## Hadith: Shan e Manaqib e Maula Ali AlaihisSalam.

*1. Rasool Allah ﷺ Ne Farmaya:-*
Mera Parwardigar Mujhe Raat Ko Aasman Le Gaya Aur Ali Ke Bare Me Mujhe 3 Cheezo Ki Wahi Ki – Ali Parhezgaro Ka Peshwa, Momineen Ka Wali Aur Noorani Chehro Ke Rehbar Hain.

📚 *Reference* 📚
Mustadrak, Al Hakim, Jild 3, Safa 138.

*2. Rasool Allah ﷺ Ne Farmaya:-*
Me Ilm Ka Shehar Hun Ali Uska Darwaza Hain, Jisko Shehar Me Aana Ho Wo Darwaze Se Aaye.

📚 *Reference* 📚
*1.* Mustadrak, Al Hakim, Jild 3, Safa 127.
*2.* Kanzul Ummal, Jild 13, Safa 148.

*3. Rasool Allah ﷺ Ne Farmaya:-*
Jiska Me Maula Hun Uska Ali Mola Hain.

📚 *Reference* 📚
Tirmizi, Jild 5, Safa 398.

*4. Rasool Allah ﷺ Ne Farmaya:-*
Mere Bad Jo Cheeze Bais e Ikhtalaf Hogi Unme Ali Ki Adalat Sabse Behtareen Hain.

📚 *Reference* 📚
Kanzul Ummal, Jild 13, Safa 120.

*5. Rasool Allah ﷺ Ne Farmaya:-*
Lashkar Rawana Karte Waqt Huzoor ﷺ Ne Farmaya: Khudaya Mujhe Us Waqt Tak Mout Na Dena Jab Tak Ali Ko Dubara Dekh Na Lu’n.

📚 *Reference* 📚
Tirmizi, Jild 13, Safa 178.

## Introduction to the Binomial Theorem

Introduction to the Binomial Theorem

In the following sections, we build up to the inductive steps Abu Bakr Al-Karaji takes to explain the binomial coefficients. Our survey of the proof Al-Karaji provides is of relevance to algebra and logic; The binomial theorem is an algebraic theorem, while induction is a common and powerful proof technique.

The binomial theorem is a theorem with applications to probability, statistics, calculus, complex analysis, and abstract algebra. The binomial theorem states that, given two variables x and y and an integer n greater than or equal to 0, we have 7:

n (x + y)² = [ (1) a²-kyk. k=0

For instance, in an introductory algebra class, one would learn that for n=2, we have:

Σ(3) [a²¬^y^ = (3²) a²y° + (²) a¹v¹ + ( ² )aºy² = x² + 2xy + y²! y² (x + y)² =

So, one can use the binomial theorem to calculate the expansion of (x + y)” for any natural number n.

## Imam Hasan’s Role In Islamic Life: Stage One: During His Father’s Lifetime

Imam Hasan’s Role In Islamic Life

At an early age, the role of the grandson of the Holy Prophet [s] began to evidence itself. It was before he was officially appointed to the office of Imamate by his father. His positive role took shape clearly from the moment the Muslim ummah gave their pledge of allegiance to Imam Ali [a] as the new caliph. It rose to its zenith after the martyrdom of Imam Ali [a].

Stage One: During His Father’s Lifetime

Imam Hasan’s [a] role, during the lifetime of his father, and especially under his caliphate, was marked by his total obedience to his father, who was his example and leader. He dealt with him, not only as a kind son, but also as an obedient soldier in the deepest sense of the word, with its implications of compliance and discipline. The role of Imam Hasan [a] was expressed, during all the critical days his father, Imam Ali [a], lived through, in total submission to his father, his leader and the source of his inspiration.Following are some of his deeds during this part of his life:

1. After the camp of Imam Ali [a] was attacked, due to the mutiny of Talha and al-Zubair in the city of Basrah, and after the rising of the deviants under the leadership of Mu’awiyah bin Abu Sufyan, Imam Ali [a] felt he needed the support of the masses of Kufa to protect the right and put down the sedition kindled by some people. For that mission, he chose his elder son, Hasan [a]. He ordered him to encourage the people of Kufa to champion the pure Islamic cause, represented by Imam Ali [a]. Imam Hasan [a] accepted the mission and made for Kufa in the company of Ammar bin Yasir. Imam Hasan [a] was carrying an edict from Imam Ali [a] to his governor in Kufa, AbuMusa al-Ash’ari, relieving him of his post due to his disgraceful stance in failing Imam Ali [a] and turning his back on the indisputable truth.

As soon as he entered Kufa, the multitudes swelled around Imam Hasan [a] declaring their loyalty and their readiness to help him. He made a speech, in which he blew enthusiasm into their inept souls, and urged the people to hoist the banner of jihad high. Imam Hasan [a] was most successful in accomplishing his mission. He exhorted them to support the right, defend the message and its noble state. [16]

2. The battle of al-Jamal (The Camel) had already ended in Basrah. Mu’awiyah was rapidly gathering Syrian forces, stationing them at Siffin. Imam Ali [a] got wind of the moves of the Ummayad party. He divulged the news to his soldiers, and asked their council. They all announced their readiness to do whatever Imam Ali [a] ordered them.

In the meantime, Imam Hasan [a] was standing amid the masses calling them to rally around the truth. In one of his speeches he said:

“Thanks be to Allah. There is no god other than He. He has no partner. I praise Him and He is praiseworthy. Allah gave you great favours and showered you with His graces which are beyond number. One cannot possibly thank Him for them. Neither a statement nor saying can express them. We are angry only on behalf of Allah. He favoured us with what cannot be given by anyone but Him. We should, therefore, thank Him for His bounties, tribulations and favours. Our praise should ascend to Allah, carrying our satisfaction to Him. It should be truthful. Our praise has to be so true that Allah believes us. It has to make us entitled to receive more of his bounties. Our praise should increase rather than decrease Allah’s favours. No group of people gather around some matter without making it firmer, and their beliefs solid. So mobilize yourselves for the fight against your enemy, Mu’awiyah, and his soldiers, because he has advanced against you. And do not discourage one another, for discouragement cuts asunder the heartstrings. Advancing under the spearheads is a sign of bravery and piety, for no people had ever observed jihad without the lifting of malaise from among them by Allah. He would spare them the tribulations of humility,and guide them to the hallmarks of denomination…”[17]

In this speech, Imam Hasan’s [a] aim was to solidify the bonds of unity, close the ranks of the people, and rally the people to challenge the party led by Mu’awiyah and a handful of opportunists.

3. The Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali bin Abi Talib [a], had warned the people against the arbitration during the Battle of Siffin. He knew it was a trick. After the charade of arbitration was over – and it ended with Abu-Musa al-Ash’ari’s failing Imam Ali [a] – the camp of Imam Ali [a] was thrown into confusion. Chaos prevailed, and each group of people began to disassociate themselves from the other. They started reviling each other. Imam Ali [a] wanted to explain to the people the situation as it was, and to show that the arbitration was invalid because it was not based on truth and logic. He assigned this task to his son Abu Muhammad Hasan [a].

“Stand up, son, and talk about these two men: Abdullah bin Qais,[18] and Amru bin al-Aas,” Imam Ali [a] told his son.

Imam Hasan [a] stood and addressed the people, telling them the real dimensions of the situation. He said:

“O people! You have talked too much about these two men. They were only chosen to judge according to the Book and in the light of its guidance. But, they judged according to their whims and not the Book. This being true, their verdict cannot be called a judgement. Rather, it was an opinion forced upon them. Abdullah bin Qais erred when he named Abdullah bin Umar as the caliph. He made mistakes concerning three points: First, he disagreed with his father who did not rate him as qualified for caliphate, nor did he appoint him as member of the Shura (consultative group). Secondly, he did not consult him on the matter. And thirdly, neither the immigrants nor the Ansar (helpers) rallied around him. These are those who appoint the ruler and establish his reign over the people. As for arbitration, the Messenger of Allah [s] himself had chosen Sa’d bin Ma’ath for this. And he did judge with what pleases Allah. Undoubtedly, if he had deviated, the Messenger of Allah [s] would not have approved of him”. [19]

In these words, the grandson of the Holy Prophet [s], Imam Hasan [a], clarified the matter, disclosed the falsity of the arbitration, and proved to the people the mistake of Abu Musa alAsh’ari, who was elected by the common people among the army of Imam Ali [a], and without thinking it over, they charged him with a task he could not fairly accomplish. The man had bad intentions.

Imam Hasan [a] demonstrated some or Abu Musa’s mistakes. Among them was deposing Imam Ali [a] and calling Abdullah bin Umar bin al-Khattab the caliph of Muslims. His judgement involved

three errors, not to mention the rest of his arbitration. Imam Hasan [a] was an astute thinker, had a sound foundation in logic and politics. His analysis of Abu Musa’s actions in the arbitration process was acute and left no doubt in a reasonable mind that the analysis was without flaw. He said that:

1. When Umar bin al-Khattab appointed a six-man consultative group at his deathbed, he did not appoint his son Abdullah as one of the group. That was because he recognised that his son was not qualified to be a caliph, and a leader of the people. 2. The pledge of allegiance, as was the order of the day, was initiated by the immigrants and Ansar, then, the whole of the ummah followed suit. How could al-Ash’ari do something without consulting them?

3. Al-Ash’ari, when he appointed Abdullah as the caliph of Muslims, did it without seeking the view of the man himself. He could not tell whether Abdullah would consent or refuse. The man was not informed of the question earlier, and he was not asked about this most historically critical matter.

Moreover, Imam Hasan [a] set an example of a just and good arbitration, which is approved of by Allah. He cited the arbitration of S’ad bin Ma’ath, who was chosen by the Messenger of Allah [s], to settle the question of Bani Quraidhah, after their military defeat by the Messenger of Allah [s]. His judgement was firm and sound.

1. Imam Hasan [a] took part in all the wars fought by his father, Imam Ali [a], including those of Basrah, Nahrawan, and Siffin. He played a critical role in them. He fought in those battles and put down those seditions without any motives other than his concern over Islam.

[16] Baqir Sharif al-Qarashi, Hayat al-Imam Hasan [a], (Najaf:1965). vol.1, p.387.

[17] Ibid., p.432.

[18] Abdullah bin Qais Abu-Musa al-Ash’ari.

[19] Ibid., p. 479.

## THE FELICITOUS BIRTH

THE FELICITOUS BIRTH

The Kaaba is a very ancient structure. Its foundation was laid by Hazrat Adam (a.s.) and the walls were raised by Hazrat Ibrahim (a.s.) and Hazrat Ismail (a.s.). Although this building is devoid of any designs and embellishments, made out of lime and stones, every stone is the fountainhead of felicity. The Holy Quran says about it:

“Allah has rated Kaaba as an honorable abode.”

This eminence of the Kaaba is permanent and eternal. From the day of the laying of its foundation, it has the same eminence, and shall be there for ever. This is expressed through various acts of worship in Islam. Therefore every Muslim, be the person an Aarb, an Ajam, a Westerner or an Oriental, will face towards the Kaaba when standing up to pray! When they circumabulate the building, they exercise care to see that their shoulders don’t move away from it. This circumambulation is a very important pillar of the performance of the Haj.

Hazrat Ali (a.s.) was born at this felicitous place on the 13th of Rajab, Friday, of 30 Aam al Feel. This privilege of taking birth in the holy place went to none before him and anyone after him! The chronichlers of the traditions and the biographers of Ameer al Momineen (a.s.) have recorded this as a very important event in his life. Therefore Hakim Neshapoori writes:

“It is proved from continuous narrations that Ameer al Momineen Karam Allah Wajhu was born at the center of Kaaba from the womb of Fatima bint e Asad.’ “5 Mustadrak, Vol 3, Page 483 Shah Wali Allah too reports about this birth with some detail: “Reports in continuity prove that Ameer al Momineen Ali (a.s.) was born on Friday, 13th Rajab of 30 Aam al Feel at the center of Khana e Kaaba. Besides him none was ever born there, before or after him.’ Ref: Izalat al Khafa, Page 251

The modern time scholar Abbas Mehmood Okkad has termed this felicitous birth as the renaissance of the felicity of the Kaaba and the fore er of the worship of, one and only, Allah there:

a.s.) was born inside the Kaaba and Allah kept his face away from bowing to the idols there. His birth there Was the beginning of the new era of worship of one and only Allah”

“Ali ibne Abi Talib (

Abqariat al Islamia, Page 863

Similarly every historian and biograsapher has mentioned about this fact. However, some, accepting the birth of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) in the Kaaba have tried to lessen the importance of the event. Sometimes they express a view that taking birth inside the Kaaba is not of any importance, particularly when it was used as a place for installation of idols. The reply to them is that if a mosque is converted into a temple, a church or any other place of worship, it will remain a mosque. Its sanctity will not diminish because of the change. Similarly, if idols were installed in the Kaaba, its sanctity remained unchanged. Even when Kaaba was declared as the Qibla (direction in whicl Muslims turn to pray) it continued to have the idols till Makka was conquered and the idols removed from there. Sometimes they say that Fakhta binte Zohair gave birth to Hakeem ibne Hazam inside the Kaaba thirteen years before the Aam al Feel. They say that there is no sanctity of being born inside the Kaaba when even an infidel was born there.

This attitude is contrary to the position taken by the historians and biographers who have admitted in clear terms that besides Hazrat Ali a.s.), no one else was born inside the Kaaba prior to or after him. Besides this, it can be sanctimonious only for a Muslim to have taken birth inside that holy precinct. For an infidel, it is immaterial where he is born! The event of an infidel taking birth inside the Kaaba will not be of any significance to him like meeting the Prophet (s.a.) or even visiting the precincts of the Kaaba. However, a person in the Faith of Islam will consider it a good fortune to have seen the Prophet (s.a) or he had the opportunity to visit the Holy Place. It cannot be said about Ali ibne Abi Talib that he was ever under the influence of infidelity or that he was born an infidel. Therefore it is mentioned in the books of Ahl al Sunnat that when Hazrat Ali (a.s.) was in his mother’s womb, and she wanted to bow in front of the idols, he used to turn inside in such a way that it became impossible for her to bow! Although this narrative is not accep ble according to the Shia belief, it is a positive proof that Ali (a.s.), from the womb of his mother to his grave, was never in the influence of infidelity. And those who have written about the birth of Ibne Hazam have termed it as an accidental birth. But Hazrat Ali (a.s.)’s birth there was according to the wish of Allah. Therefore Abbas bin Abd al Mutallib says that he and Yazid ibne Taanab and some persons of Bani Hashim and BaniUzza were sitting near the Kaaba when Fatima binte Asad came and stood near the Kaaba for a while. Hardly any time elapsed when there appeared signs of concern on her face. She lifted her shaking hands towards the sky and prayed, “O my Sustainer! I have faith in You, your Prophets and the Books Revealed to them. Ease my difficulty for the sake of this very House, its Bulider and the one who is in my womb! Make the birth of the child I am carrying easy for me! I am confident that he is one of the radiant signs of Your Greatness and Your Majesty!” Abbas saya that when Fatima Bimte Asad finished the prayer, they saw the rear wall of the Kaaba go asunder and she entered through that opening without any hesitation. Then immediately the opening closed and the wall was the same way as it was earlier.

The veracity of this narrative has been accepted by the scholars of both the schools of thought. Therefore, from among the erudite Shia scholars, Allama Abu Jafar Toosi in “Amali’, Allama Majlisi in “Bahar al Anwaar” and from the scholars of Ahl al Sunnat, Mir Saleh Kashafi in “Munaqib” and Maulvi Mohammed Mobin in “Wasilat al Najat “have recorded this event. This tradition highlights the fact that this event did not happen all of a sudden as an accident. The miracle is that the wall of the Kaaba went asunder and Fatima Binte Asad went boldly in and the wall came back to its original position. It was a manifestation of the Divine Power of Allah.o

Fatima binte Asad emerged from the Kaaba three days after the birth of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) with the babe in her arms.

The Prophet (s.a.), who was waiting eagerly outside, went forward and took the son of his beloved uncle in his arms. The baby opened his eyes and the first person on whose face he set his eyes was the Prophet (s.a.). The Prophet (s.a.) put his tongue in the mouth of the new born and, they say, he transferred the Ilm e Nabuwat (the Divine Prophetic Knowledge) to him. Witnessing this event, the Prophet (s.a.) has said, “Khasni bilnazr wa khasasat bil Ilm – He chose me for the first glimpse and I selected him for the Ilm (knowledge)”

Hazrat Ali (a.s.) has several relationships with the Kaaba. The Prophet (s.a.) has termed him ‘like the Kaaba’, that his own forbears had constructed it and were the protectors and keepers of the edifice. Hassan ibne Kalak attempted to demolish it when Fahr ibne Malik defeated and imprisoned him. Abraha ibn e Ashram attacked with a fleet of elephants when Hazrat Abd al Mutallib steadfastly stood at the entrance to the Kaaba. If the idolators had converted it into a storehouse of idols, it was Hazrat Ali (a.s.) who, astride the shoulders of the Prophet (s.a.), demolished the idols and threw them out. Therefore, his birth was the prelude of the purification of the Kaaba.

While Hazrat Ali (a.s.) had the singular privilege of being born in the holy precincts of the Kaaba, the timing of his birth was very felicitous that he was born in the monthe of Rajab which is one of the sanctimonious months in the Islamic Calendar. On the 27th of this month the Annunciation of the Prophet (s.a) took place and commenced the invitation for the people to embrace Islam. This also is an indication of the nearness and affinity that Ali (a.s.) had for Islam! Hazrat Ali (a.s.)’s life had been a mirror of Islamic teachings and character. Islam and

Ali (a.s.) grew under the tutelage of the Prophet (s.a).

## SELECTIONS FROM ZABOOR-E-AJAM BY IQBAL

SELECTIONS FROM ZABOOR-E-AJAM BY IQBAL

COUPLET 1

گهی با حق درآمیزد گھمی با حق درآویزد « زمانی حیدری کرده زمانی خیبری کرده

Gahe Ba Haq dar awezad Gahe ba Haq dar awezad, Zamaney Hayderi Karda Zamaney Khayberi Kardi Allama Iqbal says that the condition of the Muslims is very deplorable. Sometimes we adhere strictly to the precepts of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) and sometimes we deviate from the path of Truth and wage war against God. The prosperity of the Muslims depends upon our faith in Islam and our practice in following the precepts set before us by Hazrat Ali (a.s.)

COUPLET 2

امیر قافلہ کی سخت کوش و پیجم کوش * که در قبیله ما حیدری زکراری است * Amire qafilaee Sakht Kosh wa peham kosh, Ki dar qabilai ma Hayderi Ze Karrareest

Allama Iqbal has an intense love for and faith in Hazrat Ali (a.s.). He is fed up with the low standard of the Muslims. He advises them to consider themselves the leader of the caravan of life. It is our duty to work ceaselessly with perfect devotion since in our community, following the ways of Hazrat Ali (a.s.), there is no room for losing heart or showing cowardice, Hayder Karrar tought us to fight to finish the forces of evil.

COUPLET 3-4

من آن علم و فراست با پر کاهی نمیگیرم * که از تیغ و سپر بیگانه سازد مرد غازی را بھر نرخی که این کالا بگیری سود مند افتد * بزور بازوی حیدر بده ادراک رازی را Man an ilm-o firasat ba para kahe nami geerum, Ke az Tegh o sipar begana sazad marde ghazira

Ba har nirkhe Ke een Kala be geeri sood mand uftad, Ba zore bazoo-e Hayder bid h idrake Razi ra

According to Allama Iqbal that Knowledge and Wisdom which deprives a Muslim of the art and spirit of swordsmanship is of no use. A muslim should be a true follower of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) the bravest swordsman of the age. No price is too high to achieve that quality which would make him a perfect warrior. Even the learned discourses of AHarra Razi (a great sage) can be sacrificed to the following of Hazrat Ali’s high ideals.