BATTLE SHIRT OF ERTUGRUL GAZI and Talisman Shirt

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BATTLE SHIRT OF ERTUGRUL GAZI 

The history of blessed shirts goes back a very long way. The Prophet Joseph (Peace be unto him) #Yusuf in Arabic, is believed to have owned one that protected him from hardship and evil. It is even credited with performing blessings (barakaat) – as when it restored the vision of Joseph’s father, Jacob (Peace be unto him) #Yaqub in Arabic, following an instruction recorded in the Qur’an, Surah Yusuf (XII, verse 93):

اذْهَبُواْ بِقَمِيصِي هَـذَا فَأَلْقُوهُ عَلَى وَجْهِ أَبِي يَأْتِ بَصِيرًا وَأْتُونِي بِأَهْلِكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

“Take this, my shirt, and cast it over the face of my father; he will become seeing. And bring me your family, all together.”

Blessed shirts such as these were of immense religious and monetary value amongst Muslim rulers and elites in Africa and Asia. Four distinctive types of Islamic blessed shirts have been identified:

1) Ottoman,
2) Safavid,
3) Mughal and
4) West African

But none on hand in museums can be dated to earlier than the 15th century.

Each group has its own unique stylistic approach to the shape of the garments and the blessed Quran verses used, as well as the design of the Calligraphy. A very small number of these garments are signed and dated, one of which belongs to the Ottoman group and is housed in the Topkapı Palace Museum in Istanbul.

The Topkapı shirt was commissioned for Cem Sultan (d.1495), son of Sultan Mehmed II, and includes not only the exact date and time at which the construction of the shirt was begun, (30 March 1477, Tuesday, 12:36pm, the Sun in 19 degrees Aries), but also the exact date and time it was finished (29 March 1480, Sunday 3:57am, the Sun in 19 degrees Aries). Topkapı’s dated example gives an unusually accurate idea of how time consuming the production of such garments could be – three years to complete a single shirt.

Unfortunately, by its nature of its ‘secret’ use, there are very few sources that discuss or even mention the use of these objects. One source, written in the 1530’s in Istanbul, describes a battle shirt made by a pious man in Mecca through which neither bullets nor swords could penetrate. That shirt was commissioned for the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520—1527) by his wife Hürrem Sultan, and still survives to this day. It is also housed in the Topkapı Palace Museum in Istanbul.

Though blessed shirts were used as protection from disease, famine, difficult child birth, sudden death, and the unpredictability of travel, it is believed that the majority of these shirts were meant for use in battle.

Particular verses from the Qur’an that refer to victory were commonly inscribed on shirts worn under armour – the very word of God was intended to protect the owner while they fight.

AllahuAlam
(God Knows Best)

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A talisman is an object that has protective powers. In Islam, most talismanic objects are designed and decorated with astrological signs, magic squares, abjad numerals, religious narratives, representations of the prophets in a variety of media, and Qur’anic inscriptions. The Arabic text of the Qur’an is sacred to Muslims and because of this, many believe that an object which is inscribed with the words of God will protect the person who reads, touches, carries or sees it from misfortune and evil. Talismanic objects were made in many different forms and sizes, and some were even worn as clothing, as in the case of the shirt discussed here.

The history of talismanic shirts goes back a very, very long way. The prophet Joseph (Yusuf in Arabic) is believed to have owned one that protected him from hardship and evil. It is even credited with performing miracles – as when it restored the vision of Joseph’s father Jacob (Ya‘qub in Arabic), following an instruction recorded in the Qur’an, Surah Yusuf (XII, verse 93):

اذْهَبُواْ بِقَمِيصِي هَـذَا فَأَلْقُوهُ عَلَى وَجْهِ أَبِي يَأْتِ بَصِيرًا وَأْتُونِي بِأَهْلِكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

“Take this, my shirt, and cast it over the face of my father; he will become seeing. And bring me your family, all together.”

The talismanic shirt to be displayed in the show has been attributed to India and dated to some time in the 15th or 16th century. It was produced during the period of the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526), a Muslim state that ruled over vast areas of the Indian subcontinent. Early examples of these shirts from India, such as the one chosen for The Fabric of India exhibition, are exceptionally rare – especially so, one in such wonderful condition. At first viewing, this shirt appears to be made from paper, but like the majority of surviving talismanic shirts, the V&A’s shirt is actually made from cotton. It is constructed from three pieces of cloth that were stiffened and polished: one large rectangular length with a circular opening for the neck and a slit at the front so that it could pass over the wearer’s head, and two smaller pieces forming the arms.

The Textile and Science Conservation teams at the V&A carried out analysis on the cloth to find out what was used to stiffen it. Their results showed traces of starch, which was commonly used in the Islamic world in the size used for the surface treatment of paper and textiles. Size was applied as a paste, and once dry, it was polished, forming a reflective, smooth surface. Using size was crucial as it provided scribes and illuminators with a smooth surface to work on, allowing them to accomplish the high precision and quality seen in this example. Of course, it also stiffened the cotton, like the starch we still use today.

It may seem impossible, and is certainly incredible, but the entire text of the Qur’an adorns the surface of this shirt. Most of the text is densely packed into square compartments separated by gold rules, with gold medallions at every intersection, and bordered in bright red and blue. On the outside, the areas containing the text are framed by blue, gold and red rules, all outlined in black. The remaining text is included in a fringe of pointed lappets around the bottom fo the main design. Between the two sections of text, the asma-al-husna, the ninety-nine names of God, are executed in gold Bihari script on a wide border with a ground cross-hatched and speckled in red. Bihari is an Indian style of writing the Arabic script. The style’s origins are obscure, but it is closely associated with the Sultanate period, and it began to fade out with the arrival of the Mughals in India at the beginning of the 16th century.

The Quranic text begins on the back of the right sleeve and ends on the bottom left hand side. The Qur’an consist of 114 chapters, each known as a surah, and on the shirt the name of each surah has been inscribed in red, followed by the main text written in a type of naskh script.  Small, six-petalled gold flowers are scattered at the centres of the text squares, and are here used as a decorative device. However, in Qur’anic manuscripts this type of roundel is used to separate each ayah, or verse, of every surah. Two large roundels on the front of the shirt contain the Shahadah, the profession of faith, written in gold thuluth script over a red and blue background. The shoulders are decorated with cartouches, which repeat the word ‘Allah’ within three circles on each side. Finally, a section of one of the verses from Surah Yusuf (XII, verse 64) is inscribed in gold on a ground cross-hatched and speckled in red on the back of the shirt, placed in a long cartouche, outlined in blue and red. They read:

فَاللَّهُ خَيْرٌحَافِظًا وَهُوَ أَرْحَمُ الرَّاحِمِينَ

‘But God is the best to take care (of him), and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy!’

The shirt can be dated from the style of the script and illumination, which although on a textile object, speak more expressively as representatives of the art of the book. The Bihari script written in gold, the illumination in blue, red and black, the cartouches and roundels containing chequerboard patterns, and the small red and blue motif resembling the word ‘Allah’ in Arabic script closely relate to surviving manuscripts attributed to the Sultanate period. The images below are examples from Indian 15th and 16th century Qur’an.

Talismanic shirts such as these were of immense religious and monetary value amongst Muslim rulers and elites in Africa and Asia. Four distinctive types of Islamic talismanic shirts have been identified: Ottoman, Safavid, Mughal (Indian) and West African –none of which can be dated to earlier than the 15th century. Each group has its own unique stylistic approach to the shape of the garments and the talismanic formulas used, as well as the design of the illumination. A very small number of these garments are signed and dated, one of which belongs to the Ottoman group and is housed in the Topkapı Palace Museum in Istanbul. The Topkapı shirt was commissioned for Cem Sultan (d.1495), son of Sultan Mehmed II, and includes not only the exact date and time at which the construction of the shirt was begun, (30 March 1477, Tuesday, 12:36pm, the Sun in 19 degrees Aries), but also the exact date and time it was finished (29 March 1480, Sunday 3:57am, the Sun in 19 degrees Aries). Topkapı’s dated example gives an unusually accurate idea of how time consuming the production of such garments could be – three years to complete a single shirt.

By comparison to how accurate curators can sometimes be about the making of these incredible shirts, their function is far more debatable. Unfortunately, there are very few sources that discuss or even mention the use of these objects. One source, written in the 1530’s in Istanbul, describes a shirt made by a holy man in Mecca through which neither bullets nor swords could penetrate. That shirt was commissioned for the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520—1527) by his wife Hürrem Sultan, and still survives to this day. It is also housed in the Topkapı Palace Museum in Istanbul. Though talismanic shirts were used as protection from disease, famine, difficult child birth, sudden death, and the unpredictability of travel, it is believed that the majority of these shirts were meant for use in battle. Particular verses from the Qur’an that refer to victory were commonly inscribed on shirts worn under armour – the word of God was intended to protect the owner while they fought. The V&A’s example belongs to this group of shirts: the presence of the verse from Surah Yusuf, referring to protection and mercy, indicates the shirt’s purpose. Fascinatingly, there is even evidence that this shirt really did fulfil this purpose: if you take a close look you can see signs of soiling from wear – the sweat of the wearer having caused the loss of the decoration under the arms

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talismanic shirt (or talisman shirt; Turkish: tılsımlı gömlek) is a worn textile talismanic object. Talismanic shirts are found throughout the Islamic world. The shirts can be grouped to four types which differ in style and the symbols used: an Ottoman, a Safavid, a Mughal and a West African one.[1]

A talismanic shirt in the collection of the Topkapı Palace Museum

The earliest surviving examples were made approximately in 15th century,[1] though the tradition of talismanic shirts might be much older. In the Surah Yusuf of the Quran a shirt of the prophet Yusuf is described as giving him protection and even miracle-working. He hands it over so it can heal the blindness of his father Yaqub: “Go with this my shirt, and cast it over the face of my father: he will come to see”[Quran 12:93].

15th–early 16th century Talismanic Shirt in the Metropolitan Museum. Attributed to Northern India or Deccan. Cotton, ink, gold; plain weave, painted

The shirts may be inscribed with verses from Quran, names of Allah and of prophets and with numbers. They may carry images or symbols, e.g. astrological ones. The inscribed names are believed to be capable of offering protection and guidance to the carrier.[2] Although talismanic shirts can be worn to protect against many evils most of them seem to be intended as a shield in battle.[1]

 

Some examples in public collections

Talismanic shirt depicting the holy sanctuaries of Mecca and Medina, 16th or early 17th century, Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage
  • Talismanic shirt, Bursa, Turkey, end of the 14th–beginning of the 15th century, Turkish and Islamic Arts Museum, Istanbul, accession number 539[3]
  • Talismanic shirt for Sultan Cem, 1480, Topkapı Palace Museum, Istanbul. It was produced when Cem was still Şehzade. The begin and end of the manufacturing of the object are precisely indicated by one of its inscription what is unusual.
  • Talismanic shirt for Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, Topkapı Palace Museum, Istanbul. It was commissioned by Suleiman’s wife Hürrem Sultan.[1]
  • Talismanic shirt, Northern India or Deccan, 15th–early 16th century, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, accession number 1998.199[4]
  • Talismanic shirt, India, 15th–16th century, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, accession number T.59-1935[1]

 

CHAPTER 2 ON THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD OF SAYYIDINA RASULULLAH SALLALLAHU ALAIHE WASALLAM

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THE SEAL OF PROPHETHOOD OF SAYYIDINA RASULULLAH SALLALLAHU ALAIHE WASALLAM

This chapter also being relevant to the noble features of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) should have been part of the previous chapter. Because of it’s great importance, it being a miracle and a sign of Nabuwwah (Prophethood), it is being discussed seperatly. The seal was on the Holy body of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) since birth, as is stated in the ‘Fathul Bari’, wherein Sayyidina Yakub ibn Hasan (Radiallahu anhu) relates a Hadith from Sayyiditina Ayesha (Radiallahu anha). At the time of the death of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) when some of the Sahabah (Radiallahu anhum) doubted (his death), Sayyiditina Asmaa (Radiallahu anha) proved that there was no seal of the Prophethood anymore, Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) had passed away. Munnaawi has mentioned this incident in detail. There is a difference of opinion as to what was written on this seal, or if anything was written on it at all. Sayyidina ibn Hibbaan (Radiallahu anhu) and other Sahabah have corrected this and said that ‘Muhammadur Rasulullah’ was written on the seal. In some other narrations we find that ‘Sier fa antal mansur’ (Go wherever you wish, you shall be successful) was written on the seal. Some of the Ulama say that these traditions do not comply with the priciples of authenticity.
In this chapter Imam Tirmidhi quotes eight Ahaadith.

(15) Hadith Number 1
Saa-ib bin Yazid (Radiallahu anhu) said: “My (maternal) aunt took to me to the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) and said to him, this nephew of mine is ill. Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) wiped his holy hand over my head and made for barakah for me. (According to some Ulama, Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) wiped his hand over his head, meant that he Sayyidina Saa-ib bin Yazid (Radiallahu anhu) had a pain in the head. The opinion of this weak and humble servant is that it is better if this is taken to mean that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) wiped his hands in kindness on the head of Sayyidina Saa-ib bin Yazid (Radiallahu anhu). Sayyidina Saa-ib bin Yazid (Radiallahu anhu) was born in the second year Hijri, and at the time of the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam)’s death, his age was not more than 8 or 9 years. That is why the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) wiped his Holy hand in kindness, as is the customs of the great personalities. The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) also gave him the water of wudu to drink as a cure, as will be stated further, or he may have prescibed another remedy, especially when we learn also in a narration in Bukhari thay he Sayyidina Saa-ib bin Yazid (Radiallahu anhu)was suffering from pain in his leg). When the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) performed Wudu, I drank the water of that wudu. (The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) may have performed wudu for some reason, but here it is clear that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) performed wudu so that the water could be used as a remedy and medicine). I saw the seal of Prophethood, which was like the knot on a mosquito net or bedstead.” (Which is the size of a pigeon’s egg in roundness). The Ulama differ in the translation of this word. Some have translated it in another manner. Imam Nawawi, the famous commentator of Sahih Muslim, preferred the translation I have chosen).

Commentary
If in this Hadith the left over water of wudu is meant, then there is no difficulty or difference of opinion. If that water is meant which falls after washing the limbs etc., which in Arabic is known as ‘Mae Musta’amal’, then too there is no complication or difficulty, because even the excrements of Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) is paak. So how can there be a complaint regarding the ‘Mae Musta’amal'(Used water).

(16) Hadith Number 2
Jaabir bin Samurah (Radhiallahu Anhu reports that: “I saw the Seal of Prophethood of Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) between his two shoulders, which was like a red tumour (protruding flesh), the size of which was like that of a pigeon’s egg”.

Commentary
There are various and different narrations regarding the size and colour of the Seal of Prophethood of Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam). Qurtubi has reconciled these by sayimg that the size changed from time to time, as did the colour. According to this humble servant, this reconciliation may also be possible, that in reality all these are similarities, and every similarity is according to a person’s understanding, which is an approximate state. There is no disagreement in explaining approximates. This is a more appropriate explanation.

(17) Hadith Number 3
Rumaythah (Radhiallahu Anha) said: “I heard this subject from Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and at that time I was so near him, that if I wanted to, I could have kissed the Seal of Prophethood. That subject is: `Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) was talking about Sa’s bin Mu’aadh (Radhiallahu anhu), that because of Sa’d’s death, the `Arsh (Throne) of Allah also started to sway in happiness'”.

Commentary
There is a disagreement regarding the swinging of the Arsh. What is the reason and what does it mean? The above translation is in accordance with well-known sayings. Some are of the opinion that this refers to the People of the Arsh. Some are of the opinion that it is the Takht (Throne) of Sayyidina Sa’d (Radhiallahu Anhu), etc.
Sayyidina Sa’d bin Mu’aadh is from among the great Sahabah. In the books of hadith many of the merits have been mentioned. Before the Hijra Sayyidina Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) sent Sayyidina Mu’aadh bin Umayr (Radhiallahu Anhu) to Madina to teach and propagate Islaam. Sayyidina Sa’d (Radhiallahu anhu) accepted Islaam at his hands. He was leader of his community and as a result, his whole family accepted Islaam on the same day. This was the first family in Madinah accepted Islaam. He passed away at the age of 37 in the fifth year Hijri. 70,000 malaa’ikha (angels) attended his jnaazah salaah. With all this, it appears from hadith that he also went through hardship for a while in the grave. We should all take heed. A person should not be lax in this matter, and should always remember Allah, repent and fear the punishment of the grave. Whenever Sayyidina Uthmaan (Radhiallahu anhu) passed a grave, he used to weep till his beard became wet. Someone asked him, `Jannah and Jahanam are also discussed, but at that time you do not weep?’ He replied: `I heard Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) say: “The grave is the first stage of the aakhirah (hereafter); whoever goes through this easily, all the other stages become easy. And for whom this stage is difficult, all the other stages become more difficult'”. He says I also heard Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) say: “Of all the scenes of the aakhirah that I have seen, the one of Qabr (grave) is the most difficult”.-Mishkaat. May Allah Ta’aala save us all from it. Imaam Tirmidhi did not intend to relate this incident here, but because the Seal of Prophethood is mentioned, therefore it is included here. Also Rumaythah (Radhiallahu Anha) by mentioning her experience of being near Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) and seeing the Seal of Prophethood, and by hearing this subject conclusively proves that there remains no place for errors.

(18) Hadith Number 4
Ebrahim bin Muhammad (Radhiallahu Anhu), who is the granson of Ali (Radhiallahu anhu said: “Whenever Ali (Radhiallahu Anhu) used to discribe the noble attributes of Rasullullah (Sallallahu Alaihi wasallam), he used to mentioned the complete hadith. He also used to say that the Seal of Prophethood was between his shoulders, and Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) was the seal of all prophets”.

Commentary
This hadith has been explained in the first chapter (hadith number eight). Here it is referred to briefly. Because of the Seal of Prophethood, this hadith is mentioned specially here.

(19) Hadith Number 5
`Ilbaa bin Ahmar Al-yashkari says that the Sahaabi, Abu Zayd `Amr bin Akhtab Al-Ansaari Radhiallahu Anhu said to me: “Rasullullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) once asked me to massage his waist. When I began massaging the back, accidently (by chance) my fingers touched the Seal of Prophethood. `Ilbaa (Radhiallahu anhu) says: `I asked Amr (Radhiallahu anhu), what is the Seal of Prophethood?’ He replied: `It was a collection of few hair'”.

Commentary
This is not contrary to the first hadith, because there was hair around the Seal of Prophethood. He only mentioned the hair.

(20) Hadith Number 6
Buraydah bin Radiyallahu ‘Anhu reports: “when Rasulalullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam came to Medinah, Salmaan Faarisi Radiyallahu ‘Anhu brought a tray which had fresh dates on it, and presented it to Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, who asked:
“O Salmaan, what dates are these?”
He replied:
“This is sadaqah for you and your companions”
Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam replied:
“We do not eat Sadaqah. Remove it from me.”
( The ‘ulama differ in their opinions as to the meaning of the word “we”. Some say it is Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam himself, and the plural is used as a mark of respect. Others explain that it is the ambiyaa (prophets). According to some it is Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and his relatives, for whome it is not permissible to accept zakaah. According to this humble servant the third ihtimaal (supposition) is superior and more acceptable. Allaamah Munaawi’s criticism of the third explanationis not forceful and weighty). On the next day this happened again. Salmaan Radiyallahu ‘Anhu brought a tray of fresh dates, and in reply to the question of Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, he replied: “O messenger of Allah, it is a present for you”.
Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said to the Sahaabah Radiyallahu ‘Anhum “Help yourselves”. (Sayyidina Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam himself ate from it. Bayjuri explains this thus: Sayyidina Salmaan Radiyallahu ‘Anhu bringing the dates on both days in this manner was to investigate, and to make Sayyidina Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam his master. Sayyidina Salmaan Radiyallahu ‘Anhu was an ‘Aalim (learned) of the old days. He lived for a hundred and fifty years and according to some, he lived three hundred years. He had seen the signs of Sayyidina Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam in the kitaabs of previous prophets, that he will not accept sadaqah, but shall accept presents and gifts, and the seal of Prophethood will be between his two shoulders after witnessing the first two signs).
He then saw the seal of Prophethood on the back of Sayyidina Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and embraced Islam. (At that time Sayyidina Salmaan Radiyallahu ‘Anhu was a slave of a Jew from the tribe of Banu Qurayzah.
Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam purchased him(this is figureatively speaking. The fact is that Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam made him a Mukaatab – One whoi buys One’s freedom for anm agreed sum.) and paid Dirhams for him to become a Mukaatab, and also agreed that he(Sayyidina Salmaan Radiyallahu ‘Anhu should plant for the Jew date palms,(the amount of three hundred palms) and until these bore fruit to tend them. Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam planted the palms with his mubaarak hands and it was his mu’jizah(miracle) that all the palms bore fruit in the same year.
One tree among these did not bear fruit. Upon investigating it was found that Umar Radiyallahu ‘Anhu had planted this tree, and that it was not planted by Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam removed this palm and replanted it. Another mu’jizah Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam is that he planted the palms out of season and they bore fruit the same year.

Commentary
The Ulama have made thorough research on this Hadith. For example Sayyidina Salmaan Radiyallahu ‘Anhu was a slave, was his sadaqah and hadiyyah(gift) permissible or not?
Also what was the difference between Hadiyyah and Sadaqah etcetra?
Due to the discussion being lengthy, it has been ommited to keep the subject short.
From this hidith we learn some of the special habits Sayyidina
Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, that he included the servants and those present, in the gifts he received. This was one of the special habits of Sayyidina Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam.
There are thousands of similar instances mentioned in the ahadith. In this hadith Sayyidina Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam also enjoined us to share presents. Those who are present should also be included.
According to the Muhadditheen there is a variation in the words of this hadith and that this hadith is weak, but according to the subject matter, the incidence strengthen it. What type of presents are meant and what is meant by those that are sitting together? (near).
These need an explanation. Mullah Ali Qaari writes that person brought a present to a pious Shaykh of that time. A person sitting in his assembly said : “Presents are shared”. The Shaykh replied :”We do not make shirk(ascribe partners onto Allah) and believe in one creator. All these(presents) are for you”. The presents were so many that that person could not carry all of them. The Shaykh instructed his servant to deliver it to that persons home. In the same manner, this happended in the assembly of Imam Abu Yusuf Rahmatullahi alayih.
A person presented him a monetary gift. One from among those present said “Presents are shared”. The Imam replied that those are special types of presents and instructed his servant to put away the present. The Ulama say that both instances are correct and well balanced. What the pious Suffi did was proper and befitting, and what the Fakih(Jurist) did was also proper and befitting, and this is true.
Imam Abu Yusuf Rahmatullahi alayih was a celebrated and famous Imam. If he did not do as he had done, it might have become Shar’Ee Mas-alah that presents should be shared, and this would have made it difficult for the Umma.
Shah Waliyullah Dehlawy wrote in one of his kitabs “Dreams and Glad Tiding”. Many admirable incidence, one of which is his Father. He wrote :”In my young days I loved to fast. After seeing all the different opinions of the Ulama, I began hesitating to fast. I saw Sayyidina Rasullullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam in my dream in which he gave me a loaf of bread. Sayyidina Abubaker Siddique Radiyallahu ‘Anhu was also sitting there and said “Presents are shared”. I presented thje bread to him and he ate a piece from it. There after Sayyidina Umar Radiyallahu ‘Anhu said “Presents are shared” I presented the bread to him also, and he took a piece from it. Sayyidina Uthmaan Radiyallahu ‘Anhu then also said : “Presents are shared”.
I then said “If all of you will devide this bread amongst yourselves only, what will be left for me?”.
Sayyidina Salman Faarisi Radiyallahu ‘Anhu is from among the grear Sahaabah. It is stated in the Hadith that when this Aayah was revealed :”If you turn away, He will substitute another people instead of you.”
O ‘ Messenger of Allah, who are those people who will take our place?” Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallhu alaihe wasallam) then patted Sayyidina Salmaan (radiallahu anhu) on his back and said: “I swear by the Name of the Being in Whose Hands lie my life, if Imaan was suspended on Thurayya (Pleiades),the people of Faaris would have taken it from there also.”
The ulama have written that this was a glad tiding in favour of Imaam
Abu Hanifa (rahmatullahi alaihe).
Sayyidina Salaam (radiallahu anhu) stated in detail how he had
accepted Islam (Imaan). This detail is given in the books of hadith.
Therein are mentioned the signs which prompted Sayyidina Salmaan (radiallahu anhu) to investigate Islam. Sayyidina Salmaan (radiallahu anhu) says that he was a resident in the province of Asbahaan, at a place called Jay. Sayyidina Salmaan narrates: “My father was a headman and a leader of the locality. He loved me very much. I tried very hard to become a success in my old religion of Zorastrianism (fire worship), and thus became a caretaker of the temple. Once my father sent me on an errand for him. On the way I passed a Christian church. I went inside, and saw the Christians praying there. I liked what I saw there. I was attracted to this religion and remained in the Church till the evening. I enquired from Christians them where their headquarters were? They replied that it was in Shaam (Syria). When I returned home in the evening, my family asked where I had been the whole day. I related to them what had happened. My father said:
“That religion is not good. Your religion and the religion of your
forefathers is the best.” I replied : “Never, that religion
(Christianity ) is the best.” My father, fearing that I would leave
home, fastened a chain to my leg and locked me up in the house. I sent a message to the Christians that when the merchants from Shaam, who often came to trade, arrived, I should be informed. When the merchants arrived, they sent a message to me. At the time of their departure I cut loose the chains, ran away and joined the caravan to Shaam.
When I reached Shaam I enquired who was the best and most learned in
this religion of Christianity. The people directed me to bishop.
I went to him and informed him that I would like to become a Christian and stay in his company. He agreed. I began living with him but found him to be dishonest. He persuaded the people to give charity (tithe) and whatever he collected, he put into his personal treasure. He did not give the poor anything. After his death, another bishop was appointed in his place. He was a pious man, and did not care for material things. I began living with him and started to love him. When his end came near I asked him, who should I go to after his death. He replied that there was only one person in this world following the same path, and there was no one else besides him. He said: He lives in Mosul and you must go to him. After the bishop’s death I went to the person in Mosul and related my story to him. He allowed me to stay in his service. He was a very good person. When his end came near I asked him that after his death, who should I go to? He replied that I should go to a person in Naseebayn. After his death I went to Naseebayn. Where I related my story to the resident bishop who agreed to keep me in his service. He was a good man. Again, when his end came near, I asked him the same question. He replied that I should go to a certain place in Ghamurya. I went to Ghamurya and began living with the bishop there. Here I worked and learned too. As a result I owned some cattle and sheep. When the Bishop of Ghamurya’s end came near, I asked: “Now what should I do?” He took an oath and said: “There is no learned person anymore who follows our path.
The time has come near when the last of all Prophets will appear,
who will follow the religion of Ibrahim (Alaihis salaam). He will be
born in ` Arabia ‘. He will migrate to such a place where many dates
grow and on both sides of this place the soil is stony. The Prophet
will accept gifts, but will not eat from Sadaqah. The Seal of
Prophethood will be between his two shoulders. (This is the sign of
Prophethood and for this reason Sayyidina Salmaan radiallahu anhu
looked for the seal). If you can go to this place, try to do so.”
After the bishop’s death a few traders from the tribe of Banu Kalb
passed Ghamurya. I said to them:”If you take me with you to Arabia, I will give you in return these cattle and sheep”. They accepted and brought me to Wadi al Qura (Mecca Mukarramah). I gave them the cattle and sheep but they oppressed me. They said I was a slave and sold me. A jew from the tribe of Banu Qurayzah bought me and took me to Madinah. I recognised the signs that the bishop of Ghamurya had explained to me. I said to myself, ` This is that place’. I lived there till Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) migrated from Mecca Mukarramah to Madinah Munawwarah. Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was in Quba at that time. When I heard of of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu alaihe wasallam, whatever I owned I took with and presented it to him and said: “This is from Sadaqah.” Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) did not partake any of it. I said to myself that one sign has been fulfilled and I returned to Madinah and collected a few things. In the meantime Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) came to live in Madinah. I presented somethings (dates, food etc) and said: “This a gift.” Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) accepted the gift, I said to myself that the second sign has also been fulfilled. Thereafter I attended his noble assembly. Sayyidina Rasulallah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) was at the Baqi (attending a Sahabi’s funeral). I greeted him and made an attempt to look at his back. Sayyidina Rasulallah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) understood what I was doing and lifted his sheet. I saw the Seal of the Prophet and in zeal bowed towards it. I kissed it and cried. Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) said:”Come in front of me.” I came before him and related the whole story. After that I continued serving my Jewish master in slavery . Once Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) said:”Make an agreement with your master to make you a mukaatab (one who purchases his own freedom) .” I made an agreement with my master he made two conditions. The first was that I should pay forty uqqiyyah cash in gold. (One uqqiyyah is forty dirhams and a dirham is 3 to 4 maashaa, 3g to 4g). The second condition was that I should plant 300 date palms and tend them till they bear fruit. Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) planted the date palms with his own hands (as is mentioned above ). It happened that some gold arrived from somewhere for
Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihe wasallam). He gave this to
Sayyidina Salmaan (radiallahu anhu) and told him to go and pay it his
master. Sayyidina Salmaan (radiallahu anhu) asked:” Will this gold be
enough as the amount is much more.”Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu
alaihe wasallam) replied:”It will not be surprising if Allah Ta’aala
fulfils the need with this gold.”I took the gold and weighing it
paid the amount of forty uqqiyyah. (Jamul Fawaaid)
From this incident it is evident that Sayyidina Rasulullah
(Sallallahu alaihe wasallam) buying Sayyidina Salmaan (radiallahu anhu) over from slavery meant he had paid the money so that Sayyidina Salmaan (radiallahu anhu) could a makaatab. Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallhu alaihe wasallam) planted the palms with his own hands and gave the gold that was stipulated in the agreement. Sayyidina Salmaan
(radiallahu anhu) says:”I was a slave of ten different people.
In the Battle of Khandaq, a trench was dug according to his
advice, otherwise there was no knowledge of digging trenches.

(21) Hadith Number 7
Abi Nadrah AI-‘Awfee RA. reports: “I asked Abu Sa’eed Khudari Radiyallahu ‘Anhu about the Seal of Prophethood of Rasulullah sallailahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. He said: ‘It was a piece of raised flesh that was on Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam’s back”.

(22) Hadith Number 8
Abdullah bin Sarjas Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says: “I came to Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam while there were people sitting in his company. I went around to the back of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam (The narrator may have done this physically). Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam understood what I was trying to do. He removed the sheet (body wrap) from his back. I saw the place of the Seal of Prophethood between his two shoulders. It was like a cluster surrounded by til (moles) which appeared to be like a wart. I came before Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and said to him. May Allah forgive you (or Allah has forgiven you, as is mentioned in Surah Fath, ‘That Allah may forgive you, your former and your latter sins’). Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam replied: ‘May Allah forgive you too’. The people said to me that Rasulullah Sallallahu’Alayhi Wasallam has made du’aa for your maghfirah (forgiveness). I replied: ‘Yes, and for you too, because Allah Ta’aala has said: ‘O Muhammad, seek forgiveness for yourself and the Mu’min males and females also”‘. (That is why Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam asked for the forgiveness of Muslims).

Hadith Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 57:Companions of the Prophetصلى الله عليه وسلم

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Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 57:

Companions of the Prophetصلى الله عليه وسلم


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 1:

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:

“Allah’s Apostle said, “A time will come upon the people, when a group of people will wage a holy war and it will be said, ‘Is there amongst you anyone who has accompanied Allah’s Apostle?’ They will say, ‘Yes.’ And so victory will be bestowed on them. Then a time will come upon the people when a group of people will wage a holy war, and it will be said, “Is there amongst you a none who has accompanied the companions of Allah’s Apostle?’ They will say, ‘Yes.’ And so victory will be bestowed on them. Then a time will come upon the people when a group of people will wage a holy war, and it will be said, “Is there amongst you anyone who has been in the company of the companions of the companions of Allah’s Apostle ?’ They will say, ‘Yes.’ And victory will be bestowed on them.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 2:

Narrated Imran bin Husain:

“Allah’s Apostle said, ‘The best of my followers are those living in my generation (i.e. my contemporaries). and then those who will follow the latter” ‘Imran added, “I do not remember whether he mentioned two or three generations after his generation, then the Prophet added, ‘There will come after you, people who will bear witness without being asked to do so, and will be treacherous and untrustworthy, and they will vow and never fulfill their vows, and fatness will appear among them.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 3:

Narrated Abdullah:

The Prophet said, “The best people are those living in my generation, and then those who will follow them, and then those who will follow the latter. Then there will come some people who will bear witness before taking oaths, and take oaths before bearing witness.” (Ibrahim, a sub-narrator said, “They used to beat us for witnesses and covenants when we were still children.”)


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 4:

Narrated Al-Bara:

Abu Bakr bought a (camel) saddle from ‘Azib for thirteen Dirhams. Abu Bakr said to ‘Azib, “Tell Al-Bara’ to carry the saddle for me.” ‘Azib said, “No, unless you relate to me what happened to you and Allah ‘s Apostle when you left Mecca while the pagans were in search of you.” Abu Bakr said, “We left Mecca and we travel led continuously for that night and the following day till it was midday. I looked (around) searching for shade to take as shelter, and suddenly I came across a rock, and found a little shade there. So I cleaned the place and spread a bed for the Prophet in the shade and said to him, ‘Lie down, O Allah’s Apostle.’ So the Prophet lay down and I went out, looking around to see if there was any person pursuing us. Suddenly I saw a shepherd driving his sheep towards the rock, seeking what we had already sought from it. I asked him, ‘To whom do you belong, O boy?’ He said, ‘I belong to a man from Quraish.’ He named the man and I recognized him. I asked him, ‘Is there any milk with your sheep?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Will you then milk (some) for us?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ Then I asked him to tie the legs of one of the sheep and clean its udder, and then ordered him to clean his hands from dust. Then the shepherd cleaned his hands by striking his hands against one another. After doing so, he milked a small amount of milk. I used to keep for Allah’s Apostle a leather water-container, the mouth of which was covered with a piece of cloth. I poured water on the milk container till its lower part was cold. Then I took the milk to the Prophet whom I found awake. I said to him, ‘Drink, O Allah’s Apostle.’ So he drank till I became pleased. Then I said, ‘It is time for us to move, O Allahs Apostle!’ He said, ‘Yes.’ So we set out while the people (i.e. Quraish pagans) were searching for us, but none found us except Suraiqa bin Malik bin Jushum who was riding his horse. I said, ‘These are our pursuers who have found us. O Allah’s Apostle!’ He said, ‘Do not grieve, for Allah is with us.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 5:

Narrated Abu Bakr:

I said to the Prophet while I was in the Cave. “If any of them should look under his feet, he would see us.” He said, “O Abu Bakr! What do you think of two (persons) the third of whom is Allah?”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 6:

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:

Allah’s Apostle addressed the people saying, “Allah has given option to a slave to choose this world or what is with Him. The slave has chosen what is with Allah.” Abu Bakr wept, and we were astonished at his weeping caused by what the Prophet mentioned as to a Slave ( of Allah) who had been offered a choice, (we learned later on) that Allah’s Apostle himself was the person who was given the choice, and that Abu Bakr knew best of all of us. Allah’s Apostle added, “The person who has favored me most of all both with his company and wealth, is Abu Bakr. If I were to take a Khalil other than my Lord, I would have taken Abu Bakr as such, but (what relates us) is the Islamic brotherhood and friendliness. All the gates of the Mosque should be closed except the gate of Abu Bakr.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 7:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

We used to compare the people as to who was better during the lifetime of Allah’s Apostle . We used to regard Abu Bakr as the best, then ‘Umar, and then ‘Uthman .


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 8:

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

The Prophet said, “If I were to take a Khalil, I would have taken Abu Bakr, but he is my brother and my companion (in Islam).”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 9:

Narrated Aiyub:

The Prophet said, “If I were to take a Khalil, I would have taken him (i.e. Abu Bakr) as a Khalil, but the Islamic brotherhood is better.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 10:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Abi Mulaika:

The people of Kufa sent a letter to Ibn Az-Zubair, asking about (the inheritance of) (paternal) grandfather. He replied that the right of the inheritance of (paternal) grandfather is the same as that of father if the father is dead) and added, “Allah’s Apostle said, ‘ If I were to take a Khalil from this nation, I would have taken him (i.e. Abu Bakr).”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 11:

Narrated Jubair bin Mutim:

A woman came to the Prophet who ordered her to return to him again. She said, “What if I came and did not find you?” as if she wanted to say, “If I found you dead?” The Prophet said, “If you should not find me, go to Abu Bakr.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 12:

Narrated ‘Ammar:

I saw Allah’s Apostle and there was none with him but five slaves, two women and Abu Bakr (i.e. those were the only converts to Islam then).


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 13:

Narrated Abu Ad-Darda:

While I was sitting with the Prophet, Abu Bakr came, lifting up one corner of h is garment uncovering h is knee. The Prophet said, “Your companion has had a quarrel.” Abu Bakr greeted (the Prophet ) and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! There was something (i.e. quarrel) between me and the Son of Al-Khattab. I talked to him harshly and then regretted that, and requested him to forgive me, but he refused. This is why I have come to you.” The Prophet said thrice, “O Abu Bakr! May Allah forgive you.” In the meanwhile, ‘Umar regretted (his refusal of Abu Bakr’s excuse) and went to Abu Bakr’s house and asked if Abu Bakr was there. They replied in the negative. So he came to the Prophet and greeted him, but signs of displeasure appeared on the face of the Prophet till Abu Bakr pitied (‘Umar), so he knelt and said twice, “O Allah’s Apostle! By Allah! I was more unjust to him (than he to me).” The Prophet said, “Allah sent me (as a Prophet) to you (people) but you said (to me), ‘You are telling a lie,’ while Abu Bakr said, ‘He has said the truth,’ and consoled me with himself and his money.” He then said twice, “Won’t you then give up harming my companion?” After that nobody harmed Abu Bakr.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 14:

Narrated ‘Amr bin Al-As:

The Prophet deputed me to read the Army of Dhat-as-Salasil. I came to him and said, “Who is the most beloved person to you?” He said, ” ‘Aisha.” I asked, “Among the men?” He said, “Her father.” I said, “Who then?” He said, “Then ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab.” He then named other men.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 15:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “While a shepherd was amongst his sheep, a wolf attacked them and took away one sheep. When the shepherd chased the wolf, the wolf turned towards him and said, ‘Who will be its guard on the day of wild animals when nobody except I will be its shepherd. And while a man was driving a cow with a load on it, it turned towards him and spoke to him saying, ‘I have not been created for this purpose, but for ploughing.” The people said, “Glorified be Allah.” The Prophet said, “But I believe in it and so does Abu Bakr end ‘Umar.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 16:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “While I was sleeping, I saw myself standing at a well, on it there was a bucket. I drew water from the well as much as Allah wished. Then Ibn Abi Quhafa (i.e. Abu Bakr) took the bucket from me and brought out one or two buckets (of water) and there was weakness in his drawing the water. May Allah forgive his weakness for him. Then the bucket turned into a very big one and Ibn Al-Khattab took it over and I had never seen such a mighty person amongst the people as him in performing such hard work, till the people drank to their satisfaction and watered their camels that knelt down there.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 17:

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar:

That Allah’s Apostle said, “Allah will not look on the Day of Judgment at him who drags his robe (behind him) out of pride.” Abu Bakr said “One side of my robe slacks down unless I get very cautious about it.” Allah’s Apostle said, “But you do not do that with a pride.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 18:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “Anybody who spends a pair of something in Allah’s Cause will be called from all the gates of Paradise, “O Allah’s slave! This is good.’ He who is amongst those who pray will be called from the gate of the prayer (in Paradise) and he who is from the people of Jihad will be called from the gate of Jihad, and he who is from those’ who give in charity (i.e. Zakat) will be called from the gate of charity, and he who is amongst those who observe fast will be called from the gate of fasting, the gate of Raiyan.” Abu Bakr said, “He who is called from all those gates will need nothing,” He added, “Will anyone be called from all those gates, O Allah’s Apostle?” He said, “Yes, and I hope you will be among those, O Abu Bakr.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 19:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

(the wife of the Prophet) Allah’s Apostle died while Abu Bakr was at a place called As-Sunah (Al-‘Aliya) ‘Umar stood up and said, “By Allah! Allah’s Apostle is not dead!” ‘Umar (later on) said, “By Allah! Nothing occurred to my mind except that.” He said, “Verily! Allah will resurrect him and he will cut the hands and legs of some men.” Then Abu Bakr came and uncovered the face of Allah’s Apostle, kissed him and said, “Let my mother and father be sacrificed for you, (O Allah’s Apostle), you are good in life and in death. By Allah in Whose Hands my life is, Allah will never make you taste death twice.” Then he went out and said, “O oath-taker! Don’t be hasty.” When Abu Bakr spoke, ‘Umar sat down. Abu Bakr praised and glorified Allah and said, No doubt! Whoever worshipped Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead, but whoever worshipped Allah, then Allah is Alive and shall never die.” Then he recited Allah’s Statement.:– “(O Muhammad) Verily you will die, and they also will die.” (39.30) He also recited:–

“Muhammad is no more than an Apostle; and indeed many Apostles have passed away, before him, If he dies Or is killed, will you then Turn back on your heels? And he who turns back On his heels, not the least Harm will he do to Allah And Allah will give reward to those Who are grateful.” (3.144)

The people wept loudly, and the Ansar were assembled with Sad bin ‘Ubada in the shed of Bani Saida. They said (to the emigrants). “There should be one ‘Amir from us and one from you.” Then Abu Bakr, Umar bin Al-Khattab and Abu ‘baida bin Al-Jarrah went to them. ‘Umar wanted to speak but Abu Bakr stopped him. ‘Umar later on used to say, “By Allah, I intended only to say something that appealed to me and I was afraid that Abu Bakr would not speak so well. Then Abu Bakr spoke and his speech was very eloquent. He said in his statement, “We are the rulers and you (Ansars) are the ministers (i.e. advisers),” Hubab bin Al-Mundhir said, “No, by Allah we won’t accept this. But there must be a ruler from us and a ruler from you.” Abu Bakr said, “No, we will be the rulers and you will be the ministers, for they (i.e. Quarish) are the best family amongst the ‘Arabs and of best origin. So you should elect either ‘Umar or Abu ‘Ubaida bin Al-Jarrah as your ruler.” ‘Umar said (to Abu Bakr), “No but we elect you, for you are our chief and the best amongst us and the most beloved of all of us to Allah’s Apostle.” So ‘Umar took Abu Bakr’s hand and gave the pledge of allegiance and the people too gave the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr. Someone said, “You have killed Sad bin Ubada.” ‘Umar said, “Allah has killed him.” ‘Aisha said (in another narration), (“When the Prophet was on his death-bed) he looked up and said thrice, (Amongst) the Highest Companion (See Qur’an 4.69)’ Aisha said, Allah benefited the people by their two speeches. ‘Umar frightened the people some of whom were hypocrites whom Allah caused to abandon Islam because of ‘Umar’s speech. Then Abu Bakr led the people to True Guidance and acquainted them with the right path they were to follow so that they went out reciting:– “Muhammad is no more than an Apostle and indeed many Apostles have passed away before him..” (3.144)


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 20:

Narrated Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiya:

I asked my father (‘Ali bin Abi Talib), “Who are the best people after Allah’s Apostle ?” He said, “Abu Bakr.” I asked, “Who then?” He said, “Then ‘Umar. ” I was afraid he would say “Uthman, so I said, “Then you?” He said, “I am only an ordinary person.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 21:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

We went out with Allah’s Apostle on one of his journeys till we reached Al-Baida or Dhatul-Jaish where my necklace got broken (and lost). Allah’s Apostle stopped to search for it and the people too stopped with him. There was no water at that place and they had no water with them. So they went to Abu Bakr and said, “Don’t you see what ‘Aisha has done? She has made Allah’s Apostle and the people stop where there is no water and they have no water with them. Abu Bakr came while Allah’s Apostle was sleeping with his head on my thigh and said, “You detained Allah Apostle and the people where there is no water and they have no water.” He then admonished me and said what Allah wished and pinched me at my flanks with his hands, but I did not move because the head of Allah’s Apostle was on my thigh .

Allah’s Apostle kept on sleeping till be got up in the morning and found no water. Then Allah revealed the Divine Verse of Tayammum, and the people performed Tayammum. Usaid bin AlHudair said. “O family of Abu Bakr! This is not the first blessings of yours.” We urged the camel on which I was sitting to get up from its place and the necklace was found under it.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 22:

Narrated Abu Said:

The Prophet said, “Do not abuse my companions for if any one of you spent gold equal to Uhud (in Allah’s Cause) it would not be equal to a Mud or even a half Mud spent by one of them.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 23:

Narrated Abu Musa Al-Ashari:

I performed ablution in my house and then went out and said, “Today I shall stick to Allah’s Apostle and stay with him all this day of mine (in his service).” I went to the Mosque and asked about the Prophet . They said, “He had gone in this direction.” So I followed his way, asking about him till he entered a place called Bir Aris. I sat at its gate that was made of date-palm leaves till the Prophet finished answering the call of nature and performed ablution. Then I went up to him to see him sitting at the well of Aris at the middle of its edge with his legs uncovered, hanging in the well. I greeted him and went back and sat at the gate. I said, “Today I will be the gatekeeper of the Prophet.” Abu Bakr came and pushed the gate. I asked, “Who is it?” He said, “Abu Bakr.” I told him to wait, went in and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Abu Bakr asks for permission to enter.” He said, “Admit him and give him the glad tidings that he will be in Paradise.” So I went out and said to Abu Bakr, “Come in, and Allah’s Apostle gives you the glad tidings that you will be in Paradise” Abu Bakr entered and sat on the right side of Allah’s Apostle on the built edge of the well and hung his legs n the well as the Prophet did and uncovered his legs. I then returned and sat (at the gate). I had left my brother performing ablution and he intended to follow me. So I said (to myself). “If Allah wants good for so-and-so (i.e. my brother) He will bring him here.” Suddenly somebody moved the door. I asked, “Who is it?” He said, “‘Umar bin Al-Khattab.” I asked him to wait, went to Allah’s Apostle, greeted him and said, ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab asks the permission to enter.” He said, “Admit him, and give him the glad tidings that he will be in Paradise.” I went to “Umar and said “Come in, and Allah’s Apostle, gives you the glad tidings that you will be in Paradise.” So he entered and sat beside Allah’s Apostle on the built edge of the well on the left side and hung his legs in the well. I returned and sat (at the gate) and said, (to myself), “If Allah wants good for so-and-so, He will bring him here.” Somebody came and moved the door. I asked “Who is it?” He replied, “Uthman bin Affan.” I asked him to wait and went to the Prophet and informed him. He said, “Admit him, and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise, I asked him to wait and went to the Prophet and informed him. He said, “Adult him, and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise after a calamity that will befall him.” So I went up to him and said to him, “Come in; Allah’s Apostle gives you the glad tidings of entering Paradise after a calamity that will befall you. “Uthman then came in and found that the built edge of the well was occupied, so he sat opposite to the Prophet on the other side. Said bin Al-Musaiyab said, “I interpret this (narration) in terms of their graves.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 24:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

The Prophet once climbed the mountain of Uhud with Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman. The mountain shook with them. The Prophet said (to the mountain), “Be firm, O Uhud! For on you there are no more than a Prophet, a Siddiq and two martyrs.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 25:

Narrated Abdullah bin Umar: Allah’s Apostle said. “While (in a dream), I was standing by a well, drawing water from it. Abu Bakr and ‘Umar came to me. Abu Bakr took the bucket (from me) and drew one or two buckets of water, and there was some weakness


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 26:

Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

While I was standing amongst the people who were invoking Allah for Umar bin Al-Khattab who was lying (dead) on his bed, a man behind me rested his elbows on my shoulder and said, “(O ‘Umar!) May Allah bestow His Mercy on you. I always hoped that Allah will keep you with your two companions, for I often heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar were (somewhere). I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar did (something). I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar set out.’ So I hoped that Allah will keep you with both of them.” I turned back to see that the speaker was Ali bin Abi Talib.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 27:

Narrated ‘Urwa bin Az-Zubair:

I asked ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr, “What was the worst thing the pagans did to Allah’s Apostle?” He said, “I saw ‘Uqba bin Abi Mu’ait coming to the Prophet while he was praying.’ Uqba put his sheet round the Prophet’s neck and squeezed it very severely. Abu Bakr came and pulled ‘Uqba away from the Prophet and said, “Do you intend to kill a man just because he says: ‘My Lord is Allah, and he has brought forth to you the Evident Signs from your Lord?”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 28:

Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah:

The Prophet said, “I saw myself (in a dream) entering Paradise, and behold! I saw Ar-Rumaisa’, Abu Talha’s wife. I heard footsteps. I asked, Who is it? Somebody said, ‘It is Bilal ‘ Then I saw a palace and a lady sitting in its courtyard. I asked, ‘For whom is this palace?’ Somebody replied, ‘It is for ‘Umar.’ I intended to enter it and see it, but I thought of your (‘Umar’s) Ghira (and gave up the attempt).” ‘Umar said, “Let my parents be sacrificed for you, O Allah’s Apostle! How dare I think of my Ghira (self-respect) being offended by you?


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 29:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

While we were with Allah’s Apostle he said, “While I was sleeping, I saw myself in Paradise, and suddenly I saw a woman performing ablution beside a palace. I asked, ‘For whom is this palace?’ They replied, ‘It is for ‘Umar.’ Then I remembered ‘Umar’s Ghira (self-respect) and went away quickly.” Umar wept and Said, O Allah’s Apostle! How dare I think of my ghira (self-respect) being offended by you?


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 30:

Narrated Hamza’s father:

Allah’s Apostle said, “While I was sleeping, I saw myself drinking (i.e. milk), and I was so contented that I saw the milk flowing through my nails. Then I gave (the milk) to ‘Umar.” They (i.e. the companions of the Prophet) asked, “What do you interpret it?” He said, “Knowledge.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 31:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar:

The Prophet said, “In a dream I saw myself drawing water from a well with a bucket. Abu Bakr came and drew a bucket or two weakly. May Allah forgive him. Then ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab came and the bucket turned into a very large one in his hands. I had never seen such a mighty person as he in doing such hard work till all the people drank to their satisfaction and watered their camels that knelt down there.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 32:

Narrated Sad bin Abi Waqqas:

Umar bin Al-Khattab asked the permission of Allah’s Apostle to see him while some Quraishi women were sitting with him, talking to him and asking him for more expenses, raising their voices above the voice of Allah’s Apostle.

When ‘Umar asked for the permission to enter, the women quickly put on their veils. Allah’� Apostle allowed him to enter and ‘Umar came in while Allah’s Apostle was smiling, ‘Umar said “O Allah’s Apostle! May Allah always keep you smiling.” The Prophet said, “These women who have been here, roused my wonder, for as soon as they heard your voice, they quickly put on their veils. “‘Umar said, “O Allah’s Apostle! You have more right to be feared by them than I.” Then ‘Umar addressed the women saying, “O enemies of yourselves! You fear me more than you do Allah’s Apostle ?” They said, “Yes, for you are harsher and sterner than Allah’s Apostle.” Then Allah’s Apostle said, “O Ibn Al-Khattab! By Him in Whose Hands my life is! Never does Satan find you going on a way, but he takes another way other than yours.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 33:

Narrated Abdullah:

We have been powerful since ‘Umar embraced Islam.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 34:

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

When (the dead body of) ‘Umar was put on his deathbed, the people gathered around him and invoked (Allah) and prayed for him before the body was taken away, and I was amongst them. Suddenly I felt somebody taking hold of my shoulder and found out that he was ‘Ali bin Abi Talib. ‘Ali invoked Allah’s Mercy for ‘Umar and said, “O ‘Umar! You have not left behind you a person whose deeds I like to imitate and meet Allah with more than I like your deeds. By Allah! I always thought that Allah would keep you with your two companions, for very often I used to hear the Prophet saying, ‘I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar went (somewhere); I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar entered (somewhere); and I, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar went out.”‘


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 35:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

The Prophet ascended the mountain of Uhud and he was accompanied by Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman. The mountain shook beneath them. The Prophet hit it with his foot and said, “O Uhud ! Be firm, for on you there is none but a Prophet, a Siddiq and a martyr (i.e. and two martyrs).


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 36:

Narrated Aslam:

Ibn ‘Umar asked me about some matters concerning ‘Umar. He said, “Since Allah’s Apostle died. I have never seen anybody more serious, hard working and generous than ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (till the end of his life.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 37:

Narrated Anas:

A man asked the Prophet about the Hour (i.e. Day of Judgment) saying, “When will the Hour be?” The Prophet said, “What have you prepared for it?” The man said, “Nothing, except that I love Allah and His Apostle.” The Prophet said, “You will be with those whom you love.” We had never been so glad as we were on hearing that saying of the Prophet (i.e., “You will be with those whom you love.”) Therefore, I love the Prophet, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar, and I hope that I will be with them because of my love for them though my deeds are not similar to theirs.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 38:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Apostle said, “Among the nations before you there used to be people who were inspired (though they were not prophets). And if there is any of such a persons amongst my followers, it is ‘Umar.”

Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, “Among the nation of Bani Israel who lived before you, there were men who used to be inspired with guidance though they were not prophets, and if there is any of such persons amongst my followers, it is ‘Umar.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 39:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Apostle said, “Whilst a shepherd was amongst his sheep, a wolf attacked them and took away a sheep. The shepherd chased it and got that sheep freed from the wolf. The wolf turned towards the shepherd and said, ‘Who will guard the sheep on the day of wild animals when it will have no shepherd except myself?” The people said, “Glorified be Allah.” The Prophet said, “But I believe in it and so do Abu Bakr and ‘Umar although Abu Bakr and ‘Umar were not present there (at the place of the event).


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 40:

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:

I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “While I was sleeping, the people were presented to me (in a dream). They were wearing shirts, some of which were merely covering their (chests). and some were a bit longer. ‘Umar was presented before me and his shirt was so long that he was dragging it.” They asked, “How have you interpreted it, O Allah’s Apostle?” He said, “Religion.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 41:

Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:

When ‘Umar was stabbed, he showed signs of agony. Ibn ‘Abbas, as if intending to encourage ‘Umar, said to him, “O Chief of the believers! Never mind what has happened to you, for you have been in the company of Allah’s Apostle and you kept good relations with him and you parted with him while he was pleased with you. Then you were in the company of Abu Bakr and kept good relations with him and you parted with him (i.e. he died) while he was pleased with you. Then you were in the company of the Muslims, and you kept good relations with them, and if you leave them, you will leave them while they are pleased with you.” ‘Umar said, (to Ibn “Abbas), “As for what you have said about the company of Allah’s Apostle and his being pleased with me, it is a favor, Allah did to me; and as for what you have said about the company of Abu Bakr and his being pleased with me, it is a favor Allah did to me; and concerning my impatience which you see, is because of you and your companions. By Allah! If (at all) I had gold equal to the earth, I would have ransomed myself with it from the Punishment of Allah before I meet Him.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 42:

Narrated Abu Musa:

While I was with the Prophet in one of the gardens of Medina, a man came and asked me to open the gate. The Prophet said to me, “Open the gate for him and give him the glad tidings that he will enter Paradise.” I opened (the gate) for him, and behold! It was Abu Bakr. I informed him of the glad tidings the Prophet had said, and he praised Allah. Then another man came and asked me to open the gate. The Prophet said to me “Open (the gate) and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise.” I opened (the gate) for him, and behold! It was ‘Umar. I informed him of what the Prophet had said, and he praised Allah. Then another man came and asked me to open the gate. The Prophet said to me. “Open (the gate) for him and inform him of the glad tidings, of entering Paradise with a calamity which will befall him. ” Behold ! It was ‘Uthman, I informed him of what Allah’s Apostle had said. He praised Allah and said, “I seek Allah’s Aid.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 43:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Hisham:

We were with the Prophet while he was holding ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab by the hand.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 44:

Narrated Abu Musa:

The Prophet entered a garden and ordered me to guard its gate. A man came and asked permission to enter. The Prophet said, “Admit him and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise.” Behold! It was Abu Bakr. Another man came and asked the permission to enter. The Prophet said, “Admit him and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise.” Behold! It was ‘Umar. Then another man came, asking the permission to enter. The Prophet kept silent for a short while and then said, “Admit him and give him the glad tidings of entering Paradise with a calamity which will befall him.” Behold! It was ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan. ‘Asim, in another narration, said that the Prophet was sitting in a place where there was water, and he was uncovering both his knees or his knee, and when ‘Uthman entered, he covered them (or it).


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 45:

Narrated ‘Ubaid-ullah bin ‘Adi bin Al-Khiyar:

Al-Miswar bin Makhrama and ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Al-Aswad bin ‘Abu Yaghuth said (to me), “What forbids you to talk to ‘Uthman about his brother Al-Walid because people have talked much about him?” So I went to ‘Uthman and when he went out for prayer I said (to him), “I have something to say to you and it is a piece of advice for you ” ‘Uthman said, “O man, from you.” (Umar said: I see that he said, “I seek Refuge with Allah from you.”) So I left him and went to them. Then the messenger of Uthman came and I went to him (i.e. ‘Uthman), ‘Uthman asked, “What is your advice?” I replied, “Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth, and revealed the Divine Book (i.e. Quran) to him; and you were amongst those who followed Allah and His Apostle, and you participated in the two migrations (to Ethiopia and to Medina) and enjoyed the company of Allah’s Apostle and saw his way. No doubt, the people are talking much about Al-Walid.” ‘Uthman said, “Did you receive your knowledge directly from Allah’s Apostle ?” I said, “No, but his knowledge did reach me and it reached (even) to a virgin in her seclusion.” ‘Uthman said, “And then Allah sent Muhammad with the Truth and I was amongst those who followed Allah and His Apostle and I believed in what ever he (i.e. the Prophet) was sent with, and participated in two migrations, as you have said, and I enjoyed the company of Allah’s Apostle and gave the pledge of allegiance him. By Allah! I never disobeyed him, nor did I cheat him till Allah took him unto Him. Then I treated Abu Bakr and then ‘Umar similarly and then I was made Caliph. So, don’t I have rights similar to theirs?” I said, “Yes.” He said, “Then what are these talks reaching me from you people? Now, concerning what you mentioned about the question of Al-Walid, Allah willing, I shall deal with him according to what is right.” Then he called ‘Ali and ordered him to flog him, and ‘Ali flogged him (i.e. Al-Walid) eighty lashes.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 46:

Narrated Anas:

Allah’s Apostle ascended the (mountain) of Uhud with Abu Bakr and ‘Uthman and it shook. Allah’s Apostle said, “Be calm, O Uhud!” I think he stroked it with his foot and added, “There is none on you but a Prophet, a Siddiq and two martyrs.” (The two martyrs were Umar and Uthman) (See Hadith No. 24)


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 47:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

During the lifetime of the Prophet we considered Abu Bakr as peerless and then ‘Umar and then ‘Uthman (coming next to him in superiority) and then we used not to differentiate between the companions of the Prophet


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 48:

Narrated ‘Uthman:

(the son of Muhib) An Egyptian who came and performed the Hajj to the Kaba saw some people sitting. He enquire, “Who are these people?” Somebody said, “They are the tribe of Quraish.” He said, “Who is the old man sitting amongst them?” The people replied, “He is ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar.” He said, “O Ibn Umar! I want to ask you about something; please tell me about it. Do you know that ‘Uthman fled away on the day (of the battle) of Uhud?” Ibn ‘Umar said, “Yes.” The (Egyptian) man said, “Do you know that ‘Uthman was absent on the day (of the battle) of Badr and did not join it?” Ibn ‘Umar said, “Yes.” The man said, “Do you know that he failed to attend the Ar Ridwan pledge and did not witness it (i.e. Hudaibiya pledge of allegiance)?” Ibn ‘Umar said, “Yes.” The man said, “Allahu Akbar!” Ibn ‘Umar said, “Let me explain to you (all these three things). As for his flight on the day of Uhud, I testify that Allah has excused him and forgiven him; and as for his absence from the battle of Badr, it was due to the fact that the daughter of Allah’s Apostle was his wife and she was sick then. Allah’s Apostle said to him, “You will receive the same reward and share (of the booty) as anyone of those who participated in the battle of Badr (if you stay with her).’ As for his absence from the Ar-Ridwan pledge of allegiance, had there been any person in Mecca more respectable than ‘Uthman (to be sent as a representative). Allah’s Apostle would have sent him instead of him. No doubt, Allah’s Apostle had sent him, and the incident of the Ar-Ridwan pledge of Allegiance happened after ‘Uthman had gone to Mecca. Allah’s Apostle held out his right hand saying, ‘This is ‘Uthman’s hand.’ He stroke his (other) hand with it saying, ‘This (pledge of allegiance) is on the behalf of ‘Uthman.’ Then Ibn ‘Umar said to the man, ‘Bear (these) excuses in mind with you.’


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 49:

Narrated Anas:

The Prophet ascended the mountain of Uhud and Abu Bakr, ‘Umar and ‘Uthman were accompanying him. The mountain gave a shake (i.e. trembled underneath them) . The Prophet said, “O Uhud ! Be calm.” I think that the Prophet hit it with his foot, adding, “For upon you there are none but a Prophet, a Siddiq and two martyrs.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 50:

Narrated ‘Amr bin Maimun:

I saw ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab a few days before he was stabbed in Medina. He was standing with Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman and ‘Uthman bin Hunaif to whom he said, “What have you done? Do you think that you have imposed more taxation on the land (of As-Swad i.e. ‘Iraq) than it can bear?” They replied, “We have imposed on it what it can bear because of its great yield.” ‘Umar again said, “Check whether you have imposed on the land what it can not bear.” They said, “No, (we haven’t).” ‘Umar added, “If Allah should keep me alive I will let the widows of Iraq need no men to support them after me.” But only four days had elapsed when he was stabbed (to death ). The day he was stabbed, I was standing and there was nobody between me and him (i.e. Umar) except Abdullah bin ‘Abbas. Whenever Umar passed between the two rows, he would say, “Stand in straight lines.”

When he saw no defect (in the rows), he would go forward and start the prayer with Takbir. He would recite Surat Yusuf or An-Nahl or the like in the first Rak’a so that the people may have the time to Join the prayer. As soon as he said Takbir, I heard him saying, “The dog has killed or eaten me,” at the time he (i.e. the murderer) stabbed him. A non-Arab infidel proceeded on carrying a double-edged knife and stabbing all the persons he passed by on the right and left (till) he stabbed thirteen persons out of whom seven died. When one of the Muslims saw that, he threw a cloak on him. Realizing that he had been captured, the non-Arab infidel killed himself, ‘Umar held the hand of ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Auf and let him lead the prayer.

Those who were standing by the side of ‘Umar saw what I saw, but the people who were in the other parts of the Mosque did not see anything, but they lost the voice of ‘Umar and they were saying, “Subhan Allah! Subhan Allah! (i.e. Glorified be Allah).” Abdur-Rahman bin Auf led the people a short prayer. When they finished the prayer, ‘Umar said, “O Ibn ‘Abbas! Find out who attacked me.” Ibn ‘Abbas kept on looking here and there for a short time and came to say. “The slave of Al Mughira.” On that ‘Umar said, “The craftsman?” Ibn ‘Abbas said, “Yes.” ‘Umar said, “May Allah curse him. I did not treat him unjustly. All the Praises are for Allah Who has not caused me to die at the hand of a man who claims himself to be a Muslim. No doubt, you and your father (Abbas) used to love to have more non-Arab infidels in Medina.” Al-Abbas had the greatest number of slaves. Ibn ‘Abbas said to ‘Umar. “If you wish, we will do.” He meant, “If you wish we will kill them.” ‘Umar said, “You are mistaken (for you can’t kill them) after they have spoken your language, prayed towards your Qibla, and performed Hajj like yours.”

Then Umar was carried to his house, and we went along with him, and the people were as if they had never suffered a calamity before. Some said, “Do not worry (he will be Alright soon).” Some said, “We are afraid (that he will die).” Then an infusion of dates was brought to him and he drank it but it came out (of the wound) of his belly. Then milk was brought to him and he drank it, and it also came out of his belly. The people realized that he would die. We went to him, and the people came, praising him. A young man came saying, “O chief of the believers! Receive the glad tidings from Allah to you due to your company with Allah’s Apostle and your superiority in Islam which you know. Then you became the ruler (i.e. Caliph) and you ruled with justice and finally you have been martyred.” ‘Umar said, “I wish that all these privileges will counterbalance (my shortcomings) so that I will neither lose nor gain anything.”

When the young man turned back to leave, his clothes seemed to be touching the ground. ‘Umar said, “Call the young man back to me.” (When he came back) ‘Umar said, “O son of my brother! Lift your clothes, for this will keep your clothes clean and save you from the Punishment of your Lord.” ‘Umar further said, “O ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar! See how much I am in debt to others.” When the debt was checked, it amounted to approximately eighty-six thousand. ‘Umar said, “If the property of ‘Umar’s family covers the debt, then pay the debt thereof; otherwise request it from Bani ‘Adi bin Ka’b, and if that too is not sufficient, ask for it from Quraish tribe, and do not ask for it from any one else, and pay this debt on my behalf.”

‘Umar then said (to ‘Abdullah), “Go to ‘Aisha (the mother of the believers) and say: “Umar is paying his salutation to you. But don’t say: ‘The chief of the believers,’ because today I am not the chief of the believers. And say: “Umar bin Al-Khattab asks the permission to be buried with his two companions (i.e. the Prophet, and Abu Bakr).” Abdullah greeted ‘Aisha and asked for the permission for entering, and then entered to her and found her sitting and weeping. He said to her, “‘Umar bin Al-Khattab is paying his salutations to you, and asks the permission to be buried with his two companions.” She said, “I had the idea of having this place for myself, but today I prefer Umar to myself.” When he returned it was said (to ‘Umar), “‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar has come.” ‘Umar said, “Make me sit up.” Somebody supported him against his body and ‘Umar asked (‘Abdullah), “What news do you have?” He said, “O chief of the believers! It is as you wish. She has given the permission.” ‘Umar said, “Praise be to Allah, there was nothing more important to me than this. So when I die, take me, and greet ‘Aisha and say: “Umar bin Al-Khattab asks the permission (to be buried with the Prophet ), and if she gives the permission, bury me there, and if she refuses, then take me to the grave-yard of the Muslims.”

Then Hafsa (the mother of the believers) came with many other women walking with her. When we saw her, we went away. She went in (to ‘Umar) and wept there for sometime. When the men asked for permission to enter, she went into another place, and we heard her weeping inside. The people said (to ‘Umar), “O chief of the believers! Appoint a successor.” Umar said, “I do not find anyone more suitable for the job than the following persons or group whom Allah’s Apostle had been pleased with before he died.” Then ‘Umar mentioned ‘Ali, ‘Uthman, AzZubair, Talha, Sad and ‘Abdur-Rahman (bin Auf) and said, “Abdullah bin ‘Umar will be a witness to you, but he will have no share in the rule. His being a witness will compensate him for not sharing the right of ruling. If Sad becomes the ruler, it will be alright: otherwise, whoever becomes the ruler should seek his help, as I have not dismissed him because of disability or dishonesty.” ‘Umar added, “I recommend that my successor takes care of the early emigrants; to know their rights and protect their honor and sacred things.

I also recommend that he be kind to the Ansar who had lived in Medina before the emigrants and Belief had entered their hearts before them. I recommend that the (ruler) should accept the good of the righteous among them and excuse their wrong-doers, and I recommend that he should do good to all the people of the towns (Al-Ansar), as they are the protectors of Islam and the source of wealth and the source of annoyance to the enemy. I also recommend that nothing be taken from them except from their surplus with their consent. I also recommend that he do good to the ‘Arab bedouin, as they are the origin of the ‘Arabs and the material of Islam. He should take from what is inferior, amongst their properties and distribute that to the poor amongst them. I also recommend him concerning Allah’s and His Apostle’s protectees (i.e. Dhimmis) to fulfill their contracts and to fight for them and not to overburden them with what is beyond their ability.” So when ‘Umar expired, we carried him out and set out walking. ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar greeted (‘Aisha) and said, “‘Umar bin Al-Khattab asks for the permission.” ‘Aisha said, “Bring him in.” He was brought in and buried beside his two companions.

When he was buried, the group (recommended by ‘Umar) held a meeting. Then ‘Abdur-Rahman said, ” Reduce the candidates for rulership to three of you.” Az-Zubair said, “I give up my right to Ali.” Talha said, “I give up my right to ‘Uthman,” Sad, ‘I give up my right to ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf.” ‘Abdur-Rahman then said (to ‘Uthman and ‘Ali), “Now which of you is willing to give up his right of candidacy to that he may choose the better of the (remaining) two, bearing in mind that Allah and Islam will be his witnesses.” So both the sheiks (i.e. ‘Uthman and ‘Ali) kept silent. ‘Abdur-Rahman said, “Will you both leave this matter to me, and I take Allah as my Witness that I will not choose but the better of you?” They said, “Yes.” So ‘Abdur-Rahman took the hand of one of them (i.e. ‘Ali) and said, “You are related to Allah’s Apostle and one of the earliest Muslims as you know well. So I ask you by Allah to promise that if I select you as a ruler you will do justice, and if I select ‘Uthman as a ruler you will listen to him and obey him.” Then he took the other (i.e. ‘Uthman) aside and said the same to him. When ‘Abdur-Rahman secured (their agreement to) this covenant, he said, “O ‘Uthman! Raise your hand.” So he (i.e. ‘Abdur-Rahman) gave him (i.e. ‘Uthman) the solemn pledge, and then ‘Ali gave him the pledge of allegiance and then all the (Medina) people gave him the pledge of allegiance.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 51:

Narrated Sahl bin Sad:

Allah’s Apostle said, “Tomorrow I will give the flag to a man with whose leadership Allah will grant (the Muslim) victory.” So the people kept on thinking the whole night as to who would be given the flag. The next morning the people went to Allah’s Apostle and every one of them hoped that he would be given the flag. The Prophet said, “Where is Ali bin Abi Talib?” The people replied, “He is suffering from eye trouble, O Allah’s Apostle.” He said, “Send for him and bring him to me.” So when ‘Ali came, the Prophet spat in his eyes and invoked good on him, and he became alright as if he had no ailment. The Prophet then gave him the flag. ‘Ali said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Shall I fight them (i.e. enemy) till they become like us?” The Prophet said, “Proceed to them steadily till you approach near to them and then invite them to Islam and inform them of their duties towards Allah which Islam prescribes for them, for by Allah, if one man is guided on the right path (i.e. converted to Islam) through you, it would be better for you than (a great number of) red camels.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 52:

Narrated Salama:

Ali happened to stay behind the Prophet and (did not join him) during the battle of Khaibar for he was having eye trouble. Then he said, “How could I remain behind Allah’s Apostle?” So ‘Ali set out following the Prophet , When it was the eve of the day in the morning of which Allah helped (the Muslims) to conquer it, Allah’s Apostle said, “I will give the flag (to a man), or tomorrow a man whom Allah and His Apostle love will take the flag,” or said, “A man who loves Allah and His Apostle; and Allah will grant victory under his leadership.” Suddenly came ‘Ali whom we did not expect. The people said, “This is ‘Ali.” Allah’s Apostle gave him the flag and Allah granted victory under his leadership.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 53:

Narrated Abu Hazim:

A man came to Sahl bin Sad and said, “This is so-and-so,” meaning the Governor of Medina, “He is calling ‘Ali bad names near the pulpit.” Sahl asked, “What is he saying?” He (i.e. the man) replied, “He calls him (i.e. ‘Ali) Abu Turab.” Sahl laughed and said, “By Allah, none but the Prophet called him by this name and no name was dearer to ‘Ali than this.” So I asked Sahl to tell me more, saying, “O Abu ‘Abbas! How (was this name given to ‘Ali)?” Sahl said, “‘Ali went to Fatima and then came out and slept in the Mosque. The Prophet asked Fatima, “Where is your cousin?” She said, “In the Mosque.” The Prophet went to him and found that his (i.e. Ali’s) covering sheet had slipped of his back and dust had soiled his back. The Prophet started wiping the dust off his back and said twice, “Get up! O Abu Turab (i.e. O. man with the dust).”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 54:

Narrated Sad bin ‘Ubaida:

A man came to Ibn ‘Umar and asked about ‘Uthman and Ibn ‘Umar mentioned his good deeds and said to the questioner. “Perhaps these facts annoy you?” The other said, “Yes.” Ibn ‘Umar said, “May Allah stick your nose in the dust (i.e. degrade you)!’ Then the man asked him about ‘Ali. Ibn ‘Umar mentioned his good deeds and said, “It is all true, and that is his house in the midst of the houses of the Prophet. Perhaps these facts have hurt you?” The questioner said, “Yes.” Ibn ‘Umar said, “May Allah stick your nose in the dust (i.e. degrade you or make you do things which you hate) ! Go away and do whatever you can against me.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 55:

Narrated ‘Ali:

Fatima complained of the suffering caused to her by the hand mill. Some Captives were brought to the Prophet, she came to him but did not find him at home ‘Aisha was present there to whom she told (of her desire for a servant). When the Prophet came, Aisha informed him about Fatima’s visit. Ali added “So the Prophet came to us, while we had gone to our bed I wanted to get up but the Prophet said, “Remain at your place”. Then he sat down between us till I found the coolness of his feet on my chest. Then he said, “Shall I teach you a thing which is better than what you have asked me? When you go to bed, say, ‘Allahu-Akbar’ thirty-four times, and ‘Subhan Allah thirty-three times, and ‘Alhamdu-lillah thirty-three times for that is better for you both than a servant.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 56:

Narrated Ubaida:

Ali said (to the people of ‘Iraq), “Judge as you used to judge, for I hate differences (and I do my best ) till the people unite as one group, or I die as my companions have died.” And narrated Sad that the Prophet said to ‘Ali, “Will you not be pleased from this that you are to me like Aaron was to Moses?”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 57:

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The people used to say, “Abu Huraira narrates too many narrations.” In fact I used to keep close to Allah’s Apostle and was satisfied with what filled my stomach. I ate no leavened bread and dressed no decorated striped clothes, and never did a man or a woman serve me, and I often used to press my belly against gravel because of hunger, and I used to ask a man to recite a Quranic Verse to me although I knew it, so that he would take me to his home and feed me. And the most generous of all the people to the poor was Ja’far bin Abi Talib. He used to take us to his home and offer us what was available therein. He would even offer us an empty folded leather container (of butter) which we would split and lick whatever was in it.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 58:

Narrated Ash-Sha’bi:

Whenever Ibn ‘Umar greeted Ibn Jafar, he used to say: “As-salamu-‘Alaika (i.e. Peace be on you) O son of Dhu-l-Janahain (son of the two-winged person).”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 59:

Narrated Anas:

Whenever there was drought, ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab used to ask Allah for rain through Al’Abbas bin ‘Abdul Muttalib, saying, “O Allah! We used to request our Prophet to ask You for rain, and You would give us. Now we request the uncle of our Prophet to ask You for rain, so give us rain.” And they would be given rain.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 60:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

Fatima sent somebody to Abu Bakr asking him to give her her inheritance from the Prophet from what Allah had given to His Apostle through Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting). She asked for the Sadaqa (i.e. wealth assigned for charitable purposes) of the Prophet at Medina, and Fadak, and what remained of the Khumus (i.e., one-fifth) of the Khaibar booty. Abu Bakr said, “Allah’s Apostle said, ‘We (Prophets), our property is not inherited, and whatever we leave is Sadaqa, but Muhammad’s Family can eat from this property, i.e. Allah’s property, but they have no right to take more than the food they need.’ By Allah! I will not bring any change in dealing with the Sadaqa of the Prophet (and will keep them) as they used to be observed in his (i.e. the Prophet’s) life-time, and I will dispose with it as Allah’s Apostle used to do,” Then ‘Ali said, “I testify that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and that Muhammad is His Apostle,” and added, “O Abu Bakr! We acknowledge your superiority.” Then he (i.e. ‘Ali) mentioned their own relationship to Allah’s Apostle and their right. Abu Bakr then spoke saying, “By Allah in Whose Hands my life is. I love to do good to the relatives of Allah’s Apostle rather than to my own relatives” Abu Bark added: Look at Muhammad through his family (i.e. if you are no good to his family you are not good to him).


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 61:

Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:

Allah’s Apostle said, “Fatima is a part of me, and he who makes her angry, makes me angry.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 62:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

The Prophet called his daughter Fatima during his illness in which he died, and told her a secret whereupon she wept. Then he called her again and told her a secret whereupon she laughed. When I asked her about that, she replied, “The Prophet spoke to me in secret and informed me that he would die in the course of the illness during which he died, so I wept. He again spoke to me in secret and informed me that I would be the first of his family to follow him (after his death) and on that I laughed.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 63:

Narrated Marwan bin Al-Hakam:

‘Uthman bin ‘Affan was afflicted with severe nose-bleeding in the year when such illness was prevelant and that prevented him from performing Hajj, and (because of it) he made his will. A man from Quraish came to him and said, “Appoint your successor.” ‘Uthman asked, “Did the people name him? (i.e. the successor) the man said, “Yes.” Uthman asked, “Who is that?” The man remained silent. Another man came to ‘Uthman and I think it was Al-Harith. He also said, “Appoint your successor.” ‘Uthman asked, “Did the people name him?” The man replied “Yes.” ‘Uthman said, “Who is that?” The man remained silent. ‘Uthman said, “Perhaps they have mentioned Az-Zubair?” The man said, “Yes.” ‘Uthman said, “By Him in Whose Hands my life is, he is the best of them as I know, and the dearest of them to Allah’s Apostle .”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 64:

Narrated Marwan bin Al-Hakam:

While I was with ‘Uthman, a man came to him and said, “Appoint your successor.” ‘Uthman said, “Has such successor been named?” He replied, “Yes, Az-Zubair.” ‘Uthman said, thrice, “By Allah! Indeed you know that he is the best of you.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 65:

Narrated Jabir:

The Prophet said, “Every prophet used to have a Hawari (i.e. disciple), and my Hawari is Az-Zubair bin Al-‘Awwam.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 66:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Az-Zubair:

During the battle of Al-Ahzab, I and ‘Umar bin Abi-Salama were kept behind with the women. Behold! I saw (my father) Az-Zubair riding his horse, going to and coming from Bani Quraiza twice or thrice. So when I came back I said, “O my father! I saw you going to and coming from Bani Quraiza?” He said, “Did you really see me, O my son?” I said, “Yes.” He said, “Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Who will go to Bani Quraiza and bring me their news?’ So I went, and when I came back, Allah’s Apostle mentioned for me both his parents saying, “Let my father and mother be sacrificed for you.”‘


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 67:

Narrated ‘Urwa:

On the day of the battle of Al-Yarmuk, the companions of the Prophet said to Az-Zubair, “Will you attack the enemy vigorously so that we may attack them along with you?” So Az-Zubair attacked them, and they inflicted two wounds over his shoulder, and in between these two wounds there was an old scar he had received on the day of the battle of Badr When I was a child, I used to insert my fingers into those scars in play.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 68:

Narrated ‘Umar:

“Before the Prophet died, he was pleased with him (Talha bin ‘Ubaidullah).”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 69:

Narrated Abu ‘Uthman:

During one of the Ghazawat in which Allah’s Apostle was fighting, none remained with the Prophet but Talha and Sad.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 70:

Narrated Qais bin Abi Hazim:

I saw Talha’s paralyzed hand with which he had protected the Prophet (from an arrow) .


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 71:

Narrated Sad: On the day of the battle of Uhud the Prophet mentioned for me both hi


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 72:

Narrated Sad:

No doubt, (for some time) I stood for one-third of the Muslims.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 73:

Narrated Sad bin Abi Waqqas:

No man embraced Islam before the day on which I embraced Islam, and no doubt, I remained for seven days as one third of the then extant Muslims.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 74:

Narrated Qais:

I heard Sad saying, “I was the first amongst the ‘Arabs who shot an arrow for Allah’s Cause. We used to fight along with the Prophets, while we had nothing to eat except the leaves of trees so that one’s excrete would look like the excrete balls of camel or a sheep, containing nothing to mix them together. Today Banu Asad tribe blame me for not having understood Islam. I would be a loser if my deeds were in vain.” Those people complained about Sad to ‘Umar, claiming that he did not offer his prayers perfectly.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 75:

Narrated about the sons-in-law of the Prophet and one of them is Abu Al-‘As bin Ar-Rabi’.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 76:

Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:

‘Ali demanded the hand of the daughter of Abu Jahl. Fatima heard of this and went to Allah’s Apostle saying, “Your people think that you do not become angry for the sake of your daughters as ‘Ali is now going to marry the daughter of Abu Jahl. “On that Allah’s Apostle got up and after his recitation of Tashah-hud. I heard him saying, “Then after! I married one of my daughters to Abu Al-‘As bin Al-Rabi’ (the husband of Zainab, the daughter of the Prophet ) before Islam and he proved truthful in whatever he said to me. No doubt, Fatima is a part of me, I hate to see her being troubled. By Allah, the daughter of Allah’s Apostle and the daughter of Allah’s Enemy cannot be the wives of one man.” So ‘Ali gave up that engagement.

‘Al-Miswar further said: I heard the Prophet talking and he mentioned a son-in-law of his belonging to the tribe of Bani ‘Abd-Shams. He highly praised him concerning that relationship and said (whenever) he spoke to me, he spoke the truth, and whenever he promised me, he fulfilled his promise.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 77:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar:

The Prophet sent an army under the command of Usama bin Zaid. When some people criticized his leadership, the Prophet said, “If you are criticizing Usama’s leadership, you used to criticize his father’s leadership before. By Allah! He was worthy of leadership and was one of the dearest persons to me, and (now) this (i.e. Usama) is one of the dearest to me after him (i.e. Zaid).”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 78:

Narrated Urwa:

Aisha said, “A Qaif (i.e. one skilled in recognizing the lineage of a person through Physiognomy and through examining the body parts of an infant) came to me while the Prophet was present, and Usama bin Zaid and Zaid bin Haritha were Lying asleep. The Qa’if said. These feet (of Usama and his father) are of persons belonging to the same lineage.’ ” The Prophet was pleased with that saying which won his admiration, and he told ‘Aisha of it.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 79:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

The people of the Quraish tribe were worried about the Makhzumiya woman. They said. “Nobody dare speak to him (i.e. the Prophet ) except Usama bin Zaid as he is the most beloved to Allah’s Apostle.” Aisha said, “A woman from Bani Makhzumiya committed a theft and the people said, ‘Who can intercede with the Prophet for her?’ So nobody dared speak to him (i.e. the Prophet) but Usama bin Zaid spoke to him. The Prophet said, ‘If a reputable man amongst the children of Bani Israel committed a theft, they used to forgive him, but if a poor man committed a theft, they would cut his hand. But I would cut even the hand of Fatima (i.e. the daughter of the Prophet) if she committed a theft.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 80:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Dinar:

One day Ibn ‘Umar, while in the Mosque, looked at a man who was dragging his clothes while walking in one of the corners of the Mosque He said, “See who is that. I wish he was near to me.” Somebody then said (to Ibn ‘Umar), “Don’t you know him, O Abu ‘Abdur-Rahman? He is Muhammad bin Usama.” On that Ibn ‘Umar bowed his head and dug the earth with his hands and then, said, “If Allah’s Apostle saw him, he would have loved him.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 81:

Narrated Usama bin Zaid:

That the Prophet used to take him (i.e. Usama) and Al-Hassan (in his lap) and say: “O Allah! Love them, as I love them.” The freed slave of Usama bin Zaid said, “Al-Hajjaj bin Aiman bin Um Aiman and Aiman Ibn Um Aiman was Usama’s brother from the maternal side, and he was one of the Ansar. He was seen by Ibn ‘Umar not performing his bowing and prostrations in a perfect manner. So Ibn ‘Umar told him to repeat his prayer. Harmala, the freed slave of Usama bin Zaid said that while he was in the company of ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar, Al-Hajjaj bin Aiman came in and (while praying) he did not perform his bowing and prostrations properly. So Ibn ‘Umar told him to repeat his prayer. When he went away, Ibn ‘Umar asked me, “Who is he?” I said, “Al-Hajjaj bin Um Aiman.” Ibn ‘Umar said, “If Allah’s Apostle saw him, he would have loved him.” Then Ibn ‘Umar mentioned the love of the Prophet for the children of Um Aimn. Sulaiman said that Um Aiman was one of the nurses of the Prophet.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 82:

The merits of ‘Abdullah bin Umar bin Al-Khattab.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 83:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

If a man saw a dream during the lifetime of the Prophet he would narrate it to the Prophet. Once I wished to see a dream and narrate it to the Prophet I was young, unmarried, and used to sleep in the Mosque during the lifetime of the Prophet. I dreamt that two angels took me and went away with me towards the (Hell) Fire which looked like a well with the inside walls built up, and had two side-walls like those of a well. There I saw some people in it whom I knew. I started saying, “I seek Refuge with Allah from the (Hell) Fire, I seek Refuge with Allah from the (Hell) Fire.” Then another angel met the other two and said to me, “Do not be afraid.” I narrated my dream to Hafsa who, in her turn, narrated it to the Prophet. He said, “What an excellent man Abdullah is if he only observes the night prayer.” (Salem, a sub-narrator said, “Abdullah used not to sleep at night but very little hence forward.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 84:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar from Hafsa his sister:

That the Prophet had said to her, “‘Abdullah is a pious man.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 85:

Narrated ‘Alqama:

I went to Sham and offered a two-Rak’at prayer and then said, “O Allah! Bless me with a good pious companion.” So I went to some people and sat with them. An old man came and sat by my side. I asked, “Who is he?” They replied, “(He is) Abu-Ad-Darda.’ I said (to him), “I prayed to Allah to bless me with a pious companion and He sent you to me.” He asked me, “From where are you?” I replied, “From the people of Al-Kufa.” He said, “Isn’t there amongst you Ibn Um ‘Abd, the one who used to carry the shoes, the cushion(or pillow) and the water for ablution? Is there amongst you the one whom Allah gave Refuge from Satan through the request of His Prophet. Is there amongst you the one who keeps the secrets of the Prophet which nobody knows except him?” Abu Darda further asked, “How does ‘Abdullah (bin Mas’ud) recite the Sura starting with, ‘By the Night as it conceals (the light).” (92.1) Then I recited before him:

‘By the Night as it envelops: And by the Day as it appears in brightness; And by male and female.’ (91.1-3) On this Abu Ad-Darda’ said, “By Allah, the Prophet made me recite the Sura in this way while I was listening to him (reciting it).”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 86:

Narrated Ibrahim: ‘Alqama went to Sham and when he entered the mosque, he said, “O Allah ! Bless me with a pious companion.” So he sat with Abu Ad-Darda. Abu Ad-Darda’ asked him, “Where are you from?” ‘Alqama replied, “From the people of Kufa.” Abu Ad


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 87:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

Allah’s Apostle said, ” Every nation has an extremely trustworthy man, and the trustworthy man of this (i.e. Muslim) nation is Abu ‘Ubaida bin Al-Jarrah.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 88:

Narrated Hudhaifa:

The Prophet said to the people of Nijran, “I will send you the most trustworthy man.” (Every one of) the companions of the Prophet was looking forward (to be that person). He then sent Abu ‘Ubaida.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 89:

Narrated Abu Bakra:

I heard the Prophet talking at the pulpit while Al-Hasan was sitting beside him, and he (i.e. the Prophet ) was once looking at the people and at another time Al-Hasan, and saying, “This son of mine is a Saiyid (i.e. chief) and perhaps Allah will bring about an agreement between two sects of the Muslims through him.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 90:

Narrated Usama bin Zaid:

That the Prophet used to take him and Al-Hasan, and used to say, “O Allah! I love them, so please love them,” or said something similar.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 91:

Narrated Muhammad:

Anas bin Malik said, “The head of Al-Husain was brought to ‘Ubaidullah bin Ziyad and was put in a tray, and then Ibn Ziyad started playing with a stick at the nose and mouth of Al-Husain’s head and saying something about his handsome features.” Anas then said (to him), “Al-Husain resembled the Prophet more than the others did.” Anas added, “His (i.e. Al-Husain’s) hair was dyed with Wasma (i.e. a kind of plant used as a dye).”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 92:

Narrated Al-Bara:

I saw the Prophet carrying Al-Hasan on his shoulder an saying, “O Allah! I love him, so please love him.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 93:

Narrated ‘Uqba bin Al-Harith:

I saw Abu Bakr carrying Al-Hasan and saying, “Let my father be sacrificed for you; you resemble the Prophet and not ‘Ali,” while ‘Ali was laughing at this.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 94:

Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

Abu Bakr used to say, “Please Muhammad (i.e. the Prophet) by doing good to his family.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 95:

Narrated Anas:

None resembled the Prophet more than Al-Hasan bin ‘Ali did.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 96:

Narrated Ibn Abi Nu’m:

A person asked ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar whether a Muslim could kill flies. I heard him saying (in reply). “The people of Iraq are asking about the killing of flies while they themselves murdered the son of the daughter of Allah’s Apostle . The Prophet said, They (i.e. Hasan and Husain) are my two sweet basils in this world.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 97:

Narrated the merits of Bilal bin Rabah the freed slave of Abu Bakr. The Prophet said (to Bilal), “I heard the sound of your shoes in Paradise just in front of me.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 98:

Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah:

Umar used to say, “Abu Bakr is our chief, and he manumitted our chief,” meaning Bilal.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 99:

Narrated Qais:

Bilal said to Abu Bakr, “If you have bought me for yourself then keep me (for yourself), but if you have bought me for Allah’s Sake, then leave me for Allah’s Work.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 100:

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

Once the Prophet embraced me (pressed me to his chest) and said, “O Allah, teach him wisdom (i.e. the understanding of the knowledge of Qur’an).”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 101r:

Narrated ‘Abdul Warith:

The same but said, “O Allah, teach him (Ibn Abbas) the Book (i.e. the understanding of the knowledge of Qur’an).”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 101a:

Narrated Khalid:

As above.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 102:

Narrated Anas:

The Prophet had informed the people about the death of Zaid, Ja’far and Ibn Rawaha before the news of their death reached them. He said with his eyes flowing with tears, “Zaid took the flag and was martyred; then Ja’far took the flag and was martyred, and then Ibn Rawaha took the flag and was martyred. Finally the flag was taken by one of Allah’s Swords (i.e. Khalid bin Al-Walid) and Allah gave them (i.e. the Muslims) victory.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 103:

Narrated Masruq:

‘Abdullah (bin Mas’ud) was mentioned before ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr. The latter said, “That is a man I continue to love because I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, ‘ Learn the recitation of the Qur’an from (any of these) four persons: ‘Abdullah bin Masud, Salim the freed slave of Abu Hudhaifa, Ubai bin Kab, and Muadh bin Jabal.” I do not remember whether he mentioned Ubai first or Muadh.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 104:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr:

Allah’s Apostle neither talked in an insulting manner nor did he ever speak evil intentionally. He used to say, “The most beloved to me amongst you is the one who has the best character and manners.” He added, ” Learn the Qur’an from (any of these) four persons. ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud, Salim the freed slave of Abu Hudhaifa, Ubai bin Ka’b, and Mu’adh bin Jabal.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 105:

Narrated Alqama:

I went to Sham and was offering a two-Rak’at prayer; I said, “O Allah! Bless me with a (pious) companion.” Then I saw an old man coming towards me, and when he came near I said, (to myself), “I hope Allah has given me my request.” The man asked (me), “Where are you from?” I replied, “I am from the people of Kufa.” He said, “Weren’t there amongst you the Carrier of the (Prophet’s) shoes, Siwak and the ablution water container? Weren’t there amongst you the man who was given Allah’s Refuge from the Satan? And weren’t there amongst you the man who used to keep the (Prophet’s) secrets which nobody else knew? How did Ibn Um ‘Abd (i.e. ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud) use to recite Surat-al-lail (the Night:92)?” I recited:–

“By the Night as it envelops By the Day as it appears in brightness. And by male and female.” (92.1-3) On that, Abu Darda said, “By Allah, the Prophet made me read the Verse in this way after listening to him, but these people (of Sham) tried their best to let me say something different.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 106:

Narrated ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Yazid:

We asked Hudhaifa to tell us of a person resembling (to some extent) the Prophet in good appearance and straight forward behavior so that we may learn from him (good manners and acceptable conduct). Hudhaifa replied, “I do not know anybody resembling the Prophet (to some extent) in appearance and conduct more than Ibn Um ‘Abd.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 107:

Narrated Abu Musa Al-Ashari:

My brother and I came from Yemen, and for some time we continued to consider ‘Abdullah bin Mas’ud as one of the members of the family of the Prophet because we used to see him and his mother going in the house of the Prophet very often.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 108:

Narrated Ibn Abu Mulaika:

Muawiya offered one Rak’a Witr prayer after the ‘Isha prayer, and at that time a freed slave of Ibn ‘Abbas was present. He (i.e. the slave) went to Ibn ‘Abbas (and told him that Muawiya offered one Rak’a Witr prayer). Ibn Abbas said, “Leave him, for he was in the company of Allah’s Apostle.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 109:

Narrated Ibn Abi Mulaika:

Somebody said to Ibn ‘Abbas, “Can you speak to the chief of the believers Muwaiya, as he does not pray except one Rak’a as Witr?” Ibn ‘Abbas replied, “He is a Faqih (i.e. a learned man who can give religious verdicts) .”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 110:

Narrated Humran bin Abbas:

Muawiya said (to the people), “You offer a prayer which we, who were the companions of the Prophet never saw the Prophet offering, and he forbade its offering,” i.e. the two Rakat after the compulsory ‘Asr prayer.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 111:

Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:

Allah’s Apostle said, “Fatima is a part of me, and whoever makes her angry, makes me angry.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 112:

Narrated Abu Salama:

‘Aisha said, “Once Allah’s Apostle said (to me), ‘O Aish (‘Aisha)! This is Gabriel greeting you.’ I said, ‘Peace and Allah’s Mercy and Blessings be on him, you see what I don’t see’ ” She was addressing Allah ‘s Apostle.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 113:

Narrated Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari:

Allah’s Apostle said, “Many amongst men attained perfection but amongst women none attained the perfection except Mary, the daughter of Imran and Asiya, the wife of Pharaoh. And the superiority of ‘Aisha to other women is like the superiority of Tharid (i.e. an Arabic dish) to other meals.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 114:

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

Allah’s Apostle said, “The superiority of ‘Aisha over other women is like the superiority of Tharid to other meals.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 115:

Narrated Al-Qasim bin Muhammad:

Once ‘Aisha became sick and Ibn ‘Abbas went to see her and said, “O mother of the believers! You are leaving for truthful fore-runners i.e. for Allah’s Apostle and Abu Bakr.


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 116:

Narrated Abu Wail:

When ‘Ali sent ‘Ammar and Al-Hasan to (the people of) Kufa to urge them to fight, ‘Ammar addressed them saying, “I know that she (i.e. ‘Aisha) is the wife of the Prophet in this world and in the Hereafter (world to come), but Allah has put you to test, whether you will follow Him (i.e. Allah) or her.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 117:

Narrated ‘Aisha:

That she borrowed a necklace from Asma’ and it was lost. Allah’s Apostle sent some of his companions to look for it. During their journey the time of prayer was due and they prayed without ablution. When they returned to the Prophet they complained about it. So the Divine Verse of Tayammum was revealed. Usaid bin Hudair said (to ‘Aisha), “May Allah reward you handsomely. By Allah, whenever you have a difficulty, Allah took you out of it and brought with it, a Blessing for the Muslims.”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 118:

Narrated Hisham’s father:

When Allah’s Apostle was in his fatal illness, he started visiting his wives and saying, “Where will I be tomorrow?” He was anxious to be in ‘Aisha’s home. ‘Aisha said, “So when it was my day, the Prophet became silent (no longer asked the question).”


Volume 5, Book 57, Number 119:

Narrated Hisham’s father:

The people used to send presents to the Prophet on the day of ‘Aisha’s turn. ‘Aisha said, “My companions (i.e. the other wives of the Prophet) gathered in the house of Um Salama and said, “0 Um Salama! By Allah, the people choose to send presents on the day of ‘Aisha’s turn and we too, love the good (i.e. presents etc.) as ‘Aisha does. You should tell Allah’s Apostle to tell the people to send their presents to him wherever he may be, or wherever his turn may be.” Um Salama said that to the Prophet and he turned away from her, and when the Prophet returned to her (i.e. Um Salama), she repeated the same, and the Prophet again turned away, and when she told him the same for the third time, the Prophet said, “O Um Salama! Don’t trouble me by harming ‘Aisha, for by Allah, the Divine Inspiration never came to me while I was under the blanket of any woman amongst you except her.”


Quran and Modern Science::MAN AND POLLUTION

41- Corruption has appeared on land and sea because of
what the hands of people have earned, He thus lets them
taste the consequences of their works that they may return.
30-The Romans, 41
Man has been paying the cost of damages he has inflicted on his surroundings and nature throughout centuries. Passion for more money,
sloth and irresponsibility have made man blind to the fact that he is
part of his natural environment and that the damage he causes it will
unavoidably affect him. The development of environmental consciousness in man, who has suffered from damages of his own doing,
is a recent event. Environmental awareness only received special
emphasis in the world after 1970.
In a century and place where environmental awareness cannot be
said to have existed, the reference made in the Quran to this fact, that
is to the corruption caused in the land and the sea on account of that
which men’s hands have wrought, is a lesson of great scope. We translate the Arabic word “bahr” as “sea” (However, it may also designate
large lake, reservoir, inland sea, waterway, etc.). We are advised that
we are not allowed to dispose as we like of nature’s endowments since
otherwise we shall have to pay for it. We are also informed that the
damage caused by man to his own environment will also affect the
land and the sea beyond his own limits. Therefore nobody is allowed
to say, “I am on my own. No one can meddle with what I do.” Nature
is our common heritage and it is everybody’s duty to contribute to the
checking of this transgression.

DAMAGE CAUSED TO THE ENVIRONMENT
It is correct to say that the industrial revolution in the 19th century
highly contributed to the growth of pollution. It is, however, not correct to say that this was the beginning of pollution of the environment. This process had been going on since ancient times. What is
new, however, is the development of ecology and the ecological consciousness. To begin with, the burning down of forests is a happenstance that has been going on for ages. Forest fire was the principal
cause of such diseases as man often suffered in the past, like antrakosis. These pyromaniacs had certainly no inkling of what they were perpetrating with their own hands.
During the Middle Ages, environmental pollution seems to have
been an important problem. In the England of 1345, people who
tossed feces out of their windows were fined two shillings. In the 12th
century, Philippe Auguste of France was the first king to ordain the
collection of abominable waste littering the streets of the city. The
public who disposed of their waste by channelling it into waterways
polluted the springs they drank from. The first law on pollution that
we know about was passed in 1388 by the British parliament; this law
prohibited the throwing of waste into the streets and waterways.
Transgressors were to be reported by the people residing in the
precincts to the private secretary to the king. Only after it reached
extraordinary proportions was the pollution made subject of the law.
The situation became even graver during the industrialization period in the 19th century. Metallurgy and iron and steel works polluted
the land, the water and the air. This is reflected in the novels of
Charles Dickens and writings of Friedrich Engels that describe the
pollution in London. In 1930, sixty-three people died of pollution in
the Mosa Valley in Belgium. The situation in London, in 1952, was
even more serious. Four thousand died of upper respiratory tract diseases because of man’s ravages of nature.
The situation at present is hardly any rosier. There may not be such
mass mortality, but according to the World Health Organization,
more than one billion people are under threat from pollution. It is
impossible to evaluate the degree of damage the public has suffered
from throwing garbage and waste to the sea. This habit is still going
on. Sea pollution that threatens the marine fauna and flora, and the
settlement in their tissues of noxious substances, is thought to be the cause of many illnesses, including cancer. Carbon dioxide emissions
from cars and factories also contribute to the so-called “greenhouse”
effect, and it is feared that drastic changes in global climate are causing catastrophic disasters.
We see that environmental pollution is one of the greatest dangers
for humankind. This reference to pollution in the Quran at a time
when there was no environmental awareness is remarkably interesting.
The Quran was not penned like books that are products of the human
mind under the influence of social and sociological realities in due
consideration of the current issues. It is sent by God, Lord of all times
and beings. Knowledge unavailable at the time of its descent, problems of the past and of the future are all present in the Quran. Man
is the author of his own destruction. The verse serves as a warning to
redress his wrongdoings. The more we expend effort to counteract
our past shortcomings, the better we can protect ourselves against
catastrophes. Ecology must be our common concern.