Who is Marwan bin Hakam

 

The Almighty Allah has identified enemies of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) and his Ahle Bait (a.s.) in His Book. He distinguished right from wrong and oppressors from the oppressed. Yet, the supporters of tyranny did not pay heed. Which is why perhaps, the Holy Quran has reiterated: “Do you enjoin others to do good and neglect your own self while you read the Book (Quran), then don’t you have any wisdom?” (Surah Baqarah: 44)

‘Why don’t you utilize your intellect”? has been asked thirteen times in the Holy Quran. Similarly “so that you may perceive”, and “they don’t perceive” have been repeatedly mentioned in the Majestic Quran.
The Almighty Allah has declared in the same book that. “And the dream which has been shown to you is in fact a source of trial for the people And similarly the accursed tree (mentioned) in the Holy Quran.”

Who is accursed? Ibne Jurair Tabari, Ibne Abi Hatim, Ibne Marduwiyeh, Salabi, Ibne Asaakir and Baihaqi have related from Hazrat Husain bin Ali (a.s.), Suhail bin Sa’ad Ibne Umar and Saeed bin Musaiyyab that ‘One day the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) dreamt that Hakam bin al-Aas’s, (from Ummayyid lineage) sons are jumping like monkeys on his (Prophet’s) pulpit. This dream aggrieved him so much that he did not laugh for the rest of his life. (Tafseer-e-Tabari, 15/ 77, Al-Durrul-Mansur, vol.4 pg. 191)

Hakam bin Al-Aas bin Unrmaiyyah bin Abdus-Shams Al-Quraishi was the uncle of Usman and father of Marwan. According to a statement of Ibn Sa’ad, he embraced Islam at the fall of Mecca and chose to reside in Medina. But due to his misdemeanors, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) externed him from Medina and ordered him to stay in Taef. But Hazrat Usman r.a recalled him in his tenure of caliphate. (Al-Isaaba fi tameez al-Sahaba by Ibn Hajar Asqalani, vol.1 pg. 325)

When Hakam was externed from Medina, Marwan was hardly 7 or 8 years old. He left for Taef along with his father. Even during the reign of Hazrat Abu Bakr r.a and hazrat Umar r.a, he was not allowed to enter Medina. Hazrat Usman  r.a recalled him. Moreover, he appointed Hakam’s son Marwan as his advisor.

The renowned scholar of the Indian subcontinent, Abul Ala Maududi has written that. It was highly difficult for the people to accept that the son of this chastised man deserved to be an advisor of the pious caliph . Especially when Marwan’s father was alive and was capable of influencing the government affairs.” (Khilafat wa Mulukiyat, p. 110-111)

The Curse of Hazrat Ayesha r.a= For instance, once she remarked, “O Marwan! I testify that you the one whose father Hakam was cursed by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) while you were still in his loins” (Al-Istiaab, vol.2, pg 318)
About the verse of ‘the accursed tree’ Suyuti has quoted Hazrat Ayesha r.a that she addressed Marwan thus, “I have heard the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) saying about your father and grandfather that “You are the accursed tree” (Tafsire-Durrul-Mansur, vol. 4, pg. 1919)

According to another narrative, Hazrat Ayesha r.a told Marwan, “God cursed your father while you were still in his loins, hence you too are included among the accursed men”. (Tafseere-Qurtubbi, p. 390, Tafseere-Kabir, vol.2, p. 238).
Ibn Abi Hatim has related from Ba’adli bin Murrah that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) said: “The accursed tree denotes Hakam and his offspring”. (Durrul-Mansur, vol.4 pg. 191).

Marwan mischievous scheming:

1-Qazi Zainul Abedin Sajjad Meeruthi wrote on p. 117-118 in the third section of his book Tarikhe-Millat, ” Hazrat Usman appointed Marwan as his scribe and secretary and his royal seal was in the latter’s custody. It was he who had signed the death ordinance (on behalf of Hazrat Usman) for the Egyptians who had come to complain to Hazrat  Usman. Marwan placed Hazrat  Usman’s seal on the letter and give rise to fitna.

2-Maulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri writes about the letter which Marwan wrote about Hazrat Muhammad bin Abi Bakr’s appointment to the governorship of Egypt that ” Hazrat Usman appointed Hazrat  Muhammad bin Abi Bakr as Egypt’s governor and instructed his scribe Marwan, to write that when ‘Hazrat  Muhammad bin Abu Bakr comes to you accept him’. Marwan (out of mischief) wrote “kill him”. This caused a major flare-up”. (Khilafat wa Mulukiyat wa Ulama-e-Ahle-Sunnat p. 82-83).

3-Maulana Abdul Shakoor Lucknowi, who is known as Imam among Sunnis, writes about the incident of the Hazrat Muhammad bin Abi Bakr that “When the writing (of the letter) was identified, it was found to be written by Marwan…. .(Khulafae-Rashedeen pg. 198).

4-A learned teacher of Deoband, Maulana Muhammad writes in the monthly journal of the Seminary, “Even this incident is recorded in bold letters in authentic history that ….. the famous mischief-monger of Umayyad clan, taking advantage of Hazrat Usman’s old age and senility, not only awakened the strong sentiment of their clan but declared an open front against Bani Hashim!’ (Mahname Darul-Uloom, Deoband, De?cember, 1965).

The verdict of Shah Abdul Aziz Dehlavi is: The love of Ahle Bait is a part of obligation of the faith and not from the traditional necessities. The love of Ahle Bait entails that Marwan should be abused and cursed (Fatawae-Azizi, Kamil, pg. 380-381).

About Marwan’s death it is said that while he was sleeping, his wife smothered his face with a pillow and held onto it until he breathed his last. (Lughatnama of Dehkuda pg. 228, 220/431)
The author of Muntahal Adab has written in Section Meem p. 1185 that though Marwan was born during the time of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a), he could not have the honor of meeting him.

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