Tafseer e Surah Al Kafirun

Māhe Ramaḍān aur ṣadqa-o ḳhairāt

Māhe Ramaḍān meṅ ṣadqa-o ḳhairāt karne kī faz̤īlat kyā
hai?
Ṣadqa-o ḳhairāt woh māl hai jo Allāh kī riz̤ā ke liye
ġharīb-o miskīn logoṅ ko diyā jātā hai. Zakāṫ-o ʻushr aur
ṣadqa’e fiṭr tīnoṅ wājib haiṅ. Jo un tīnoṅ meṅ se kisī ek ko adā
nah karegā, saḳht gunāhgār hogā. Un ke ʻilāwah bhī rāhe
Ḳhudā meṅ ṣadqa-o ḳhairāt karne kā bŏhat ziyādah ajr-o
s̲awāb hai aur duniyā wa āḳhirat meṅ us ke be-shumār haiṅ.
Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ ṣadqa-o ḳhairāt kī faz̤īlat kā ʻilm
hameṅ Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa￾sallam kī mutaʻaddid aḥādīs̲e mubārakah se miltā hai:
Ḥaz̤rat Anas bin Mālik raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu bayān
karte haiṅ keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-
Ālihī wa-sallam se pūc̥hā gayā: kaun-sā ṣadqah afz̤al hai? Āp
ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne farmāyā: Ramaḍān
meṅ ṣadqah karnā afz̤al hai.
[Tirmid̲h̲ī fī al-Sunan, 02: 43, raqam: 663.]
Ḥaz̤rat ʻAbd Allāh bin ʻAbbās raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhumā
se marwī hai keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi
wa-Ālihī wa-sallam tamām logoṅ se bar̥h kar saḳhī the.
Ramaḍān meṅ jab Ḥaz̤rat Jibrīl Amīn ‘alayhi al-salām kī Āp
ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam se mulāqāt hotī to Āp
ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam bŏhat ziyādah
saḳhāwat kyā karte the. Ḥaz̤rat Jibrīl ‘alayhi al-salām kī
mulāqāt ke waqt to Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam
saḳhāwat meṅ tez hawā ke jhoṅke se bhī bar̥h jātī.
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 672, raqam: 1803.]
Ăhl-o ʻiyāl aur rishtah-dāron par ṣadqah karne kī kyā
faz̤īlat hai?
Ahādīs̲e mubārakah meṅ ăhl-o ʻiyāl par ṣadqah karne
kī bŏhat ziyādah faz̤īlat bayān hū’ī hai, bal-keh dūsroṅ ke
nisbat ăhl-o ʻiyāl par ṣadqah karnā ziyadah ajr-o s̲awāb kā bāʻis̲
hai.
Ḥaz̤rat Abū Hurayrah raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se riwāyat
hai keh Rasūl Allāh ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam
ne farmāyā:
“Ek dīnār woh hai jise tum ne Allāh Taʻālá kī rāh meṅ ḳharch kiyā, ek dīnār woh hai jise tum ne ġhulām kī āzādī ke
liye ḳharch kiyā aur ek dīnār woh hai jise tum ne miskīn par
sadaqah kiyā aur ek dīnār woh hai jise tum ne apne ăhle ḳhānah
par ḳharch kiyā, in sab meṅ sab se ziyādah ajr us dīnār par
milegā jise tum ne apne āhle ḳhānah par ḳharch kiyā.”
[Muslim fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 692, raqam: 995.]
Ḥaz̤rat Salmān bin ʻĀmir raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se
riwāyat gai keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-
Ālihī wa-sallam ne farmāyā:
“Kisī ḥājat-mand ko ṣadqah denā (ṣirf) ṣadqah hai aur
rishtah-dār ko ṣadqah denā do ṣadaqāt (ke barābar) hai, ek
ṣadqah aur dūsrah ṣila’e raḥmī.”
[Tirmid̲h̲ī fī al-Sunan, 05: 92, raqam: 2582.]
Āj kal hamāre muʻāshare meṅ yeh aḳhlāqi maraz̤ bŏhat
ʻāmm hai keh dūsre ġhair logoṅ par to bŏhat ziyādah
nawāzishāt kī jāti haiṅ aur un par kas̲rat se ṣadqa-o ḳhairāt bhī
kiyā jātā hai lekin apne ġharīb aur mustaḥiq rishtah-dāroṅ ko
yak-sar naẓar-andāz kiyā jātā hai. Us kī wujūhāt bhī ko’ī t̥hos
nahīṅ hotīṅ bal-keh aks̲ar awqāt bad-ẓanī wa bad-gumānī aur
anā parāstī hī is be aʻtenā’ī wa be-tawjjohī kā sabab bantī haiṅ.
Mis̲āl ke ṭaur par ġharīb rishtah-dār ne ṣāḥibe s̲arwat rishtah￾dār ke ḳhilāfe manshā ko’ī bāt kar dī, us se iḳhtilāfe rā’e kar
liyā yā bil-farz̤ us amīr rishtah-dār ke bāre meṅ ko’ī bāt hī kar
dī to ṣāḥibe s̲arwat rishtah-dār dil meṅ raṅjish pāl letā hai aur
apne us ġharīb rishtah-dār kī madad karnā apne ūpar ḥarām kar
ke dohre ajr-o s̲awāb ke bāʻis̲ʻamale ḳhair se ruk jātā hai. Is se
to yeh ẓāhir hotā hai keh ham ṣadqah wa ḳhairāt us par kareṅge
jis se ham ḳhẉud rāz̤ī hoṅge nah keh jis par ḳharch karne kā
ḥukm hameṅ Islām detā hai. Goyā ham ṣadqa-o ḳhairāt kar ke
ġharīb ko apnā niyāz-mand aur eḥsān-mand banānā chāhte
haiṅ nah keh kamā-ḥaqqahū aḥkāme Ilāhī par ʻamal pairā honā
chāhte haiṅ. Is liye jo ġharīb rishtah-dār hamāre z̲ātī meʻyār
par pūrā nahīṅ utartā, ham use dhutkār dete haiṅ chāhe woh
kitnā hī mustaḥiq kyūṅ nah ho. Rishtah-dār kā ʻamal us ke
z̲immah hai, jis se yeh gargiz lāzim nahīṅ ātā keh us par ṣadqa￾o ḳhairāt hī nahīṅ bal-keh har nek ʻamal kī bajā āwrī meṅ măḥz̤
Allāh aur us ke Rasūle Mukarram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-
Ālihī wa-sallam kī ḳhẉushnūdī ko hī pehshe naẓar rakhnā
chāhiye aur kisī bhī ʻamal kī adā’īgī men z̲ātī pasand-o nā-
pasand ko nahīṅ dāḳhil karnā chāhiye.
Saḳhī kise kăhte haiṅ?
Allāh Taʻālá kī riz̤ā ke liye us kī rāh meṅ be-dareġh
māl ḳharch karne wāle ko saḳhī kăhte haiṅ. Ḥaz̤rat Qays bin
Salaʻ Anṣārī raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu bayān kare haiṅ:
“Us ke bhā’iyoṅ ne Rasūl Allāh ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi
wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ke sāmne us kī shikāyat kī, unhoṅ ne kahā:
yeh apnā māl fuz̤ūl ḳharch kar detā hai aur us meṅ ḳhẉush
răhtā hai. Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī
wa-sallam ne un se istifsār kiyā: Qays! Kyā bāt hai? Tere bhā’ī
tere bāre meṅ shikāyat karte haiṅ, un kā ḳhayāl hai keh tū fuz̤ūl
ḳharchī kartā hai aur us meṅ ḳhẉushī meḥsūṣ kartā hai? Maiṅ
ne ʻarz̤ kiyā: yā Rasūl Allāh! Maiṅ paidāwār meṅ se apnā
ḥiṣṣah le letā hūṅ aur use Allāh Taʻālá ke rāste meṅ aur apne
dostoṅ par ḳharch kar detā hūṅ. Rasūl Allāh ṣallá Allāhu
‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne un ke sīne par hāth mār kar
farmāyā: tū ḳharch kartā răh, Allāh Taʻālá tujh par ḳharch kartā
rahegā. Yeh bāt Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne
tīn martabah irshād farmā’ī. Is ke baʻd jab maiṅ Allāh Taʻālá
ke rāste meṅ niklā to ḥālat yeh thī keh mere pās ek sawārī thī
aur āj maiṅ apne ḳhāndān meṅ sab se ziyādah māl-o daulat
wālā aur ḳhẉush-ḥāl hūṅ.” [Ṭabarānī fī al-Muʻjam al-awsaṭ, 08: 246_247, raqam: 8536.]
Baḳhīl kise kăhte haiṅ?
Māl jamʻa kar ke roke rakhne aur Allāh kī rāh meṅ
apne sarmāyah wa daulat ko ḳharch nah karne wāle ko baḳhīl
kăhte haiṅ. Ḥaz̤rat Abū Saʻīd Ḳhudrī raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se marwī
hai keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī
wa-sallam ne farmāyā:
“Kisī Momin meṅ yeh do ʻādateṅ jamʻa nahīṅ ho
saktīṅ: buḳhl aur bad-aḳhlāqī.”
[Tirmid̲h̲ī fī al-Sunan, 04: 343, raqam: 1962.]
Sawāl karne aur bhīk māṅgne ke bāre meṅ kyā ḥukm hai?
Dūsroṅ ke sāmne hāth phailānā, sawāl karnā aur bhīk
māṅghnā intehā’ī nā-pasndīdah aur qabīḥ feʻl hai. Islām meṅ
is kī bŏhat ziyādah maz̲ammat kī ga’ī hai.
Bilā-z̤arūrat sawāl karnā aur māṅgne meṅ iṣrāt karnā
ek maz̲mūm ʻamal hai Ḥaz̤rat ʻAbd Allāh bin ʻUmar raḍiya
Allāhu ‘anhumā se marwī hai keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá
Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne farmāyā:
“Ādamī logoṅ se hameshah sawāl kartā răhtā hai yahāṅ

tak keh woh qiyāmat wāle din is ḥālat meṅ ā’egā keh us ke
chehre par gosht kā ek t̥ukr̥ā bhī nah hogā.”
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 536, raqam: 1405.]
Ḥaz̤rat Abū Hurayrah raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se riwāuyat
hai keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī
wa-sallam ne farmāyā:
“Jis ne ġhinā kī ḥālat meṅ logoṅ se sawāl kiyā (yaʻnī
bhīk māṅgī) to woh jahannam kī āg ke aṅgāroṅ kā sawāl kartā
hai, ab use iḳhtiyār hai keh woh (aṅgāre) kam ḥāṣil kare yā
ziyādah.”
[Ibn Mājah fī al-Sunan, 01: 589, raqam: 1838.]
Islām meṅ sawāl karne aur bhīk māṅgne kī ḥadd darjah
maz̲ammat is liye kī ga’ī hai keh is se muʻāshare meṅ kām nah
karne kā māḥaul parwān char̥htā hai aur muʻāsharah majmūʻī
ṭaur par kām-chorī wa ġhaflat kā maẓhar ban jātā hai. Jab-keh
Islām to ek aisā Dīn hai jo apne pairokāroṅ meṅ hamah waqt
taḥarruk aur kām karne kā jaz̲bah dekhnā chāhtā hai. Hāth par
hāth dhare bait̥he răhnā aur yeh inteẓār karnā keh Allāh Taʻālá
Ḳhayru al-Rāziqīn hai aur woh ḳhẉud hī hamāre liye rizq bhej
degā yā dusroṅ ke sāmne hāth phailāne aur unheṅ apnī
majbūriyāṅ batā kar bhīk māṅgne kī Islām meṅ qaṭʻan
gunjā’ish nahīṅ hai. Allāh Taʻālá ne to apne Ḥabībe Mukarram
ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ko bhī yeh ḥukm
farmāyā thā keh păhle umūre ḥayāt wa kārhā’e ummat adā kiye

jā’eṅ aur baʻd meṅ ʻibādate Ilāhī kī ṭaraf rāġhib ho jā’e. Irshād
hotā hai:
Pas jab Āp (taʻlīme ummat, tablīġh-o jihād aur” فَإِذَا َف َ َغْت َ فَانص َ بْ وَ إلَِى رَبِّكَ فَارْغَبْ
adā’īgiye farā’iz̤se) fāriġh hoṅ to (z̲ikr-o ʻibādat meṅ) meḥnat
farmāyā kareṅ. Aur apne Rabb kī ṭaraf rāġhib ho jāyā kareṅ.”
[Al-Insharāḥ, 94: 07_08.]
Ḥaz̤rat Abū Hurayrah riwāyat karte haiṅ keh Ḥuz̤ūr
Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam kā
farmāne aqdas hai:
“Qasam hai us z̲āt kī jis ke qabz̤e meṅ marī jān hai!
Aġar tum meṅ se ko’ī rassī le kar lakr̥iyoṅ kā gat̥t̥hā apnī pīt̥h
par ut̥hā’e to yeh us se behtar hai keh woh sawāl kartā phire to
ko’ī use de aur ko’ī nah de.”
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 535, raqam: 1401.]
Yahī waj·h hai keh Ṣaḥāba’e kirām riḍwānu Allāhi
Ta‘ālá ‘alayhim ajma‘īn sawāl karne ke bāre men ḥadd darjah
eḥtiyāt karte the. Ḥaz̤rat Abū Saʻīd Ḳhudrī raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu
riwāyat karte haiṅ: “Merī wālidah ne (shadīd z̤arūrat ke tăḥt kuc̥h māṅgne
ke liye) mujhe Rasūl Allāh ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa￾sallam kī ḳhidmate aqdas meṅ bhejā, maiṅ ḥāz̤ir ho kar bait̥h
gayā. Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam apna ruḳhe
anwar merī ṭaraf kar ke bait̥he aur irshād farmāyā: jo shaḳhṣ
logoṅ se be-niyāz hogā Allāh Taʻālá use logoṅ se be-niyāz kar
degā aur jo shaḳhṣ sawāl se bachegā Allāh Taʻālá use
bachā’egā aur jo shaḳhṣ thor̥e māl par kifāyat karegā Allā
Taʻālá use kifāyat degā aur jo shaḳhṣ bhīk māṅgegā ḥālāṅ-keh
us ke pās ek ūqīyah (chālīs dirham – 122.472 grām) ke barābar
māl hogā to us ne ilḥāf kiyā (yaʻnī gir̥ girā kar bhīk māṅgī).
Maiṅ ne apne dil meṅ kahā keh merī Yāqūtah nāmī ūṅt̥nī ek
ūqīyah se bar̥h kar hai. Maiṅ wāpas āyā aur Āp ṣallá Allāhu
‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam se sawāl nahīṅ kiyā.”
[Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal fī al-Musnad, 03: 07, 11059.]
Maz̲kūrah bālā riwāyāt se s̲ābit ho jātā hai keh Islām
meṅ gadāgarī kitnā maz̲mūm ʻamal hai. Sawāl karne aur hāth
phailāne kī ijāzat ṣirf aur ṣirf intehā’ī majbūrī kī ḥālat meṅ hai
bal-keh yeh kăhnā ziyādah munāsib hogā keh jān bachāne jaisī
majbūrī kī ḥālat meṅ hī sawāl karne kī ijāzat hai.
Bhīk māṅgne aur dūsroṅ ke sāmne hāth phailāne ke
ʻādat dar aṣl nah ṣirf afrād-o aqwām ko iqteṣādi ṭaur par pasmāṅdah kar deti hai bal-keh yeh kăḥnā ziyādah munāsib hogā
keh daste sawāl darāz karne kī ʻādate qabīḥ se aqwām nafsānī
wa rūḥānī ṭaur bhī majrūḥ hotī hai.

Laylatu al-Qadr

Laylatu al-Qadr kī faz̤īlat

Allāh Taʻālá ne Qurā’ne Majīd meṅ Laylatu al-Qadr kī
faz̤īlat ke bayān meṅ pūrī sūrat nāzil farmā’ī. Irshāde hotā hai:
̇Be-shakk ham ne is (Qur’ān) ko Shabe Qadr men” . سَلٰمٌ قف هِيَ حَتّٰي مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ o اَمْر ٍ وَالرُّوْحُ فِيُهَا بِاِذْنِ رَبِّهِمْ ج مِّنْ کُلِّ تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلٰئِکَةُ o لَيُلَةُ الْقَدْرِخَيٌُر مِّنْ اَلْفِ شَهْر ٍ o وَمَا اَ ْدرٰکَ مَا لَيُلَةُ الْقَدْرِ o اِنَّا اَنْزَلَنٰهُ فِيُ لَيُلَةِ الْقَدْرِ
utārā hai. Aur Āp kyā samajhe haiṅ (keh) Shabe Qadr kyā hai?
Shabe Qadr (faz̤īlat-o barakat aur ajr-o s̲awāb meṅ) hazār
mahīnoṅ se behtar hai. Is (rāt) meṅ firishte aur Rūḥ al-Amīn
(Jibrā’īl) apne Rabb ke ḥukm se (ḳhair-o barakat ke) har amr
ke sāth utarte haiṅ. Yeh (rāt) ṭulūʻe fajr tak (sarāsar) salāmatī
hai.”
[Al-Qadr, 97: 01_05.]
Laylatu al-Qadr kī faz̤īlat meṅ kutube ḥadīs̲ bŏhat-sī
riwāyāte maz̲kūr haiṅ. Z̲ail meṅ chand ek aḥādīs̲ kā
taz̲kirah kiyā jātā hai.
1. Ḥaz̤rat Abū Hurayrah raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se marwī
hai keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī
wa-sallam ne irshād farmāyā:
. س َ ابًا غُِفِ َ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّم َ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ مَنْ قَام َ لَيُلَةَ الْقَدْرِ إِيُمَانًا وَّاحْت ِ
“Jo shaḳhṣ Laylatu al-Qadr meṅ ḥālate īmān aur s̲awāb
kī nīyat se qiyām kartā haim us ke sābiqah gunāh muʻāf kar
diye jāte hain.”
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 709, raqam: 1910.]
2. Ḥaz̤rat Anas bin Mālik raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se marwī
hai keh ek martabah Ramaḍānu al-mubārak kī āmad par Ḥuz̤ūr
Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne
farmāyā:
“Yeh māh jo tum par āyā hai, is meṅ ek aisī rāt hai jo
hazār mahīnoṅ se afz̤al hai. Jo shaḳhṣ is rāt se măḥrūm răh
gayā, goyā woh sārī ḳhair se măḥrūm rahā. Aur is rāt kī bhalā’ī
se wohī shaḳhṣ măḥrūm răh saktā hai jo wāqeʻatan măḥrūm
ho.”
[Ibn Mājah fī al-Sunan, 02: 309, raqam: 1644.]
3. Ḥaz̤rat Anas raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se marwī hai keh
Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam
ne Laylatu al-Qadr kī faz̤īlat bayān karte huwe irshād farmāyā:
“Shabe Qadr ko Jibrā’īl Amīn firishtoṅ ke jhurmut̥meṅ
zamīn par utar āte haiṅ. Woh har us shaḳhṣ ke liye duʻā’e
maġhfirat karte haiṅ jo khar̥e bait̥he (kisī ḥāl meṅ) Allāh ko
yād kar rahā ho.”
[Bayhaqī fī Shuʻab al-īmān, 03: 343, raqam: 3717.]
Ramaḍānu al-mubārak ke āḳhirī ʻashrah kī ṭāq rāteṅ
kaun-sī hoti hai?
Ramaḍānu al-mubārak ke āḳhirī ʻashrah kī ikkīswīṅ,
te’īswīṅ, pachchīswīṅ, sattā’īswīṅ aur unattīswīṅ rāteṅ, ṭāq
rateṅ kăhlātī haiṅ. Ḥaz̤rat ʻUbādah bin Ṣāmit raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu bayān
karte haiṅ keh unhoṅ ne Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu
‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam se Laylatu al-Qadr ke mutaʻalliq
sawāl kiyā to Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne
farmāyā:
. ثُمَّ وُفِّقَتْ لَهُ، غُِفِ َلَهُ مَاتَقَدَّم َ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ وَمَا تَأَْخ َّ َ تِسْ عِ وَ عِْش ْ ِيُنَ، اَوْ فِي ٰاْخ ِ ِ لَيُلَةِ، فَمَنْ قَامَهَا ابْتِغَائَ هَا إِيُمَانًا وَاحْتِس َ ابًا، خَمْس ٍ وَعِْش ْ ِيُنَ، اوَ سَبْعٍ وَّ عِْش ْ ِيُنَ، اَوْ ْش ْ ِيُنَ، اَوْ فِي رَمَض َ انَ، فَالْتَمِسُوْهَا فِي الْعَْش ِ ا ْلْ َوَاْخ ِ ِ فَإِنَّهَا فِي وَتْر ٍ، فِي إِحْدَي وَ عِْش ْ ِيُنَ، أَوْ ثَـَل َ ثٍ وَع ِ
“Woh Ramaḍān meṅ hai so tum use āḳhirī ʻashrah meṅ
talāsh karo. Laylatu al-Qadr ikkīswīṅ yā te’īswīṅ yā
pachchīswīṅ yā sattā’īswīṅ yā unattīswīṅ ṭāq rātoṅ meṅ hai yā
Ramaḍān kī āḳhirī rāt hai. Jis shaḳhṣ ne Laylatu al-Qadr meṅ ḥālate īmān aur ṭalabe s̲awāb ke sāth qiyām kiyā, phir use sārī
rāt kī taufīq dī ga’ī to us ke agle aur pic̥hle gunāh baḳhsh diye
jāte haiṅ.”
[Aḥmad ibn Ḥanbal fī al-Musnad, 05: 319, raqam: 22713.]

Eʻtikāf

Eʻtikāf kā luġhawī maʻná

Eʻtikāf ʻArabī zabān kā lafẓ hai jis kā luġhawī maʻná
“ḳhẉud ko rok lenā, band kar lenā, kisi kī ṭaraf is qadr tawajjoh
karnā keh chehrah bhī us se nah hat̥e” waġhairah ke haiṅ.
[Ibn Manẓūr fi Lisān al-ʻArab, 09: 255.]
Jab-keh iṣṭelāḥe sharʻa meṅ is se murād hai insān kā
ʻalā’iqe dunyā se kat̥ kar ḳhāṣ muddat ke liye ʻibādat kī nīyat
se masjid meṅ is liye t̥hăhărnā tā-keh ḳhalwat guzīṅ ho kar
Allāh ke sāth apne taʻalluqe bandagī kī tajdīd kar sakeṅ.

Eʻtikāf bait̥hne kī Fazīlat

Eʻtikāf bait̥hne kī faz̤īlat par ka’ī aḥādīs̲e mubārakah
wārid hū’ī haiṅ. In meṅ se chand ek daje z̲ail haiṅ:
1. Ḥaz̤rat ʻAbd Allāh bin ʻAbbās raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se
marwī hai keh Rasūl Allāh ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa￾sallam ne muʻtakif ke bāre meṅ irshād farmāyā:
“Woh (yaʻnī muʻtakif) gunāhoṅ se kinārah-kash ho
jātā hai aur use ʻamalan nek aʻmāl karne wāle kī mis̲l pūrī-pūrī
nekiyāṅ ʻaṭā kī jātī haiṅ.”
[Ibn Mājah fī al-Sunan, 02: 376, raqam: 1781.]
2. Ḥaz̤rat ʻAbd Allāh bin ʻAbbās raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se

hī ek aur ḥadīs̲marwī hai keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá
Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne irshād farmāyā:
. الْخَافِقَيُنِ بَيُنَ مِمَّا اَبْعَدُ خَنْدَقٍ کُلُّ خَنَادِق َ ، ـَل َ ث َ بَيُنَهُ وَ بَيُنَ النَّارِ ثَ اللهُ ل، جَعَلَ ا الله مَنِ اعْتَکَفَ يَوْمًا ابْتغَاءَ وَجْهِ ا
“Jo shaḳhṣ Allāh kī riz̤ā ke liye ek din eʻtikāf kartā hai,
Allāh tabārak wa-Taʻālá us ke aur dozaḳh ke darmiyān tīn
ḳhandaqoṅ kā fāṣlah kar detā hai. Har ḳhandaq mashriq se
maġhrib ke darmiyān fāṣle se ziyādah lambī hai.”
[Ṭabarānī fī al-Muʻjam al-awsaṭ, 07: 221, raqam: 7326,
Bayhaqī fī Shuʻab al-īmān, 03: 425, raqam: 3965.]
Hayṯẖamī fī Majmaʻ al-zawa’id, 08: 192.]
3. Ḥaz̤rat ʻAlī (Zayn al-ʻĀbidīn) bin Ḥusayn apne wālid
Imām Ḥusayn raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se riwāyat karte haiṅ keh
Rasūl Allāh ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne irshād
farmāyā:
. مَنِ اعْتَکَفَ عَْش ْ ً ا فِي رَمَض َ انَ ک َانَ کَحَجَّتَيُنِ وَ عُمْرَتَيُنِ
“Jis shaḳhṣ ne Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ das din
eʻtikāf kiyā, us kā s̲awāb do ḥajj aur do ʻumrah ke barābar hai.”
[Bayhaqī fī Shuʻab al-īmān, 03: 425, raqam: 3966.]

Masnūn Eʻtikāf

Ramaḍānu al-mubārak ke āḳhirī das dinoṅ meṅ eʻtikāf
bait̥hnā masnūn hai. Ḥaz̤rat ʻAbd Allāh bin ʻUmar raḍiya
Allāhu ‘anhumā se marwī hai:
Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī” ۔ مِنْ رَمَض َ انَ وَاْخ ِ َ ا ال َ َ نَ يَعْتَکِفُ الْعَْش ْ َ اک الله صلى الله عليه وسلم َ نَّ رَسُوْلَ ا أ َ
wa-sallam Ramaḍān ke āḳhirī ʻashrah meṅ eʻtikāf bait̥hā karte
the.”
[Ibn Mājah fī al-Sunan, 02: 373, raqam: 1773.]
Sharīʻat kī rū se masnūn eʻtikāf kā āġhāz bīs Ramaḍānu
al-mubārak kī shām aur ikkīs ke āġhāz yaʻnī ġhurūbe āftāb ke
waqt se hotā hai aur ʻīd kā chāṅd deḳhte hī eʻtikāf ḳhatm ho
jātā hai. Chāṅd chāhe unattīs tāriḳh kā ho yā tīs kā, donoṅ ṣūratoṅ meṅ Sunnat adā ho jā’egī.

Eʻtikāf bait̥hne kī sharāʻiṭ

Eʻtikāf bait̥hne kī sharāʻiṭ daje z̲ail haiṅ:
1. Musalmān honā.
2. Eʻtikāf kī nīyat karnā.
3. Ḥadas̲e akbar (yaʻnī janābat) aur ḥaiz̤-o nifās se pāk
honā.
4. ʻĀqil honā.
5. Masjid meṅ eʻtikāf karnā.
6. Eʻtikāfe wājib (naz̲r) ke liye rozah bhī sharṭ hai.

Eʻtikāf kī aqsām

Eʻtikāf kī tīn aqsām haiṅ:
1. Mu’akkidah ʻalál-kifāyah eʻtikāf
2. Naflī eʻtikāf
3. Eʻtikāfe wājib yā eʻtikāfe naz̲r
1. Mu’akkidah ʻalál-kifāyah eʻtikāf
Ramaḍānu al-mubārak ke ākhirī das roz kā masnūn
eʻtikāf Sunnate mu’akkidah ʻalál-kifāyah kăhlatā hai. Is kā
maṭlab hai keh agar maḥallah ke sab log c̥hor̥ deṅge to āḳhirat
meṅ sab se mu’āḳhaz̲ah hogā aur agar ek ādamī ne bhī eʻtikāf
kar liyā to sab āḳhirat ke mu’āḳhaz̲ah se barī ho jā’eṅge. Yaʻnī
baʻz̤ logoṅ ke eʻtikāf kar lene se sab ke z̲immah se sāqiṭ ho jātā
hai.
Ḥaz̤rat ʻAbd Allāh bin ʻUmar raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu se
marwī hai keh:
“Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī
wa-sallam Ramaḍānu al-mubārak ke āḳhirī ʻashrah men eʻtikāf
bait̥hā karte the.”
[Ibn Mājah fī al-Sunan, 02: 373, raqam: 1773.]
2. Naflī eʻtikāf
Wājib aur masnūn eʻtikāf se ʻilāwah jo eʻtikāf kiyā
jā’e, woh naflī eʻtikāf kăhlātā hai. Naflī eʻtikāf meṅ nah rozah
shaṭ hai aur nah hī us ke liye ko’ī ḳhāṣ waqt aur meʻyār muqrrar
hai. Mas̲alan ko’ī shaḳhṣ din yā rāt meṅ jab bhī masjid ke andar
dākhil ho to woh eʻtikāf kī nīyat kar le. Jitnī der masjid meṅ
rahegā eʻtikāf kā s̲awāb pā’gā. Nīyat ke liye ṣirf dil meṅ itnā
ḳhayāl kar lenā aur muṅh se kăh lenā kāfi hqai keh maiṅ ne
Allāh Taʻālá ke liye eʻtikāf kī nīyat kī.
3. Eʻtikāfe wājib yā eʻtikāfe naz̲r
Aisā eʻtikāf jis kī mannat yā naz̲r mānī jā’e, eʻtikāfe
wājib hotā hai. Mas̲alan kisī shaḳhṣ ne mannat mānī keh agar
merā fulāṅ kām ho gayā to maiṅ Allāh Taʻālá ke liye tīn din kā
eʻtikāf karūgā. Aisā kăhne se us par eʻtikāf wājib ho jātā hai.
Wājib eʻtikāf meṅ nīyat karnā aur rozah rakhnā sharṭ hai.
Wājib eʻtikāf ke liye rozah sharṭ hai, is liye us kā kam az kam
waqt ek din hai. Is se kam muddat ke eʻtikāf kī naz̲r mānnā
ṣaḥīḥ nahīṅ.

Eʻtikāf ke mutafarriq masā’il
Daurāne eʻtikāf muʻtakif ko kaun-se umūr sar-anjām dene
chāhiyeṅ?
Daurāne eʻtikāf muʻtakif darje z̲ail umūr sar-anjām
dene chāhiyeṅ:
1. Qur’āne Ḥakīm kī tilāwat karnā
2. Durūd sharif par̥hte răhnā
3. ʻUlūme dīnīyah kā par̥hnā par̥hānā
4. Waʻẓ-o naṣīḥat aur achc̥hī bāteṅ karnā
5. Qiyāmu al-layl
6. Z̲ikr-o az̲kār karnā
Kyā wājib, masnūn yā naflī eʻtikāf c̥hor̥ne par qaz̤ā wājib
hai?
Agar naflī eʻtikāf c̥hor̥ de to us kī qaz̤ā wājib nahīṅ
lekin agar masnūn eʻtikāf jo Ramaḍānu al-mubārak ke āḳhirī
ʻashrah meṅ kiyā jātā hai, use tor̥ā to jis din tor̥ā usī se āge
baqīyah dinoṅ kī qaz̤ā kare. Pūre das dinoṅ kī qaz̤ā’ wājib
nahīṅ. Agar wājib yaʻnī mannat kā eʻtikāf c̥hor̥ā to agar woh
kisī muʻayyan mahīne kī mannat thī to bāqī dinoṅ kī qaz̤ā kare.
Lekin agar musalsal (ʻalál-itteṣāl) eʻtikāf karne kī nīyat kī thī
to naye sire se eʻtikāf kare aur agar ʻalál-etteṣāl eʻtikāf karne
kī naz̲r nahīṅ mānī thī to bāqī dinoṅ kā eʻtikāf kare.
Ek din ke eʻtikāf kī qaz̤ā kā ṭarīqah kyā hai?
Ek din ke eʻtikāf kī qaz̤ā kā ṭarīqah ye hai keh agar
eʻtikāf din meṅ t̥ūt̥ā ho to ṣirf din kī qaz̤ā wājib hogī. Yaʻni
qaz̤ā ke liye ṭulūʻe fajr se păhle eʻtikāf-gāh meṅ dāḳhil ho,
rozah rakhe aur usī roz shām ko ġhurūbe āftāb ke waqt apne
eʻtikāf-gāh se bāhar ā jā’e. Dusrī ṣūrat meṅ agar eʻtikāf rāt ko
t̥ūt̥ā hai to rāt aur din donoṅ kī qaz̤a kare, yaʻnī shām ko
ġhurūbe āftāb se păhle masjid meṅ dāḳhil ho, rāt bhar wahāṅ
rahe rozah rakhe aur agle din ġhurūbe āftāb ke baʻd eʻtikāf-gāh
se bāhar nikle.
Masnūn eʻtikāf t̥ūt̥ne ke baʻd kyā muʻtakif nafl kī nītyat se
eʻtikāf jāri rakh saktā hai?
Masnūn eʻtikāf t̥ūt̥n ke baʻd masjid se bāhar nikalnā
z̤arūrī nahīṅ bal-keh ʻashra’e aḳhīrah ke baqīyah ayyām meṅ
nafl kī nīyat se eʻtikāf jārī rakh saktā hai is ṭarḥ masnūn eʻtikāf
to nahīṅ hogā magar nafl eʻtikāf ho jā’egā. Lekin agr ko’ī
shaḳhṣ eʻtikāf jārī nah rakh sake to bhī jā’iz hai. Aur yeh bhī
jā’iz hai keh jis din eʻtikāf t̥ūt̥ā hai usī din bāhar chalā jā’e aur
agle din se bah nīyate nafl phir eʻtikāf shurūʻ kar de.

Kin ṣūratoṅ meṅ eʻtikāf tor̥nā jā’iz hai?

Darje z̲ail ṣūratoṅ meṅ eʻtikāf tor̥nā jā’iz hai:
1. Bīmārī
Eʻtikāf ke daurān aisī bīmārī lāḥiq ho jā’e jis ka ʻilāj
eʻtikāf-gāh se bāhar jā’e baġhair mumkin nah ho to is
ṣūrat meṅ eʻtikāf tor̥nā jā’iz hai.
2. Wālidain, bīwī, bachchoṅ kī taklīf
Wālidain, bīwī bachchoṅ yā băhs̲n bhā’iyoṅ meṅ se kisī
ko shadīd maraz̤ lāḥiq ho jā’e yā ko’ī hādes̲ah pesh ā jā’e
aur ghar meṅ ko’ī dusrā tīmār-dārī karne wālā maujūd
nah ho to us ṣūrat meṅ eʻtikāf tor̥nā jā’iz hai.
3. Janāzah
Wālidain, băhăn, bhā’ī yā ko’ī ʻazīz achānakt faut ho
jā’e to us kī tajhīz-o takfīn ke liye ʻetikāf tor̥ denā jā’iz
hai.
4. Zabardastī nikālnā Agar kisī muʻtakif ko ko’ī zabardastī
masjid se nikāl de yā ḥukūmat eʻtekāf meṅ giriftār kar
le to eʻtikāf t̥ūt̥ jā’egā magar us ṣūrat meṅ muʻtakif par
eʻtikāf tor̥ne kā gunāh nahīṅ hogā.

Eʻtikāf tor̥ne wāle umur kaun-se haiṅ?

Eʻtikāf tor̥ne wāle umūr darje z̲ail haiṅ:
1. Bilā ʻuz̲r masjid se bāhar nikalnā
2. Ḥālate eʻtikāf meṅ mubāsharat karnā
3. ʻAurat eʻtikāf meṅ ho to ḥaiz̤-o nifās kā jārī ho jānā
4. Kisī ʻuz̲r ke bāʻis̲eʻtikāf-gāh se bāhar nikal kar z̤arūrat
se ziyādah t̥hăhărnā
In sab ṣūratoṅ meṅ eʻtikāf t̥ūt̥ jātā hai.
Makrūhāte eʻtikāf kaun-se haiṅ?
Makrūhāte eʻtikāf darje z̲ail haiṅ:
1. Bil-kul ḳhāmoshī iḳhtiyār karnā keh z̲ikr-o naʻt aur
daʻwat-o tablīġh kī bajā’e ḳhāmosh răhne ko ʻibādat
samajhā to yeh makrūhe tăḥrīmī hai. Agar burī bātoṅ se
ḳhāmosh rahā to woh aʻlá darje kī chīz hai.
2. Māl-o asbāb masjid meṅ lā kar ba-ġharaz̤e tijārat bechnā
yā ḳharidnā.
3. Larā’ī jhagr̥ā yā behūdah bāten karnā.
Kyā muʻtakif ba-ḥālate majbūrī ek masjid se dūsrī masjid
meṅ muntaqil ho kar eʻtikāf pūrā kar saktā hai?
Jī hāṅ! Muʻtakif ba-ḥālate majbūrī ek masjid se dūsri
meṅ munatqil ho saktā hai. Mas̲alan jis masjid meṅ eʻtikāf
shurūʻ kiyā ho wahāṅ jān-o māl kā ḳhaṭrah lāḥiq ho jā’e yā
masjid munhadim jā’e to aisī ṣūrat meṅ us masjid se nikal kar
fauran kisī nazdīkī masjid meṅ eʻtikāf kī nīyat se chale jānā
chāhiye.
Kyā muʻtakif kisī marī kī ʻiddat yā namāze janāzah meṅ
sharīk ho saktā hai?
Eʻtikāf ke daurān muʻtakif ʻiyādate marīz̤yā namāze
janāzah ke liye nahīṅ jā saktā. Sayyidah ʻĀ’ishah raḍiya
Allāhu ‘anhā bayān kartī haiṅ: “Eʻtikāf karne wāle ke liye Sunnat hai keh woh kisī
marīz̤ kī ʻiyādat nah kare, nah kisī janāze ke sāth jā’e, nah apnī
bīwī ko c̥huwe aur nah us se mubāsharat kare aur ġhair z̤arūrī
ḥājat ke ʻilāwah eʻtikāf-gāh se nah nikle.”
[Abū Dāwūd fī al-Sunan, 2: 333, 2473.]
Hāṅ agar guzarte-guzarte bilā tawaqquf bīmār kī
ʻiyādat kar lī jā’e to jā’iz hai.

Kin Umūr kī binā’ par muʻtakif eʻtikāf-gāh se bāhar nikal
saktā hai?

Muʻtakif basharī z̤arūriyāt mas̲alan baitul-ḳhalā’ janā,
ġhusle wājib ke liye, agar eʻtikāf-gāh meṅ sahūlat maujūd nah
ho to bāhar jā saktā hai. Yūṅhī namāze janāzah (agar eʻtikāf
bait̥hte waqt us kī nīyat kī thī) aur namāze jumʻah par̥hne ke
liye eʻtikāf-gāh se bāhar jā saktā hai. Lekin z̤arūrī hai keh
fāriġh hote hī fauran eʻtikāf-gāh meṅ wāpas ā jā’e. Ādhe din
yā us se zā’id bāhar răhne se eʻtikāfe masnūn t̥ūt̥ jā’egā.
Kyā ḥālate eʻtikāf meṅ ġhusl karnā jā’iz hai?
Daurāne eʻtikāf eʻtekāf-gāh ke andar yā qarīb-tar
maqām par ġhusl kar sakte haiṅ. Ḳhẉāh wājib ho ḳhẉāh ġhair
wājib.
Agar ko’ī shaḳhṣ Ṣaʻūdī ʻArab meṅ Ramaḍān sharīf kā
āġhāz kartā hai jo Pākistān se do roz qabl thā aur dasweṅ
roze ko wāpas āyā to yahāṅ āt̥hwāṅ rozah thā. Ab woh
eʻtikāf bait̥hnā chāhtā hai to us ke liye eʻtikāf kī kyā ṣūrat
hogī?
Agar kisī shaḳhṣ ne Saʻūdī ʻArab meṅ păhlā rozah
rakhā, is liye keh us ne wahīṅ yakum Ramaḍān pā liyā, kyūṅ-
keh Qurā’ne Ḥakīm meṅ irshād hotā hai:
Pas tum meṅ se jo ko’ī is mahīne ko pā le to woh us” الشَّ ھْرَ فَلْيَصُ مْہُ ۔ فَمَنْ شَھِدَ مِنْکُمُ
ke roze z̤arūr rakhe.”
[Al-Baqarah, 02: 184.]
Ab jab-keh us ne Ramaḍān kā āġhāz Pākistān se do din
qabl kyā aur yeh bhī qaṭʻī hai keh eʻtikāfe masnūn das din se
aur Ramaḍān tīs din se ziyādah nahīṅ ho saktā to is ṣūrat meṅ
muʻtakif ke liye z̤arūrī hai keh woh Saʻūdī ʻArab ke ḥisāb se
bīsweṅ jab-keh Pākistān ḥisāb se at̥hārahweṅ roze ko eʻtikāf
bait̥he.
Al-battah Pākistān meṅ chāṅd ke ḥiṣāb se jab 28 roze
huwe to us ke tīs roze pūre ho ga’e aur tīs se zā’id roze nahīṅ
rakhe jā sakte. Is liye is kā masnūn eʻtekāf bhī at̥t̥hā’īsweṅ roze
par mukammal jā’egā.
Agle din yaʻnī Pākistān meṅ 29 Ramaḍān ko woh
shaḳḥṣ ifṭār karegā aur eʻtikāf karnā chāhe to naflī kar saktā
hai.
Ḥaz̤rat ʻAbd Allāh bin ʻUmar raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu
bayān karte haiṅ keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi
wa-Ālihī wa-sallam ne Ramaḍānu al-mubārak kā taz̲ikrah
karte huwe irshād farmāyā:
Chāṅd dekhe baġhair nah rozah rakho aur nah hī” وْا حَتَّي تَرَوْہُ، فَإِنْ أُغِْم ِ َ عَلَيْکُمْ فَاقْدِرُوْا لَہُ ۔ ال َ تَصُ وْمُوْا حَتَّي تَرَوُا الْھَِل َ لَ۔ وَال َ تُفْْطِ ُ
chāṅd dekhe baġhair ʻīd karo, aur agar maṭlaʻ abr ālūd ho to
ozoṅ) kī muddat pūrī karo (yaʻnī tīs roze karo).”
[Muslim fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 04: 759, raqam: 1080.]
Lehāz̲ā z̤arūrī hai keh jis jagah ke chāṅd dekhne par
rozah rakhā thā, wahīṅ ke ḥisāb se tīs roze pūre kare. Kyūṅ-
keh ko’ī qamarī mahīnah tīs din se zā’id kā nahīṅ hotā.
Kyā ḳhawātīn kā eʻtikāf bait̥hnā durust hai?
Jī hāṅ! Ḳhawātīn bhī eʻtikāf bait̥h saktī haiṅ. Ḥuz̤ūr
ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam kī azwāje muṭahharāt
bhī eʻtikāf bait̥hā kartī thīṅ jaisā keh ḥadīs̲e mubārakh s̲ābit hai:
“Ummu al-Mu’minīṅ Ḥaz̤rat ʻĀ’ishah Ṣiddīqah raḍiya
Allāhu ‘anhā se marwī hai keh Ḥuz̤ūr Nabīye Akram ṣallá
Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam Ramaḍānu al-mubārak ke
āḳhirī das dinoṅ meṅ eʻtikāf kyā karte the. Yahāṅ tak keh Allāh
Taʻālá ke ḥukm se Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī wa-sallam
kā wiṣāl mubārak ho gayā. Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihī
wa-sallam ke baʻd Āp kī azwāje muṭahharāt ne bhī eʻtikāf kiyā
hai.”
[Buḳhārī fī al-Ṣaḥīḥ, 02: 713, raqam: 1922.]
Kyā bīwī kā ḳhāwind kī ijāzat ke baġhair eʻtikāf bait̥hnā
jā’iz hai?
Jī nahīṅ! Bīwī kā ḳhāwind kī ijāzat ke baġhair eʻtikāf
bait̥hnā jā’iz nahīṅ.

ʻAurat kahāṅ eʻtikāf bait̥he?

ʻAurat ke liye behtar yeh hai keh apne ghar meṅ jo
jagah namāz ke liye maḳhṣūṣ usī meṅ eʻtikāf bait̥he. Us jagah
ko “Masjidu al-Bayt” kahā jātā hai.
Kyā ḳhawātīn sharʻī ʻuz̲r (ḥaiz̤) rokne ke liye t̥aiblet̥ yā
iṅjekshan isteʻmāl kar ke eʻtikāf bait̥h saktī haiṅ?
Agar iṅjekshan lagwāne se ṣeḥḥat par bure as̲arāt
murattab nah hoṅ to ḳhawātīn ifṭārī ke awqāt meṅ (yaʻnī
ġhurūbe āftāb se le kar az̲āne fajr se qabl tak) t̥aiblet̥ le saktī yā
iṅjekshan lagwā saktī haiṅ. Lekin agar iṅjekshan lagwāne yā
goliyāṅ khāne ke bā-wujūd kisī waqt ʻuz̤re sharʻī lāḥiq ho jā’e.
Chāhe woh thor̥ī der ke liye hī ho. To masnūn eʻtikāf t̥ūt̥jā’egā.
Agar muʻtakifah kā sharʻī ʻuz̲r kī waj·h se masnūn eʻtikāf
t̥ūt̥ jā’e to woh kitne dinoṅ ke eʻtikāf kī qaz̤ā karegī?
Ramaḍānu al-mubārak meṅ muʻtakif yā muʻtakifah
(mard yā ʻaurat) kā kisī ʻuz̲r kī waj·h se masnūn eʻtikāf t̥ūt̥jā’e,
mas̲alan z̤arūrat se zā’id eʻtikāf-gāh se bāhar rahe yā muʻtakif
(ʻaurat) ko ḥaiz̤ ā jā’e yā nifās (bachche kī paidā’ish) ho jā’e
yā ko’ī aur bīmārī yā taklīf lāḥiq ho jā’e to jitne din kā eʻtikāf
răh jā’e, aur Ramaḍānu al-mubārak ke roze bhī itne hī hoṅ to
ʻīd ke baʻd jab Ramaḍān ke rozoṅ kī qaz̤ā kare to eʻtikāf kī bhī
qaz̤ā kar le. Agar qaz̤ā’e Ramaḍān ke sāth eʻtikāf nahīṅ kiyā to
baʻd meṅ naflī roze rakh kar eʻtikāf pūrā kare.

Quran and Modern Science ::UNDERGROUND WATERS AND WATER CYCLE

21- Do not you see that God sends down water from the
sky and places it into underground springs.
39-The Throngs, 21


The rainfall and its role in our lives as mentioned in the Quran give us
correct information. Had we been living in some other periods of history, we could not have grasped it. Now we are in a position to understand this, as the world’s water cycle has been made clear by the
knowledge provided by contemporary science. If we compare the
ancient lore about water with the information contained in the Quran,
we realize that the Quran’s communications are free from errors, as
always.
Let us take up the verse of the Quran that speaks of the formation
of underground waters as a consequence of the rainfall (sura 39, verse
21). Was this fact, which is no mystery for us today, as clear in the
minds of the ancients as it is in ours? Two specialists, G.Castany and
B. Blavoux, give the following account: “According to Thales, the
waters of the ocean that gushed out in the air by the pressure exerted by
winds blowing from the depths of continents fell back down, penetrating
the earth. Plato shared this view and believed that its return to the ocean
was caused by a huge whirlpool. Aristotle contended that the vapor that
rose from the earth condensed in the cool recesses of mountains, forming
subterranean lakes and spring waters that were fed by these lakes. The
first significant discovery of water’s perpetual cycle was by Bernard
Palissy in 1580. According to him, underground springs were formed by
the penetration of rain water into the earth.”

The view adopted during the Middle Ages was Aristotle’s.
According to this erroneous view, water springs were fed by underground lakes. Remenieras gives the following account: “The concepts
of purely philosophic character about the natural phenomena related to
waters had to wait until the Renaissance in order to yield their places to
impartial observations. In the Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-
1519) argued against the assertions of Aristotle. Bernard Palissy in his
work ‘Discours admirables sur la nature des eaux, des fontaines, de la
terre, etc.’ gives a clear account of water’s perpetual cycle with special reference to feeding of underground springs by rainwater.”
The knowledge that underground springs were fed by rainwater
provided in the Quran was first postulated in the 16th century in
Europe against Aristotle’s contention. The prominent figures of philosophy like Thales, Plato and Aristotle had made errors in the
accounts they gave of water. Muhammad in the desert, who had no
other claim than that of being a messenger of God, proved to be correct when he uttered the related statements of the Quran.

203- Say: “I follow only what my Lord reveals to me.”
These are enlightenments from your Lord, and guidance,
and mercy for those who believe.
7-The Purgatory, 203

RAINWATER PURE TO DRINK


68- See you the water which you drink?
69- Do you bring it down from the clouds or do We?
70- If We wish, We can make it salty. You should be thankful.
56-The Inevitable, 68-70
All sorts of details related to the water cycle have been impeccably
designed by God. The physical laws and the chemistry of water reflect
the fine calculations behind it. The fact that rainwater contains no salt
is again a blessing. We saw that the rain was the consequence of evaporation of water. More than 90% of water that evaporates has, in its origin, oceans and seas with salt waters. The rules that govern the evaporation of water are arranged in order that the water is purified and disposed of its salt content and other impurities. The water of oceans and seas is not potable, while rainwater is, thanks to the evaporation process.
In the Quran, reference is made to pure water coming from above.


48- “And we send down pure water from the sky”
25-The Distinguisher, 48
The Quran informs us that water was created after the formation
of the earth.
31- From it, He produced its own water and pasture.
79-The Snatchers, 31.

At the time of the Quran’s descent, the first stages of creation of
the earth were a mystery. The fact that the emergence of water on the
surface of the earth was a phenomenon that took place after the creation of the earth, as mentioned in the Quran, is a miraculous statement. The earth in the beginning was extremely hot. As it gradually
cooled down, heavy metals like iron settled in its center, while granite
and oxides remained at the upper layers. As a result of the cooling, an
outermost solid layer formed. When the surface temperature fell
below 100 degree Celsius, the water in the depths rose to the surface,
forming the oceans and seas. This emergence of water is in perfect
accord with the account given in the Quran.

PROPERTIES OF WATER

The proportion of water on the earth is of great importance. Had lands
extended into an expanse larger than the seas, the difference between
night and day temperatures would have been higher and the greater
portion of the living space would turn into a desert. The fact that waters
form more than 70% of the surface of the earth is the result of an intelligent design. Had the water displayed disintegrative properties like certain acids during chemical reactions or remained unaffected like argon,
it could not perform its function in the universe and in our bodies.
Chemical laws have special applications for water, so essential for life.
All other substances, whether solid or liquid, contract as they grow
cooler. The volume of a substance in solid state is smaller and denser.
Water, however, has quite different characteristics. Water, like any other substance, contracts until the temperature drops down to +4 degrees
Celsius. Nevertheless, as the temperature continues to fall, it begins
expanding, unlike other substances. That is, its volume increases. When
it freezes, it expands still further. That is why it floats on the surface
instead of sinking. All other substances behave differently; in solid state
they sink. Thanks to special chemical relations proper to water, life
becomes possible in the seas. Had the density of ice been greater than
the density of water, the frozen water in lakes and seas would have sunk.
And as there would be no layer of ice on the surface, the freezing
process would continue upward. In this way, the depth of the oceans,
seas and lakes would be transformed into mountains of ice and when the
temperature in the atmosphere became warmer only a thin layer of
water would thaw; thereby the aquatic life would come to an end.


MARVELLOUS CHAIN AND WEAKEST LINK

The other chemical properties of water are such that they allow life to
perpetuate. Thanks to its chemical properties, plants carry water from
the depths of the soil up to the top of large trees (which distance can
be measured in meters). If the surface tension of water were low, as in
the case of many other liquids, the plants could not absorb water. This
would be the end of the vegetation and animal kingdom.
We have so far covered many essential subjects vital for our life on
earth. The subjects covered ranged from the precise regulation of the
velocity of the atom in the aftermath of the primeval explosion to our
remoteness from the sun, from the features of the atmosphere to Van
Allen belts, from the surface temperature of the earth to the heat in
the depths of the earth; the least change in any one of these creations
would be the end of our lives. Our life depends on a chain of phenomena with thousands of links, each one being in perfect order and
of extremely complex structure. This chain may break at its weakest
link. So, the chain’s life entirely depends on that particular link.
Supposing that each of the prerequisites making life possible displayed excellent performance of its function; if a seemingly insignificant event like water’s tension were ignored, our life would vanish. All
these minutiae are so many evidences of precise calculation by our
Creator, Omnipotent and Omniscient.