He (Ibn Sa’d) said: All Ibn Muhammad informed us on the authority of Said Ibn Abi 'Arubah, he on the authority of Qatadah, he on the authority of a man of Banu Sadus, he said: The Apostle of Allah, may Allah bless him, wrote to Bakr Ibn Wa'il: After that, embrace Islam and you will be safe. Qatedah said: They did not find a person to read it till a man of Banu Dubay'ah Ibn Rabiah
came to them. He read it and they (Banu Dubay’ah) came to be called
Banu al-Katib. The person who had received the epistle of the Apostle of
Allah, may Allah bless him, was Zabyan Ibn Marthad al-Sadusi.


Discoveries in Algebra

Discoveries in Algebra

On algebra, we have an exhaustive list of discoveries, including algebra itself:

. Founded algebra as the science of Al-Jabr and Al-muqabala, or completion and balancing (Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi).

. Generated a Pascal Triangle and almost gave a rigorous proof for the coefficients of a binomial expansion, and advancede the binomial theorem, arguably the most significant theorem in algebra save the fundamental theorem of algebra (Abu Bakr Al-Kharaji).

• Gave extensive and algorithmic solutions to ax² = bx, ax² = c, ax² = bx =c, ax² + c = bx, and bx+c = = ax², where a, b, and c are coefficients (Muhammad Ibn Musa AlKhwarizmi).

Solved quadratic equations by “completing the square” (Muhammad Ibn Musa AlKhwarizmi)

• Transitioned algebra as a science away from geometry and closer to modern arithmetic (Abu Bakr Al-Karaji).

. Almost gave the following property: x xn Bakr Al-Karaji) – xm+n, but did not define xº = 1 (Abu

An excerpt from Al-Khwarizmi’s algebra book, The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing which was used in Europe as the main text for algebra until the 16th century [10].

On Mathematical logic, we only have the use of premodern induction, and this is due to math’s only historically recent formulation of (and emphasis on) proof writing and logic.


“Everything is Political” -Thomas Mann

“[Mathematics] finally secured a firm grip on life in the highly congenial soil of Greece and waxed stronglhy for a short period… With the decline of Greek civilisation, the plant reamined dormant for a thousand years… when the plant was transported to Europe proper and once more imbedded in fertile soil”

One cannot understate the impact of Islam in its contribution to mathematics. Indeed, almost all topics in mathematics, including but not limited to algebra, arithmetic, trigonometry, geometry, number theory, (informal) calculus, logic, and applied engineering, were all pushed to greater heights due to Islam’s mandate of seeking knowledge.

Now, as apolitical as it may seem, the discipline of mathematics is perhaps the most latently political. The vast majority of math historians, professors, and teachers know that the mathematical curriculum across the U.S. (and Europe) emphasize European Renaissance mathematics to the disadvantage of Babylonian, Chinese, Indian, and Islamic mathematics. However, just as the ancient Greeks acknowledged the triumphs in math of the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians, we too (The West) should acknowledge the debt we owe to Islamic empires [17]. Interestingly, we see that The European Renaissance relied heavily on

Plato and Plutarch acknowledged Egyptian advancements in math, astronomy, and other dicspilines. Thales and Pythagroas traveled to Egypt and Babylonia to learn about math. the mathematical, medical, and scientific discoveries of muslim scholars of the medieval age, discoveries which later became the building blocks of the current western world. so, how can we (the west), ensure mathematics veers towards a purely scientific science? this can occur through the teaching of multiculturism in math classrooms.

firstly, a multicultural approach allows students of all heritages to be proud of their heritages’ contributions to math. a multicultural approach paints math as a universal discipline, inconsistent with just european ambition, and consistent with babylonian, greek, egyptian, indian, chinese, islamic, and european ideas. a specific way to incorporate multiculturalism in mathematicians is through the naming and renaming of theorems, results, and ideas in the mathematical discipline.

for instance, though the pythagorean theorem is named after pythagoras, a brilliant mathematician in greek civilization, the theorem was used time and again by egyptians, ancient mesopotamians, and northern europeans centuries before the height of greek innovation. renaming of theorems and results leads to the exhibition of the inherent multiculturalism embedded in the study of mathematics.

math need be presented as a discipline interconnected between cultures, sought after by all, innovated incrementally by various civilizations, and discovered by indians, chinese, europeans, muslims, and others alike. math can be done, irrespective of creed, color, or origin, and different civilizations’ contributions should be emphasized in math classrooms from k-12 and beyond. this paper puts into perspective that one such creed and it’s followers, islam and muslims, have indeed contributed to mathematics, more so than meets the eye, and more so than what is taught.



The study of human appearance and bearing is an important branch of psychology. This is based on innumerable studies and experiments. These psychologists study the eyes, nose, forehead and other parts of the body and arrive at a conclusion about the person’s nature and temperament. According to these experts, a bulging forehead is a sign of intelligence and cleverness. When the arms of a person are firm and wide, he has the qualities of a leader of men. The hardness of hair, according to them, is a sign of valor and big eyes indicate a person who is quick of nature. One who has a short neck might be tricky and querulous. When a person has fleshy calves is generally foolish. One who has small and sunken eyes is tricky and treacherous. One who has weak and thin shoulders is apt to be poor in thinking. Although these are hypothetical assessments, at best, they give a fair idea about the persons under study.

According to the books of history and biography, the appearance of Ameer al Momineen (a.s.) can be described as given here:

His body was heavy, his complexion light wheatish, his appearance and bearing were very attractive, his visage was smiling and shiny like the full moon. Abul Hajaj Mudrak says, “Kaana man ahsan an naas wajha – He was more handsome and attractive than others. “He had a wide forehead. Ibne Abbas says, “Maa raayat ahsan min sharsat Ali(a.s.) – I have not seen temples better looking than those of Ali (a.s.)”On his forehead calluses had developed on account of excessive prostration in prayer. He had a delicate and pointed nose and eyes big and dark that reflected determination and boldness. Abul Hajaj says that he had seen traces of collyrium in Hazrat Ali (a.s.)’s eyes. His eyes were bright, eye brows were bow shaped, eye lashes long, teeth properly spaced and shining. Zarara bin Zamra says, “An tabassum fa-an masal lulual manzoom – When he smiled the teeth shone like strings of pearls! “His neck was muscular and long. His chest was wide and hairy. His biceps were well formed. His wrists were strong and firm and finding the joint between the wrists and the arms was difficult. His collar bones were wide and strong. His palms were hard and the knees were neither weak nor fleshy. His tummy was rather bulgy. His beard was dense and wide. The hair of his head was grey. Mohammed ibne Hanafia says, “Akhtasab bilhana marrat summa tarka – Hazrat Ali (a.s.) once dyed his hair with henna once, and then abstained from doing it” Because of excessive use of the armor, the hair on his forehead had fallen. His height slightly more than the average. Hazrat Ali (a.s.) himself said,”Khalakhni mautad la azrab al qaseer fa-aqda wazrab al taweel faqtah Allah has bestowed on me a modest body and height When my adversary is short, I strike on his head to cut him into two pieces and if he is tall I cut him horizontally int two.” His voice was clear and loud, his style and speed of walking was like that of the Prophet (s.a.), elegant and slightly drooping to the front. When he advanced to face an adversary in battle, he used to walk briskly.and his eyes used to get reddish.

Ibne Qatiba writes in Al Ma-arif that a woman saw Hazrat Ali (a.s.) and said,”Ka-anhu kasr summa jabar” The meaning of these words is that he had been broken and again rejoined! People thought that it means that his
body was asymmetrical. In fact what the woman said was an Arabic idiom and its allegorical meaning is different from its apparent meaning. Therefore Sayed Mohsin Aamili writes in Ai-aan al Shia and Omer Abul Nasr in Al Zahra also writes thesaying of Ibn e Aisha that the quoted sentence is for the person whose arms are muscular and his eyes piercing the ground and not a person who is asymmetrical of body!




دلوں کو مرکز مہر و وفا کر * حریم کبریا سے آشنا کر جسے نان جویں بخشی ہے تو نے * اسے بازوۓ حیدر بھی عطا کر Dilon Ko markaze Mehro Wafa Kar, Harime Kibrya se ashna Kar

Jisey nane Jaween bukhshi hai toone, Usey bazoo-e Haider bhi ata Kar

Allama Iqbal invokes God in prayer that He may bestow upon the Muslims the love for their creator and Islam. God in His infinite mercy has granted us food for our existence. It is He who can bestow upon us the faculty and strength to serve Islam. According to him the fountain-head of all guidance is the distinguished personality of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) who was the strongest general in the Arab world although he spent his life by living on barley bread only. Hazrat Ali (a.s.) had the unique distinction of combining in himself the qualities of perfect learning, piety and lofty courage. The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) had said, “I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate”. So if we want to know the Prophet’s (s.a.w.) we should know Hazrat Ali (a.s.). We cannot reach the city unless we reach the gate. Hazrat Ali’s (a.s.) knowledge was as perfect as anybody could imagine. Once he said, “If the curtain between me and God could be removed my belief would not be increased.” His belief in and cognition of God had reached the highest point. Hazrat Ali (a.s.) used to say, “Ask me anything before I am no more.” Allama Iqbal was so much enamoured of the qualities of Hazrat Ali that he wishes every Muslim to follow his footstep so that he may lead a glorious life.


کبھی تنہائی کوہ و دمن عشق – کبھی سوز و سرور و انجمن عشق و کبھی سرمایۂ محراب و منبر * کبھی مولا علی خیبر شکن عشق * Kabhi tanhai-e- Koh-o daman Ishq, Kabhi Soz o Sarod o anjuman Ishq

Kabhi Sarmaya-o-mehrab o member, Kabhi mola Ali Khayber shikan Ishq

Allama Iqbal says that true love manifests itself in various fields. It is not confined to a particular sphere. Sometimes we find true love being shown in seclusion (Cave of Hira) where the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) was in prayers before his installation as Prophet, sometimes it is seen when the devotees bow down in prayers, reciting the Holy Quran and the praises of God and sometimes in taking up sword to defend Islam and and crush the enemies of Islam as was done by Hazrat Ali (a.s.) in various Islamic battles, like Khayber Khandaq etc.


خیرہ نہ کر سکا مجھے جلوۂ دانش فرنگ « سرمہ ہے میری آنکھ کا خاک مدینہ و نجف *

Kheera na Karsaka mujhey jalwae danish e farang, Surma hai meri ankh ka Khak e Medina-o Najaf

Allama Iqbal possessed a high standard of learning. He took his Masters degree in Philosophy from the Punjab University and also from Cambridge and Doetrate from Munich (Germany). He carried on research work on Philosophical concepts in Iran. His poetical works in Persian and Urdu have been regarded as of highest order in modern age. Iqbal who studied foreign literature an concepts so intensively came to the conclusion that the fountain-heads of all knowledge are only the Prophet (s.a.w.) and Hazrat Ali (a.s.). He firmly believes in the saying of the Prophet Mohammad (s.a.w.), “I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate”. So fondly he says that his eyes can get light only from the dust of Madina and Najaf where the souls of the Prophet (s.a.w.) and Hazrat Ali (a.s.) rest. He travelled abroad and made intensive studies and researches but he could not be impressed by any other source of knowledge except the Prophet (s.a.w.) and Hazrat Ali (a.s.).COUPLET 5

دارا و سکندر سے وہ مرد فقیر اولی « ہو جس کی فقیری میں بوۓ اسد اللہی ة * Dara o Sikander sey woh mard e faqir aula, Ho jiski faqiri men boo-e-asadullahi

Allama Iqbal looks down upon all pomp of monarchy and strength. He had studied the various aspects of the life of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) a top most man of learning, best judge, greatest warrior, the most loyal comrade of the Holy Prophet, in whose praise the ayat-e-Tathir and Hal-ata were revealed and he has unaccountable love for him. He says that a beggar who lives upto the ideals of Hazrat Ali is far superior in his eyes to the crowns and monarchs who have power and authority but are devoid of saintly sprits.


بڑھ کے خیبر سے ہے یہ معرکہ دین و وطن * اس زمانے میں کوئی حیدر کرار بھی ہے Barh ke Khayber sey hai yeh marikae din o watan, Is zamaney men koi Haydere Karrar bhi hai

Allama Iqbal stresses the need for unity among Muslims. He abhors the present trend of unity for political purposes. It is a fallacious Concept and must be fought against. He fondly asks if there is one who could smash this fort as Hazrat Ali (a.s.) did when he conquered Khayber.


یا عقل کی روباہی یا عشق یداللهی * یا حیلۂ افرنگی یا حمله ترکانہ Ya aql ki robahi ya Ishq e yadullahi, Ya According to Allama Iqbal our intellect is often misled by deceptive arguments. We should have before us as an ideal the true love as possessed by Hazrat Ali (a.s.) towards God Almighty. That love did not care for any bodily pain or worldly troubles. So we should also follow in the footsteps of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) who sacrificed his all in the way of God. If we fail to do that our lives are doomed to a miserable end.


و مستی نے نوازی * جلال عشق و مستی بے نیازی عشق جمال کمال عشق و مستی ظرف حیدر * زوال عشق و مستی حرف رازی Jamal-e-Ishqo Masti nai nawazi, Jalal-e-Ishqo Masti be niazi

Kamal e Ishqo Masti zarbe Haider, Zawal e Ishq o masti harf-e razi

Allama Iqbal considers that Hazrat Ali (a.s.) has reached the acme of true love for God. The exalted and ecstatic love of Hazrat Ali (a.s.) for God could manifest itself in his submission and prayers to God. It could also be shown in the superb courage with which he fought the battles of Islam. It was through his actions that he reached the highest position of love. Dr. Iqbal wishes us to follow Hazrat Ali (a.s.) and refrain from wasting our time in metaphysical discourses. The very concept of true love fail if we do not act according to the precepts of Islam.


امارت کیا شکوہ خسروی بھی ہو تو کیا حاصل ” نہ زور حیدری تجھ میں نہ استغنائے سلمانی *

heela e afrangi ya hamla e TurkanaImarat Kiya shikoh-e-Khus-avibhi ho to Kiya hasil, Na zor e Hayderi tujhmen na istighna-e-salmani

Allama Iqbal deplores the condition of the Muslims at the present time. We do not possess physical strength and contented heart. We have forgotten to take lessons from the precepts and examples set by Hazrat Ali (a.s.) and his follower Hazrat Salman. If we inculcate that spirit of Islam then alone we can achieve the true aim of life. The worldly pomp of a King or the boast of wealth are good-for-nothing.



Fasting is the most exalted duty of Islam and it is a glorious part and parcel which Our Saint explained with great respect and honour. Before sighting of the moon for fasting the mosque in Dewa Sheriff was white washed Hafiz Qaiyoom Khan Sahib, especially came from Karnal to recite the Holy Quran during the special night prayers. Arrangement was made for breaking the fast and nearly thirty bound and costly Qurans distributed for recitation. Charity in the form of food, money and clothing were distributed to the poor according to Our Saints order. One the last ten days of Ramadan clothes were distributed to poor people. On the morning of the festival day milk and vermicelli was server.

Our Saint’s fasting was unique and displayed the dignity of an exalted lover for he was taking food once a week. Research Scholars of mysticism have described this as a symptom of true love. Some old devotees state that he was fasting all the days of his life till the age of twenty four. He discharged his duties with patience and endurance and it reached the extremity of physical exhaustion. He observed the fasts scrupulously but it is evident that in spite of avoiding food and water from morning till evening he could not find solace for his heart’s yearnings. He was chary in taking food for a period a hundred and sixty eight hours. This habit continued till he reached the age of eighteen years.

If we his devoted dispels in emotional tone were to declare that our high thinking courageous leader, just as he was gifted with Divine blessings, similarly while surmounting impending obstacles displayed Panjatan-e-Pak’s dignity and completely fulfilled all the commandments. It may not be an exaggeration but it is self-evident that Our Saint displayed great liking and an intense in fasting. Hence his instructed to his devotees and disciples to observe fasting scrupulously.

Our Saint also emphasized the benefits and qualities of fasting. Fasting is such a priceless prayer that those who fast are included in the Divine list of friends. They are also blessed by angelic qualities and are gifted by Divine food. Fasting erases out sins and subdues urgings of ego. It is also a kind of spiritual food. To display desire for fasting is the tradition of Our Holy Prophet and increases Divine love.

For seekers of God, lifelong fasting is beneficial and Our Saint ordered such fasting his devotees. He would regard with affection those who were fasting and also break his fast with water and take food once a week. Those of Our Saint’s devotees who observed lifelong fasts are Rumi Shah Sahib, a Turk who was once military officer, Vilayat Shah Sahib, an Afghan who was supplying water to the poor at Ajmer Sheriff and sweeping the Shrine, Miskeen Shah Sahib Warisi, a resident of Allahabad Surburbs, Misamat (Mrs.) Nasiban was fasting always and breaking fast with food once in three days. She earned her income by spinning cotton thread and half its income spent in charity. Makhdoom Shah Saheb of Darya-bad a lover of fasting died while in a state of fasting. Haji Makki Shah Saheb Warisi was breaking fast once in three days and fasted till his heath. Misamat Sakina Warisia fasted for twenty one years during the day and performed a hundred supererogatory prayers in the night. In this condition she passed away to the next world. Haji Faizul Shah Saheb a vegetarian fasted for twenty for years. Haji Abul Hassan Saheb Warisi of Etawah, Babu Kanyalal Sahi Vakil of Aligarh always fasted and discharged his legal duty.

There were many devotees of Our Saint in other countries beyond India who always fasted for the sake of Divine love, casting aside their mundane yearning and fasted throughout their lives spending their nights in prayers.

Haji Makki Shah Saheb states that he heard in Beirut, Syed Abu Saleha of Syria, a Scholar of tradition and a highly respected recluse fasted for life. Every year he used to walk for performing Hajj and due to old age travelling on camel. Makki Shah desire to meet him. The next day when he met him he found a genuine quality in him that he responded to his greeting standing and embraced him. After mutual conversation he enquired from when he is fasting and breathing out a sigh he declared that ever since he met Our Saint, through his good offices he was gifted with his advice and resolved to follow his instruction till he breathed his last.

Maulvi Muzaffar Hussain Sahib Warisi of Bhopai narrates that he was present at the time of the prayers of a funeral bier and learnt it was the funeral ceremony of Hassan Badwi who was an eternal faster and was called Sheikh Sumi. He was the disciple of Our Saint Al-Haj Hafiz Waris Ali Shah Saheb. Leading the life of a recluse he used to distribute food brought to him without his asking. In his old age he joined the pilgrims for circumambulation by reaching the Holy Shrine on foot. Therefore there were many of Our Saint’s deVoteesand disciples in Arabia who fasted for life.

Sheikh Sumi further learnt at Mahad (Khorasan) that Agha Abdul Ali, Asa-Ashri (a sect believing in twelve Imams) leading a retired life was a devotee and disciple of Our Saint. Hearing this he desired to meet him at the Holy Shrine. He received him and on learning that he was a disciple of Our Saint embraced him. He related Our Saint’s travels in Iran. When the servant brought tea he offered him a cup but he himself never tasted tea begging to be excused as he was instructed by Our Saint to fast, after observing his gluttony. Starvation refines the heart, destroys avarice and increases knowledge. When Our Saint, came to Iran again and enquired whether any trouble was caused to him by fasting he related its benefits and hence Our Saint advised him to fast for life.

From this it is clear that there were disciples of Our Saint in Hijaz and Iraq who were fasting for life. Fasting improves health and is concerned more with spirituality rather than worldly love.

More than the conditions prohibiting food for those who fast, the instructions regarding spiritual affairs makes one cultured, the achievement of which depends on the skill and capacity of the persons who fast. In the later stages of fasting people improved their efforts and gradually the spiritual attitude acquires the same condition. In a state of fervour to see the divine lustre the urge for food and drink vanish away. The Divine Illumination is the real food of one and his desire and cravings are curbed.

A few mystics declare seekers of virtuous path take great caution regarding food and drink. A few say for mind is also necessary, if not they run the risk of vanity, doubt about unity for which they have to at one and pay the penalty. Abu Bakar Shibly says that the fasting lovers is free from personal motive and Maqdoom Shahab-ud-Din bin Muhammad Sahrwardy says that one’s fasts should have no regard or inclination towards worldly things.

In this connection Our Saint has perfectly explained the virtues of fasting. Once while Our Saint was the guest of Sheik Mohammad Ismail Warisi, resident of Bilchi in the suburbs of Bihar, a reference was made about the qualities of real fasting. Maulvi Abdul Kareem Warisi supported the sayings of people who were not serious about fasting said that in the way of life of love, the
real attributes of fasting along with the giving up of food, the urging of desire for food and its taste should also be eliminated.

In preaching about fasting Our Saint’s instructions were dignified, keeping in view his disciple’s spiritual and bodily capacity. For beginners Our Saint explained fundamental religious tenets of Islam. To those who were less spiritual minded he instructed to comply with this fundamental tent for which they were fit. These orders were issued to those pious people and worshippers of God whose hearts were affected by the effects of love and who were inclined to submit to the will of God. The residents of India had not the energy and health for this compared with the Persian disciples who were fit for lifelong fasting. It is due to the favour of Our Saint that the resident of India bore the rigour of fasting. So also the weaker sex. Both the communities were favoured with intrinsic hidden qualities. Like the Iranian and Afghan, the India mystics were of the same rank.