Quran and Modern Science ::UNDERGROUND WATERS AND WATER CYCLE

21- Do not you see that God sends down water from the
sky and places it into underground springs.
39-The Throngs, 21


The rainfall and its role in our lives as mentioned in the Quran give us
correct information. Had we been living in some other periods of history, we could not have grasped it. Now we are in a position to understand this, as the world’s water cycle has been made clear by the
knowledge provided by contemporary science. If we compare the
ancient lore about water with the information contained in the Quran,
we realize that the Quran’s communications are free from errors, as
always.
Let us take up the verse of the Quran that speaks of the formation
of underground waters as a consequence of the rainfall (sura 39, verse
21). Was this fact, which is no mystery for us today, as clear in the
minds of the ancients as it is in ours? Two specialists, G.Castany and
B. Blavoux, give the following account: “According to Thales, the
waters of the ocean that gushed out in the air by the pressure exerted by
winds blowing from the depths of continents fell back down, penetrating
the earth. Plato shared this view and believed that its return to the ocean
was caused by a huge whirlpool. Aristotle contended that the vapor that
rose from the earth condensed in the cool recesses of mountains, forming
subterranean lakes and spring waters that were fed by these lakes. The
first significant discovery of water’s perpetual cycle was by Bernard
Palissy in 1580. According to him, underground springs were formed by
the penetration of rain water into the earth.”

The view adopted during the Middle Ages was Aristotle’s.
According to this erroneous view, water springs were fed by underground lakes. Remenieras gives the following account: “The concepts
of purely philosophic character about the natural phenomena related to
waters had to wait until the Renaissance in order to yield their places to
impartial observations. In the Renaissance, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-
1519) argued against the assertions of Aristotle. Bernard Palissy in his
work ‘Discours admirables sur la nature des eaux, des fontaines, de la
terre, etc.’ gives a clear account of water’s perpetual cycle with special reference to feeding of underground springs by rainwater.”
The knowledge that underground springs were fed by rainwater
provided in the Quran was first postulated in the 16th century in
Europe against Aristotle’s contention. The prominent figures of philosophy like Thales, Plato and Aristotle had made errors in the
accounts they gave of water. Muhammad in the desert, who had no
other claim than that of being a messenger of God, proved to be correct when he uttered the related statements of the Quran.

203- Say: “I follow only what my Lord reveals to me.”
These are enlightenments from your Lord, and guidance,
and mercy for those who believe.
7-The Purgatory, 203

RAINWATER PURE TO DRINK


68- See you the water which you drink?
69- Do you bring it down from the clouds or do We?
70- If We wish, We can make it salty. You should be thankful.
56-The Inevitable, 68-70
All sorts of details related to the water cycle have been impeccably
designed by God. The physical laws and the chemistry of water reflect
the fine calculations behind it. The fact that rainwater contains no salt
is again a blessing. We saw that the rain was the consequence of evaporation of water. More than 90% of water that evaporates has, in its origin, oceans and seas with salt waters. The rules that govern the evaporation of water are arranged in order that the water is purified and disposed of its salt content and other impurities. The water of oceans and seas is not potable, while rainwater is, thanks to the evaporation process.
In the Quran, reference is made to pure water coming from above.


48- “And we send down pure water from the sky”
25-The Distinguisher, 48
The Quran informs us that water was created after the formation
of the earth.
31- From it, He produced its own water and pasture.
79-The Snatchers, 31.

At the time of the Quran’s descent, the first stages of creation of
the earth were a mystery. The fact that the emergence of water on the
surface of the earth was a phenomenon that took place after the creation of the earth, as mentioned in the Quran, is a miraculous statement. The earth in the beginning was extremely hot. As it gradually
cooled down, heavy metals like iron settled in its center, while granite
and oxides remained at the upper layers. As a result of the cooling, an
outermost solid layer formed. When the surface temperature fell
below 100 degree Celsius, the water in the depths rose to the surface,
forming the oceans and seas. This emergence of water is in perfect
accord with the account given in the Quran.

PROPERTIES OF WATER

The proportion of water on the earth is of great importance. Had lands
extended into an expanse larger than the seas, the difference between
night and day temperatures would have been higher and the greater
portion of the living space would turn into a desert. The fact that waters
form more than 70% of the surface of the earth is the result of an intelligent design. Had the water displayed disintegrative properties like certain acids during chemical reactions or remained unaffected like argon,
it could not perform its function in the universe and in our bodies.
Chemical laws have special applications for water, so essential for life.
All other substances, whether solid or liquid, contract as they grow
cooler. The volume of a substance in solid state is smaller and denser.
Water, however, has quite different characteristics. Water, like any other substance, contracts until the temperature drops down to +4 degrees
Celsius. Nevertheless, as the temperature continues to fall, it begins
expanding, unlike other substances. That is, its volume increases. When
it freezes, it expands still further. That is why it floats on the surface
instead of sinking. All other substances behave differently; in solid state
they sink. Thanks to special chemical relations proper to water, life
becomes possible in the seas. Had the density of ice been greater than
the density of water, the frozen water in lakes and seas would have sunk.
And as there would be no layer of ice on the surface, the freezing
process would continue upward. In this way, the depth of the oceans,
seas and lakes would be transformed into mountains of ice and when the
temperature in the atmosphere became warmer only a thin layer of
water would thaw; thereby the aquatic life would come to an end.


MARVELLOUS CHAIN AND WEAKEST LINK

The other chemical properties of water are such that they allow life to
perpetuate. Thanks to its chemical properties, plants carry water from
the depths of the soil up to the top of large trees (which distance can
be measured in meters). If the surface tension of water were low, as in
the case of many other liquids, the plants could not absorb water. This
would be the end of the vegetation and animal kingdom.
We have so far covered many essential subjects vital for our life on
earth. The subjects covered ranged from the precise regulation of the
velocity of the atom in the aftermath of the primeval explosion to our
remoteness from the sun, from the features of the atmosphere to Van
Allen belts, from the surface temperature of the earth to the heat in
the depths of the earth; the least change in any one of these creations
would be the end of our lives. Our life depends on a chain of phenomena with thousands of links, each one being in perfect order and
of extremely complex structure. This chain may break at its weakest
link. So, the chain’s life entirely depends on that particular link.
Supposing that each of the prerequisites making life possible displayed excellent performance of its function; if a seemingly insignificant event like water’s tension were ignored, our life would vanish. All
these minutiae are so many evidences of precise calculation by our
Creator, Omnipotent and Omniscient.

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