104- Moses said: “O Pharaoh (Firawun)! I am a messenger
from the Lord of the worlds”
7-The Purgatory, 104
72- They said: “We lost the cup of the king (malik) …”
12-Joseph, 72
Studies conducted on data acquired about Pharaoh thanks to the deciphered hieroglyph script and Egyptological explorations corroborate
that what is said about the parables of Moses, and the accounts related to Egypt and the Pharaoh in the Quran, are exact when compared
with tangible historical data.
The Quran referred to the Egyptian ruler at the time of Joseph as
“malik” (ruler, king) but for the ruler coeval with Moses the Quran
uses the word “Firawun” (Pharaoh). Pharaoh was the Hebrew form
of the Egyptian “Per-ao” (the great house) signifying the royal palace,
an epithet applied in the new kingdom and after as a title of respect,
to the king himself. Never before had it been used in this sense.
To quote the Encyclopedia Britannica: Pharaoh was referred to in
narrative as “his majesty” or “the good god” or “the sovereign” as a
circumlocution of respect. In accordance with the concept of divine
kingship, his person was sacrosanct and his insignia – diadem, crowns,
scepters, states – had magic properties. Fire gushed from the mouth of
the serpent on his crown to exterminate his enemies; in the battlefield
his power was such that he could wipe out his enemies regardless of
their multitude. He was said to be omnipotent and omniscient, the
one who had the overall control in his hands and was the cause of
prosperity. The main source of information is the information that the
deciphering of the hieroglyphs made available.
However, one should keep in mind that this script had been sunk
in oblivion since the 3rd century B.C., to be revived long after. The
hieroglyph script that had been forgotten about 1000 years prior to
the descent of the Quran was discovered and deciphered after more
than a millennium.
The Quran relates the events that happened between the Pharaoh
and Moses, giving details additional to those found in the Old
Testament. What is said about serpents and the prevalence of magic at
the time, and Pharaoh’s statement of his divine attribute, tallies with
the information about the Pharaoh revealed from the deciphered
hieroglyph tablets.
10: 3-6 Lower Egypt is devastated. The court came to a standstill.
Whatever was stored, wheat, rye, geese and fish, perished.
10: 6-3 Crops wasted everywhere
2: 5-6 Disasters and blood everywhere
2:10 Blood flows in rivers
3: 2 Gold and lapis lazuli, silver and malachite, carnelian and
bronze decorate the necks of slaves
Ipuwer Papyrus-Leidon 344
130- We punished the people of Pharaoh with drought,
and shortage of crops, that they might take heed.
7-The Purgatory, 130
133- So We sent on them; the flood, the locusts, the lice,
the frogs and the blood. How many different signs! But
they still remained arrogant, for they were a people full of
7-The Purgatory, 133

57- So We expelled them from gardens, springs.
58- Treasures and every kind of honorable position.
59- Thus it was made the children of Israel inheritors of
such things.
26-The Poets, 57-59
The accounts given by the Quran about the punishment inflicted
upon the Pharaoh and his followers, like drought and other disasters,
and the accounts of the Ipuwer Papyrus are perfectly in tune with each
other. As an evidence of the offense committed by the dynasty of the
Pharaoh in its denial of Moses’ prophethood, the Quran says that
blood was foreseen (the same thing holds true for the proliferation of
the locusts, the lice, etc.). In the Ipuwer Papyrus it is said that blood
ran in riverbeds, everywhere was smeared with blood. (Studies conducted to this day seem to explain the red coloration of rivers by the
existence of protozoa, zooplanktons, sea and fresh water planktons or
dinoflagellates. All these organisms would deplete the oxygen in
water, giving rise to rapid growth of toxic substances, killing the liv￾ing organisms and rendering the stream water undrinkable.)
Researchers have devised a course of events that might have taken
place in relation to the disasters described in the Quran. According to
this fictive account, “The fish in the Nile perished as a consequence of
the intoxication of the river, leaving the Egyptians deprived of sustenance. Frogs, whose eggs multiplied in the meantime, invaded the
surroundings before they themselves succumbed to poisoning.
Decomposition of fish and frogs coupled with the poisonous water of
the Nile polluted the fertile land around. Annihilation of the frogs
caused the pests like locusts and grain moths to proliferate:” All these
are but the product of imagination, surely. We do not know exactly
how things happened since we have no available data in hand to make
valid deductions. Yet, this account may give us an idea of them.
The Ipuwer Papyrus records the curse of blood, drought and disasters to which the Pharaoh’s dynasty fell victim, and the situation of
the slaves, who later were to inherit the former’s possessions almost
literally as described in the Quran.

90- We took the children of Israel across the sea. Pharaoh
and his army followed them aggressively and sinfully. When
drowning became a reality for him, he said, “I believe that
there is no god except the One in whom the children of
Israel believe. I am of those who submit.”
91- “Ah now! For you have rebelled in the past, and you
did mischief.”
92- “Today, We will save your body, so that you may
become a sign to those who come after you. But verily,
many people are heedless of Our signs.”
10-Jonah, 90-92
When he understood he was going to die, the Pharaoh was converted. This so-called conversion is looked at askance by God, who says
that his body shall be saved as a sign for the coming generations. At
the time of the Prophet, and for quite some time afterward, we could
not guess that a science called museology would be developed to harbor objects of historical value, amongst others mummified bodies of
the Pharaohs. The Quran’s reference to this and to the people heedless of God’s signs are points deserving attention. The signs of God
are many and the majority of people are unaware of this.
At the time of the revelation of the Quran, mummified bodies of
all the Pharaohs lay concealed in the Valley of Kings along the banks
of the Nile. Their discovery took place in the 19th century. The
Pharaoh mentioned in the Quran may have been any of them, it happens to be among those preserved in the Cairo Museum, open to public visitation. To the period in which Moses is believed to belong,
Rameses II and his son Merneptah correspond. Merneptah’s body
bears the traces of fatal blows. It is reported that these marks may have
been caused during his drowning or after the recovery of his body,
that had washed ashore; the Egyptians mummified him like all the
other Pharaohs. The evidence available does not permit us to derive a
convincing conclusion about the details of his death. However, no
conflicting relationship could be established between the death of this
Pharaoh and the account given in the Quran.
The discovery of the Pharaoh’s body took place after an interval
of 3000 years (1881-1898). Considering that the Quran had pre-
dicted that Pharaoh’s body would constitute a sign, one supposes
that it should have been found. Indeed it was found. When and how?
Well, after a time gap of 3000 years. What happened though was as
the Quran predicted. “...But verily, many people are heedless of
Our signs.”

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