The Lineage and Family of Prophet Muhammad SALLALLAHU’ALAYHI WASALLAM

First: Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib (who was called Shaibah) bin Hashim, (named ‘Amr) bin ‘Abd Manaf (called Al-Mughirah) bin Qusai (also called Zaid) bin Kilab bin Murrah bin Ka’b bin Lo’i bin Ghalib bin Fihr (who was called Quraish and whose tribe was named after him) bin Malik bin AnNadr (also called Qais) bin Kinanah bin Khuzaimah bin Mudrikah (who was called ‘Amir) bin Elias bin Mudar bin Nizar bin Ma’ad bin ‘Adnan. [1]

The Second: ‘Adnan bin Add bin Humaisi’ bin Salaman bin Aws bin Buz bin Qamwal bin Ubai bin ‘Awwam bin Nashid bin Haza bin Bildas bin Yadlaf bin Tabikh bin Jahim bin Nahish bin Makhi bin Aid bin ‘Abqar bin ‘Ubaid bin Ad-Da’a bin Hamdan bin Sanbir bin Yathrabi bin Yahzin bin Yalhan bin Ar’awi bin Aid bin Deshan bin Aisar bin Afnad bin Aiham bin Muksar bin Nahith bin Zarih bin Sami bin Mazzi bin ‘Awdah bin ‘Aram bin Qaidar bin Ishmael son of Abraham yordal.

The Third: Beyond Abraham edellIbn Tarih (Azar) bin Nahur bin Saru’ (or Sarugh) bin Ra’u bin Falikh bin ‘Abir bin Salikh bin Arfakhshad bin Sam bin Noah, bin Lamik bin Mutwashlakh bin Akhnukh (Enoch) – who was said to be Prophet Idris – bin Yarid bin Mahla’il bin Qainan bin Anushah bin Shith bin Adam.”

[1] Ibn Hisham 1/1-2, and Tarikh At-Tabari 2/239-271. [2] Ibn Sa’d 1/56-57. Tarikh At-Tabari 2/272.

The Prophetic Family

The family of Prophet Muhammadﷺ is called the Hashimite family after his grandfather Hashim bin ‘Abd Manaf. Let us now speak a little about Hashim and his descendants:

Hazrat Hashim: As we have previously mentioned, he was the one responsible for giving food and water to the pilgrims. This had been his charge when the sons of ‘Abd Manaf and those of Abdud-Dar compromised on dividing the duties between them. Hazrat Hashim was wealthy and honest. He was the first to offer the pilgrims sopped bread in broth. His first name was ‘Amr but he was called Hashim because he had been in the practice of crumbling bread (for the pilgrims). He was also the first man who started Quraish’s two journeys of summer and winter. It has been narrated that he went to Syria as a merchant. Upon his return he went to Madinah, where he married Salma – the daughter of ‘Amr from Bani ‘Adi bin An-Najjar. He stayed with her in Madinah for some time then he left for Syria again while she was pregnant. He died in Ghazzah in Palestine in 497 C.E. Later, his wife gave

birth to Hazrat ‘Abdul-Muttalib and named him Shaibah because of the white hair on his head 2), and brought him up in her father’s house in Madinah. None of his family in Makkah learned of his birth Hashim had four sons; Asad, Abu Saifi, Nadlah and ‘Abdul Muttalib, and five daughters Ash-Shifa, Khalidah. Da’ifah Ruqaiyah and Jannah.

Hazrat Abdul-Muttalib: We have already learned that after the death of Hashim, the charge of pilgrims’ food and water went to his brother Al-Muttalib bin ‘Abd Manaf (who was honest, generous and trustworthy). When Hazrat ‘Abdul-Muttalib reached the age

boyhood, his uncle Al-Muttalib heard of him and went to Madinah to bring him to Makkah. When he saw him, tears filled his eyes and rolled down his cheeks, he embraced him and took him on his camel. The boy, however, abstained from going with him to Makkah until he took his mother’s consent. Al-Muttalib asked her to send the boy with him to Makkah, but she refused. He managed to convince her saying: “Your son is going to Makkah to restore his father’s authority, and to live in the vicinity of the Sacred House.” There in Makkah, people wondered at seeing Abdul-Muttalib, and they considered him the slave of Muttalib. AlMuttalib said: “He is my nephew, the son of my

brother Hashim.” The boy was brought up in Al-Muttalib’s house, but later on AlMuttalib died in Bardman in Yemen so ‘Abdul-Muttalib took over and managed to maintain his people’s prestige and outdo his grandfathers in his honorable behavior which gained him Makkah’s deep love and high esteem.’1]

When Al-Muttalib died, Nawfal without right took hold of the duties of ‘Abdul-Muttalib, so the latter asked for help from the Quraish but they abstained from extending any sort of support to either of them. Consequently, he wrote to his uncles of Bani AnNajjar (his mother’s brothers) to come to his aid. His uncle. Abu Sa’d bin ‘Adi (his mother’s brother) marched to Makkah at the head of eighty horsemen and camped in Abtah in Makkah. ‘AbdulMuttalib received the men and invited them to go to his house but Abu Sa’d said: “Not before I meet Nawfal.” He found Nawfal sitting with some old men of Quraish in the shade of Al-Ka’bah. Abu Sa’d drew his sword and said: “I swear by Allâh that if you don’t restore to my nephew what you have taken. I will kill you with this sword.” Nawfal was thus forced to give up what he had adopted unlawfully, and the notables of Quraish were made to

h were witness to his words,

Abu Sa’d then went to ‘Abdul-Muttalib’s house where he stayed for three nights, performed ‘Umrah and left to return to Madinah.

(1) Ibn Hisham 1/137-138. The actual date is from Tarikh At-Tabari 2/247.

Later on, Nawfal entered into an alliance with Bani ‘Abd Shams bin ‘Abd Manaf against Bani Hashim. When Khuza’ah, a tribe,

saw Bani An-Najjar’s support to ‘Abdul-Muttalib they said: “He is our son as he is yours. We have more reasons to support him than you.” ‘Abd Manaf’s mother was one of them. They went into An-Nadwah House and entered into an alliance with Bani Hashim against Bani ‘Abd Shams and Nawfal. It was an alliance that was later to constitute the main reason for the conquest of Makkah. “1) ‘Abdul-Muttalib did witness two important events in his lifetime, namely digging the Zamzam well and the Elephant raid. [2] In brief, ‘Abdul-Muttalib received an order in his dream to dig the Zamzam well in a particular place. He did that and found the things that the Jurhum men buried there when they were forced to evacuate Makkah. He found the swords, armor and the two deer of gold. The gate of Al-Ka’bah was stamped from the gold swords and the two deer, and then the tradition of providing Zamzam water to pilgrims was established. When the well of Zamzam gushed the water forth, the Quraish made a claim to partnership in the enterprise, but ‘Abdul-Muttalib refused their demands on the grounds that Allâh had singled only him out for this honorable job. To settle the dispute, they agreed to consult Bani Sa’d’s diviner. On their way, Allâh showed them His Signs that confirmed ‘Abdul-Muttalib’s privilege about the sacred spring. Only then did ‘Abdul-Muttalib make a solemn vow to sacrifice one of his adult children to Al-Ka’bah if he had ten. The second event was that of Abrahah As-Sabah Al-Habashi, the Abyssinian (Ethiopian) viceroy in Yemen. He had seen that the Arabs made their pilgrimage to Al-Ka’bah, so he built a large church in San’a’ in order to attract the Arab pilgrims to it to the exclusion of Makkah. A man from the Kinanah tribe understood his motive, therefore

(1) At-Tabari detailed this in his Tarikh 2/248-251. (2) Ibn Hisham 1/142-147.

he entered the church under the cover of night smearing excrement on its front wall. When Abrahah learned of this, he became enraged and led a great army – of sixty thousand warriors – to demolish Al-Ka’bah. He chose the biggest elephant for himself. His army included between nine to thirteen elephants. He continued marching until he reached a place called Al-Magmas. There, he mobilized his army and prepared his elephants to enter Makkah. When he reached the Muhassir Valley, between Muzdalifah and Mina, the elephant knelt down and refused to go forward. Whenever they directed it to the north, south or east, the elephant moved quickly but when directed towards Al-Ka’bah in the west, it knelt down. Meanwhile, Allâh sent birds in flights upon them, throwing forcefully stones of baked clay upon them and made them like scattered chaff. These birds were very much like swallows and sparrows, each carrying three stones; one in its peak and two in its claws. The stones hit Abrahah’s men, and cut their limbs and killed them. A large number of Abrahah’s soldiers were killed in this way and the others fled at random and died everywhere. Abrahah himself had an infection that required his fingertips to be cut off. When he reached San’a’, he was in a miserable state and died soon after. The Quraishites fled for their lives to the hillocks and mountaintops. When the enemy was routed, they returned home safely.

y.11 The Elephant incident took place in the month of Al-Muharram. fifty or fifty-five days before the birth of the Prophet Muhammad at which corresponded to late February or early March 571 C.E. It was a gift from Allâh to His Prophet and his family. It could actually be regarded as a Divine auspicious sign of the light to come and accompany the advent of the Prophet anting and his family. By contrast, Jerusalem had suffered the atrocities of Allâh’s enemies. Here we can recall Bukhtanassar in B.C. 587 and the Romans in 70 C.E. Al-Ka’bah, by Divine Grace, never came

(1) Ibn Hisham 1/43-56, and the Tafstr of Surat Al-Fil in the books of Tafsir.

under the hold of the Christians – the Muslims of that time although Makkah was populated by polytheists. News of the Elephant incident reached the most distant corners of the then civilized world. Abyssinia (Ethiopia) maintained strong ties with the Romans while the Persians on the other hand, were on the watch with respect to any strategic changes that were looming on the socio-political horizon, and soon came to occupy Yemen. Incidentally, the Roman and Persian Empires stood for the powerful civilized world at that time. The Elephant incident attracted the world’s attention to the sacredness of Allâh’s House, and showed that this House had been chosen by Allâh for its holiness It followed then if any of its people claimed Prophethood, it would be conforming with the outcome of the Elephant incident, and would provide a justifiable explanation for the ulterior Divine Wisdom that lay behind backing polytheists against Christians in a manner that went beyond the cause-and-effect formula. ‘Abdul-Muttalib had ten sons, Al-Harith, Az-Zubair, Abu Talib. *Abdullah, Hamzah, Abu Lahab, Al-Ghidaq. Maqwam, Safar and Al”Abbas. Some say that he had eleven sons, adding the name Qathim. Still others say that he had thirteen sons, with the additional names ‘Abdul-Ka’bah and Hajlah. They add that ‘AbdulKa bah is the same as Maqwam and that Hajlah is the same as AlGhidag, and that he did not have a son named Qathim. He also had six daughters, who were Ummul-Hakim also called AlBayda”. Barrah, “Atikah, Safiyah, Arwa and Umaimah.'”

Hazrat Abdullah: The father of Prophet Muhammad ﷺ His mother was Fatimah, daughter of ‘Amr bin ‘A’idh bin ‘Imran bin Makhzum bin Yaqzah bin Murrah. ‘Abdullah was the smartest of ‘HazratvAbdul-Muttalib’s sons, the most chaste and the most loved. He was also the son the divination arrows pointed at to be slaughtered as a sacrifice at Al-Ka’bah. When Hazrat ‘Abdul-Muttalib had ten sons and they reached maturity, he disclosed to them his

(1) Seerah Ibn Hisham 1/108-109 and Talqih Fuhum Ahlil-Athar pp.8. 9.secret vow which they silently and obediently accepted. Hazrat ‘AbdulMuttalib then took the boy to Al-Ka’bah with a razor to slaughter the boy. The Quraish, his uncles from the Makhzum tribe and his brother Hazrat Abu Talib, however, tried to advise him against it. He then sought their advice as regards his vow. They suggested that he summon a woman diviner to judge the matter. She ordered that the divination arrows should be drawn again, but including ten camels and ‘Abdullah. She added that drawing the lots should be repeated with ten more camels every time the arrow showed ‘Hazrat Abdullah. The operation was thus repeated until the number of the camels amounted to one hundred. At this point the arrow showed the camels; consequently they were all slaughtered instead of his son. The slaughtered camels were left for anyone to eat from, human or animal. This incident produced a change in the amount of blood money usually accepted in Arabia. It had been ten camels, but after this event it was increased to a hundred. Islam, later on, approved of this. It was reported that the Prophet once said:

« “I am the offspring of the slaughtered two.” (meaning

Ishmael AlahisSalam and ‘Abdullah AlahisSalam).'” ‘ Hazrat Abdul-Muttalib chose Aminah, daughter of Wahb bin ‘Abd Manaf bin Zuhrah bin Kilab, as a wife for his son, ‘Abdullah. She thus, in the light of this ancestral lineage. stood eminent in respect of nobility of position and descent. Her father was the chief of Bani Zahrah to whom great honor was attributed. They were married in Makkah, and soon after ‘Abdullah was sent by his father to buy dates in Madinah where he died. In another

[1] Ibn Hisham 1/151-155 and Tarikh At-Tabari 2/240-243.

version, ‘Abdullah went to Syria on a trade journey and died in Madinah on his way back. He was buried in the house of An-Nabighah Al-Ja’di. He was twenty-five years old when he dted. Most historians state that his death was two months before the birth of Muhammad Some others said that his death was two or more months after the Prophet’s birth.” When Aminah was informed of her husband’s death, she celebrated his memory in a most heart-touching


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