- The Delegation of ‘Abdul-Qais: This tribe had two arrivals. The first was in the fifth year of Al-Hijra or before that date. Munqidh bin Hibban, a member of that tribe, used to trade in Madinah. So, as soon as he heard of Islam when he had arrived in Madinah for trading – that was after the migration – he embraced Islam and carried a pledge from the Prophet ﷺ to his people who eventually became Muslims too. Thirteen or fourteen of them came to the Prophetﷺ in one of the Sacred Months. It was then that they asked the Prophet’s ﷺadvice about the Faith and drinks. Their chief was Al-Ashaj Al-‘Asari, to whom Allâh’s Messengerﷺ said: “You have two qualities that Allâh likes: farsightedness and tolerance.”
Their second arrival was in the Year of Delegations. They were forty men. Al-Jarud bin Al-‘Ala’ Al-‘Abdi, who was Christian but turned to be a good Muslim, was one of that group.”
- Daws Delegation: The arrival of this tribe was in the early times of the seventh year and that was when Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ was in Khaibar. At-Tufail bin ‘Amr Ad-Dawsite had become a Muslim when Allâh’s Messengerﷺ was in Makkah. He went back home to his people where he continued calling people to Islam but they delayed till he despaired of them and returned to Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ and asked him to invoke Allâh against Daws, but Allâh’s Messengerﷺ invoked Allâh to guide Daws. Later on, Daws embraced Islam. So At-Tufail arrived in Madinah accompanied by seventy or eighty families of his people in the early times of the seventh year of Al-Hijra, at the time that Allâh’s Messenger ﷺthan was at Khaibar, so he caught up to him there.
- Farwah Bani ‘Amr Al-Judhami’s messenger: Farwah Radiallahu anhoo was an Arab leader in the Byzantine army. He was a Byzantine agent ruler by proxy over the Arabs allied to the Byzantines. His center was at Ma’an and his rulership extended to the surrounding areas in the lands of Ash-Sham. Seeing the stamina and courage of the Muslims, he became a Muslim. The battle of Mu’tah – which took place in the eighth year of Al-Hijra – compelled his admiration. He sent a white mule as a gift with a messenger of his to Allâh’s Messenger ﷺthan to inform him of his conversion into Islam. When the Byzantines learned that he embraced Islam, they sent him to prison. At first they gave him an opportunity to choose one of the two – “either he turns back from Islam or death shall be his punishment.” After his refusal they crucified him and beheaded him at a spring called ‘Afra’ in Palestine.”
- The Suda’ Delegation: The arrival of this delegation was after the departure of Allah’s Messengerﷺ from Al-Ji’ranah in the eighth year of Al-Hijra. It was because Allah’s Messenger ﷺhad already dispatched a mission of four hundred Muslims and asked them to go to Suda’. Suda’ was a spring in Yemen. While the mission was camping there at the starting point of a canal, Ziyad bin Al-Harith As-Suda’i learned of their stay, so he came to Allâh’s Messengerﷺ and said: “I have come to you as a deputy of my people, so tell your army to go back and I give a guarantee on behalf of my people.” The army was sent away from the canal. In his turn As-Suda’i went back, encouraged and urged his people to come and meet Allâh’s Messengerﷺ . Eventually fifteen of them came and pledged allegiance to him as true Muslims. Returning home, they in their turn urged the rest to become Muslims. Thus Islam spread among them. Later on, a hundred men joined Allâh’s Messengerﷺ in Hajjatul-Wada’ (Farewell Pilgrimage.)
- The arrival of Ka’b bin Zuhair bin Abi Sulma: Ka’b who was a member of a family of poets, was considered one of the best poets among the Arabs. He used to satirize the Prophet ﷺ when he was not a Muslim. In the eighth year of Al-Hijra and at the time that Allâh’s Messengerﷺ had already gone back from the Ta’if invasion, Bujair bin Zuhair wrote a letter to his brother Kab warning and advising him: “Allâh’s Messengerﷺ killed some men in Makkah who used to satirize and harm him, and the poets who survived fled in all directions for their lives. So, if you want to save your skin, hasten to Allâh’s Messengerﷺ . He never kills those who come to him repenting. If you refuse to do as I say, it is up to you to try to save your skin by any means.” The two brothers corresponded with one another for a long time until Ka’b felt awkward as if the earth had restricted around him. Arriving in Madinah, he stayed at a man’s house from Juhainah as a guest. They performed the Morning prayer together; but when he was about to leave, the man suggested that he go to Allâh’s Messengerﷺ Ka’b then said: “O Messenger of Allâh!ﷺ Ka’b bin Zuhair has come to you as a repentant Muslim; will he be secure and forgiven if I fetch him?” Allâh’s Messengerﷺ said, “Yes.” “I am Ka’b bin Zuhair,” he said. Upon hearing that, one of the Helpers rose to his feet and asked the Messengerﷺ to let him cut his throat. “Leave him alone!” said the Prophet ﷺ”he has become a repentant Muslim after his disposal of the past.” Ka’b then recited his well-known poem “Su’ad …” in which he praised the Prophet ﷺ thanked him and apologized for the wrongs he had done. Both Emigrants and Helpers were spoken of in this poem but differently. He praised the Emigrants but criticized the Helpers, for one of them demanded the Prophet’sﷺ permission to kill him. Later on Ka’b tried to compensate for that by praising the Helpers in another poem.
- The ‘Udhrah Delegation: This delegation, which consisted of twelve men, arrived in Madinah in Safar, the ninth year of Al
Hijra. One of them was Hamzah bin An-Nu’man dute. When they were asked who they were, they said: “We are Bani ‘Udhrah, the foster brothers of Qusai to his mother. We are the ones who supported Qusai, and removed Khuza’ah and Bani Bakr from the bosom of Makkah. We are a people of relatives and kin.” So Allâh’s Messengerﷺ than welcomed them and gave good tidings to them, which was the conquest of Ash-Sham; but he, on the other hand, forbade them from consulting a soothsayer and from eating the slain animals they slaughtered. Eventually they became Muslims, stayed there for several days and then left.
- The Bali Delegation: Their arrival was in Rabi’ul-Awwal, the ninth year of Al-Hijra. They embraced Islam, stayed in Madinah for three days. Their chief Abu Ad-Dubaib wondered whether hospitality was rewarded by Allâh. Allâh’s Messengerﷺ said:
“Yes, and so is any charity you offer to poor or rich people as Sadaqah.”
He also inquired about the time allotted to hospitality. “Three days,” said he. “What about the stray ewe?” The Prophetﷺ contact said: “It is either yours or your brother’s; otherwise it goes to the wolf.” He inquired about the stray camel. “It is none of your business. Leave it alone until its owner finds it.”
- The Thaqif Delegation: Their arrival was in Ramadan, the ninth year of Al-Hijra, ﷺ after the return of Allâh’s Messengerﷺ from Tabuk. As to how they became Muslims, this could be deduced from the following:
Their chief ‘Urwah bin Mas’ud Ath-Thaqafi came to see Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ after the latter’s return from At-Ta’if in DhulQa’dah of the year 8 A.H. ‘Urwah became a Muslim. He thought that when he will tell his people about Islam and call them to embrace it, they would do so, because he had always been an obeyed leader. He was even more beloved to them than their own firstborn. But contrary to that, when he called them to Islam they shot at with arrows from every direction and killed him. They
remained as they were for months before they started discussing the situation again among themselves. Upon realizing that they were incapable of fighting the neighboring Arabs who had paid allegiance to the Prophet ﷺ and converted to Islam, they made up their mind to dispatch a man to Allâh’s Messengerﷺ They concluded that ‘Abd Yalil bin ‘Amr would be the right messenger.
‘Abd refused to do such a thing lest they should kill him as they had killed ‘Urwah dito. “I will not do such a thing unless you send some other men with me,” said ‘Abd. So, they sent two men of their allies and three others from Bani Malik. The six of them included ‘Uthman bin Abul-‘As Ath-Thaqafi who was the youngest.
When they entered into the Prophet’s audience, a tent was erected in a corner of the Mosque so that they might listen to the Qur’ân and see the people in prayer. During their stay, they came again and again to the Prophet ﷺwho kept on calling them to embrace Islam, until their chief asked Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ enter into a peace treaty between him and Thaqif by means of which he would allow them to commit fornication, drink wine and deal with usury. They also asked him not to injure their idol Al-Lat or to oblige them to perform the prayer. Finally they insisted that they would not knock down the idols themselves. But Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ turned down all their requests. They went aside to council. Realizing that there were no other alternatives, they submitted and professed Islam. The only condition that they insisted on was that the demolition of Al-Lat should be dealt with and handled by Allâh’s Messengerﷺ the whereas Thaqif should in no way knock it down themselves. Allâh’s Messengerﷺ agreed and took a pledge from them.
Being the most attentive and the keenest to understand Islam and learn Qur’ân, ‘Uthman bin Abul-‘As was appointed by Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ the chief of his people. His keenness to learn the Qur’ân and understand Islam was clearly apparent through his behavior during their stay.
Everyday morning, the group of delegates used to go and see Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ Being the youngest one, ‘Uthman bin Abul
As was left behind to watch their camels and belongings. At noon when they came back and slept, ‘Uthman being used to go to Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ in order to learn the Qur’ân and inquire about religious matters. If it happened that Allâh’s Messengerﷺ was asleep, he would then go to Abu Bakr for the same purpose. With the passage of time, he turned out to be a source of blessing to his people. Later, during the Apostasy Wars (Ar-Riddah) when Thaqif were determined to apostatize, he addressed them saying: “O people of Thaqift You have been the latest at embracing Islam, so do not be the first to apostatize.” Consequently they gave up apostasy and remained adhered to Islam, The group of delegates returned horne but they were determined
to conceal the truth for a while. They told their people to expect a fight at any moment. They pretended to be grieved and depressed. They claimed that Allâh’s Messengerﷺ demanded that they should embrace Islam and abandon adultery, drinking wine and dealing with usury and some other things, or else he would fight them. Seized by the arrogance and the zeal of Al-Jahiliyah (preIslamic traditions), Thaqif remained for days intent on fighting. Then Allâh cast terror and depression in their hearts in such a way that they gave up the idea of fighting and thought that the delegation should go back to the Prophet ﷺ and announce their approval. It was then that the group of delegates told them the truth and revealed the items of their peace-talk with the Prophet ﷺ consequently the people of Thaqif embraced Islam.
Allâh’s Messengerﷺ some men to destroy the idol called AlLat under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid b. Al-Mughirah bin Shu’bah stood to his feet, held the hoe and the ax and said to his companions: “By Allâh, I will make you laugh at Thaqif.” He struck Al-Lat with them, and pretended to fall down while doing so. The people of Thaqif were frightened at that sight and said: “May Allah dismay Al-Mughirah. The goddess has killed him.” Hearing that Al-Mughirah ten jumped up to his feet and said: “May Allâh bring shame on you. Al-Lat is nothing but a mass of dirt and stones.” Then he struck the door and broke it. He mounted its highest wall, and so did the other men. They knocked Al-Lat down
till they levelled it to the ground. Then they dug up its foundation and brought out its jewels and garments, to the great astonishment of Thaqif. Khalid bin Al-Walid and his group came back to Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ the carrying Al-Lat’s jewels and garments Allâh’s Messengerﷺ distributed them and thanked Allâh for helping his Prophetﷺ and solidifying his religion.”
- The Message of the Yemeni Kings: After the return of Allah’s Messengerﷺ from Tabuk, a message came to him from the kings of Himyar, Al-Harith bin ‘Abd Kilal, Nu’aim bin ‘Abd Kilal and AnNu’man bin Qeel who was the ruler of Dhi Ra’in, Hamdan and Mu’afir. Their messenger was Malik bin Murrah Ar-Rahawi. They sent him in order to inform the Prophet about ﷺtheir embracing Islam and their parting with polytheism. In reply to their message. Allâh’s Messengerﷺ stated the rights and responsibilities of the believers, gave them the promise of Allâh and the promise of His Messengerﷺ for those entering covenants provided they paid the tribute. He sent to them some of his Companions under the command of Mu’adh bin Jabal .
- The Hamdan Delegation: The arrival of this delegation was in the ninth year of Al-Hijra after the Messenger’sﷺ return from Tabuk. So, Allâh’s Messengerﷺ gave them a pledge to guarantee the fulfillment of their demands. He appointed Malik bin AnNamt as chief over those of his people who embraced Islam. Khalid bin Al-Walid was sent with the purpose of calling the rest of them to Islam. He stayed with them for six months calling them to Islam but no one responded to his call. Later on Hazrat ‘Ali bin Abi Talib AlahisSalam was dispatched there and Khalid was ordered to come back. Upon arriving at Hamdan. ‘Hazrat Ali AlahisSalam communicated to them a message from Allâh’s Messengerﷺ and called them to Islam. They responded to the call and became Muslims. ‘Hazrat Ali AlahisSalam wrote to Allah’s Messengerﷺ informing him of the good news. Allah’s Messengerﷺ was briefed on the content of that letter, so he prostrated, then raised his head up and said: “Peace be upon Hamdan. Peace be upon Hamdan.”