3- Those who disbelieved said, “There is no coming of the
Hour for us.” Say, “No, by my Lord, the knower of the
unseen, it will certainly come upon you.”
50- If We give him a taste of mercy after suffering some
adversity, he says, “This belongs to me. I do not think that
the Hour will come. Even if I am returned to my Lord, I
will find in Him better things.” Certainly We will inform
the disbelievers of all their works and We will afflict them
with severe retribution.
In the first part of our work we dwelt upon the creation of the universe. The time has come now to examine the end of the world and
the universe as expressed in the Quran. We are fully convinced that
there has been no other book in the entire history of mankind that has
given such a detailed account of the beginning and end of the world.
Delve into all the books in history preceding scientific data and you
will see that there is none like the Quran. It was said that the Quran
would provide the signs and evidence; here they are, then! Will these
not suffice for someone who is unbiased?
It is man’s habit, confined in his own time bracket, to consider
everything around him as constant and static. At the time of the
Prophet, speaking of the end of the world, and especially of the universe, would be beyond conception. People ignorant of the fact that
the world was an object flying in space, considered it a safe and sound
place under their feet. They could not have believed that the day
would come when everything would vanish.
As the accumulation of knowledge increased, thanks to scientific
discoveries, it became clear that the end of the universe and of our
world was inevitable. No one of sound mind today would assert that
the world will exist forever. Even if no other celestial phenomenon
occurs, it is certain that once the energy of the sun is exhausted, the
end of the world will become unavoidable. However, the way and the
exact time of this occurrence cannot be predicted.
To give you an example, the laws of thermodynamics indicate that
the end will come. A stove’s heating of a room; our leaving a cup of
tea to cool down are subject to this law. Especially Rudolf Clausius’s
studies have led to the adoption of a measure of the unavailable energy called entropy. The total entropy continuously increases in the universe. The sun’s heat flows toward the cold of the universe and this
process is irreversible…
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS SEEN UNDER
THE LIGHT OF RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY
Will this process go on forever? The answer will be “No.” When heat
reaches a constant temperature, there comes about a static state called
“thermodynamic balance.” The flow of heat from the sun and from
the multitude of stars may last for billions of years, but it is not inexhaustible. At the end of a time bracket, the laws of thermodynamics
will make the activities going on in the universe come to a standstill.
Under the circumstances, we can make the following deductions:
1- That the universe had a beginning, and
2- That it will come to an end one day.
All religions that have expounded belief in one God throughout
history have been defenders of these two arguments. The Quran had
this to say about the beginning and end of the universe. (In the first
three chapters we read the miraculous statements of the Quran about
the beginning of the universe.) On the other hand, materialists claim
that matter has existed since eternity and will continue to exist forever and ever. In other words, they deny the beginning that led to the
THOSE WHO DISBELIEVE IN THE END OF THE UNIVERSE
idea of creation and the end of the world and the universe, the sine
qua non of religion. (In the two verses quoted above we saw the
objections raised at the time of the Prophet against him.) When, as a
result of developments in astrophysics, it became clear that the universe
did have in fact, a beginning and an end, some atheists tried to fit
their theories to the new discoveries. However, it is evident that
before this issue was scientifically established, the atheists were against
this idea. Nevertheless, despite the data provided by scientific studies,
there are still atheists who refuse to believe that the universe had a
beginning and that it will have an end.
The laws of thermodynamics confirm the assertions of monotheistic religions. This is then the scientific evidence supporting the teachings of the three major monotheistic religions regarding the end of
the world. Had the universe existed since eternity, according to the
laws of thermodynamics, all actions in the entire universe would have
come to a standstill by now (according to thermodynamic balance).
The fact that there is still action in the universe shows that the universe had no eternal existence, but that it had a beginning. Given the
fact that there is still action going on in the universe and that it had a
beginning, the end of the universe must come- at least according to
the laws of thermodynamics. However, it appears that we shall not
have to wait for the consequence of the laws of thermodynamics (We
shall come back to this point in Chapter 68 and 69)