.W.), or just (a lady captive) of what his right-hand possesses.” Some of them said, “If the Prophet (S.A.W.) makes her observe the veil, then she will be one of the mothers of the believers (i.e., one of the Prophet’s wives), and if he does not make her observe the veil, then she will be his lady slave.” So when he departed, he made a place for her behind him (on his mount) and made her observe the veil.” (Ref. An-Nasai: 3382)

The Conquest of Khaibar’s Forts:

According to Ibn Ishaq, the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) besieged the people of Khaibar in their two forts Al-Watih and Al-Sulaim until they could hold out no longer they asked him to let them go, and spare their lives, and he did so. Now, the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) had taken possession of all their property –  Al-Shaqq, Al-Nata, and Ak¬ Katibah and all their forts –  except what appertained to these two.

When the people of Fadak (garden oasis in Khaibar,) heard of what had happened, they sent to the Messenger (S.A.W.) asking him to let them go and spare their lives and they would leave him their property, and he did so.  The one who acted as intermediary was Muhqyisa Ibn Masud, brother of Banu Harithah (one of Jews tribe). When the people of Khaibar surrounded on these conditions, they asked the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) to employ them on the property with half share in the produce, saying, “We know more about it than you and we are better farmers.”

The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) agreed to this arrangement on the condition that: “If we wish to expel you we will expel you.” (Ref. Sahih Bukhari: 2338)

The rest of Khaibar fell to the Muslims. The people of Fadak, to the north of Khaybar, hastened to ask for peace, and to be allowed to leave in safety, and leave their wealth in return for that. The Prophet (S.A.W.) agreed to their request. 

After conquering Khaibar, the Jews were not expelled from Khaibar at the time of the Prophet (S.A.W.). There is an authentic report that the Prophet (S.A.W.) allowed the Jews to stay in Khaibar on the condition that they work in agriculture and spend their own money on it, and that the Muslims would receive one half of their crops. This was in spite of the fact that the Muslims had the right to expel them if they wanted to. 

Martyrs and Deaths during the Battle:

The number of Jewish men killed in the battle of Khaibar was 93. Twenty Muslims were martyred, according to Ibn Ishaq. 

The Division of the Booty:

In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari reported the following narrations that explain how the Prophet (S.A.W.) divided the booty in Khaibar:

Jubair bin Mutim (R.A.) said: 

‘ Uthman bin Affan (R.A.) and I went to the Prophet (S.A.W.) and said, “You had given Banu Al-Muttalib from the Khumus of Khaibar’s booty and left us in spite of the fact that we and Banu Al-Muttalib are similarly related to you.” The Prophet (S.A.W.) said, “Banu Hashim and Banu Al-Muttalib only are one and the same.” So the Prophet (S.A.W.) did not give anything to Banu Abd Shams and Banu Nawfal.’ (Sahih Bukhari: 4229)

So the Prophet (S.A.W.) did not give anything to Banu Abd Shams and Banu Nawfal.

Ibn Umar (R.A.) said that on the day of Khaibar, Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) divided (the war booty of Khaibar) with the ratio of two shares for the horse and one-share for the foot soldier. (Sahih Bukhari: 4228)

The sub-narrator, Nafi explained this, saying, “If a man had a horse, he was given three shares and if he had no horse, then he was given one share.”

Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (R.A.) said, 

By Him in Whose Hand my soul is, were I not afraid that the other Muslims might be left in poverty, I would divide (the land of) whatever village I may conquer (among the fighters), as the Prophet (S.A.W.) divided the land of Khaibar. But I prefer to leave it as a (source of) a common treasury for them to distribute it revenue amongst themselves. (Sahih Bukhari: 4235)

Abu Said Al-Khudri (R.A.) and Abu Hurairah (R.A.) narrated that:

Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) appointed a man as the ruler of Khaibar who later brought some Janib (i.e. dates of good quality) to the Prophet. On that, Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) said (to him). “Are all the dates of Khaibar like this?” He said, “No, by Allah, O Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.)! But we take one Sa of these (dates of good quality) for two or three Sa’s of other dates (of inferior quality).” On that, Allah’s Messenger (S.A.W.) said, “Do not do so, but first sell the inferior quality dates for money and then with that money, buy Janib.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4244 & 4245)

Abu Said (R.A.) and Abu Hurairah (R.A.) said:

“The Prophet (S.A.W.) made the brother of Bani Adi (Tribe) from the Ansaar as the ruler of Khaibar.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4246 & 4247)

A Poisoned Sheep Gifted to the Messenger (S.A.W.):

At Khaibar, the Jews cooked a sheep containing poison and presented it to the Prophet (S.A.W.).

Narrated by Abu Hurairah’s (R.A.) saying:  

“When Khaibar was conquered, a (cooked) sheep containing poison, was given as a present to Allah’s Apostle (S.A.W.).” (Sahih Bukhari: 4249)

Aishah (R.A.) said:

The Prophet (S.A.W.) in his ailment in which he died, used to say, “O `Aisha! I still feel the pain caused by the food I ate at Khaibar, and at this time, I feel as if my aorta is being cut from that poison.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4428)

Outcome of the Battle:

The conquest of Khaibar improved economic position of the Muslims. 

Aishah (R.A.) said:

‘When Khaibar was conquered, we said, “Now we will eat our fill of dates.’ (Sahih Bukhari: 4242)

Ibn Umar (R.A.) said,

“We did not eat our fill until we conquered Khaybar”. (Sahih Bukhari: 4243)

These reports give a clear picture of the benefits of the conquest of Khaibar in strengthening the economic position of the Muslims and of the economic situation before the conquest. 

Ghadir Declaration Hadith

img-20210527-wa0082-23743189639446878268.jpg

“Ibn Wāthilah is reported to have heard from Zayd bin
Arqam ((رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)) that the Prophet (صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم
) was camp in g bet ween

Makkah an d Medina near five dense trees. The people
cleaned the place un der the trees an d h e rested there for
some time. He offered the prayer an d then stood up to
address the people. He praised Allāh , gave some
adv ice to the audience an d then said whatever Allāh
wanted him to say. He said: O people! I am leaving t wo
things with yo u. Yo u will never go astray as long as yo u
follow them an d these (two things) are Allāh’s Book an d
my progeny. He then added: Don’t yo u know I am nearer
than the lives of the believers? He repeated it three times.
Everyone said: yes. Then he said: One who has me as his
master has ‘Alī as his master.”

Hākim related it in al-Mustadrak (3:109, 110 # 4577); Hindī,
Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (1:381 # 1657); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq alkabīr (45:164); and Ibn Kathīr in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:168).

“Zayd bin Arqam ((رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)) narrates: We set out with
Allāh’s Messenger (صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم
) until we reached Ghadīr Khum.

He commanded that a canopy should be put up. He looked
tired on that day an d it was a very hot day . He praised
Allāh  an d then said: O people, out of the prophets
Allāh  sent, each new prophet had a life span half as
much as that of his predecessor, and it seems to me that
soon I may be called (to breathe my last) which I shall
accept. I am leaving in your midst something that will
never let you go astray, and that is the Book of Allāh .
Then he stood up, held ‘Alī’s hand and said: O people,
who is he who is nearer than your lives? All of them said:
Allāh  and His Messenger (صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم
) know better. (Then

added:) Am I not nearer than your lives? They said: Why
not! He said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his
master

Hākim graded it sahīh (sound) according to the conditions of
Bukhārī and Muslim in al-Mustadrak (3:533 # 6272) and Dhahabī confirmed its soundness. Tabarānī transmitted it in al-Mu‘jam-ul kabīr (5:171,172 # 4986); and Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:602 #
32904).

“ Sa‘d bin Abī Waqās ((رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)) say s that he heard Allāh’s
Messenger (صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم
) describe three qualities of ‘Alī (AlahisSalam). Had

I possessed anyone of them, it would have been dearer to
me than red camels.
“I heard him say : In deed, he (‘Alī) is in my place as
Hārūn was in Mūsā’s place, but there is no prophet after
me. And I heard him say: Today I shall bestow the flag on
the person who loves Allāh  an d His Messenger (صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم
),

an d Allāh and His Messenger (صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم
) love him too. And

I heard him say : One who h as me as his master has ‘Alī as
his master.”

Nasā’ī narrated it with sound chain of trasmission in Khasā’is
amīr-il-mu’minīm ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (pp.33, 34, 88 # 10, 80); and
Hindī related it in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (15:163 # 36496) through
‘Āmir bin Sa‘d with the addition of a few words.
Shāshī narrated it through ‘Āmir bin Sa‘d bin Abī Waqās in
al-Musnad (1:165, 166 # 106).
Ibn ‘Asākir narrated it through ‘Āmir bin Sa‘d and Sa‘d bin
Abī Waqās in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:88).

Quran and Modern Science ::LANGUAGE AND MAN

30- When your Lord said to the angels: “I will place a successor on earth.” They said: “Will you place one there who
will commit disorder and shed blood, while we praise You,
and extol Your holiness.” He said: “I know what you do
not know.”
31- And He taught Adam all the names. Then presented
them to the angels, saying: “Tell me the names of these if
you are truthful.”
32- They said: “Glory to you, we have no knowledge except
what You have taught us. You are Knowing, Wise.”
33- “O Adam, give them their names.” When he told them
their names, He said: “Did I not tell you that I know the
secrets of the heavens and the earth? I know whatever you
reveal and whatever you conceal.”
2-The Cow, 30-33
So far we have dwelt on subject matters related to such natural sciences as physics, chemistry, biology, medicine and geology as miraculously developed in the Quran. In this chapter and in the next three
chapters, we will embark on important philosophical considerations
coming within the compass of the Quran.
In the verses quoted above the subjects treated are the creation of
man by God and His placement of him on earth. Angels who fail to
conceive the reason for man’s creation – a potential for committing
disorder and shedding blood – bring up the problem of evil and ask
God for a justification. God says that He knows things that they do not know and that there is wisdom in everything He creates.
Whereupon God emphasizes the superiority of man in that he is
taught how to use language.
In this chapter we are going to tackle the importance of man’s use
of language. The superiority of man as a being depends on his capacity to use a language. The philosophy of language developed in the
20th century and the vast studies carried on the issue asserts that without language we could not exist as persons as such. Once, Bertrand
Russell in the 1920s (he was in his 40s then and had already produced
most of the works which had given him prominence) acknowledged
that he considered language as a means at the disposal of man, that he
could handle without giving it special attention. Bryan Maggee
claimed that this held true not only for philosophers, but also for novelists, poets and playwrights. Self-consciousness in the use of language
developed, especially in the twentieth century, and became one of the
philosophical characteristics of the age.
This development is not limited to a superficial interest in words
but also includes in its scope beliefs related to basic issues. The
abstract thought made possible by language has proven to be the most
important factor in conceptualizing all the aspects of reality in which
we had not participated directly, and in handling it as well as in our
communication with our environment. The general consensus is that
this is the major characteristic that differentiates us from animals.
Thus, learning a language enables us to become ourselves. The importance of language had not been conceived as so great, both as regards
mankind in general and the individual in particular.
The Quran, 1400 years ago, stressed this importance. Those who
take an interest in philosophy should know that most of the new ideas
are based on the depository of past acquisitions. Wherever there are
hot debates, wherever ideas clash, new concepts arise, be they correct
or irrelevant. During the Prophet’s time, there seems not to have been
significant philosophical discourse. The Quran’s reference to the relevance of language at such a time – which people would only realize
long afterwards – is an interesting statement indeed. At the time and
place of the descent of the Quran, there were neither concerns about
language nor about its philosophical profundity

CONTRIBUTION OF WITTGENSTEIN
Using and understanding a language is the distinctive characteristic of
man that separates him from other living beings. This forms the
essence of our inner existence. The questions raised by Ludwig
Wittgenstein played a great role in conceiving the importance of language in the history of philosophy. Wittgenstein asked questions
which at first sight would seem platitudes, just like in the case of
Newton inquiring into the reason of the planets’ not changing their
courses and of the falling of stones thrown in the air back on the
ground. Wittgenstein had his precursors, like Locke and Leibniz, as
well as Frege and Russell. However, it was Wittgenstein who first
brought the issue of “language” into focus in the history of philosophy.
In Tractatus, a work belonging to his first phase, he tried to construct an ideal definition of language that gave a picture of the world.
According to him, a sentence that said something (a proposition) had
to be “a picture of reality.” Wittgenstein thinks that if we analyze what
is said, we can reduce it to words that are but names of things and the
connection established between the words of a sentence would represent the connections between things in the world. In this way, the
sentence may draw the picture of the world.
Wittgenstein believed he had solved all the philosophical problems.
Nevertheless, later on as he advanced in years, he began feeling out of
step with Tractatus. In his second period, he began to conceive of
language as a kind of tool. In this period he claimed that language was
a social phenomenon and activity. The commonality between
Wittgenstein’s former view and the latter is that the language skill
occupies the center of his concern and that it is transformed into the
philosophy of language. Wittgenstein is one of the rare philosophers
who managed to gather around him a large number of disciples,
despite his two contradictory periods. Wittgenstein saw, during his
second period, that language had more meaning than he had originally thought. In our opinion, the merits of a language and the targets that it conveys exceed his belief, even at this period. I shall dwell
on this point longer in a book devoted to this subject. These studies
are important since they direct our attention to the importance of language, a special gift of God to mankind.

HOW DOES THE BABY BEGIN TO SPEAK?
Frege’s and Russell’s studies of the philosophy of mathematics led to
the emergence of the philosophy of language. Noam Chomsky’s statements about language had a considerable impact in the 50s. To be
able to handle something as complex and difficult as language cannot
be explained just with the hypothesis that the baby learns it only after
he is born without any a priori tendency. Formerly, it was believed
that a language consisted of a series of habits, skills and aptitudes and
was acquired by exercises, repetitions, generalizations and associations. The undeniable fact is that the majority of the public receive no
systematic education. In other words, the parents, in general, do not
teach their children about pre-established linguistic principles. This
becomes all the more apparent if one considers that the great majority of the world’s masses lack a proper education. Yet, this does not
rule out the fact that babies do learn how to speak in their tender age.
I agree with Noam Chomsky. The baby must be fully equipped
and ready to learn how to speak as soon as it wants to communicate
with its environment. As our eyesight is made ready to perceive the
world at large, so is our mind prepared to use its innate capacity to
acquire what is being spoken around it. As the eye begins to see,
wherever there is light enough, so are the ear and the mind exposed
to hear the language spoken, in an environment ready to acquire it. As
Humboldt says, we acquire as a baby the skill to use finite means in
infinite ways. Even intellectually restricted children do the same.
The following example demonstrates the innateness of this aptitude: The mind can be visualized as a function at first, when the
empirical data are entered as input; one has the linguistic output, just
like the number 5 is obtained when the square root of the number 25
is sought. The mind is even ready to learn how to speak like a calculator. When it meets a language, it acquires it and makes all sorts of
operations.
3- He has created the human beings.
4- He has taught him speech.
55-Gracious, 3-4

 Language is an innate gift of God to Adam and his offspring. If we
go back to the days of our babyhood and inquire into the ways by
which we acquired the faculty of speech and built a vocabulary, would
we not be in a difficulty to account for the process? How is it then that
we learn how to speak without any conscious contribution on our
part?
WHAT WOULD HAPPEN IF THERE HAD BEEN
NO SUCH THING AS LANGUAGE?
To appreciate the value of language, we must look for an answer to
the question “What would happen if there had been no language?”
Had there been no such thing as language, there would have been no
states, cities, villages or even families. In a milieu deprived of all social
institutions, no production would ever take place. Consequently,
there would be no textile products, cars, glassware, pencils, notebooks, etc.
Our mere conception of the importance of language is made possible by linguistic expression. An article on the importance of language is the result of our use of it. Language is not an invention of
human beings. Language requires as premise a will and an orientation.
Given the fact that the importance of language finds its expression in
language, would man be in a position to create a language when the
very concept of it was absent? Language is a social phenomenon, and
where there is no language, there is no society.
The development of language is certainly possible. But this is possible only when one has the rudiments of a language. A language can
develop just like a plant that sprouts. The absence of a language would
mean the absence of seeds, the consequence of which would be the
absence of vegetation. Just consider (for a while) the coinage of a
word to mean a particular concept. On the assumption that men were
deprived of a “language,” the fancied word would be doomed to sink
into oblivion. The invention of writing was a subordinate process.
Where there is no concept of a language, accumulation and transmission of information would be impossible. Given the fact that the
importance of language cannot be conceived without it, the socialization of occasionally uttered unintelligible words or sounds emitted
cannot be made into a coherent common means of communication. Language is a means calling for consensus of a community. In a milieu
deprived of social consciousness, the invention of a language based on
consensus is unimaginable.
The newborn is the most helpless creature among the creatures of
the earth. It is dependent on its parents for survival. In the absence of
a common language there would be no communication, and, therefore, no family. The paternity of the child could not be established.
Only the mother could be identified. Where knowledge does not
exist, it is difficult to establish any connection between the sexual act
and the birth, notwithstanding the period of nine months that elapses before the child is born. Even this connection is made possible by
the use of language. The establishing of the family unit and the
restriction of sexual relations to couples in humans require the use of
language. In such a milieu, the child can only recognize its mother. It
would not be easy for a mother to feed her child all by herself. Man
cannot be compared with other living beings. Most of the living creatures begin to walk, to fly and seek food a very short time after they
are born. The majority of the species of animals are programmed to
protect themselves. The long lasting maintenance of the human baby
– the weakest of all living beings – is secured thanks to the culture and
the communication the language provides. The faculty of thinking
through the use of words replaces the innate programming of other
living beings.
Had men been deprived of speech from the beginning of their
days, they could hardly have survived. The Quran’s statement that the
first human being was taught to speak is very important in this respect.
Man is born equipped with the mental capacity, with an ear ready to
receive what he hears, and a mouth and tongue to express his intentions. Coincidences cannot account for the perfect and complex creation of our ear, mouth and tongue. To all these, however, has to be
added the endowment by our Creator of the potential a priori faculty
of speech. A more detailed study of this issue will be tackled in a further
work.
37- Then Adam received from his Lord words…
2-The Cow, 37

CHAPTER 18 ON THE WALKING OF SAYYIDINA RASOOLULLAH SALLALLAHU ALAYHI WASALLAM

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The walk of Sayyidina Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam has been described in the chapter on te noble features of Sayyidina Rasoolulah sallallahu alaihe wasallam. In this chapter it has been descibed specifically. The author writes three narrations in this chapter.

(116) HADITH 1
Hazrat Abu Hurairah radiyallahu anhu says, “I did not see anyone more handsome as Rasoolullah sallallahu alaihe wasallam. It was as if the brightness of the sun had shone from his auspicious face. I did not see anyone walk faster than him, as if the earth folded for him. A few moments ago he would be here, and then there. We found it difficult to keep pace when we walked with him, and he walked at his normal pace.”

Commentary
That means we could only with effort keep up with his normal pace walking.
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(117) Hadith Number 2
Ebrahim bin Muhammad says: “When ‘Ali Radiyallahu ‘Anhu described Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, he used to say: Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam walked, he lifted his leg with vigour. He did not drag his feet on the ground like women do. When he walked, because of the speed and force of the legs, it seemed as if he was descending from a high place”.

Commentary
This has been discussed in the chapter on the ‘ Noble features Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam.
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(118) Hadith Number 3
Ali bin Abi Taalib Radiyallahu ‘Anhu’ says: “When Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam walked he bent slightly forward as if he was descending from a high place”.

Commentary
This has been explained in the previous ahaadith.

Hadith Translation of Sahih Bukhari::Lost Things Picked up by Someone (Luqaata)

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Lost Things Picked up by Someone (Luqaata)


Volume 3, Book 42, Number 608:

Narrated Ubai bin Ka’b:

I found a purse containing one hundred Diners. So I went to the Prophet (and informed him about it), he said, “Make public announcement about it for one year” I did so, but nobody turned up to claim it, so I again went to the Prophet who said, “Make public announcement for another year.” I did, but none turned up to claim it. I went to him for the third time and he said, “Keep the container and the string which is used for its tying and count the money it contains and if its owner comes, give it to him; otherwise, utilize it.”

The sub-narrator Salama said, “I met him (Suwaid, another sub-narrator) in Mecca and he said, ‘I don’t know whether Ubai made the announcement for three years or just one year.’ “


Volume 3, Book 42, Number 609:

Narrated Zaid bin Khalid Al-Juhani:

A bedouin went to the Prophet and asked him about picking up a lost thing. The Prophet said, “Make public announcement about it for one year. Remember the description of its container and the string with which it is tied; and if somebody comes and claims it and describes it correctly, (give it to him); otherwise, utilize it.” He said, “O Allah’s Apostle! What about a lost sheep?” The Prophet said, “It is for you, for your brother (i.e. its owner), or for the wolf.” He further asked, “What about a lost camel?” On that the face of the Prophet became red (with anger) and said, “You have nothing to do with it, as it has its feet, its water reserve and can reach places of water and drink, and eat trees.”


Volume 3, Book 42, Number 610:

Narrated Sulaiman bin Bilal from Yahya:

Yazid Maula Al-Munba’ith heard Zaid bin Khalid al-Juham saying, “The Prophet was asked about Luqata. He said, ‘Remember the description of its container and the string it is tied with, and announce it publicly for one year.’ ” Yazid added, “If nobody claims then the person who has found it can spend it, and it is regarded as a trust entrusted to him.” Yahya said, “I do not know whether the last sentences were said by the Prophet or by Yazid.” Zaid further said, “The Prophet was asked, ‘What about a lost sheep?’ The Prophet said, ‘Take it, for it is for you or for your brother (i.e. its owner) or for the wolf.” Yazid added that it should also be announced publicly. The man then asked the Prophet about a lost camel. The Prophet said, “Leave it, as it has its feet, water container (reservoir), and it will reach a place of water and eat trees till its owner finds it.”


Volume 3, Book 42, Number 611:

Narrated Zaid bin Khalid:

A man came and asked Allah’s Apostle about picking a lost thing. The Prophet said, “Remember the description of its container and the string it is tied with, and make public announcement about it for one year. If the owner shows up, give it to him; otherwise, do whatever you like with it.” He then asked, “What about a lost sheep?” The Prophet said, “It is for you, for your brother (i.e. its owner), or for the wolf.” He further asked, “What about a lost camel?” The Prophet said, “It is none of your concern. It has its water-container (reservoir) and its feet, and it will reach water and drink it and eat the trees till its owner finds it.”


Volume 3, Book 42, Number 612:

Narrated Anas:

The Prophet passed a date fallen on the way and said, “Were I not afraid that it may be from a Sadaqa (charitable gifts), I would have eaten it.”

Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, “Sometimes when I return home and find a date fallen on my bed, I pick it up in order to eat it, but I fear that it might be from a Sadaqa, so I throw it.”


Volume 3, Book 42, Number 613:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

When Allah gave victory to His Apostle over the people of Mecca, Allah’s Apostle stood up among the people and after glorifying Allah, said, “Allah has prohibited fighting in Mecca and has given authority to His Apostle and the believers over it, so fighting was illegal for anyone before me, and was made legal for me for a part of a day, and it will not be legal for anyone after me. Its game should not be chased, its thorny bushes should not be uprooted, and picking up its fallen things is not allowed except for one who makes public announcement for it, and he whose relative is murdered has the option either to accept a compensation for it or to retaliate.” Al-‘Abbas said, “Except Al-ldhkhir, for we use it in our graves and houses.” Allah’s Apostle said, “Except Al-ldhkhir.” Abu Shah, a Yemenite, stood up and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Get it written for me.” Allah’s Apostle said, “Write it for Abu Shah.” (The sub-narrator asked Al-Auza’i): What did he mean by saying, “Get it written, O Allah’s Apostle?” He replied, “The speech which he had heard from Allah’s Apostle .”


Volume 3, Book 42, Number 614:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

Allah’s Apostle said, “An animal should not be milked without the permission of its owner. Does any of you like that somebody comes to his store and breaks his container and takes away his food? The udders of the animals are the stores of their owners where their provision is kept, so nobody should milk the animals of somebody else, without the permission of its owner.”


Volume 3, Book 42, Number 615:

Narrated Zaid bin Khalid Al-Juhani:

A man asked Allah’s Apostle about the Luqata. He said, “Make public announcement of it for one year, then remember the description of its container and the string it is tied with, utilize the money, and if its owner comes back after that, give it to him.” The people asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! What about a lost sheep?” Allah’s Apostle said, “Take it, for it is for you, for your brother, or for the wolf.” The man asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! What about a lost camel?” Allah’s Apostle got angry and his cheeks or face became red, and said, “You have no concern with it as it has its feet, and its water-container, till its owner finds it.”


Volume 3, Book 42, Number 616:

Narrated Suwaid bin Ghafala:

While I as in the company of Salman bin Rabi’a and Suhan, in one of the holy battles, I found a whip. One of them told me to drop it but I refused to do so and said that I would give it to its owner if I found him, otherwise I would utilize it. On our return we performed Hajj and on passing by Medina, I asked Ubai bin Ka’b about it. He said, “I found a bag containing a hundred Dinars in the lifetime of the Prophet and took it to the Prophet who said to me, ‘Make public announcement about it for one year.’ So, I announced it for one year and went to the Prophet who said, ‘Announce it publicly for another year.’ So, I announced it for another year. I went to him again and he said, “Announce for an other year.” So I announced for still another year. I went to the Prophet for the fourth time, and he said, ‘Remember the amount of money, the description of its container and the string it is tied with, and if the owner comes, give it to him; otherwise, utilize it.’ “


Volume 3, Book 42, Number 617:

Narrated Salama:

the above narration (Hadith 616) from Ubai bin Ka’b: adding, “I met the sub-narrator at Mecca later on, but he did not remember whether Ka’b had announced what he had found one year or three years.”


Volume 3, Book 42, Number 618:

Narrated Zaid bin Khalid:

A bedouin asked the Prophet about the Luqata. The Prophet said, “Make public announcement about it for one year and if then somebody comes and describes the container of the Luqata and the string it was tied with, (give it to him); otherwise, spend it.” He then asked the Prophet about a lost camel. The face of the Prophet become red and he said, “You have o concern with it as it has its water reservoir and feet and it will reach water and drink and eat trees. Leave it till its owner finds it.” He then asked the Prophet about a lost sheep. The Prophet said, “It is for you, for your brother, or for the wolf.”


Volume 3, Book 42, Number 619:

Narrated Abu Bakr:

While I was on my way, all of a sudden I saw a shepherd driving his sheep, I asked him whose servant he was. He replied that he was the servant of a man from Quraish, and then he mentioned his name and I recognized him. I asked, “Do your sheep have some milk?” He replied in the affirmative. I said, “Are you going to milk for me?” He replied in the affirmative. I ordered him and he tied the legs of one of the sheep. Then I told him to clean the udder (teats) of dust and to remove dust off his hands. He removed the dust off his hands by clapping his hands. He then milked a little milk. I put the milk for Allah’s Apostle in a pot and closed its mouth with a piece of cloth and poured water over it till it became cold. I took it to the Prophet and said, “Drink, O Allah’s Apostle!” He drank it till I was pleased.