The Quran is quite clear on this issue:
“Forbidden to you are your mothers and your daughters and your sisters and your paternal aunts and your maternal aunts and brothers’ daughters and sisters’ daughters and your mothers that have suckled you and your foster-sisters and mothers of your wives and your step-daughters who are in your guardianship, (born) of your wives to whom you have gone in, but if you have not gone in to them, there is no blame on you (in marrying them), and the wives of your sons who are of your own loins and that you should have two sisters together, except what has already passed; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.” (An-Nisa: 23)
However, there are certain conditions.
A’isha (Allah be pleased with her) reports: “Once the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) entered my house while a man was with me. He said: “O A’isha! Who is this?” I replied: “My foster-brother” He said: “O A’isha! Be careful in determining who your foster-brother is, for suckling is only valid if it takes place in the suckling period”. (Sahih al-Bukhari, no. 2504 & Sahih Muslim, no. 1455)
The brief answer to your question is that if your mother breastfed your cousin more than five times when she was under the age of two, then your cousin is your milk-sister and your mahram, and she is haram for you to marry.
Here are details and proofs on this issue:
For breastfeeding to have the effect of making a mahram relationship, two conditions must be met: (1) The number of breastfeeding sessions should be five or more, and (2) this should happen within the first two years of the child’s life. If these two conditions are met, then the rulings concerning breastfeeding will apply, i.e. the child will be considered a relative and marriage will be forbidden, etc.
Sheikh M. S. Al-Munajjid, a prominent Saudi Muslim lecturer and author, states:
“It is permissible for you to marry the daughter of your maternal aunt in this situation, because breastfeeding (rada`ah) only makes the woman (and her daughters) themahramsof the child who nursed if it takes place five times. [Amahramis a relative whom one is forbidden to marry and with whom the rulings of hijab or covering do not apply]. The evidence for that is the hadith narrated by Muslim from `A’ishah who said: “One of the (rulings) that was revealed in the Qur’an was that ten known sessions of breastfeeding make the child a mahram, then that was abrogated and replaced with five.”
An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
The scholars differed concerning the number of sessions of breastfeeding for which the ruling on breastfeeding (rada`ah) applies. `A’ishah and ash-Shafi`i and his companions said that there is no proof for any number less than five. The majority of scholars said that the ruling applies if breastfeeding occurs once. This was narrated by Ibn al-Mundhir from `Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Umar, Ibn `Abbas, `Ata’, Tawus, Ibn al-Musayyib, al-Hasan, Makhul, al-Zuhri, Qatadah, Hammad, Malik, al-Awza`i, al-Thawri and Abu Hanifah (may Allah be pleased with them). Abu Thawr, Abu `Ubayd, Ibn al-Mundhir and Dawud said: The ruling applies in the case of three sessions of breastfeeding, not less than that. Ash-Shafa`i and those who agreed with him followed the hadith of `A’ishah which mentioned five known session of breastfeeding.
Sheikh Ibn Baz was asked whether breastfeeding from a woman three times makes her a mahram.
He replied: this breastfeeding three times does not make her a mahram through breastfeeding. The ruling on becoming amahramthrough breastfeeding only applies if breastfeeding occurs five times or more. Then he quoted the hadith of `A’ishah as evidence. (Source: Fatawa Islamiyyah, 3/326)
Sheikh Ibn `Uthaymeen said:
One session of breastfeeding does not have any effect, rather it must be five sessions of breastfeeding that occur before the child is weaned and before he reaches the age of two. A person does not become the woman’s (foster) child if he breastfeeds once or twice or three or four times. It must also be five known sessions of breastfeeding; if there is some uncertainty as to whether he breastfed four or five times, the principle is that it was four, because every time we are uncertain about numbers, we take the lower number. Based on this, if a woman says, I breastfed this child but I do not know if it was once or twice, or three or four or five times, we say that this child is not her (foster) child, because it has to be five known sessions of breastfeeding without a doubt. (Source: Al-Fatawa al-Jami`ah lil-Mar’ah al-Muslimah, 2/768)”
Abd Allah ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) said about Hamza’s daughter: “I am not legally permitted to marry her, as foster relations are treated like blood relations (in marital affairs). She is the daughter of my foster-brother.” (Sahih al-Bukhari, no. 2502)
Therefore, the relationships that are unlawful through blood and lineage will also be unlawful through fosterage. As such, a foster-father (foster mother’s husband), foster-brother, foster-uncle, foster-nephew, etc will all be considered to be a woman’s Mahram, and one will be a Mahram to a foster-mother, foster sister, foster niece, etc.
And Allah knows best.
If any readers have some additional advice for this questioner, feel free to post your comments below.
“(O Allah), Guide us to the straight path; The path of those whom you have favored; Not those with whom you are angry; Nor those who go astray.”
The word “rada” or “rida” stems from the root “radaa” and means sucking milk from mother’s breasts in Arabic. As a noun, it means foster brotherhood and sucking milk.
There are various verses about a child sucking milk from his/her mother or another woman in the Quran: “Prohibited to you (for marriage) are … foster-mothers (who gave you suck), foster-sisters” (an-Nisa, 4:23); “The mothers shall give suck to their offspring for two whole years, if the father desires to complete the term.” (al-Baqara, 2:233); “If ye decide on a foster-mother for your offspring, there is no blame on you” (al-Baqara, 2:233); … if they (women you divorced) suckle your (offspring), give them their recompense: and take mutual counsel together, according to what is just and reasonable. And if ye find yourselves in difficulties, let another woman suckle (the child) on the (father’s) behalf.” (at-Talaq, 65:6); “The Day ye shall see it, every mother giving suck shall forget her suckling” (al-Hajj, 22:2); “So We sent this inspiration to the mother of Moses: “Suckle (thy child), but when thou hast fears about him, cast him into the river, but fear not nor grieve: for We shall restore him to thee, and We shall make him one of Our apostles.” (al-Qasas, 28:7); “And we ordained that he (Moses) refused suck at first…” (al-Qasas, 28:12).
Islamic jurisprudents agree that mothers should suckle their children according to religion because a mother has to protect her children. However, if a woman does not want to suckle, there are different views on whether she can be forced to suckle or not.
According to the majority of Islamic jurisprudents, it is mandoob (recommended) for a mother to suckle her child. She cannot be forced to suckle as long as there is not an obligation. Feeding children with milk is wajib (obligatory) for fathers. He cannot force his wife to suckle; because, the verse “The mothers shall give suck to their offspring for two whole years, if the father desires to complete the term.” (al-Baqara, 2:233) is only a suggestion. However, if the child refuses to suck milk from any woman other than his/her mother, then it is an exception.
A mother can be forced to suckle her child in the following three situations:
1.If the child refuses to suck milk from any woman other than his/her mother, the mother suckles her child in order to protect him/her from dying.
2.If a breastfeeding mother cannot be found, she suckles her child in order to save the child’s life.
3.If the child has not got a father to take care of him/her and they cannot afford to pay a breastfeeding mother to suckle the child, woman suckles her child herself.
The father must find a foster mother if the mother avoids suckling their child except for the situations listed above. The breastfeeding mother suckles the child near his/her real mother because the mother has got the right of keeping her child near herself so as to bring him/her up. That right continues until the child becomes about seven years old. The woman has got the right to demand payment for hiring a foster mother via suing if the father of the child does not hire a foster mother.
The father does not have to pay the mother to suckle the child, within marriage or within the period of iddah (the period of waiting for a woman who has divorced) after rij’i talaq (revocable divorce) because in this case, he has to pay alimony to his divorced spouse. The mother cannot be forced to suckle her child after bain talaq (irrevocable divorce). According to a sound view of Hanafis, the mother can demand payment for suckling because the following is stated in a verse: “if they suckle your (offspring), give them their recompense” (at-Talaq, 65:6). This verse is related to divorced women. A foster mother is not held responsible for anything except for suckling and what traditions require. Depending on traditions, the foster mother may need to prepare the child’s food, protect him/her, bath him/her, and wash his/her clothes.
If the child sucks from any women other than his/her own mother, as a baby, foster relationship is established between this child and the woman who suckled the child and the woman’s relatives. Blood related relationship is called “bloodline relationship” and relationship established via marriage is called “marital relationship”. Foster relationship has got the same restrictions with bloodline relationship, except for some specific situations.
The conditions under which foster relationships makes it haram to marry:
1.The milk must belong to a woman. According to the majority, the conclusion is not affected by whether the woman who suckles is married or single or has not got a husband. Foster relationship is not established via sucking anything other than milk; for instance, impure flux, blood or vomit. A man’s milk or an animal’s milk does not cause foster relationship either.
2.The milk must reach the stomach of the child. Sucking the milk from a breast and drinking it from a jug or glass are the same. If the child takes the breast into his/her mouth but if it is not known whether s/he sucked it or not, relationship is not established because conclusions cannot be based on suspicions. However, according to Malikis, the relationship is considered to be established, acting cautiously. On the other hand, Shafiis and Hanbalis put forward the condition of sucking five times because according to a narration from Hazrat Aisha, firstly a verse stating “haram is established with ten sucks” was sent down in the Quran, but later it was decreased to five times with another verse sent down later. The Prophet passed away while that verse was being read in the Quran. (see: Darimi, Marriage, 49; Muslim, Rada, 25; Abu Dawud, Marriage 10; Tirmidhi, Rada, 3; Malik, Muwatta, Rada, 18).
According to Shafiis, although the verse which decreased the number of sucks to five was abolished, it is still valid as a judgment. It is like the verse: “If an old man and woman fornicate, stone them.” (see: Ibn Majah, Hudud, 9; Darimi, Hudud, 16; Malik, Muwatta, Hudud, 10).
Ibn al-Humam (death: 861/1457) stated that not only the reading of the verse which decreased the number of sucks to five was abolished but also the judgment of it was abolished. (Ibn al-Humam, Fath al-Qadr, Egypt, 1316/1898, III, 345).
According to Hanafis and Malikis, the amount of the milk sucked does not affect the judgment. The evidence to it is the verse “Prohibited to you (for marriage) are … foster-mothers (who gave you suck) and foster-sisters” (an-Nisa, 4:23) and the hadith “Who is haram because of bloodline relationship is also haram because of foster relationship.” (Bukhari, Shahadah, 7; Muslim, Irada, I). This verse and hadith do not mention an amount or number of sucking.
3.Sucking must be through mouth or nose; because, milk can reach stomach only through those two ways, and nourishment occurs.
According to Hanafis, Shafiis and Hanbalis, relationship is not established if milk goes into urethra, eyes, ears or an open sore.
4.The milk must not be mixed with any other kind of liquids. If milk mixes with another kind of liquid, the one whose amount is more is taken into consideration according to Hanafis and Hanbalis. If milk is more, then foster relationship is established. According to Abu Hanifa, when the milk is mixed, foster relationship is not established no matter how much the milk is. This is because the mixed liquid decreases density of milk. The mixed liquid is considered to be more than the amount of milk.
Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad base the judgment on the one which is more in amount.
If the milk is mixed with another woman’s milk and then given to the child, the judgment is based on the one which is more in amount than the other according to Abu Hanifa and Abu Yusuf. If they are equal, the foster relationship is established with both of women. According to Malikis, Imam Mohammad and Zufar, foster relationship is established with both of women in both cases. Judgment is not affected by whether they are equal or one is more than the other. It is the view that is mostly preferred because the milks are of the same kind. When two things of the same kind come together, there is not superiority of one to another.
Breast milk, which is mixed in “Breast Milk Bank” seen in some countries and regions in our day, needs to be sorted out according to the criteria listed above (al-Kasani, Badayi as-Sanayi, Beirut 1394/1974, IV, 135 ff.; Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni, Cairo 1970, VII, 537 et al.; Ibn Rushd, Bidayatul-Mujtahid, Egypt (n.d..), II, 34 et al.; az-Zukhayli, al-Fiqhul-Islami wa Adillatuh Dimashq (Damascus)1405/1985, VII, 705 ff.).
5.According to the majority, milk must be sucked in the first two years of a baby in order to establish foster relationship because, the following is stated in the verse: “Mothers suckle their offspring for a whole of two years”. That verse which is about bloodline children also covers other children who suck from a woman. Hadith: “Foster relationship is established only within the age of two.” (Bukhari, Marriage, 21).
However, according to Abu Hanifa, the length of sucking time is 30 months. The evidence is this verse: “The carrying of the (child) to his weaning is (a period of) thirty months.” (al-Ahqaf, 46:15). Both pregnancy and weaning last for 30 months.
According to the majority of Islamic jurisprudents, 30 months is the total of two years of sucking period and six months which is the shortest period of pregnancy. As a matter of fact; there are other proofs proving that the period of sucking is two years. As stated in another verse: “And We have enjoined on man (to be good) to his parents: in travail up on travail did his mother bear him, and in years twain was his weaning” (Luqman, 31:14).
It is stated in the Quran that “Prohibited to you (for marriage) are … foster-mothers (who gave you suck), foster-sisters…” (an-Nisa, 4:23). Only two foster-relatives are mentioned in this verse. The general principle on the issue was established with this hadith: “Who is haram because of bloodline relationship is also haram because of foster relationship.” (Bukhari, Shahadah, 7; Muslim, Rada I). In addition to the relationships established through bloodline and marriage, relationship is also established through fostering. However, there are two exceptions to it:
The ones prohibited to each other for marriage are as follows
1.One’s lineal foster ancestors such as foster mothers, foster grandmothers…
2.One’s lineal foster descendants such as foster-daughter, daughter of foster-son’s and children and grandchildren descending from them.
3.One cannot marry his/her foster-parents’ descendants. One cannot marry his/her foster-siblings born from the same parents, from the same father but different mother or from the same mother but different fathers. It is also prohibited to marry the children and grandchildren descending from them.
4.One cannot marry his/her foster-parents’ immediate sisters and brothers. They are the foster uncles and aunts of the suckled person.
5.One cannot marry his foster-father’s and foster-grandfather’s spouses. Whether there was a sexual intercourse between them or not does not affect this judgment. As a matter of fact, one cannot marry his bloodline (biological) father’s spouse, either.
6.It is prohibited for one to marry his foster-son’s or his foster-grandson’s spouse and it is also prohibited to marry his foster-daughter’s son’s spouse. Whether there was a sexual intercourse between them or not does not affect this judgment. As a matter of fact, one cannot marry his daughters-in-law.
However, according to Hanafis, there are some exceptions:
a. One can marry his foster-brother’s or foster-sister’s mother. However, it is not permissible in bloodline relationship. For instance, if a woman suckles a child and if this woman has got a bloodline (biological) son, this son can marry the mother of that child.
b. One can marry his foster-son’s or foster-daughter’s foster brother/sister. However, it is not permissible in bloodline relationship. For instance, if a woman suckles a child, this woman’s spouse can marry the sister of this child. (see: al-Kasani, ibid, III, 4, 5; al-Maydani, al-Lubab, III, 33; az-Zukhayli, ibid, VII, 138, 139).
In conclusion, this principle can be uttered on the issue: The one who sucked is prohibited to marry to the descendants of the one who suckled him/her. However, except for the upcoming children of the one who sucked, there is not a foster relationship established between his/her other bloodline relatives and foster-mother’s bloodline children and marital relatives. In short, there is not a prohibition of marriage between the foster-child’s bloodline siblings and foster-mother’s bloodline children. This is because they did not suck from the same woman and thus there cannot be anything in common in these children’s biological and physical structures.
Rules about Foster-Relationship: Foster-relationship brings about an absolute prohibition for marriage. Except for the exceptions listed above, if foster-relatives have got married somehow, they must get divorced as soon as this situation is realized. Marriages of such people are invalid according to Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad, and immoral according to Abu Hanifa.
Foster-relatives are not strangers to each other. If there is not a risk of mischief, they can look at each other. Though relationship is established because of sucking milk, it does not bear the rights of inheritance, alimony, rejection of evidence, guardianship of property or marriage.
Foster-relationship is limited to the issues described in axioms. It does not bear the same rights as bloodline relationship. For this reason, a foster mother cannot ask for alimony from her foster-son. She cannot be his inheritor and cannot claim custody for him. (Hamdi Donduren, Delilleriyle Islam Hukuku, Istanbul, 1983, p.222).
The man who enabled breast milk to be produced in foster-mother and who is married to her is foster-father. By the way, the death of the foster-father or divorce does not change this judgment. Foster-father and other marital relatives are prohibited to the foster-child. All the children who belong to the foster-father biologically are foster-child’s foster-siblings. (Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni, VI, 572; al-Maydani, ibid, III, 32).
Proofs of Foster Relationship:
Foster relationship is proved with either confession or evidence.
69- Then eat from all the fruits and flit about the spacious
paths of your Lord. There issues from within her abdomens
a drink of varying colors, wherein is healing for the people.
Verily in this is a sign for those who understand.
16-The Honeybee, 69
The honeybee has a body that varies in length between 1cm and 3cm,
and that is divided into three parts: head, thorax and abdomen. The
verse quoted above stresses that in the individual female bee there are
“abdomens,” which in Arabic is “butuniha,” the “ha” referring to a
singular female bee. If the plural of the word “abdomen” was meant
to refer to the female bees, then the plural female pronoun “hunna”
would be attached to the verb “butuniha.” This makes clear the segmented abdomen of the bee. Inside the abdomen there are two stomachs or crops. When collecting the nectar from flowers, nectar is
stored in this honey stomach for transport back to the hive. At the rear
of the honey stomach is a valve that prevents stored nectar from passing on into the rear portion of the digestive system, except for the
small amount needed by the bee to sustain life. The hind portion of
the bee’s body is the abdomen that is made up of segments in the
form of rings. The abdomen of the bee functions as a chemistry laboratory to produce honey.
The colors of honey vary as stated in the Quran. They change
according to the climate, season and weather conditions and the
sources where nectar is obtained. The color of honey ranges from dark brown to green, among which the light yellow is preferred. In the
honey industry, modern countries with developed techniques use a
colorimeter to establish the exact description of honey’s color.
THE HONEY DANCES OF BEES
At the beginning of the verse, reference is made to the collection of
nectar. The female bees not only produce honey, but also assume the
duty of collecting the raw material from flowers to be eventually transformed into honey. During this process of seeking the nectar, incredible phenomena occur.
The bee that has located the spot where there is nectar to be collected returns to the hive to inform her sisters about the location of
flowers. The scout bees returning to the hive perform circular dances
or tail-wagging movements on the comb. These dances indicate not
only that the scouts have found nectar or pollen and that the other
workers should go out and seek it, but they are actually performing an
amazing charade that conveys precise information to their sisters
about the direction and the distance of the location of a newfound
Sometimes a normal adult must attend a dance course for six weeks
while a bee, whose lifetime is but six weeks, is able to perform a dance
for communication purposes. The bee’s calculation on her way back to
the hive is also of great interest. The bee makes her calculation according to the position of the sun. The sun changes its locality one degree
per four minutes. The bee that has spotted the location of her food also
calculates her return journey as directly and correctly as possible in relation to the sun. She performs this without any error. All these calculations and harmonious coexistence within the hive cannot possibly be
explained by pure coincidence or after a six-week-long training. So, all
these are innate in her as an endowment of the Creator.
THE HEALING POWER OF HONEY
The verse speaks of the nutritive property of honey, a product of
female bees. The regenerative property of honey is confirmed by medical authorities. In addition to its rich vitamin content, among its components are also such minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus as well as such metals as copper, iodine,
iron, zinc, and hormones.
Thanks to the easy convertibility of its sugar content, it is easily
assimilated. Honey facilitates the functioning of the brain, thanks to
its other sugars. It contributes to the production of blood, to its
cleansing and proper circulation. Honey provides for the requirement
necessary for proper functioning of our physiology and also it is used
externally in cosmetics and dermatology.
The fact that honey had healing properties was nothing new for
communities all over the world. Therefore, I am not claiming that this
was not a generally acknowledged fact at the time of the descent of
the Quran. However there were also such superstitious beliefs as the
healing effect of a camel’s urine, which was later falsely attributed to
the Prophet in hadith books. The Quran never justifies any of such
false ideas offered as elixirs. Had the Quran been a product of human
imagination, it might also have contained at least a residue of such
The distribution of work of bees in a hive and the multiple tasks
performed by bees is too complicated to explain within the scope of
this book. The ventilation of the hive, regulating humidity and temperature, keeping a perfect hygienic medium in the hive; guarding the
hive, discarding the unwanted foreign matter, dead bees, etc., secreting wax, propolis, all are amazing tasks. How can a bee, whose lifetime is but six weeks, know and perform such grandiose artistry?
Without an intelligent Creator the fortuity of all these data is certainly unimaginable. Every inquirer into the doings of a bee – to whose
properties there are references in the Quran – will observe the sublime
artistry of God in the entity of an insect.
4- Also in your creation and spreading of the animals are
signs for people of assured faith.
There are many different ahaadith on this subject. From among these Imaam Tirmidhi had mentioned four ahaadith in this chapter. Because of the different ahaadith on this subject, the ‘ulema have also differed as to whether Sayyidina Rasulullah Salallahu’Alayhi Wassalam dyed his hair or not. Imaam Tirmidhi and the majority are of the opinion that he did not dye his hair. The Hanafis also hold the same view. It is stated in the ‘Durri Mukhtaar| that it is more correct that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wassalam did not dye his hair. ‘Allamah Shaami has reasoned that according to Bukhari and other muhadditheen, Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasalam did not have more than seventeen white hair in his mubaarak beard and head. Bayjuri As-Shaafi’ee, the commentator on the Shamaa-il Tirmidhi is of the opinion that Sayyidina Rasullah Sallallahy ‘Alayhi Wasallam sometimes dyed his hair bou did not do so regularly.
MAS-ALAH: According to the Hanafi ‘ulema, dying of the hair is mustahab but according to a well known saying the using of a black dye is makruh. The Shafi’ee ‘ulema say that the use of a dye is sunnah, and the use of black dye is haraam.
(44) Hadith Number 1
Abu Rimthah Taymi Radhiallahu ‘Anhu says: “I attended a gathering of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam with my son. Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam asked me, ‘Is this your son?’ I replied: ‘Yes, this is my son. You be a witness to it.’ Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alahi Wasallam said: ‘The revenge of his crime (jinayah) is not on you, nor is the revenge of your crime on him.’ (This will be explained in the commentary). Abu Rimthah Radhiallahu ‘Anhu says: ‘At that time I noticed a few hair of Rasulullah Salallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam were red.” Imam Tirmidhi says: ‘This hadith is the most correct and closest on the subject of using a dye.’
It was the custom in the pre-Islamic times (jaahiliyah) that a son was punished for the crimes of his father. On this basis Abu Rimthah Radhiallahy ‘Anhu said this, so that if it would be necessary at any time, Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam would be witness that truly this was his son. Sayyidin Rasullulah Sallallhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam in refuting this custom of the jaahiliyyah said: ‘This is not the law of Islaam, that one person commits a crime and another gets punished for it.” (No laden soul can bear anothers load.-Surah Najm,38).
(45) Hadith Number 2
Abu Hurairah Radhiallahu ‘Anhu was asked: “Did Rasulullah Sallallhu ‘Alayhi Wasallam use a dye?” (for his hair). He replied: “Yes.”
(46) Hadith Number 3
Jah-dhamah Radiallahu ‘Anha, the wife of Bashir Kha-saasiyyah Radiallahu ‘Anhu says: “I saw Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam coming out of the house after taking a bath and was stroking (or combing) his haif. There were signs of henna on his mubaarak head.”
(47) Hadith Number 4
Anas Radhiallahu ‘Anhu says: “I saw that the hair of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam had been dyed.”
As has been explained there are different narrations on the dying of the hair of Sayyidina Rasulullahu Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. There is an apparent contradiction between this narration and the one mentioned in the first hadith of the previous chapter, where Sayyidina Anas Radiyallahu ‘Anhu denies Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘ Alayhi Wasallam used a dye. we may take both narrations to be correct, as they could have been narrated at an earlier and a later period.
Corporal Hasan belonged to the 20th corp, 36th Battalion, 8th Squadron. He was one of the rearguard troops left in Jerusalem that the Ottoman Army used to prevent pillage and maintain order and safety. According to tradition, the victor of the war never treats rearguard troops as war captives in a captured city.
When British troops entered Jerusalem, they wanted a small force to stay in the city to avoid a potential negative public reaction after entering the holy city of Jerusalem.
Until 1972, 47 years ago, when the late Turkish journalist Ilhan Bardakci accompanied Turkish officials and businessmen on a courtesy visit to Israel, nobody in the Turkish public had heard of Corporal Hasan.
Bardakci says the trip was like any other until the fourth day where he witnessed an emotional moment in Quds (Jerusalem in Arabic).
“Because on the fourth day of the visit, they [Israeli officials] led us around in historical and touristic places and we arrived at Al Aqsa Mosque in the cortege. I felt thrilled while climbing to the upstairs of the sacred mosque. They call the upstairs courtyard ‘12,000 chandelier courtyard’ where Yavuz Sultan Selim lit 12,000 candles in chandeliers. The magnificent Ottoman Army performed isha prayer by candlelight, the name refers to it.”
Then, he saw a man over 90 years old in the courtyard of Al Aqsa Mosque, who drew Bardakci’s attention.
Bardakci asked the foreign affairs official who was standing near him in the courtyard of the mosque. The official replied saying: “I don’t know, maybe just an insane man who just stands here, never asks anything to anyone, never looks to anyone.”
Bardakci was not satisfied with that answer and said, “I was old enough to know that no one would glower at a courtyard without a good reason. What I couldn’t get was that if his shimmering white beard was because of the breeze or the heavy burden of the years.”
He was not sure about whether he should speak to him. He realised that while he was getting closer, the old man did not move. Then, Bardakci approached the old man and said “As-Salaam-Alaikum father”. The old man hesitantly replied to him saying “Wa Alaykum As-Salam, son.”
In a reply to Bardakci’s question about what he was doing there, the old man replied: “I am Corporal Hasan from the 20th corp, 36th Battalion, 8th Squadron heavy machine gun team.”
He continued like a soldier giving a brief: “Our troops raided the British on Suez Canal front in the Great War. Our glorious army was defeated at the Canal. To withdraw was requisite now. The heirloom lands of our ancestors were about to be lost one by one. And then, the Brits pressed upon the gates of Quds, occupied the city. We were left as rearguard troops at Quds.”
“My rearguard troop consisted of 53 privates. We got the news that after truce [Mondros Armistice] the army was discharged. Our lieutenant was leading to us, he said ‘My lions, our country is in an arduous situation. They are discharging our glorious army and calling me to Istanbul. I have to go, if I don’t I’d be in defiance of authority, fail to obey the order. Anyone can return to the homeland if he wills, but if you follow my words, I have a request from you: Quds is an heirloom of Sultan Selim Han. Remain on guard duty here. Don’t let the people worry about “Ottomans have left; what we are going to do now.”’ The Westerners will exult if Ottomans left the first qibla [direction to face while praying] of our beloved prophet. Don’t let the honour of Islam and the glory of Ottomans be trampled on.”
He continued: “Our troop stayed in Quds. And, almost suddenly the long years vanished. My brothers from the troop passed away one by one. We weren’t mowed down by the enemy, but the years. Only I am left here. Just me, a corporal Hasan in the grand Quds.”
He asked Bardakci a favour: “When you arrive in Anatolia, if you pass towards Tokat Sanjak, please visit my commander Lieutenant Mustafa, the man who deployed me to guard Al-Aqsa Mosque and trusted these sacred places to me. Kiss his hands for me and tell him: ‘Corporal Hasan from Igdir Province of the 11th Machine gun team still remains at Quds as you deployed him to… He didn’t abandon his duty and wishes your blessings, commander’.”
Bardakci agreed while holding back tears. He grabbed Corporal Hasan’s callused hands and kissed, again and again, he said: “Goodbye father.”
Hasan thanked him, saying he knows it is impossible to see Turkey before death arrives.
When Bardakci returned to Turkey, he went to Tokat to honour his words and traced Hasan’s commander Lieutenant Mustafa Efendi through military records. However, the commander had already passed years ago. Bardakci was not able to keep his promise to Corporal Hasan.
In 1982, Bardakci held a telegraph in his hands with the message: “The last Ottoman guardian at Al Aqsa Mosque has passed away today. “
One-fifth of Booty to the Cause of Allah (Khumus)
I got a she-camel in my share of the war booty on the day (of the battle) of Badr, and the Prophet had given me a she-camel from the Khumus. When I intended to marry Fatima, the daughter of Allah’s Apostle, I had an appointment with a goldsmith from the tribe of Bani Qainuqa’ to go with me to bring Idhkhir (i.e. grass of pleasant smell) and sell it to the goldsmiths and spend its price on my wedding party. I was collecting for my she-camels equipment of saddles, sacks and ropes while my two she-camels were kneeling down beside the room of an Ansari man. I returned after collecting whatever I collected, to see the humps of my two she-camels cut off and their flanks cut open and some portion of their livers was taken out. When I saw that state of my two she-camels, I could not help weeping. I asked, “Who has done this?” The people replied, “Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib who is staying with some Ansari drunks in this house.” I went away till I reached the Prophet and Zaid bin Haritha was with him. The Prophet noticed on my face the effect of what I had suffered, so the Prophet asked. “What is wrong with you.” I replied, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have never seen such a day as today. Hamza attacked my two she-camels, cut off their humps, and ripped open their flanks, and he is sitting there in a house in the company of some drunks.” The Prophet then asked for his covering sheet, put it on, and set out walking followed by me and Zaid bin Haritha till he came to the house where Hamza was. He asked permission to enter, and they allowed him, and they were drunk. Allah’s Apostle started rebuking Hamza for what he had done, but Hamza was drunk and his eyes were red. Hamza looked at Allah’s Apostle and then he raised his eyes, looking at his knees, then he raised up his eyes looking at his umbilicus, and again he raised up his eyes look in at his face. Hamza then said, “Aren’t you but the slaves of my father?” Allah’s Apostle realized that he was drunk, so Allah’s Apostle retreated, and we went out with him.
(mother of the believers) After the death of Allah ‘s Apostle Fatima the daughter of Allah’s Apostle asked Abu Bakr As-Siddiq to give her, her share of inheritance from what Allah’s Apostle had left of the Fai (i.e. booty gained without fighting) which Allah had given him. Abu Bakr said to her, “Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Our property will not be inherited, whatever we (i.e. prophets) leave is Sadaqa (to be used for charity).” Fatima, the daughter of Allah’s Apostle got angry and stopped speaking to Abu Bakr, and continued assuming that attitude till she died. Fatima remained alive for six months after the death of Allah’s Apostle.
She used to ask Abu Bakr for her share from the property of Allah’s Apostle which he left at Khaibar, and Fadak, and his property at Medina (devoted for charity). Abu Bakr refused to give her that property and said, “I will not leave anything Allah’s Apostle used to do, because I am afraid that if I left something from the Prophet’s tradition, then I would go astray.” (Later on) Umar gave the Prophet’s property (of Sadaqa) at Medina to ‘Ali and ‘Abbas, but he withheld the properties of Khaibar and Fadak in his custody and said, “These two properties are the Sadaqa which Allah’s Apostle used to use for his expenditures and urgent needs. Now their management is to be entrusted to the ruler.” (Az-Zuhrl said, “They have been managed in this way till today.”)
Narrated Malik bin Aus:
While I was at home, the sun rose high and it got hot. Suddenly the messenger of ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab came to me and said, “The chief of the believers has sent for you.” So, I went along with him till I entered the place where ‘Umar was sitting on a bedstead made of date-palm leaves and covered with no mattress, and he was leaning over a leather pillow. I greeted him and sat down. He said, “O Malik! Some persons of your people who have families came to me and I have ordered that a gift should be given to them, so take it and distribute it among them.” I said, “O chief of the believers! I wish that you order someone else to do it.” He said, “O man! Take it.” While I was sitting there with him, his doorman Yarfa’ came saying, “‘Uthman, ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf, Az-Zubair and Sad bin Abi Waqqas are asking your permission (to see you); may I admit them?” ‘Umar said, “Yes”, So they were admitted and they came in, greeted him, and sat down. After a while Yarfa’ came again and said, “May I admit ‘Ali and ‘Abbas?” ‘Umar said, “yes.” So, they were admitted and they came in and greeted (him) and sat down. Then ‘Abbas said, “O chief of the believers! Judge between me and this (i.e. ‘Ali).” They had a dispute regarding the property of Bani An-Nadir which Allah had given to His Apostle as Fai. The group (i.e. ‘Uthman and his companions) said, “O chief of the believers! Judge between them and relieve both of them front each other.” ‘Umar said, “Be patient! I beseech you by Allah by Whose Permission the Heaven and the Earth exist, do you know that Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Our (i.e. prophets’) property will not be inherited, and whatever we leave, is Sadaqa (to be used for charity),’ and Allah’s Apostle meant himself (by saying “we”)?” The group said, “He said so.” ‘Umar then turned to ‘Ali and ‘Abbas and said, “I beseech you by Allah, do you know that Allah’s Apostle said so?” They replied, ” He said so.” ‘Umar then said, “So, I will talk to you about this matter. Allah bestowed on His Apostle with a special favor of something of this Fai (booty) which he gave to nobody else.” ‘Umar then recited the Holy Verses: “What Allah bestowed as (Fai) Booty on his Apostle (Muhammad) from them — for this you made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry: But Allah gives power to His Apostles over whomever He will ‘And Allah is able to do all things.” 9:6)
‘Umar added “So this property was especially given to Allah’s Apostle, but, by Allah, neither did he take possession of it and leave your, nor did he favor himself with it to your exclusion, but he gave it to all of you and distributed it amongst you till this property remained out of it. Allah’s Apostle used to spend the yearly expenses of his family out of this property and used to keep the rest of its revenue to be spent on Allah ‘s Cause. Allah ‘s Apostle kept on doing this during all his lifetime. I ask you by Allah do you know this?” They replies in the affirmative. ‘Umar then said to ‘Ali and ‘Abbas. “I ask you by Allah, do you know this?” ‘Umar added, “When Allah had taken His Prophet unto Him, ‘Abu Bakr said, ‘I am the successor of Allah’s Apostle so, Abu Bakr took over that property and managed it in the same way as Allah’s Apostle used to do, and Allah knows that he was true, pious and rightly-guided, and he was a follower of what was right. Then Allah took Abu Bakr unto Him and I became Abu Bakr’s successor, and I kept that property in my possession for the first two years of my Caliphate, managing it in the same way as Allah’s Apostle used to do and as Abu Bakr used to do, and Allah knows that I have been true, pious, rightly guided, and a follower of what is right. Now you both (i.e. ‘Ah and ‘Abbas) came to talk to me, bearing the same claim and presenting the same case; you, ‘Abbas, came to me asking for your share from your nephew’s property, and this man, i.e. ‘Ali, came to me asking for his wife’s share from her father’s property. I told you both that Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Our (prophets’) properties are not to be inherited, but what we leave is Sadaqa (to be used for charity).’ When I thought it right that I should hand over this property to you, I said to you, ‘I am ready to hand over this property to you if you wish, on the condition that you would take Allah’s Pledge and Convention that you would manage it in the same way as Allah’s Apostle used to, and as Abu Bakr used to do, and as I have done since I was in charge of it.’ So, both of you said (to me), ‘Hand it over to us,’ and on that condition I handed it over to you. So, I ask you by Allah, did I hand it over to them on this condition?” The group aid, “Yes.” Then ‘Umar faced ‘Ali and Abbas saying, “I ask you by Allah, did I hand it over to you on this condition?” They said, “Yes. ” He said, ” Do you want now to give a different decision? By Allah, by Whose Leave both the Heaven and the Earth exist, I will never give any decision other than that (I have already given). And if you are unable to manage it, then return it to me, and I will do the job on your behalf.”
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:
The delegates of the tribe of ‘Abdul-Qais came and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! We are from the tribe of Rabi’a, and there is the infidels of the tribe of Mudar intervening between you and us, so we cannot come to you except in the Sacred Months. So please order us some instructions that we may apply it to ourselves and also invite our people whom we left behind us to observe as well.” The Prophet said, “I order you (to do) four (things) and forbid you (to do) four: I order you to believe in Allah, that is, to testify that None has the right to be worshipped but Allah (the Prophet pointed with his hand); to offer prayers perfectly; to pay Zakat; to fast the month of Ramadan, and to pay the Khumus (i.e. one-fifth) of the war booty to Allah and I forbid you to use Ad-dubba’, An-Naqir, Al-Hantam and Al-Muzaffat (i.e. utensils used for preparing alcoholic drinks).” (See Hadith No. 50, Vol. 1).
Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah’s Apostle said, “My heirs should not take even a single Dinar (i.e. anything from my property), and whatever I leave, excluding the expenditure of my wives and my laborers, will be Sadaqa (i.e. be used for charity).”‘
Allah’s Apostle died, and there was nothing in my house that a living being could eat, except some barley Lying on a shelf. So, I ate of it for a long period and measured it, and (after a short period) it was consumed.
Narrated ‘Amr bin Al-Harith:
The Prophet did not leave anything (after his death) except his arms, a white mule, and a (piece of) land which he had given as Sadaqa.
(the wife of the Prophet) When the sickness of Allah’s Apostle got aggravated, he asked the permission of his wives that he should be treated in my house, and they permitted him.
Narrated Ibn Abu Mulaika:
‘Aisha said, “The Prophet died in my house on the day of my turn while he was leaning on my chest closer to my neck, and Allah made my saliva mix with his Saliva.” ‘Aisha added, “‘AbdurRahman came with a Siwak and the Prophet was too weak to use it so I took it, chewed it and then (gave it to him and he) cleaned his teeth with it.”
(the wife of the Prophet) That she came to visit Allah’s Apostle while he was in Itikaf(i.e. seclusion in the Mosque during the last ten days of Ramadan. When she got up to return, Allah’s Apostle got up with her and accompanied her, and when he reached near the gate of the Mosque close to the door (of the house) of Um Salama, the wife of the Prophet, two Ansari men passed by them and greeted Allah’s Apostle and then went away. Allah’s Apostle addressed them saying, “Don’t hurry! (She is my wife),” They said, “Glorified be Allah! O Allah’s Apostle (You are far away from any suspicion),” and his saying was hard on them. Allah’s Apostle said, “Satan circulates in the mind of a person as blood does (in his body). I was afraid that Satan might put some (evil) thoughts in your minds.”
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar:
Once I went upstairs in Hafsa’s house and saw the Prophet answering the call of nature with his back towards the Qibla and facing Sham.
That Allah’s Apostle used to offer the ‘Asr prayer while the sun was still shining in her Hujra (i.e. her dwelling place).
The Prophet stood up and delivered a sermon, and pointing to ‘Aisha’s house (i.e. eastwards), he said thrice, “Affliction (will appear from) here,” and, “from where the side of the Satan’s head comes out (i.e. from the East).”
Narrated ‘Amra bint Abdur-Rahman:
‘Aisha, the wife of the Prophet told her that once Allah’s Apostle was with her and she heard somebody asking permission to enter Hafsa’s house. She said, “O Allah’s Apostle! This man is asking permission to enter your house.” Allah’s Apostle replied, “I think he is so-and-so (meaning the foster uncle of Hafsa). What is rendered illegal because of blood relations, is also rendered illegal because of the corresponding foster-relations.”
That when Abu Bakr became the Caliph, he sent him to Bahrain and wrote this letter for him, and stamped it with the Ring of the Prophet. Three lines were engraved on the Ring, (the word) ‘Muhammad’ was in a line, ‘Apostle’ was in another line, and ‘Allah’ in a third.
Narrated ‘Isa bin Tahman:
Anas brought out to us two worn out leather shoes without hair and with pieces of leather straps. Later on Thabit Al-Banani told me that Anas said that they were the shoes of the Prophet.
Narrated Abu Burda:
‘Aisha brought out to us a patched wool Len garment, and she said, “(It chanced that) the soul of Allah’s Apostle was taken away while he was wearing this.” Abu-Burda added, “Aisha brought out to us a thick waist sheet like the ones made by the Yemenites, and also a garment of the type called Al-Mulabbada.”
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
When the cup of Allah’s Apostle got broken, he fixed it with a silver wire at the crack. (The sub-narrator, ‘Asim said, “I saw the cup and drank (water) in it.”)
Narrated ‘Ali bin Al-Husain:
That when they reached Medina after returning from Yazid bin Mu’awaiya after the martyrdom of Husain bin ‘Ali (may Allah bestow His Mercy upon him), Al-Miswar bin Makhrama met him and said to him, “Do you have any need you may order me to satisfy?” ‘Ali said, “No.” Al-Miswar said, Will you give me the sword of Allah’s Apostle for I am afraid that people may take it from you by force? By Allah, if you give it to me, they will never be able to take it till I die.” When Ali bin Abu Talib demanded the hand of the daughter of Abi Jahal to be his wife besides Fatima, I heard Allah’s Apostle on his pulpit delivering a sermon in this connection before the people, and I had then attained my age of puberty. Allah’s Apostle said, “Fatima is from me, and I am afraid she will be subjected to trials in her religion (because of jealousy).” The Prophet then mentioned one of his son-in-law who was from the tribe of ‘Abu Shams, and he praised him as a good son-in-law, saying, “Whatever he said was the truth, and he promised me and fulfilled his promise. I do not make a legal thing illegal, nor do I make an illegal thing legal, but by Allah, the daughter of Allah’s Apostle and the daughter of the enemy of Allah, (i.e. Abu Jahl) can never get together (as the wives of one man) (See Hadith No. 76, Vo. 5).
Narrated Ibn Al-Hanafiya:
If Ali had spoken anything bad about ‘Uthman then he would have mentioned the day when some persons came to him and complained about the Zakat officials of ‘Uthman. ‘Ali then said to me, “Go to ‘Uthman and say to him, ‘This document contains the regulations of spending the Sadaqa of Allah’s Apostle so order your Zakat officials to act accordingly.” I took the document to ‘Uthman. ‘Uthman said, “Take it away, for we are not in need of it.” I returned to ‘Ali with it and informed him of that. He said, “Put it whence you took it.”
Narrated Muhammad bin Suqa: I heard Mundhir At-Tuzi reporting Ibn Hanafiya who said, “My father sent me saying, ‘Take this letter to ‘Uthman for it contains the orders of the Prophet concerning the Sadaqa.’ “
Fatima complained of what she suffered from the hand mill and from grinding, when she got the news that some slave girls of the booty had been brought to Allah’s Apostle. She went to him to ask for a maid-servant, but she could not find him, and told ‘Aisha of her need. When the Prophet came, Aisha informed him of that. The Prophet came to our house when we had gone to our beds. (On seeing the Prophet) we were going to get up, but he said, ‘Keep at your places,’ I felt the coolness of the Prophet’s feet on my chest. Then he said, “Shall I tell you a thing which is better than what you asked me for? When you go to your beds, say: ‘Allahu Akbar (i.e. Allah is Greater)’ for 34 times, and ‘Alhamdu Lillah (i.e. all the praises are for Allah)’ for 33 times, and Subhan Allah (i.e. Glorified be Allah) for 33 times. This is better for you than what you have requested.”
Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah Al-Ansari:
A man amongst us begot a boy whom he named Al-Qasim. On that the Ansar said, (to the man), “We will never call you Abu-al-Qasim and will never please you with this blessed title.” So, he went to the Prophet and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have begotten a boy whom I named Al-Qasim and the Ansar said, ‘We will never call you Abu-al-Qasim, nor will we please you with this title.’ ” The Prophet said, “The Ansar have done well. Name by my name, but do not name by my Kunya, for I am Qasim.”
Allah’s Apostle said, “If Allah wants to do good for somebody, he makes him comprehend the Religion (i.e. Islam), and Allah is the Giver and I am Al-Qasim (i.e. the distributor), and this (Muslim) nation will remain victorious over their opponents, till Allah’s Order comes and they will still be victorious “
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah’s Apostle said, “Neither do I give you (anything) nor withhold (anything) from you, but I am just a distributor (i.e. Qasim), and I give as I am ordered.”
Narrated Khaula Al-Ansariya:
I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “Some people spend Allah’s Wealth (i.e. Muslim’s wealth) in an unjust manner; such people will be put in the (Hell) Fire on the Day of Resurrection.”
The Prophet said, “Horses are always the source of good, namely, rewards (in the Hereafter) and booty, till the Day of Resurrection.”
Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah’s Apostle said, “When Khosrau is ruined, there will be no Khosrau after him; and when Caesar is ruined, there will be no Caesar after him. By Him in Whose Hands my life is, you will spend their treasures in Allah’s Cause.”
Narrated Jabir bin Samura:
Allah’s Apostle said, “When Khosrau is ruined, there will be no Khosrau after him; and when Caesar is ruined, their will be no Caesar after him. By Him in Whose Hands my life is, you will spend their treasures in Allah’s Cause.”
Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah:
Allah’s Apostle said, “Booty has been made legal for me.”
Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah’s Apostle said, “Allah guarantees him who strives in His Cause and whose motivation for going out is nothing but Jihad in His Cause and belief in His Word, that He will admit him into Paradise (if martyred) or bring him back to his dwelling place, whence he has come out, with what he gains of reward and booty.”
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, “A prophet amongst the prophets carried out a holy military expedition, so he said to his followers, ‘Anyone who has married a woman and wants to consummate the marriage, and has not done so yet, should not accompany me; nor should a man who has built a house but has not completed its roof; nor a man who has sheep or shecamels and is waiting for the birth of their young ones.’ So, the prophet carried out the expedition and when he reached that town at the time or nearly at the time of the ‘Asr prayer, he said to the sun, ‘O sun! You are under Allah’s Order and I am under Allah’s Order O Allah! Stop it (i.e. the sun) from setting.’ It was stopped till Allah made him victorious.
Then he collected the booty and the fire came to burn it, but it did not burn it. He said (to his men), ‘Some of you have stolen something from the booty. So one man from every tribe should give me a pledge of allegiance by shaking hands with me.’ (They did so and) the hand of a man got stuck over the hand of their prophet. Then that prophet said (to the man), ‘The theft has been committed by your people. So all the persons of your tribe should give me the pledge of allegiance by shaking hands with me.’ The hands of two or three men got stuck over the hand of their prophet and he said, “You have committed the theft.’ Then they brought a head of gold like the head of a cow and put it there, and the fire came and consumed the booty. The Prophet added: Then Allah saw our weakness and disability, so he made booty legal for us.”
‘Umar said, “Were it not for those Muslims who have not come to existence yet, I would have distributed (the land of) every town I conquer among the fighters as the Prophet distributed the land of Khaibar.”
Narrated Abu Musa Al-Ashari:
A bedouin asked the Prophet, “A man may fight for the sake of booty, and another may fight so that he may be mentioned by the people, and a third may fight to show his position (i.e. bravery); which of these regarded as fighting in Allah’s Cause?” The Prophet said, “He who fights so that Allah’s Word (i.e. Islam) should be superior, fights for Allah’s Cause.”
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Abu Mulaika:
Some silken cloaks with golden buttons were presented to the Prophet. He distributed them amongst his companions and kept one for Makhrama, bin Naufal. Later on Makhrama came along with his son Al-Miswar bin Makhrama, and stood up at the gate and said (to his son). “Call him (i.e. the Prophet) to me.” The Prophet heard his voice, took a silken cloak and brought it to him, placing those golden buttons in front of him saying, “O Abu-al-Miswar! I have kept this aside for you! O Abu-al Miswar! I have kept this aside for you!” Makhrama was a bad-tempered man.
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
People used to give some of their datepalms to the Prophet (as a gift), till he conquered Bani Quraiza and Bani An-Nadir, whereupon he started returning their favors.
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Az-Zubair:
When Az-Zubair got up during the battle of Al-Jamal, he called me and I stood up beside him, and he said to me, “O my son! Today one will be killed either as an oppressor or as an oppressed one. I see that I will be killed as an oppressed one. My biggest worry is my debts. Do you think, if we pay the debts, there will be something left for us from our money?” Az-Zubair added, “O my son! Sell our property and pay my debts.” Az-Zubair then willed one-third of his property and willed one-third of that portion to his sons; namely, ‘Abdullah’s sons. He said, “One-third of the one third. If any property is left after the payment of the debts, one-third (of the one-third of what is left) is to be given to your sons.” (Hisham, a sub-narrator added, “Some of the sons of ‘Abdullah were equal in age to the sons of Az-Zubair e.g. Khubaib and ‘Abbas. ‘Abdullah had nine sons and nine daughters at that time.” (The narrator ‘Abdullah added:) My father (Az-Zubair) went on drawing my attention to his debts saying, “If you should fail to pay part of the debts, appeal to my Master to help you.” By Allah! I could not understand what he meant till I asked, “O father! Who is your Master?” He replied, “Allah (is my Master).” By Allah, whenever I had any difficulty regarding his debts, I would say, “Master of Az-Zubair! Pay his debts on his behalf .” and Allah would (help me to) pay it. Az-Zubair was martyred leaving no Dinar or Dirham but two pieces of land, one of which was (called) Al-Ghaba, and eleven houses in Medina, two in Basra, one in Kufa and one in Egypt. In fact, the source of the debt which he owed was, that if somebody brought some money to deposit with him. Az Zubair would say, “No, (i won’t keep it as a trust), but I take it as a debt, for I am afraid it might be lost.” Az-Zubair was never appointed governor or collector of the tax of Kharaj or any other similar thing, but he collected his wealth (from the war booty he gained) during the holy battles he took part in, in the company of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman. (‘Abdullah bin Az-Zubair added:) When I counted his debt, it turned to be two million and two hundred thousand. (The sub-narrator added:) Hakim bin Hizam met Abdullah bin Zubair and asked, “O my nephew! How much is the debt of my brother?” ‘Abdullah kept it as a secret and said, “One hundred thousand,” Hakim said, “By Allah! I don’t think your property will cover it.” On that ‘Abdullah said to him, “What if it is two million and two hundred thousand?” Hakim said, “I don’t think you can pay it; so if you are unable to pay all of it, I will help you.” Az-Zubair had already bought Al-Ghaba for one hundred and seventy thousand. ‘Abdullah sold it for one million and six hundred thousand. Then he called the people saying, “Any person who has any money claim on Az-Zubair should come to us in Al-Ghaba.” There came to him ‘Abdullah bin Ja’far whom Az-Zubair owed four hundred thousand. He said to ‘Abdullah bin Az-Zubair, “If you wish I will forgive you the debt.” ‘Abdullah (bin Az-Zubair) said, “No.” Then Ibn Ja’far said, “If you wish you can defer the payment if you should defer the payment of any debt.” Ibn Az-Zubair said, “No.” ‘Abdullah bin Ja’far said, “Give me a piece of the land.” ‘Abdullah bin AzZubair said (to him), “Yours is the land extending from this place to this place.” So, ‘Abdullah bin Az-Zubair sold some of the property (including the houses) and paid his debt perfectly, retaining four and a half shares from the land (i.e. Al-Ghaba). He then went to Mu’awlya while ‘Amr bin ‘Uthman, Al-Mundhir bin Az-Zubair and Ibn Zam’a were sitting with him. Mu’awiya asked, “At what price have you appraised Al-Ghaba?” He said, “One hundred thousand for each share,” Muawiya asked, “How many shares have been left?” ‘Abdullah replied, “Four and a half shares.” Al-Mundhir bin Az-Zubair said, “I would like to buy one share for one hundred thousand.” ‘Amr bin ‘Uthman said, “I would like to buy one share for one hundred thousand.” Ibn Zam’a said, “I would like to buy one share for one hundred thousand.” Muawiya said, “How much is left now?” ‘Abdullah replied, “One share and a half.” Muawiya said, “I would like to buy it for one hundred and fifty thousand.” ‘Abdullah also sold his part to Muawiya six hundred thousand. When Ibn AzZubair had paid all the debts. Az-Zubair’s sons said to him, “Distribute our inheritance among us.” He said, “No, by Allah, I will not distribute it among you till I announce in four successive Hajj seasons, ‘Would those who have money claims on Az-Zubair come so that we may pay them their debt.” So, he started to announce that in public in every Hajj season, and when four years had elapsed, he distributed the inheritance among the inheritors. Az-Zubair had four wives, and after the one-third of his property was excluded (according to the will), each of his wives received one million and two hundred thousand. So the total amount of his property was fifty million and two hundred thousand.
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
‘Uthman did not join the Badr battle because he was married to one of the daughters of Allah’s Apostle and she was ill. So, the Prophet said to him. “You will get a reward and a share (from the war booty) similar to the reward and the share of one who has taken part in the Badr battle.”
Narrated Marwan bin Al-Hakim and Miswar bin Makhrama:
When the Hawazin delegation came to Allah’s Apostle after they had embraced Islam and requested him to return their properties and war prisoners to them, Allah’s Apostle said, “To me the best talk is the truest, so you may choose either of two things; the war prisoners or the wealth, for I have delayed their distribution.” Allah’s Apostle had waited for them for over ten days when he returned from Ta’if. So, when those people came to know that Allah’s Apostle was not going to return to them except one of the two things the said, “We choose our war Prisoners ‘Allah’s Apostle stood up amongst the Muslims, and after glorifying Allah as He deserved, he said, “Now then, these brothers of yours have come to us with repentance, and I see it logical that I should return their captives to them, so whoever of you likes to do that as a favor then he can do it, and whoever amongst you likes to stick to his share, let him give up his prisoners and we will compensate him from the very first Fai’ (i.e. war booty received without fight) which Allah will give us.” On that, all the people said. ‘O Allah’s Apostles We have agreed willingly to do so (return the captives)” Then Allah’s Apostle said to them “I do not know who amongst you has agreed to this and who has not. You should return and let your leaders inform me of your agreement.” The people returned and their leaders spoke to them, and then came to Allah’s Apostle and said, “All the people have agreed willingly to do so and have given the permission to return the war prisoners (without Compensation)” (Az-Zuhri, the sub-narrator states) This is what has been related to us about the captives of Hawazin.
Once we were in the house of Abu Musa who presented a meal containing cooked chicken. A man from the tribe of Bani Taim Allah with red complexion as if he were from the Byzantine war prisoners, was present. Abu Musa invited him to share the meal but he (apologised) saying. “I saw chickens eating dirty things and so I have had a strong aversion to eating them, and have taken an oath that I will not eat chickens.” Abu Musa said, “Come along, I will tell you about this matter (i.e. how to cancel one’s oat ). I went to the Prophet in the company of a group of Al-Ashariyin, asked him to provide us with means of conveyance. He said, ‘By Allah, I will not provide you with any means of conveyance and I have nothing to make you ride on.’ Then some camels as booty were brought to Allah’s Apostle and he asked for us saying. ‘Where are the group of Al-Ash’ariyun?’ Then he ordered that we should be given five camels with white humps. When we set out we said, ‘What have we done? We will never be blessed (with what we have been given).’ So, we returned to the Prophet and said, ‘We asked you to provide us with means of conveyance, but you took an oath that you would not provide us with any means of conveyance. Did you forget (your oath when you gave us the camels)? He replied. ‘I have not provided you with means of conveyance, but Allah has provided you with it, and by Allah, Allah willing, if ever I take an oath to do something, and later on I find that it is more beneficial to do something different, I will do the thing which is better, and give expiation for my oath.”
Narrated Nafi from Ibn Umar:
Allah’s Apostle sent a Sariya towards Najd, and Abdullah bin ‘Umar was in the Sariya. They gained a great number of camels as war booty. The share of each one of them was twelve or eleven camels, and they were given an extra camel each.
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
Allah’s Apostle used to give extra share to some of the members of the Sariya he used to send, in addition to the shares they shared with the army in general.
Narrated Abu Musa:
We got the news of the migration of the Prophet while we were in Yemen, so we set out migrating to him. We were, I and my two brothers, I being the youngest, and one of my brothers was Abu Burda and the other was Abu Ruhm. We were over fifty (or fifty-three or fifty two) men from our people. We got on board a ship which took us to An-Najashi in Ethiopia, and there we found Ja’far bin Abu Talib and his companions with An-Najaishi. Ja’far said (to us), “Allah’s Apostle has sent us here and ordered us to stay here, so you too, stay with us.” We stayed with him till we all left (Ethiopia) and met the Prophet at the time when he had conquered Khaibar. He gave us a share from its booty (or gave us from its booty). He gave only to those who had taken part in the Ghazwa with him. but he did not give any share to any person who had not participated in Khaibar’s conquest except the people of our ship, besides Ja’far and his companions, whom he gave a share as he did them (i.e. the people of the ship).
Allah’s Apostle said (to me), “If the property of Bahrain had come to us, I would have given you so much and so much.” But the Bahrain property did not come till the Prophet had died. When the Bahrain property came. Abu Bakr ordered somebody to announce, “Any person who has money claim on Allah’s Apostle or whom Allah’s Apostle had promised something, should come to us.” So, I went to him and said, “Allah’s Apostle had promised to give me so much an so much.” Abu Bakr scooped up money with both hands thrice for me.” (The sub-narrator Sufyan illustrated this action by scooping up with both hands and said, “Ibn Munkadir, another sub-narrator, used to illustrate it in this way.”)
Narrated Jabir: Once I went to Abu Bakr and asked for the money but he did not give me, and I went to him again, but he did not give me, so I went to him for the third time and said, “I asked you, but you did not give me; then I asked you (for the second time) and you did not give me; then I asked you (for the third time) but you did not give me. You should either give me or allow yourself to be considered a miser regarding my case.” Abu Bakr said, “You tell me that I am a miser with regard to you. But really, whenever I rejected your request, I had the inclination to give you.”
(In another narration Jabir added:) So, Abu Bakr scooped up money with both hands for me and asked me to count it. I found out that It was five hundred. Abu Bakr told me to take twice that amount.
Narrated Jabir bin Abdullah:
While Allah’s Apostle was distributing the booty at Al-Ja’rana, somebody said to him “Be just (in your distribution).” The Prophet replied, “Verily I would be miserable if I did not act justly.”
Narrated Jubair bin Mutim:
The Prophet talked about war prisoners of Badr saying, “Had Al-Mutim bin Adi been alive and interceded with me for these mean people, I would have freed them for his sake.”
Narrated Jubair bin Mutim:
I and ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan went to Allah’s Apostle and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! You have given to Bani Al-Muttalib and left us although they and we are of the same kinship to you.” Allah’s Apostle said, “Bani Muttalib and Bani Hashim are one and the same.” The Prophet did not give a share to Bani Abd Shams and Bani Naufai. (Ibn Ishaq said, “Abd Shams and Hashim and Al-Muttalib were maternal brothers and their mother was ‘Atika bint Murra and Naufal was their paternal brother.)
Narrated ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf:
While I was standing in the row on the day (of the battle) of Badr, I looked to my right and my left and saw two young Ansari boys, and I wished I had been stronger than they. One of them called my attention saying, “O Uncle! Do you know Abu Jahl?” I said, “Yes, What do you want from him, O my nephew?” He said, “I have been informed that he abuses Allah’s Apostle. By Him in Whose Hands my life is, if I should see him, then my body will not leave his body till either of us meet his fate.” I was astonished at that talk. Then the other boy called my attention saying the same as the other had said. After a while I saw Abu Jahl walking amongst the people. I said (to the boys), “Look! This is the man you asked me about.” So, both of them attacked him with their swords and struck him to death and returned to Allah’S Apostle to inform him of that. Allah’s Apostle asked, “Which of you has killed him?” Each of them said, “I Have killed him.” Allah’s Apostle asked, “Have you cleaned your swords?” They said, “No. ” He then looked at their swords and said, “No doubt, you both have killed him and the spoils of the deceased will be given to Muadh bin Amr bin Al-Jamuh.” The two boys were Muadh bin ‘Afra and Muadh bin Amr bin Al-Jamuh.
Narrated Abu Qatada:
We set out in the company of Allah’s Apostle on the day (of the battle) of Hunain. When we faced the enemy, the Muslims retreated and I saw a pagan throwing himself over a Muslim. I turned around and came upon him from behind and hit him on the shoulder with the sword He (i.e. the pagan) came towards me and seized me so violently that I felt as if it were death itself, but death overtook him and he released me. I followed ‘Umar bin Al Khattab and asked (him), “What is wrong with the people (fleeing)?” He replied, “This is the Will of Allah,” After the people returned, the Prophet sat and said, “Anyone who has killed an enemy and has a proof of that, will posses his spoils.” I got up and said, “Who will be a witness for me?” and then sat down. The Prophet again said, “Anyone who has killed an enemy and has proof of that, will possess his spoils.” I (again) got up and said, “Who will be a witness for me?” and sat down. Then the Prophet said the same for the third time. I again got up, and Allah’s Apostle said, “O Abu Qatada! What is your story?” Then I narrated the whole story to him. A man (got up and) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! He is speaking the truth, and the spoils of the killed man are with me. So please compensate him on my behalf.” On that Abu Bakr As-Siddiq said, “No, by Allah, he (i.e. Allah’s Apostle ) will not agree to give you the spoils gained by one of Allah’s Lions who fights on the behalf of Allah and His Apostle.” The Prophet said, “Abu Bakr has spoken the truth.” So, Allah’s Apostle gave the spoils to me. I sold that armor (i.e. the spoils) and with its price I bought a garden at Bani Salima, and this was my first property which I gained after my conversion to Islam.
Narrated Urwa bin Az-Zubair:
Hakim bin Hizam said, “I asked Allah’s Apostle for something, and he gave me. I asked him again, and he gave me, and said to me. ‘O Hakim! This wealth is like green sweet (i.e. fruit), and if one takes it without greed, then one is blessed in it, and if one takes it with greediness, then one is not blessed in it, and will be like the one who eats without satisfaction. And an upper (i.e. giving) hand is better than a lower (i.e. taking) hand,’ I said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! By Him Who has sent you with the Truth. I will not ask anyone for anything after you till I leave this world.” So, when Abu Bakr during his Caliphate, called Hakim to give him (some money), Hakim refused to accept anything from him. Once ‘Umar called him (during his Caliphate) in order to give him something, but Hakim refused to accept it, whereupon ‘Umar said, “O Muslims! I give him (i.e. Haklm) his right which Allah has assigned to him) from this Fai ‘(booty), but he refuses to take it.” So Haklm never took anything from anybody after the Prophet till he died.
‘Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I vowed to observe Itikaf for one day during the Pre-lslamic period.” The Prophet ordered him to fulfill his vow. ‘Umar gained two lady captives from the war prisoners of Hunain and he left them in some of the houses at Mecca. When Allah’s Apostle freed the captives of Hunain without ransom, they came out walking in the streets. ‘Umar said (to his son), “O Abdullah! See what is the matter.” ‘Abdullah replied, “Allah’s Apostle has freed the captives without ransom.” He said (to him), “Go and set free those two slave girls.” (Nafi added:) Allah’s Apostle did not perform the ‘Umra from Al-Jarana, and if he had performed the ‘Umra, it would not have been hidden from ‘Abdullah.
Narrated ‘Amr bin Taghlib:
Allah’s Apostle gave (gifts) to some people to the exclusion of some others. The latter seemed to be displeased by that. The Prophet said, “I give to some people, lest they should deviate from True Faith or lose patience, while I refer other people to the goodness and contentment which Allah has put in their hearts, and ‘Amr bin Taghlib is amongst them.” ‘Amr bin Taghlib said, “The statement of Allah’s Apostle is dearer to me than red camels.”
Narrated Al-Hasan: ‘Amr bin Taghlib told us that Allah’s Apostle got some property or some war prisoners and he distributed them in the above way (i.e. giving to some people to the exclusion of others) .
The Prophet said, “I give to Quraish people in order to let them adhere to Islam, for they are near to their life of Ignorance (i.e. they have newly embraced Islam and it is still not strong in their hearts.”
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
When Allah favored His Apostle with the properties of Hawazin tribe as Fai (booty), he started giving to some Quarries men even up to one-hundred camels each, whereupon some Ansari men said about Allah’s Apostle, “May Allah forgive His Apostle! He is giving to (men of) Quraish and leaves us, in spite of the fact that our swords are still dropping blood (of the infidels)” When Allah’s Apostle was informed of what they had said, he called the Ansar and gathered them in a leather tent and did not call anybody else along, with them. When they gathered, Allah’s Apostle came to them and said, “What is the statement which, I have been informed, and that which you have said?” The learned ones among them replied,” O Allah’s Apostle! The wise ones amongst us did not say anything, but the youngsters amongst us said, ‘May Allah forgive His Apostle; he gives the Quarish and leaves the Ansar, in spite of the fact that our swords are still dribbling (wet) with the blood of the infidels.’ ” Allah’s Apostle replied, I give to such people as are still close to the period of Infidelity (i.e. they have recently embraced Islam and Faith is still weak in their hearts). Won’t you be pleased to see people go with fortune, while you return with Allah’s Apostle to your houses? By Allah, what you will return with, is better than what they are returning with.” The Ansar replied, “Yes, O Allah’s Apostle, we are satisfied’ Then the Prophet said to them.” You will find after me, others being preferred to you. Then be patient till you meet Allah and meet His Apostle at Al-Kauthar (i.e. a fount in Paradise).” (Anas added:) But we did not remain patient.
Narrated Jubair bin Mutim:
That while he was with Allah’s Apostle who was accompanied by the people on their way back from Hunain, the bedouins started begging things of Allah’s Apostle so much so that they forced him to go under a Samura tree where his loose outer garment was snatched away. On that, Allah’s Apostle stood up and said to them, “Return my garment to me. If I had as many camels as these trees, I would have distributed them amongst you; and you will not find me a miser or a liar or a coward.”
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
While I was walking with the Prophet who was wearing a Najrani outer garment with a thick hem, a bedouin came upon the Prophet and pulled his garment so violently that I could recognize the impress of the hem of the garment on his shoulder, caused by the violence of his pull. Then the bedouin said, “Order for me something from Allah’s Fortune which you have.” The Prophet turned to him and smiled, and ordered that a gift be given to him.
On the day (of the battle) of Hunain, Allah’s Apostle favored some people in the distribution of the booty (to the exclusion of others); he gave Al-Aqra’ bin Habis one-hundred camels and he gave ‘Uyaina the same amount, and also gave to some of the eminent Arabs, giving them preference in this regard. Then a person came and said, “By Allah, in this distribution justice has not been observed, nor has Allah’s Pleasure been aimed at.” I said (to him), “By Allah, I will inform the Prophet (of what you have said), “I went and informed him, and he said, “If Allah and His Apostle did not act justly, who else would act justly. May Allah be merciful to Moses, for he was harmed with more than this, yet he kept patient.”
Narrated Asma bint Abu Bakr:
I used to carry the date stones on my head from the land of Az-Zubair which Allah’s Apostle had given to him, and it was at a distance of 2/3 of a Farsakh from my house.
Narrated Hisham’s father: The Prophet (gave Az-Zubair a piece of land from the property of Bani An-Nadir (gained as war booty).
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
Umar bin Al-Khattab expelled all the Jews and Christians from the land of Hijaz. Allah’s Apostle after conquering Khaibar, thought of expelling the Jews from the land which, after he conquered it belonged to Allah, Allah’s Apostle and the Muslims. But the Jews requested Allah’s Apostle to leave them there on the condition that they would do the labor and get half of the fruits (the land would yield). Allah’s Apostle said, “We shall keep you on these terms as long as we wish.” Thus they stayed till the time of ‘Umar’s Caliphate when he expelled them to Taima and Ariha.
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Mughaffal:
While we were besieging the fort of Khaibar, a person threw a leather container containing fat, and I ran to take it, but when I turned I saw the Prophet (standing behind), so I felt embarrassed in front of him.
Narrated Ibn Umar:
In our holy battles, we used to get honey and grapes, as war booty which we would eat and would not store.
Narrated Ibn Abi Aufa:
We were afflicted with hunger during the besiege of Khaibar, and when it was the day of (the battle of) Khaibar, we slaughtered the donkeys and when the pots got boiling (with their meat). Allah’s Apostle made an announcement that all the pots should be upset and that nobody should eat anything of the meat of the donkeys. We thought that the Prophet prohibited that because the Khumus had not been taken out of the booty (i.e. donkeys); other people said, “He prohibited eating them for ever.” The sub-narrator added, “I asked Said bin Jubair who said, ‘He has made the eating of donkeys’ meat illegal for ever.”)
Narrated ‘Umar bin Dinar:
I was sitting with Jabir bin Zaid and ‘Amr bin Aus, and Bjalla was narrating to them in 70 A.H. the year when Musab bin Az-Zubair was the leader of the pilgrims of Basra. We were sitting at the steps of Zam-zam well and Bajala said, “I was the clerk of Juz bin Muawiya, Al-Ahnaf’s paternal uncle. A letter came from ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab one year before his death; and it was read:– “Cancel every marriage contracted among the Magians between relatives of close kinship (marriages that are regarded illegal in Islam: a relative of this sort being called Dhu-Mahram.)” ‘Umar did not take the Jizya from the Magian infidels till ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Auf testified that Allah’s Apostle had taken the Jizya from the Magians of Hajar.
Narrated ‘Amr bin ‘Auf Al-Ansari:
(who was an ally of Bam ‘Amr bin Lu’ai and one of those who had taken part in (the Ghazwa of) Badr): Allah’s Apostle sent Abu ‘Ubaida bin Al-Jarreh to Bahrain to collect the Jizya. Allah’s Apostle had established peace with the people of Bahrain and appointed Al-‘Ala’ bin Al-Hadrami as their governor. When Abu ‘Ubaida came from Bahrain with the money, the Ansar heard of Abu ‘Ubaida’s arrival which coincided with the time of the morning prayer with the Prophet. When Allah’s Apostle led them in the morning prayer and finished, the Ansar approached him, and he looked at them and smiled on seeing them and said, “I feel that you have heard that Abu. ‘Ubaida has brought something?” They said, “Yes, O Allah’s Apostle’ He said, “Rejoice and hope for what will please you! By Allah, I am not afraid of your poverty but I am afraid that you will lead a life of luxury as past nations did, whereupon you will compete with each other for it, as they competed for it, and it will destroy you as it destroyed them.”
Narrated Jubair bin Haiya:
‘Umar sent the Muslims to the great countries to fight the pagans. When Al-Hurmuzan embraced Islam, ‘Umar said to him. “I would like to consult you regarding these countries which I intend to invade.” Al-Hurmuzan said, “Yes, the example of these countries and their inhabitants who are the enemies. of the Muslims, is like a bird with a head, two wings and two legs; If one of its wings got broken, it would get up over its two legs, with one wing and the head; and if the other wing got broken, it would get up with two legs and a head, but if its head got destroyed, then the two legs, two wings and the head would become useless. The head stands for Khosrau, and one wing stands for Caesar and the other wing stands for Faris. So, order the Muslims to go towards Khosrau.” So, ‘Umar sent us (to Khosrau) appointing An-Numan bin Muqrin as our commander. When we reached the land of the enemy, the representative of Khosrau came out with forty-thousand warriors, and an interpreter got up saying, “Let one of you talk to me!” Al-Mughira replied, “Ask whatever you wish.” The other asked, “Who are you?” Al-Mughira replied, “We are some people from the Arabs; we led a hard, miserable, disastrous life: we used to suck the hides and the date stones from hunger; we used to wear clothes made up of fur of camels and hair of goats, and to worship trees and stones. While we were in this state, the Lord of the Heavens and the Earths, Elevated is His Remembrance and Majestic is His Highness, sent to us from among ourselves a Prophet whose father and mother are known to us. Our Prophet, the Messenger of our Lord, has ordered us to fight you till you worship Allah Alone or give Jizya (i.e. tribute); and our Prophet has informed us that our Lord says:– “Whoever amongst us is killed (i.e. martyred), shall go to Paradise to lead such a luxurious life as he has never seen, and whoever amongst us remain alive, shall become your master.” (Al-Mughira, then blamed An-Numan for delaying the attack and) An-Nu’ man said to Al-Mughira, “If you had participated in a similar battle, in the company of Allah’s Apostle he would not have blamed you for waiting, nor would he have disgraced you. But I accompanied Allah’s Apostle in many battles and it was his custom that if he did not fight early by daytime, he would wait till the wind had started blowing and the time for the prayer was due (i.e. after midday).”
Narrated Abu Humaid As-Saidi:
We accompanied the Prophet in the Ghazwa of Tabuk and the king of ‘Aila presented a white mule and a cloak as a gift to the Prophet. And the Prophet wrote to him a peace treaty allowing him to keep authority over his country.
Narrated Juwairiya bin Qudama At-Tamimi:
We said to ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab, Jo Chief of the believers! Advise us.” He said, “I advise you to fulfill Allah’s Convention (made with the Dhimmis) as it is the convention of your Prophet and the source of the livelihood of your dependents (i.e. the taxes from the Dhimmis.) “
Narrated Yahya bin Said:
Once the Prophet called the Ansar in order to grant them part of the land of Bahrain. On that they said, “No! By Allah, we will not accept it unless you grant a similar thing to our Quarries brothers as well.” He said, “That will be their’s if Allah wishes.” But when the Ansar persisted in their request, he said, “After me you will see others given preference over you in this respect (in which case) you should be patient till you meet me at the Tank (of Al-Kauthar).”
Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah:
Allah’s Apostle once said to me, “If the revenue of Bahrain came, I would give you this much and this much.” When Allah’s Apostle had died, the revenue of Bahrain came, and Abu Bakr announced, ” Let whoever was promised something by Allah’s Apostle come to me.” So, I went to Abu Bakr and said, “Allah’s Apostle said to me, ‘If the revenue of Bahrain came, I would give you this much and this. much.” On that Abu Bakr said to me, “Scoop (money) with both your hands.” I scooped money with both my hands and Abu Bakr asked me to count it. I counted it and it was five-hundred (gold pieces). The total amount he gave me was one thousand and five hundred (gold pieces.)
Narrated Anas: Money from Bahrain was brought to the Prophet . He said, “Spread it in the Mosque.” It was the biggest amount that had ever been brought to Allah’s Apostle . In the meantime Al-‘Abbas came to him and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Give me, for I gave the ransom of myself and Aqil.” The Prophet said (to him), “Take.” He scooped money with both hands and poured it in his garment and tried to lift it, but he could not and appealed to the Prophet, “Will you order someone to help me in lifting it?” The Prophet said, “No.” Then Al-‘Abbas said, “Then will you yourself help me carry it?” The Prophet said, “No.” Then Al ‘Abbas threw away some of the money, but even then he was not able to lift it, and so he gain requested the Prophet “Will you order someone to help me carry it?” The Prophet said, “No.” Then Al-‘Abbas said, “Then will you yourself yelp me carry it?” The Prophet said, ‘No.” So, Al-‘Abbas threw away some more money and lifted it on his shoulder and went away. The Prophet kept on looking at him with astonishment at his greediness till he went out of our sight. Allah’s Apostle did not get up from there till not a single Dirham remained from that money.
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr:
The Prophet said, “Whoever killed a person having a treaty with the Muslims, shall not smell the smell of Paradise though its smell is perceived from a distance of forty years.”
Narrated Abu Huraira:
While we were in the Mosque, the Prophet came out and said, “Let us go to the Jews” We went out till we reached Bait-ul-Midras. He said to them, “If you embrace Islam, you will be safe. You should know that the earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle, and I want to expel you from this land. So, if anyone amongst you owns some property, he is permitted to sell it, otherwise you should know that the Earth belongs to Allah and His Apostle.”
Narrated Said bin Jubair:
that he heard Ibn ‘Abbas saying, “Thursday! And you know not what Thursday is? After that Ibn ‘Abbas wept till the stones on the ground were soaked with his tears. On that I asked Ibn ‘Abbas, “What is (about) Thursday?” He said, “When the condition (i.e. health) of Allah’s Apostle deteriorated, he said, ‘Bring me a bone of scapula, so that I may write something for you after which you will never go astray.’The people differed in their opinions although it was improper to differ in front of a prophet, They said, ‘What is wrong with him? Do you think he is delirious? Ask him (to understand). The Prophet replied, ‘Leave me as I am in a better state than what you are asking me to do.’ Then the Prophet ordered them to do three things saying, ‘Turn out all the pagans from the Arabian Peninsula, show respect to all foreign delegates by giving them gifts as I used to do.’ ” The sub-narrator added, “The third order was something beneficial which either Ibn ‘Abbas did not mention or he mentioned but I forgot.’
Narrated Abu Huraira:
When Khaibar was conquered, a roasted poisoned sheep was presented to the Prophets as a gift (by the Jews). The Prophet ordered, “Let all the Jews who have been here, be assembled before me.” The Jews were collected and the Prophet said (to them), “I am going to ask you a question. Will you tell the truth?” They said, “Yes.’ The Prophet asked, “Who is your father?” They replied, “So-and-so.” He said, “You have told a ie; your father is so-and-so.” They said, “You are right.” He siad, “Will you now tell me the truth, if I ask you about something?” They replied, “Yes, O AbuAl-Qasim; and if we should tell a lie, you can realize our lie as you have done regarding our father.” On that he asked, “Who are the people of the (Hell) Fire?” They said, “We shall remain in the (Hell) Fire for a short period, and after that you will replace us.” The Prophet said, “You may be cursed and humiliated in it! By Allah, we shall never replace you in it.” Then he asked, “Will you now tell me the truth if I ask you a question?” They said, “Yes, O Ab Li-AI-Qasim.” He asked, “Have you poisoned this sheep?” They said, “Yes.” He asked, “What made you do so?” They said, “We wanted to know if you were a liar in which case we would get rid of you, and if you are a prophet then the poison would not harm you.”
I asked Anas about the Qunut (i.e. invocation in the prayer). Anas said, “It should be recited before bowing.” I said, “So-and-so claims that you say that it should be recited after bowing.” He replied, “He is mistaken.” Then Anas narrated to us that the Prophet invoked evil on the tribe of Bani-Sulaim for one month after bowing. ‘ Anas Further said, “The Prophet had sent 40 or 70 Qaris (i.e. men well versed in the knowledge of the Qur’an) to some pagans, but the latter struggled with them and martyred them, although there was a peace pact between them and the Prophet I had never seen the Prophet so sorry and worried about anybody as he was about them (i.e. the Qaris).”
Narrated Um Hani:
the daughter of Abu Talib: I went to Allah’s Apostle on the day of the conquest of Mecca and found him taking a bath, and his daughter Fatima was screening him. I greeted him and he asked, “Who is that?” I said, “I, Um Hani bint Abi Talib.” He said, “Welcome, O Um Hani.” When he had finished his bath, he stood up and offered eight Rakat while dressed in one garment. I said, “O Allah’s Apostle! My brother ‘Ali has declared that he will kill a man to whom I have granted asylum. The man is so and-so bin Hubaira.” Allah’s Apostle said, “O Um Hani! We will grant asylum to the one whom you have granted asylum.” (Um Hani said, “That (visit) took place in the Duha (i.e. forenoon)).
Narrated Ibrahim At-Tamimi’s father:
‘Ali delivered a sermon saying, “We have no book to read except the Book of Allah and what is written in this paper which contains verdicts regarding (retaliation for) wounds, the ages of the camels (given as Zakat or as blood money) and the fact that Medina is a sanctuary in between Air mountain to so-and-so (mountain). So, whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits a sin or gives shelter in it, to such an innovator will incur the Curse of Allah, the angels and all the people, and none of his compulsory or optional good deeds of worship will be accepted. And whoever (freed slave) takes as his master (i.e. befriends) other than his real masters will incur the same (Curse). And the asylum granted by any Muslim is to be secured by all the other Muslims, and whoever betrays a Muslim in this respect will incur the same (Curse).”
Narrated Sahl bin Abi Hathma:
‘Abdullah bin Sahl and Muhaiyisa bin Mas’ud bin Zaid set out to Khaibar, the inhabitants of which had a peace treaty with the Muslims at that time. They parted and later on Muhaiyisa came upon ‘Abdullah bin Sah! and found him murdered agitating in his blood. He buried him and returned to Medina. ‘Abdur Rahman bin Sahl, Muhaiyisa and Huwaiuisa, the sons of Mas’ud came to the Prophet and ‘Abdur Rahman intended to talk, but the Prophet said (to him), “Let the eldest of you speak.” as ‘Abdur-Rahman was the youngest:. ‘Abdur-Rahman kept silent and the other two spoke. The Prophet said, “If you swear as to who has committed the murder, you will have the right to take your right from the murderer.” They said, “How should we swear if we did not witness the murder or see the murderer?” The Prophet said, “Then the Jews can clear themselves from the charge by taking Alaska (an oath taken by men that it was not they who committed the murder).” The!y said, “How should we believe in the oaths of infidels?” So, the Prophet himself paid the blood money (of ‘Abdullah). (See Hadith No. 36 Vol. 9.)
Narrated ‘ Abdullah bin ‘Abbas:
That Abu Sufyan bin Harb Informed him that Heraclius called him and the members of a caravan from Quraish who had gone to Sham as traders, during the truce which Allah’s Apostle had concluded with Abu Sufyan and the Quraish infidels.
Once the Prophet was bewitched so that he began to imagine that he had done a thing which in fact he had not done.
Narrated Auf bin Mali:
I went to the Prophet during the Ghazwa of Tabuk while he was sitting in a leather tent. He said, “Count six signs that indicate the approach of the Hour: my death, the conquest of Jerusalem, a plague that will afflict you (and kill you in great numbers) as the plague that afflicts sheep, the increase of wealth to such an extent that even if one is given one hundred Dinars, he will not be satisfied; then an affliction which no Arab house will escape, and then a truce between you and Bani Al-Asfar (i.e. the Byzantines) who will betray you and attack you under eighty flags. Under each flag will be twelve thousand soldiers.
Narrated Abu Huraira:
Abu Bakr, on the day of Nahr (i.e. slaughtering of animals for sacrifice), sent me in the company of others to make this announcement: “After this year, no pagan will be allowed to perform the Hajj, and none will be allowed to perform the Tawaf of the Ka’ba undressed.” And the day of Al-Hajj-ul-Akbar is the day of Nahr, and it called Al-Akbar because the people call the ‘Umra Al-Hajj-ul-Asghar (i.e. the minor Hajj). Abu Bakr threw back the pagans’ covenant that year, and therefore, no pagan performed the Hajj in the year of Hajj-ul-Wada’ of the Prophets.
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr:
Allah’s Apostle said, “Whoever has (the following) four characteristics will be a pure hypocrite: “If he speaks, he tells a lie; if he gives a promise, he breaks it, if he makes a covenant he proves treacherous; and if he quarrels, he behaves in a very imprudent evil insulting manner (unjust). And whoever has one of these characteristics, has one characteristic of a hypocrite, unless he gives it us.”
We did not, write anything from the Prophet except the Quran and what is written in this paper, (wherein) the Prophet said, “Medina is a sanctuary from (the mountain of) Air to so and-so, therefore, whoever innovates (in it) an heresy or commits a sin, or gives shelter to such an innovator, will incur the Curse of Allah. the angels and all the people; and none of his compulsory or optional good deeds of worship will be accepted And the asylum granted by any Muslim Is to be secured by all the Muslims even if it is granted by one of the lowest social status among them. And whoever betrays a Muslim in this respect will incur the Curse of Allah, the angels and all the people, and his compulsory and optional good deeds of worship will not be accepted. And any freed slave will take as masters (befriends) people other than his own real masters who freed him without taking the permission of the latter, will incur the Curse of Allah, the angels and all the people, and his compulsory and optional good deeds of worship will not be accepted.”
Narrated Said: Abu Huraira once said (to the people), “What will your state be when you can get no Dinar or Dirhan (i.e. taxes from the Dhimmis)?” on that someone asked him, “What makes you know that this state will take place, O Abu- Hu raira?” He said, “By Him in Whose Hands Abu Huraira’s life is, I know it through the statement of the true and truly inspired one (i.e. the Prophet).” The people asked, “What does the Statement say?” He replied, “Allah and His Apostle’s asylum granted to Dhimmis, i.e. non-Muslims living in a Muslim territory) will be outraged, and so Allah will make the hearts of these Dhimmis so daring that they will refuse to pay the Jizya they will be supposed to pay.”
I asked Abu Wail, “Did you take part in the battle of Siffin?” He said, ‘Yes, and I heard Sahl bin Hunaif (when he was blamed for lack of zeal for fighting) saying, “You’d better blame your wrong opinions. I wish you had seen me on the day of Abu Jandal. If I had the courage to disobey the Prophet’s orders, I would have done so. We had kept out swords on our necks and shoulders, for a thing which frightened us. And we did so, we found it easier for us, except in the case of the above battle (of ours).’ “
Narrated Abu Wail:
We were in Siffin and Sahl bin Hunaif got up and said, “O people! Blame yourselves! We were with the Prophet on the day of Hudaibiya, and if we had been called to fight, we would have fought. But ‘Umar bin Al Khatab came and said, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Aren’t we in the right and our opponents in the wrongs’ Allah’s Apostle said, ‘Yes.’ ‘Umar said, ‘Aren’t our killed persons in Paradise and their’s in Hell?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ ‘Umar said, ‘Then why should we accept hard terms in matters concerning our religion? Shall we return before Allah judges between us and them?’ Allah’s Apostle said, ‘O Ibn Al-Khattab! I am the Apostle of Allah and Allah will never degrade me. Then ‘Umar went to Abu Bakr and told him the same as he had told the Prophet.
On that Abu Bakr said (to ‘Umar). ‘He is the Apostle of Allah and Allah will never degrade him.’ Then Surat-al-Fath (i.e. Victory) was revealed and Allah’s Apostle recited it to the end in front of ‘Umar. On that ‘Umar asked, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! Was it (i.e. the Hudaibiya Treaty) a victory?’ Allah’s Apostle said, “Yes”
Narrated Asma ‘bint Abi Bakr:
During the period of the peace treaty of Quraish with Allah’s Apostle, my mother, accompanied by her father, came to visit me, and she was a pagan. I consulted Allah’s Apostle, “O Allah’s Apostle! My mother has come to me and she desires to receive a reward from me, shall I keep good relation with her?” He said, “Yes, keep good relation with her.”
When the Prophet intended to perform the ‘Umra he sent a person to the people of Mecca asking their permission to enter Mecca. They stipulated that he would not stay for more than three days and would not enter it except with sheathed arms and would not preach (Islam) to any of them. So Ali bin Abi-Talib started writing the treaty between them. He wrote, “This is what Muhammad, Apostle of Allah has agreed to.” The (Meccans) said, “If we knew that you (Muhammad) are the Apostle of Allah, then we would not have prevented you and would have followed you. But write, ‘This is what Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah has agreed to..’ ” On that Allah’s Apostle said, “By Allah, I am Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah, and, by Allah, I am Apostle of ‘Allah.” Allah’s Apostle used not to write; so he asked ‘Ali to erase the expression of Apostle of Allah. On that ‘Ali said, “By Allah I will never erase it.” Allah’s Apostle said (to ‘Ali), “Let me see the paper.” When ‘Ali showed him the paper, the Prophet erased the expression with his own hand. When Allah’s Apostle had entered Mecca and three days had elapsed, the Meccans came to ‘Ali and said, “Let your friend (i.e. the Prophet) quit Mecca.” Ali informed Allah’s Apostle about it and Allah’s Apostle said, “Yes,” and then he departed.
While the Prophet was in the state of prostration, surrounded by a group of people from Quraish pagans. ‘Uqba bin Abi Mu’ait came and brought the intestines of a camel and threw them on the back of the Prophet . The Prophet did not raise his head from prostration till Fatima (i.e. his daughter) came and removed those intestines from his back, and invoked evil on whoever had done (the evil deed). The Prophet said, “O Allah! Destroy the chiefs of Quraish, O Allah! Destroy Abu Jahl bin Hisham, ‘Utba bin Rabi’a, Shaiba bin Rabi’a. ‘Uqba bin Abi Mu’ait ‘Umaiya bin Khalaf (or Ubai bin Kalaf).” Later on I saw all of them killed during the battle of Badr and their bodies were thrown into a well except the body of Umaiya or Ubai, because he was a fat person, and when he was pulled, the parts of his body got separated before he was thrown into the well.
The Prophet said, ”Every betrayer will have a flag on the Day of Resurrection” One of the two sub-narrators said that the flag would be fixed, and the other said that it would be shown on the Day of Resurrection, so that the betrayer might be recognized by it.
Narrated Ibn Umar:
The Prophet said, “Every betrayer will have a flag which will be fixed on the Day of Resurrection, and the flag’s prominence will be made in order to show the betrayal he committed.”
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:
Allah’s Apostle said on the day of the conquest of Mecca, “There is no migration now, but there is Jihad (i.e.. holy battle) and good intentions. And when you are called for Jihad, you should come out at once” Allah’s Apostle also said, on the day of the conquest of Mecca, “Allah has made this town a sanctuary since the day He created the Heavens and the Earth. So, it is a sanctuary by Allah’s Decree till the Day of Resurrection. Fighting in it was not legal for anyone before me, and it was made legal for me only for an hour by daytime. So, it (i.e. Mecca) is a sanctuary by Allah’s Decree till the Day of Resurrection. Its thorny bushes should not be cut, and its game should not be chased, its fallen property (i.e. Luqata) should not be picked up except by one who will announce it publicly; and its grass should not be uprooted,” On that Al-‘Abbas said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Except the Idhkhir, because it is used by the goldsmiths and by the people for their houses.” On that the Prophet said, “Except the Idhkhir.”