His Birth :: Hazrat Muhammad’sﷺ the Master of Prophets, was born in the Bani Hashim section of Makkah on Monday morning, the ninth of Rabi’ul-Awwal, the same year of the Elephant incident, and forty years into the reign of Kisra (Khosru Nushirwan), i.e. the twentieth or twenty-second of April, 571 C.E., according to the scholar Muhammad Sulaiman Al-Mansurpuri, and the astronomer Mahmud Pasha. (1) Ibn Sa’d reported that Muhammad’s mother said: “When he was born, there was a light that issued out of my pudendum and lit the palaces of Syria.” Ahmad and Ad-Darimi reported something similar to this. It was reported that significant signs accompanied his birth: fourteen balconies of Kisra’s palace collapsed, the Magians’ sacred fire went out and some churches on Lake Sawa sank down and collapsed. This was recorded by At-Tabari, AlBaihaqi and others, but none of the chains of narration are confirmed. His mother immediately sent someone to inform his grandfather ‘Abdul-Muttalib of the happy event. Happily he came to her, carried him to Al-Ka’bah, prayed to Allâh and thanked Him.!4) ‘Abdul-Muttalib called the baby Muhammad, a name not then common among the Arabs.The first woman who suckled him after his mother was
Thuwaibah, the freed slave of Abu Lahab, with her son, Masruh, She had suckled Hazrat Hamzah bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib Radiallahu anhoo before and later Abu Salamah bin ‘Abdul-Asad Al-Makhzumi. (1)
It was the general custom of the Arabs living in towns to send their children away to bedouin wet nurses so that they might grow up in the free and healthy surroundings of the desert. Thereby they would develop a strong body and acquire the pure speech and manners of the bedouins, who were noted both for chastity of their language and for being free from those vices which usually develop in inactive societies. The Prophet hier was later entrusted to Halimah bint Abi Dhuaib from Bani Sa’d bin Bakr. Her husband was Al-Harith bin ‘Abdul’Uzza called Abi Kabshah, from the same tribe. Muhammad arter had several foster brothers and sisters, ‘Abdullah bin Al-Harith, Aneesah bint Al-Harith, Hudhafah or Judhamah bint Al-Harith (known as Ash-Shayma’), and she used to take care of the Prophet and Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib. the Prophet’s cousin. Hamzah bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib, the Prophet’s uncle, was suckled by the same two wet nurses, Thuwaibah and As-Sa’diyah, who suckled the Prophet Traditions delightfully relate how Halimah and the whole of her household were favored by successive strokes of good fortune while the baby Muhammad alte lived under her care. Ibn Ishaq states that Halimah narrated that she along with her husband and a suckling babe, set out from her village in the company of some women from Banu Sa’d bin Bakr in quest of children to suckle. She said: It was a year of drought and famine and we had nothing to eat. I rode on a brown mule. We also had with us an old she-camel. By Allâh, we could not get even a drop of milk. We could not have a
(1) Sahih Al-Bukhari nos. 2645, 5100, 5101, 5106, 5107, 5372.  Zadul-Ma’ad 1/19.
wink of sleep during the night for the child kept crying because of hunger. There was not enough milk in my breast and even the she-camel had nothing to feed him. We used to constantly pray for rain and immediate relief. At length we reached Makkah looking for children to suckle. Not even a single woman among us accepted Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ offered to her. As soon as they were told that he was an orphan, they refused him. We had fixed our eyes on the reward that we would get from the child’s father. An orphan! What are his grandfather and mother likely to do? So we refused him to accept because of that. Every woman who came with me got a suckling and when we were about to depart, I said to my husband: “By Allâh, I do not like to go back along with the other women without any baby. I should go to that orphan and I must take him.” He said, “There is no harm in doing so and perhaps Allâh might bless us through him.” So I went and took him because there was simply no other alternative left for me but to take him. When I lifted him in my arms and returned to my place I put him on my breast and to my great surprise, I found enough milk in it. He drank to his heart’s content, and so did his foster brother and then both of them went to sleep although my baby had not been able to sleep the previous night. My husband then went to the she-camel to milk it and, to his astonishment, he found plenty of milk in it. He milked it and we drank to our fill, and enjoyed a sound sleep during the night., The next morning, my husband said: “By Allâh! O Halimah. you must understand that you have gotten a blessed child.” And I replied: “By the grace of Allâh, I hope so.” The tradition is clear on the point that Halimah’s return journey and her subsequent life, as long as the Prophetﷺ
stayed with her, was encircled with a halo of good fortune. The donkey that she rode when she came to Makkah was lean and almost lame; it recovered speed much to the amazement of Halimah’s fellow travellers. By the time they reached the encampments in the country of the clan of Sa’d, they found the scales of fortune turned in their favor. The barren land sprouted luxuriant grass and beasts came back to them satisfied and full of milk.
Back to His Passionate Mother After this event, Halimah was worried about the boy and returned him to his mother with whom he stayed until he was six.14 In respect of the memory of her late husband, Aminah decided to visit his grave in Yathrib (Madinah). She set out to cover a journey of 500 kilometers with her orphan boy, her father-in-law ‘AbdulMuttalib, and a woman servant Umm Aiman. She spent a month
Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ stayed with Halimah for two years until he was weaned as Halimah said: “We then took him back to his mother earnestly requesting her to have him stay with us and so we may benefit from the good fortune and blessings he brought us. We persisted in our request, expressing our anxiety over the child catching a certain infection peculiar to Makkah. At last, we were granted our wish and the Prophet gehen stayed with us until we returned with him.” The Prophet then stayed with them until he was about four or five years old. 2. Then, as related by Anas niet in Sahih Muslim, Gabriel per les came down, opened his chest and took out the heart, he then extracted a blood-clot out of it and said: “That was the part of Satan in thee.” And then he washed it with the water of Zamzam in a gold basin. After that the heart was joined together and restored to its place. The boys and playmates came running to his mother, i.e., his nurse, and said: “Verily, Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ has been murdered.” They all rushed towards him and found him to be all right and that only his face was white. And Anas dienas said, “I have seen the mark that was left on his chest.”
Back to His Passionate Mother ::
After this event, Halimah was worried about the boy and returned him to his mother with whom he stayed until he was six. In respect of the memory of her late husband, Hazrat Aminah AlaihisSalam decided to visit his grave in Yathrib (Madinah). She set out to cover a journey of 500 kilometers with her orphan boy, her father-in-law Hazrat ‘AbdulMuttalib Radiallahu anhoo and a woman servant Umm Aiman. She spent a month
there and then made her way back to Makkah. On the route, she suffered a severe illness and died in Abwa on the road between Makkah and Madinah.’
To His Compassionate Grandfather
Hazrat ‘Abdul-Muttalib Radiallahu anhoo brought the boy to Makkah. He had warm passions towards the boy, his orphan grandson, whose recent disaster (his mother’s death) added more to the pains of the past. Hazrat ‘Abdul-Muttalib Radiallahu anhoo was more passionate with his grandson than with his own children. He never left the boy as prey to loneliness, but always preferred him to his own children. Ibn Hisham reported: A mattress was put in the shade of Al-Ka’bah for Hazrat’Abdul-Muttalib Radiallahu anhoo. His children used to sit around that mattress in honor to their father, but Hazrat Muhammad ﷺ she used to sit on it. His uncles would take him back, but if Hazrat ‘Abdul-Muttalib Radiallahu anhoo was present, he would say: “Leave my grandson. I swear by Allâh that this boy will hold a significant position.” He used to seat the boy on his mattress, pat his back and was always pleased with what the boy did.
When Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was eight years, two months and ten days old, his grandfather ‘Abdul-Muttalib passed away in Makkah. The charge of the Prophet net was now passed on to his uncle Abu Talib, who was the brother of the Prophet’s father. Hazrat Abu Talib Radiallahu anhoo took the responsibility of his nephew in the best way. He put him with his children and preferred him to them. He singled the boy out with great respect and high esteem. Hazrat Abu Talib Radiallahu anhoo remained for forty years cherishing his nephew and extending all possible protection and support to him. His relations with the others were determined in the light of the treatment they showed to the Prophet ﷺ• Ibn ‘Asakir reported on the authority of Jalhamah bin ‘Arfutah who said: “I came to Makkah when it was a rainless year, so Quraish said: ‘O Abu Talib, the valley has become leafless and the
 Ibn Hisham 1/168.  Ibn Hisham 1/168, Talqih Fuhum Ahlil-Athar p. 7.
children hungry, let us go and pray for rainfall.’ Hazrat Abu Talib went to Al-Ka’bah with a young boy who was a beautiful as the sun, and a black cloud was over his head. Hazrat Abu Talib and the boy stood by the wall of Al-Ka’bah and prayed for rain. Immediately clouds from all directions gathered and rain fell heavily and caused the flow of springs and growth of plants in the town and the country.’
Bahirah, the Monk
When Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ was twelve years old – and they say plus two months and ten days(2] – he went with his uncle Hazrat Abu Talib on a trade journey to Syria. When they reached Busra (which was a part of Syria, in the vicinity of Hawran under the Roman domain), there was a monk named Bahirah (they say his name was Georges), who came out to meet them, and although he had not met them before, he readily recognized the Prophet and said while taking his hand: “This is the master of all humans. Allâh will send him with a Message which will be a mercy to all beings.”Hazrat Abu Talib asked: “How do you know that?” He replied: “When you appeared from the direction of ‘Aqabah, all stones and trees prostrated themselves. which they never do except for a Prophet ﷺ. I can also recognize him by the seal of Prophethood which is below his shoulder, like an apple. We have found this in our books.” He also asked Hazrat Abu Talib to send the boy back to Makkah and not to take him to Syria for fear of the Romans and Jews.Hazrat Abu Talib obeyed and sent him back to Makkah with some of his men servants.
The ‘Sacrilegious’ Wars
When Prophet Muhammad ﷺ went was twenty years of age, the ‘sacrilegious’ wars which continued with varying fortunes and considerable loss of human life for a number of years – broke out between tribes; Quraish and Banu Kinanah were on one side and Qais ‘Ailan tribe on the other. It was thus called because the inviolable was made violable, the prohibited months being included. Harb bin Umaiyah, on account of his outstanding position and honorable descent, used to be the leader of Quraish and their allies. In one of those battles, the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ assisted his uncles.
At the conclusion of these wars during the sacred month of DhulQa’dah, when peace was restored, people felt the need for forming a confederacy at Makkah for suppressing violence and injustice, and protecting the rights of the weak and the poor. Representatives of Banu Hashim, Banu Al-Muttalib, Asad bin ‘Abdul-‘Uzza, Zahrah bin Kilab and Taim bin Murrah were called to meet in the house of an honorable elderly man called ‘Abdullah bin Jad’an At-Taimy to enter into a confederacy that would provide for the above-mentioned items. . witnessed this league and commented on it, with very positive words: “I witnessed a confederacy in the house of ‘Abdullah bin Jad’an. It was more appealing to me than herds of cattle. Even now in the period of Islam, I would respond positively to attending such a meeting if I were invited. In fact, the spirit of this confederacy and the course of considerations therein marked a complete departure from the
(1) Ibn Hisham 1/184-187. Al-Munammig by Ibn Habib pp. 167-185. Al-Kamil by Ibn
Al-Athir 1/468-472.  Ibn Hisham 1/113, 135, and Mukhtasar Seeratir-Rasul by Sheikh Abdullah An
Najdi, pp. 30, 31.
pre-Islamic tribal-pride. The story that led to its convention says that a man from the Zubaid clan came as a merchant to Makkah where he sold some commodities to Al-‘As bin Wa’il As-Sahmi. The latter avoided paying for the goods. The salesman sought help from some of his allies from the Quraish but they paid no heed to his earnest pleas. He then went to a mountaintop and began, at the top of his voice, to recite verses of complaint giving account of the injustices he sustained. Az-Zubair bin ‘Hazrat Abdul-Muttalib made inquiries into the matter. Consequently, the parties to the aforesaid confederacy convened their meeting and managed to force money
for the man from Zubaid out of Al-‘As bin Wa’il.’
Prophet Muhammad ﷺ had no particular job at his early youth, but it was reported that he worked as a shepherd for Bani Sa’d and in Makkah for a wage.’
(31At the age of 25, he went to Syria as a merchant for Hazrat Khadijah Ibn Ishaq Radiallahu anhoo reported that hazrat Khadijah Radiallahu anhoo daughter of Khuwailid was a business-woman of great honor and fortune. She used to employ men to do her business for a certain percentage of the profits. The Quraish were merchants, so when Hazrat Khadijah Radiallahu anhoo he was informed of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ isehis truthful words, great honesty and kind manners, she sent for him. She offered him money to go to Syria and do her business, and she would give him a higher rate than the others. She would also send her servant. Maisarah, with him. He agreed and went with her servant to Syria for trade.(4)
His Marriage to Khadijah Radiallahu anhoo
When he returned to Makkah, Hazrat Khadijah Radiallahu anhoo noticed in her money
more profits and blessings than she was accustomed to. Her servant also told her of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ good manners, honesty, deep thought, sincerity and faith. She realized that she homed at her target. Many prominent men had asked for her hand in marriage but she always refused their advances. She disclosed her wish to her friend Nafisah, daughter of Muniyah, who immediately went to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to inform him. He agreed and requested his uncles to go to Hazrat Khadijah’s Radiallahu anhoo uncle to discuss the matter. Subsequently, they were married. The marriage agreement was witnessed by Bani Hashim and the heads of Mudar. This took place after the Prophet’s return from Syria. He gave her twenty camels as a dowry. She was
considered the best of women in lineage, fortune and wisdom. She was the first woman Allâh’s Prophet Muhammad ﷺ married. He did not get married to any other until she passed away. With the exception of Ibrahim, Khadijah hot in bore all of his children: Al-Qasim, Zainab, Rudaiyah, Umm Kulthum, Fatimah and ‘Abdullah who was called Taiyib and Tahir.
Rebuilding Al-Ka’bah and the Arbitration Issue :
When Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was thirty-five, the Quraish started rebuilding Al-Ka’bah. That was because it was a low building of white stones no more than nine arm’s length, from the days of Ishmael sole. It was also roofless leaving thieves with easy access to its treasures inside. It was also exposed to the wearing factors of nature – because it was built
that weakened and cracked its walls. Five years before Declaration Prophethood, there was a great
flood in Makkah that swept towards Al-Ka’bah and almost demolished it. The Quraish were obliged to rebuild it to safeguard its holiness and position. The chiefs of the Quraish decided to only use licit money in rebuilding Al-Ka’bah, so all money derived from immoral means, usury or unjust practice was excluded. They were, at first, too fearful to knock down the wall, but Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah Al-Mukhzumi began the task. Seeing that no harm had happened to him, the others participated in demolishing the walls until they reached the basis laid by Abraham AlahisSalam . When they started rebuilding its walls, they divided the work among the tribes. Each tribe was responsible for rebuilding a part of it. The tribes collected stones and started work. The man who laid the stones was a Roman mason called Baqum. The work went on in harmony until the time came to put the sacred Black Stone in its proper place. Then strife broke out among the chiefs, and lasted for four or five days, each contesting for the honor of placing the stone in its position. Daggers were on the point of being drawn and great bloodshed seemed imminent. Luckily, the oldest among the chiefs Abu Umaiyah bin Mughirah Al-Makhzumi made a proposal that was accepted by all. He said: “Let him, who enters the Sanctuary first of all, decide on the point.” It was then Allâh’s Will that the Messenger of Allâh mu should be the first to enter the Mosque. On seeing him, all the people present, cried with one voice: “Al Ameen (the trustworthy) has come. We are content to abide by his decision.” They informed him of their objective. He asked for a mantle spreading it on the ground and placing the stone in its center. He then asked the representatives of the different clans among them to lift the stone all together. When it reached the proper place, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ laid it in the proper position with his own hands. This is how a very tense situation was eased and a grave danger averted by the wisdom of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ The Quraish ran out of the licit money they collected, so they eliminated Six, an area covering six arm’s length on the northern side of Al-Ka’bah which is called Al-Hijr or Al-Hateem. They raised its door from the level ground to let in only the people whom they
desired. When the structure was fifteen arm’s-lengths high, they erected the roof which rested on six columns. When the building of Al-Ka’bah was finished, it assumed a square form about fifteen meters high. The side with the Black Stone and the one opposite were ten meters long each. The Black Stone was 1.50 meters from the circumambulation level ground. The two other sides were twelve meters long each. The door was two meters high from the level ground. A building structure of 0.25 meter high and 0.30 meter wide on the average surrounded AlKa’bah. It was called Ash-Shadherwan, originally an integral part of the Sacred Sanctuary, but the Quraish left it out.