Faṭima bt. Mūsā b. Jaʿfar (Arabic: فاطمة بنت موسی بن جعفر), (b. 173/790 – d. 201/816) well known as Fatima al-Ma’suma (a) is the daughter of Imam al-Kazim (a) and sister of Imam al-Rida (a).
Her titles include, Tahira (the pure one), Hamida (the praised one), Birra (the righteous one), Rashida (the mature one), Taqiyya (the pious one), Naqiyya (the pure one), Radiyya (the contented one), Mardiyyah (the one with whom God is pleased), Sayyida, Siddiqa (the truthful one), and Ukht al-Rida (the sister of al-Rida). She is also widely known as Karimat Ahl al-Bayt (a).
Her most famous title is al-Ma’suma. This title is taken from a narration of Imam al-Rida (a) which states, “Whoever visits (the Shrine of) al-Ma’suma in Qom, it is as if he has visited me” . According to another narration, she has also referred to herself as al-Ma’suma, the sister of Imam al-Rida(a).
As a narrator, Fatima al-Ma’suma has quoted several Hadith from previous Infallible Imams (a),
The author of the book The History of Qom, writes: in the year 200/815 the Abbasid caliph, Ma’mun, summoned Imam al-Rida (a) from Medina to Merv, for he wanted to appoint the Imam as his successor. Fatima al-Ma’suma (a) left Medina in 201/816 in order to join her brother. It has been reported that she prepared herself for the long journey after she received a letter from her brother in that regard. Al-Ma’suma (a) headed for Iran in a caravan of her relatives. Upon their arrival to Saveh, a city near Qom, they had a bloody confrontation with the enemies of Ahl al-Bayt (a) which resulted in the martyrdom of all her brothers and nephews. When she saw the bloody scene she became ill. Thereafter, she ordered her servant to take her to the city of Qom.
Another historical account states that when the news of her illness reached Banu Sa’d, they decided to go to her and request her to come to Qom. Musa b. Khazraj, a companion to Imam al-Rida (a), was the first to do so. He went to the caravan and invited her to his house. In some later history books, the date of her arrival to Qom is recorded as Rabi’ I 23/October 23, 816. Fatima al-Ma’suma settled in this house for 17 days, spending her time in worshiping and praying. Today, the sanctuary where she prayed in the house of Musa b. Khazraj in Qom is a famous site known as Sittiyyah or Bayt al-Nur (the house of light).
There is no explicit mention of the exact date of her demise in early sources; however, later historical accounts state that she passed away on Rabi’ II 10, 201/November 5, 816 when she was 28 years old. Some also have recorded the 12th of the same month (November 7).
The Momin held an honorable funeral for her in which they took her body to a garden owned by Musa b. Khazraj known as Babilan (current shrine). Some acts of wonder have been reported about her burial. Musa b. Khazraj made a straw awning over the grave which was there until 256/870 when Zaynab, the daughter of Imam al-Jawad (a), came to visit the shrine of her aunt and built the first dome over it.