After the Conquest
Upon returning from this long successful travel, Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ stayed in Madinah where he received delegates and dispatched agents and appointed preachers and callers to Islam everywhere.
Those whose hearts were still full of prejudice against Islam and therefore were too proud to embrace Allâh’s religion, were decisively put down by their lack of status then in Arabia.
We have already stated that the Messenger’s arrival in Madinah was by the last days of the eighth year of Al-Hijra.
No sooner than the crescent moon of Muharram in the ninth year had turned up, Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ had dispatched the trustees, to the tribes as shown in the list:
- ‘Uyainah bin Hisn to Bani Tamim. 2. Yazeed bin Husain to Aslam and Ghifar. 3. ‘Abbad bin Bishr to Sulaim and Muzainah. 4. Rafi’ bin Makith to Juhainah. 5. ‘Amr bin Al-‘As to Bani Fazarah. 6. Ad-Dahhak bin Sufyan to Bani Kilab. 7. Bashir bin Sufyan to Bani Ka’b. 8. Ibn Al-Lutbiyah Al-Azdi to Bani Dhubyan. 9. Al-Muhajir bin Abi Umaiyah to San’a’ (Al-Aswad Al-‘Ansi called at him when he was there).
- Ziyad bin Labid to Hadramout. 11. ‘Adi bin Hatim to Tai’ and Bani Asad. 12. Malik bin Nuwairah to Bani Hanzalah. 13. Az-Zibriqan bin Badr to Bani Sa’d (a branch). 14. Qais bin ‘Asim to Bani Sa’d (a branch). 15. Al-‘Ala’ bin Al-Hadrami to Al-Bahrain. 16. Hazrat Ali bin Abi Talib AlaihisSalam to Najran (to collect Sadaqah and Jizyah). Some of these agents were dispatched in Muharram. 9 A.H..
others were sent later until the tribes they were heading for had completely converted into Islam. Such was the great success that the Islamic Da’wah (Call) enjoyed after Treaty of Al-Hudaibiyah. However, shortly after the conquest of Makkah, people began to embrace Islam in large hosts.
In the same way that the trustees were dispatched to the tribes, we understand that dispatching some more platoons to all regions of Arabia was a necessity for the prevalence and domination of security on all lands of Arabia.
Here is a list of those missions:
- ‘Uyainah bin Hisn Al-Fazari’s platoon was sent to Bani Tamim in Al-Muharram, the ninth year of Al-Hijra. It consisted of fifty horsemen, none of them was an Emigrant or a Helper.
This mission was dispatched due to the fact that Bani Tamim had already urged other tribes not to pay tribute (Al-Jizyah) and eventually stopped them from paying it. Therefore, ‘Uyainah bin Hisning set out to fight them.
All the way he marched by night and camped in a concealed location by day. He went on that way until he overtook them and attacked them in the desert. They fled back for their lives. Eleven men, twenty-one women and thirty boys were captured. He drove them back to Madinah and they were housed in Ramlah bint AlHarith’s residence.
Ten of their leaders, who came to the Prophet’s door, called him saying: “O Muhammad ﷺ come out and face us.” When he went out they held him and started talking.
He exchanged talk with them for a while then left them and went to perform the Noon prayer. After prayer he sat in the courtyard of the mosque. They proclaimed a desire to boast and praise themselves. For this purpose they introduced their orator ‘Utarid bin Hajib who delivered his speech.
Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ asked Thabit bin Qais bin Shammas – the
Muslim orator – to respond. He did that. In return they brought forth their poet Az-Zibriqan bin Badr who recited some boastful poetry
Hassan bin Thabit & the poet of Islam. promptly replied back When talks and poetry came to an end. Al-Aqra’ bin Habis said: *Their orator is more eloquent than ours, and their poet is more poetically learned than ours. Their voices and sayings excel ours, as well.”
Eventually they announced their embracing Islam. Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ acknowledged their entrance into Islam. awarded them well, and returned their women and children.
- A platoon headed by Qutbah bin ‘Amir marched to a spot of Khath’am tribe in Tabalah, a plot of land not far from Turbah. That was in Safar. 9 A.H. Accompanied by twenty men and only ten camels to mount alternatively on. Qutbah raided them and fought so fiercely that a great number of both parties were wounded and some others were killed, Qutbah was also among them. The Muslims returned with camels, women and sheep.
- The mission of Dahhak bin Sufyan Al-Kilabi to Bani Kilab in Rabi’ul-Awwal in the year 9 A.H. This mission was sent to Bani Kilab to call them to embrace Islam. Refusing to embrace Islam. they started to fight against the Muslims, but were defeated and one man was killed.
- The three hundred men mission of ‘Alqamah bin Mujazziz AlMudliji $ was dispatched in Rabi’ul-Akhir to the shores of Jeddah where some Abyssinians had gathered together and exercised acts of robbery against the Makkans. Therefore, he crossed the sea to an island. But as soon as the pirates had learned of Muslims arrival. they fled.
- The task of the mission of ‘Hazrat Ali bin Abi Talib AlaihisSalam was to demolish Al Qullus, which was an idol that belonged to the Tai’ tribe. That was in Rabi’ul-Awwal in the year 9 A.H. ‘Hazrat Ali Radiallahu anhoo was dispatched by
Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ with one hundred and fifty men. A hundred of them were on camels. The other fifty were on horseback. He held a black flag and a white banner.
At dawn they raided the colony of Hatim, demolished the idol and filled their hands with spoils, camels and sheep. The sister of ‘Adi bin Hatim was one of the captives, ‘Adi being fled away. Inside safe at Al-Qullus, the Muslims found three swords and three armors. On the way, they distributed the spoils and put aside the best things for Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ They did not share the captives.
Upon arrival in Madinah, the sister of ‘Adi bin Hatim begged Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ sent to have mercy on her and said: “O Messenger of Allâh, my brother is absent and father is dead, and I am too old to provide any service. Be beneficent to me so that Allâh may be bountiful to you.” He said: “Who is your brother?” She said: “It is ‘Adi bin Hatim.” “Is he not the one who fled from Allâh and His Messenger?” said the Nabi Pakﷺ then he went away from her. The next day she repeated the same thing as the day before and received the same answer. A day later she uttered similar words, this time he agreed. The man who was beside the Prophet ﷺ and whom she thought to be ‘Hazrat Ali AlahisSalam, said to her: “Ask for an animal from him to ride on.” And she was granted her request.
She returned to Ash-Sham where she met her brother and said to him: “Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ has done me such noble deed that your father would never have done it. Therefore, frightened or secure, you should go and see him.” Insecure, neither protected by someone nor even recommended by a letter as a means of protection, ‘Adi came and met the Prophet ﷺ
Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ took him home with him. As soon as he sat before him, Allâh’s Messengerﷺ thanked Allâh and praised him, then said: “What makes you flee lest you should say there is no God but Allâh? Do you know any other God but Allâh?” “No,” he said, and then talked for a while. Allâh’s Messengerﷺ went on saying: “Certainly you flee so that you may not hear the
statement saying ‘Allâh is the Greatest.’ Do you know anyone who is greater than Allâh?” “No,” he said. “The Jews are those whose portion is wrath, and the Christians are those who have gone astray,” the Prophetﷺ said. “I am a Muslim and I believe in one God (Allah).” ‘Adi finally proclaimed with a joyous face
The Prophetﷺ ordered him a residence with one of the Helpers. From that time he started visiting the Prophetﷺ in the mornings and in the evenings.)
On the authority of Ibn Ishaq, when the Prophetﷺ made him sit down in front of him in his house, he said, “O ‘Adi, were you not a Rakusi (of a religion having some different beliefs from Christians)?” “Yes.” ‘Adi said. “Did you not share one quarter of your people’s gains?” “Yes,” said ‘Adi. Allâh’s Messengerﷺ said: “It is sinful in your religion to do such a thing. and you should not allow yourself to do it.” “Yes, by Allâh, that is true.” said Adi. “Thus I worked out that he was a Prophetﷺ inspired by Allah, and sent message to people that he knows what is unknown. -:12]
In another version, the Prophetﷺ said, “Adi, accept Islam and you shall be secure.” “But I am a man of religion.” said ‘Adi. “I know your religion better than you,” said the Prophet ﷺ”Do you know my religion better than me?” ‘Adi asked. The Prophet ﷺreplied, “Yes.” He said: “Are you not a Rakusi and still you appropriate to yourself the fourth of your people’s gains?” “Yes.” said ‘Adi. “It is unlawful in your religion to do such a thing ” The Prophet ﷺ said, and ‘Adi added: “He did not need to say it again. for I immediately accepted it.
Al-Bukhari narrates that ‘Adi said: “While we were with the Prophetﷺ , a man came in and complained to him about poverty Then another man came in and complained about highway robbery. Allâh’s Messengerﷺ than then said: ‘O ‘Adi, have you ever been to Al-Hirah? If you live a long life. you would be able to see a
woman riding a camel travel from Hirah until it circumambulates Al-Ka’bah fearing none but Allâh; and if you were to live long enough, you would open the treasures of Kisra. And if you were to live long, you would be able to see a man offering a handful of gold or silver to others but none accepts it.” At the end of this Hadith, ‘Adi later on says: “I have seen a woman riding a camel travel from Al-Hirah until it circumambulates the Ka’bah fearing none but Allâh, I have also been one of those who opened the treasures of Kisra bin Hurmuz. If you were to live long life, would witness what the Prophet Abul-Qasim i had already said about offering a handful of…” (i.e., the Prophet’s prophecies did really come true.)Sahih Al-Bukhari no. 1413, 1417 and others