NAME, APPELATION & FILIAL APPPELATION (Kunyat)
Hazrat Abu Talib named him Zaid after his ancestor, Qasi ibne Kalab. Fatima binte Asad named him Haider after her father Asad. Asad and Haider both the words mean a tiger. Therefore, in the battle of Khaiber, while reciting the rajz (the martial poetry) combating with Marhab, he said, “Annalazi samatni ami Hydera – I am that whose mother has named him Hyder!” The Prophet (s.a.), under divine inspiration called him with the name of Ali (a.s.). There is another opinion that Hazrat Abu Talib himself gave him the name of Ali (a.s.). As a proof they present the following couplet of Abu Talib: “Samaita beali kay yadoom lahu
Azal alu wafakhar alaza doomahu
I have given him the name of Ali (a.s.)
that eminence and success always follow him. Respectability is theonly wealth that remains
This name that literally means greatness and high status proved most appropriate for Hazrat Ali (a.s.). Although the Umawis tried their level best to play down his name and the Kunyat, they couldn’t succeed in doing it. Therefore Abu Nayeem Isfahani writes in Halyat al Aulia that the son of Abd Allah ibne Abbas was Ali and Kunyat Abul Hassan. One day Ali bi n Abd Allah went to Abd al Malik who said that he could not tolerate his name and kunyat. He didn’t change his name but changed his kunyat to Abu Mohammed! With this bent of mind, for centuries no Muslim ruler by the name Ali was there. But today, in the Muslim population anywhere, after Mohammed, the most popular name is Ali. Despite centuries of suppression and oppression, the name (Ali) spread all over the world with the spread of Islam!
He has several titles that signify his various qualities. The most popular are Murtada, Wasi and Ameer al Momineen. His first Kunyat is Abul Hassan. Another well known Kunyat is Abu Turab. Generally Arabs keep the Kunyat on the name of the first son. For instance, Hazrat Abu Talib adopted the Kunyat as Abu Talib when his first son Talib was born. Hazrat Abd al Mutallib had his Kunyat based on the name of his first-born son as Abu Harith. The second Kunyat of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) was on the suggestion of th Prophet (s.a.). It is written in Seerat Abu Hisham that during the battle of Ashira, Hazrat Ali (a.s.) and Ammar ibne Yassir went towards the lake of Bani Mudlaj and lay down under the shade of a tree on green grass. Hardly any time passed when the prophet (s.a.) too arrived there, and seeing Hazrat Ali (a.s.)’s dusty clothes he said, “maalaka ya Abu Turab- O Abu Turab, in what condition are you!” From that day, hazrat Ali (a.s.)’s Kunyat became Abu Turab.Allama Halabi has written:
“In the battle of Ashira the Prophet (s.a.) had given to Hazrat Ali (a.s.) the Kunyat of Abu Turab when he found him and Ammar ibne Yassir sleeping and Ali (a.s.)was covered in dust”
Ref: Vol 2, Page 142
In the beginning this Kunyat was suggested for Hazrat Ali only. Prior to him none had this Kunyat. Therefore Sheik Aal alDeen writes: “For the first time ever, Ali ibne Abi Talib (a.s.)
Was addressed with the Kunyat of
Ref: Mahazarat al Awail, Page 123
Bukhari has included this incident in his Sahih that the Prophet (s.a.) once came to the residence of Fatima Zehra (a.s) and not finding Ali a.s.) at home he enquired about him. Fatima (a.s.) said that they had some difference of opinion and and that in a state of anger he went out. The Prophet (s.a.) asked one person to go and look for Ali (a.s.). The person noticed Hazrat Ali (a.s.) lying on the floor of the mosque. He returned and informed his whereabouts to the Prophet (s.a.). The Prophet (s.a.) then went to the mosque and noticed Ali (a.s.) covered all over in dust. He dusted his clothes and said, “Qum ya Abu Turab! – Gewt up, Abu Turab!” After this event he was known with the Kunyat of Abu Turab.
This narration, when compared with the earlier tradition sounds different and is not plausible according to the norms of Darayat. Thereason for the non plausibility is that during the entire married life of Hazrat Fatima and Hazrat Al (a.s.) there is no instance of ever being any differences between them. Their lives have been examples of most cordial marital relationship. From the tradition where Ammar Yassir was also there, it appears that the Prophet (s.a.) had suggested the Kunyat of Abu Turab in Jamadi al Thani, 2H, because the Battle of Ashira was fought in that period. Fatima Zehra (a.s.) was married to Hazrat Ali(a.s.) on First of Zil Hijja 2H, that is, six monthsafter the proposal of this Kunyat. In that event there is no chance of any difference of opinion between the two and the need to go away from home in anger. Because at that time Janabe Syeda was not married to Hazrat Ali (a.s.). It appears that the tradition has been concocted to please the Umawi rulers who used to address Hazrat Ali (a.s.) with this Kunyat while they carried out their campaign of vilification against him. A name that is associated with an unpleasant memory would never be a popular name. Although this Kunyat of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) is the most likeable of this titles Therefore, Sahl ibne Saad says:
“Hazrat Ali Razi Allah Ta-aala Anhu liked Abu Turab More than all his names. “”
Sahih Bukhari, Vol 8, Page 63
Day: May 5, 2023
SELECTIONS FROM JAWED NAMA BY IQBAL
SELECTIONS FROM JAWED NAMA BY IQBAL
عشق با نان جوین خیبر گشاد * عشق در اندام مه چاکی نهاد Ishque Ba Nane-Jaween Khayber Kushad, Ishaque Dar Andame Meh Chake Nihad
Iqbal holds that Hazrat Ali is the true lover of God and thus Love has given him strength with which he can win any fort even if it be strong as the fort of Khayber. (It was the force of true love which made a cavern on the surface of moon). Finally he implied that it is only the true love which makes a man strong and Hazrat Ali (a.s.) was the strongest because he had the true love for God.
کور را بیننده از دیدار کن * بولوب را حیدر کرار کن
Kor ra beeninda az deedar Kun, Boo Lahab ra Hayder-e Karrar Kun Iqbal says that the Muslims now-a-day have lost faith in our Holy Prophet (s.a.w.). And that is the reason of our downfall. We are like the blind griping in the dark. If we cast our ignorance aside, if we inculcate the spirit of love for our Prophet (s.a.w.) and Hazrat Ali (a.s.) we shall regain our lost glory.
یش او به آسمان نه خیبر است * ضربت او از مقام حیدر است
Pesh oo noh asman noh Khayber ast, Zarbat-e oo az maqame Hayder ast
Iqbal’s heart is full of ardent love for Hazrat Ali (a.s.). His faith is that the whole universe is under the command of Hazrat Ali. A true follower of Hazrat Ali can conquer many heavens and Khaybers. Hazrat Ali (a.s.) possessed that high standard of love and devotion towards God Almighty which no one could match.
حکم حق را در جهان جاری نکرد « نانی از جو خورد و کراری نکرد * Hukme Haq ra dar Jahan jari na Kara, Nane az jao Khurd-o-Karrari na Kard
Allama Iqbal says that we should be true followers of Hazrat Ali (a.s.). Simply eatisig the bread of barley and retiring from the worldly life is against the tenets of Hazrat Ali and Islam. While Hazrat Ali led an austere life he proved to be the greatest general in the battlefield. He also preached the laws of the shariat like a learned Missionary of
Islam. It is therefore the duty of every Muslim to follow in the footsteps of Hazrat Ali (a.s.).
COUPLET 5 خانقاهی جست و از خیبر رمید * راهبی ورزید و سلطانی ندید Khanqahe just o az Khayber ram ed, Rahibi warzeed o sultani nadeed
Many Muslims have misconstrued the spirit of Islam They have retired from the worldly life and taken their abode in a monastry. Thay have forgotten that it was Muslims who had conquered Khaybers and also ruled as Kings. The examples set by Hazrat Ali (a.s.) are before us and should follow them and serve Islam as is required of us.
دین او آئین او سوداگری است * عنتری اندر لباس حیدری است Deen e oo deen-e-Soudagari ast, Antari andar libas e Hayderi ast
Allama Iqbal strongly criticises the present Muslim. He severely condemns the bargaining type of spirit of the Muslims. They are not true Muslims. They sell out their religion for the sake of money and wealth. Their Islam is only ostentation. We should search our heart. There is no other way except that of following the tenets prescribed by Hazrat Ali (a.s.).
COUPLET 7 با وطن پیوست و از خود در گذشت * دل به رستم داد و از حیدر گذشت
Ba watan paiwast wa az khud dar guzesht, Dil ba rustam dad wa az Hayder guzesht
Allama Iqbal is a true Muslim. He wants us to be first Muslim and then anything else. His love for Hazrat Ali (a.s.) is beyond treasure. He is an ideal for him, Patriotism according to him is a secondary thing. Our Patriotism should not be like Rustam’s. We should be patoriot with a religious or Islamic bias. We are Muslims and every land belongs to us.
INSTRUCTIONS OF SARKAR WARIS ABOUT NAMAZ
INSTRUCTIONS OF SARKAR WARIS ABOUT NAMAZ
Prayer is one of the obligatory tenets of Islam and its importance need not be repeated. Our Saint made it clear and often advised about it. (For e.g., Chudhery Qudha Bakhsh Saheb Warisi, resident of Attawa narrated that for one year the people were perturbed by continuous drought. At this juncture Our Saint came to Shikoh-a-bad from Agra. Every one complained about the crop’s failure for want of rain and that they will be utterly ruined. Our Saint said, “God likes humility, repent (toba) and perform your namaz regularly. Prayer is an exact picture of humility and a symptom of God’s devotee. God will be merciful”, Hearing this everyone repented and promised to be punctual in prayer. The next day rain poured heavily. Crops cam up profusely and the produce of again was bountiful.
Once, Our Saint during his sojourn became the guest of Munshi Tafazzul Hussain, vakil of Unnao on a hot summer day. On learning that Our Saint was in the habit of walking for Friday prayers he escorted him to the nearest mosque in the locality. It was in need of repairs and our Saint learnt very few people attended prayers. The Saint asked Munshi Saheb to get it repaired and inform the people that whoever does not visit the mosque for prayer he would not be made his disciple.
Hearing this strict warning of Our Saint people regularly attended prayers. It was repaired and was humming with activity. Our Saint informed Munshi Tafazzul Hussein Saheb, “The Mosque would testify your prostration on the day on Judgement”.
A similar incident has been narrated by Janab Shah Fazal Hussain, a member of Dewa Sheriff and successor to the Gadi of Hazrat Shah Vilayat Mohamed Abdul Munim Qadri. One day on hearing the glad tidings of the arrival of Our Saint all assembled in the garden to welcome and pay their respects. Surveying the gathering, he got down from the palanquin and said, “Fazal Hussain Saheb, inform the people that whoever is not observing prayer (Namaz) ‘He will not be admitted as a disciple.”
One day Haji Aughat Shah Saheb complained that people were not performing prayers. On hearing this Our Saint Said, “It is necessary that everyone should pray. Prayer is a world’s system and if this is abandoned, order and law would suffer”.
Maulvi Ahamed Sh.a. h Sahib, an advocate and a resident of Agra, rather religious minded came to join the fold of disciples. Sarkar Warisi advised, “Everyone should abide by Divine law and it is obligatory to follow the tradition”.
Qazi Munir Alam Saheb was not regular in his prayers. He was residing at Darbhanga and Our Saint when he visited him explained, “One can know from prayer the difference between a slave and his servitude. A slave bows to his master and before whom he prostrates that is his
lord”. Thus he became regular in performing prayers and requested for a blessing of Panjatane-Pak also.
There are many incidences of his advice about prayers and his clarification of problems relating to prayers needs no further emphasis. Once while camping at Shahjahanpur he was the guest of Hakeem Kalan Khan Saheb. He decided to take Our Saint in a palanquin to the mosque for Friday prayers due to intense heat and taking into consideration his old age. Our Saint said according to tradition one should walk to the mosque for prayer as each step fetches a reward of virtue.
Once while camping at Bankipur as guest of Khan Bahadur Maulvi Syed Fazal Imam Saheb, Our Saint was escorted for Friday prayers to the nearest mosque by walking. But Our Saint told him. “You have discharged your duty love but it is a loss to me for I lost a day’s wage”. Maulvi Syed Ghani Sahib Warisi of- Bihar, once
narrated that Our Saint while camping at Bilchi on Friday after his bath said, “Just as the problem, whether India is a non-Muslim country or a country of Islam needs decision, likewise regarding the number Rakats to be read, whether some. additional Rakats are necessary or not needs clarification”. Later Our Saint clinched the argument by stating that what is required is intense concentration and the number of additional Rakats is negligible.
Our Saint further stated, “punctual performance of prayer is excellent and it is a sign of obedience. It is a proof of laziness to delay prayers intentionally. It is contrary to God’s command. One who always performs ablutions and retains it he will be one amongst the rank of those who are under regimen on the Day of Judgement and the limbs of ablution will appears bright.”
The sense of these sayings meant general instructions both for mystic why of life as well as Divine law (Shariat). He made it clear that one who does not perform prayer will not be admitted to the fold of his disciples. He has also stressed that prayer should be performed with well intention and with one’s heart. Our Saint further stated that in prayer fear of God and humility are essential and it is an acme of believers for it enables one to reach Divine proximity. One who’s thought is mature so far, he feels the Divine pleasure. Prayer is the food of the soul. It is clear from this that a distinct hint is given to his disciples that along with namaz there should be a sufficient ingredient of spiritual effort.
According to this while halting Agra he told Hafiz Qudha Bakhsh Saheb, a regular performer of prayers both tradition and supererogatory (tahajjud) “Just as you are regular in performing mid-morning prayers in the same way during night be regular in reverse prayers”.
Once Maulvi Syed Mohamed Yousaf Saheb with tearful eyes asked Our Saint Whether an evil minded person like him could be capable of seeking God. Our Saint’s reply “If one is confident that during prayer God observes him, he will surely be fortunate to be gifted with Divine vision
and in every atom he would perceive Divine manifestation”. Another devotee said to Our Saint, “The waywardness of my evil mind does not lessen”. He was advised to be awake during midnight prayer because mind is prone to sleep.
It is universally acknowledge that those who are passing through the valley of love in quest of truth find that their habits and affairs acquire respect and culture. Their prayers, Mystic exercises (Zarab) are decked with truth and spirituality. Accordingly their spiritual leader selects their programme of training which concerned with meaningful blessings and speciality. (lradually the human qualities are replaced with angelic qualities; hence in the physical efforts of a novice mystic the spiritual exercises are also included. Ultimately a time comes when the apparent prayers of these raw mystics come to an end and their inner cleanliness acquired leads them to Divine proximity.
High thinking persons enamoured of Divine Begin, free from worldly trammels, brave men of solitude familiar with the unity of God’ casting aside and severing connection with the existing were always absorbed to see the brilliant light of the object of their heart (Beloved). Through sinful we wished to know the truth and reality of Our Saint’s devoted and humble prayer, and Our Saint by his favour taught such particular prayers during his leisure time.
In 1301 Hijrah Our Saint was camping in Lucknow where Maulana Sufi Hidayatullah Sahib Warisi, Scholar of tradition, a savient and a mystic came to pay his respects to Our Saint. At first he cleared some doubts and enquired about the prayer of a sincere lover of God and its qualities. In reply Our about the prayer of a sincere lovers and their object is one but due to occurrences of heart, their emotions appear different, and due to pressure of events is difficult to define in toto.
According to the ranks of Divine lovers, two groups are well known, but there is some difference in their thoughts and taste. Apparently the difference lies in their prayer.
Amongst these divine worshippers is one group desirous of beholding God, free from present existing things and in every condition careful of submission to the unknown and willingly bow their outward tenets of Islam regarding prayer, their bodily limbs along with spiritual energy are absorbed in prayer so deeply that nothing disturbs them.
It is the assertion of Hafiz Rain Basri that one is not true if he does not forget the trouble given by God when absorbed in communion with the Almighty Perhaps to this system, learned men of high rank call it acme’ of believers. But in special terms of mystics this prayers is called Salatul-Shur, (Namaz prayer of Omnipotence of God) and Salatul-Visal (Union with God) the teaching of this prayer is by Hazrat Ali Murtaza especially for those mystics who desire it. This mystic came to know from Hazrat Hassan Basri that when ar ow was extracted from the feel of Asdulla-Ghalib Ali-Ibn-e-Abi- Talib he was engaged in prayer and never felt the excruciating
pain. A few awe struck servants enquired the cause of it. They were instructed to benefit by it. In the other group of sincere lovers there are such pious trusted glorious men of solitude from their meaningful experiences and wonderful activities, flow stream of blessings.
The mystics are agreed that the scared soul at times due to profuse observation of Divine Refulgence are intoxicated, their intoxication and joy remains the same in their existence. Those who are permanently involved in love due to their eternal condition abandon the world and lead a free life enraptured by God, away from polytheism, avoid fame and name.
Except pathos and grief they have no comrade. The grief stricken in state of compulsion express their way of life, their devotion is free from selfishness, and their prayer emanates from their heart. They regard friend and foe alike, grief and comfort likewise. Except the narration of their love and mentioning the yearning of their heart they never discuss about other’s beliefs and never talk about followers of faith. Neither they discuss religion nor their spiritual leader of argue about the life of a Brahmin. They are neither concerned with the people nor with the created. They are completely absorbed in contemplation of their beloved and abandon the world. Their aim is to remain alive in this condition and their duty is to die in this state.
This is according to the sayings of Maulana (a mystic poet). A prayer of the lovers casting aside worldly concerns, since the self immolation lover the candle of unity, in the state and condition of intoxication, without any interest and welfare, annihilates his very existence before the beloved in the ardour of love. The result is that he is always concerned with one existence. The mystics call this ‘Self-immolation’.