The Conquest of Makkah part 2

The Messenger thing prays in the Ka’bah and delivers an Address to the Quraish

Then, accompanied by Usamah and Bilal, Radiallahu anhoo entered the sacred hall to face the wall opposite the door where he performed sincere prostrations, and went around acclaiming Allâh’s Greatness and Oneness.

Shortly afterwards, he returned to the doorway and standing upon its elevated step, gazed in thankfulness on the huge number of people below and delivered the following celebrated address:

“There is no God but Allâh Alone. He has no associates. He made good His Promise that He held to His servant and helped him and defeated all the Confederates alone. Bear in mind that every claim of privilege, whether that of blood or property, is under my heel: except that of the custody of AlKa’bah and supplying of water to the pilgrims. Bear in mind that for anyone who is slain, even though semi-deliberately, with club or whip, for him the blood money is very severe: a hundred camels, forty of them to be pregnant.

( “O people of Quraish! Surely, Allâh has abolished from you all pride of the pre-Islamic era and all pride in your ancestry, (because) all men are descended from Adam, and Adam was made out of dust.”

He then recited to them the Verse:

“O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you near Allâh is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa (i.e., one of the Muttaqun, i.e., pious and righteous persons who fear Allâh much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden), and love Allâh much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)]. Verily, Allâh is AllKnowing, All-Aware.” (49:13)

He further added:

“O you people of Quraish! What do you think of the treatment that I am about to accord to you?”

They replied: “O noble brother and son of noble brother! We expect nothing but goodness from you.” Upon this he said:

“I speak to you in the same words as Yusuf (the Prophet Joseph) spoke unto his brothers. He said: ‘No reproach on you this day,’ [12:92] go your way, for you are freed ones.” As for the door-keeping of Al-Ka’bah, it remained with ‘Uthman bin Talhah; and the responsibility of supplying water to the pilgrims remained with Al-‘Abbas

Bilal Radiallahu anhoo calls the Adhan at the Ka’bah

When time for prayer approached, Bilal Radiallahu anhoo ascended Al-Ka’bah and called for prayer. Abu Sufyan bin Harb, ‘Attab bin Asid and AlHarith bin Hisham were meanwhile sitting in the yard. ‘Attab bin Asid commented on the new situation (Bilal ascending Al-Ka’bah and calling for prayer) saying that Allah honored Asid (his father) having not heard such words. The Nabi Pakﷺ approached and

assisted by Divine Revelation told them that he had learnt about what they had spoken of. Al-Harith and ‘Attab, taken by incredible surprise, immediately professed Islam and bore witness to the Messengership of Nabi Pakﷺ adding that “We swear by Allah that none had been with us to inform you.”

The Nabi Pakﷺ prays a Victory Prayer, or a Prayer of Gratitude

On that very day, the Nabi Pakﷺ entered Umm Hani’s house where he washed and offered prayers of victory. Umm Hani had sheltered two Makkan relatives of hers in her house for which she was granted support by the Prophet ﷺ

Shedding the Blood of the Worst Criminals

Shedding blood of nine of the worst criminals was declared lawful even under the curtains of Al-Ka’bah. Some of them were later pardoned. ‘Abdul-‘Uzza bin Khatal was found holding on to the curtain of the Ka’bah and was killed. ‘Abdullah bin Abu Sarah had become a Muslim and emigrated, but later left Islam and killed some of the Companions.

The other man who was put to death was Miqyas bin Sababah. He was a Muslim. A Helper accidentally killed his brother Hisham. The Nabi Pakﷺ had arranged the payment of blood money to him. which he had accepted. His revengeful nature, however, was never satisfied, so he killed the Helper and went Makkah as an apostate.

Similarly, Huwairith and one woman singer went to death.

On the other hand, every attempt was made to grant pardon to the people. ‘Ikrimah bin Abu Jahl, who had attacked Khalid’s detachment at the time of the entry into Makkah, was forgiven. To Wahshi, the murderer of Hamzah, the Prophet’s uncle, and to Hind, who had chewed his liver, was also extended his generous mercy,

Safwan bin Umaiyah accepts Islam

In the same context of nobility peculiar to Nabi Pakﷺ the two chiefs of Quraish were pardoned once they had embraced Islam. They were Safwan bin Umaiyah and Fudalah bin ‘Umair. The latter had attempted to assassinate the Nabi Pakﷺ while circumambulating in the Holy Sanctuary.

The Prophet’s matchless tolerance and broad-mindedness instigated by his mission as ‘a mercy to all people’, converted a terrible hypocrite into a faithful devoted believer.

The Nabi Pakﷺ addresses the People on the Second Day

On the second day of the great Conquest, the Nabi Pakﷺ stood up and addressed the people in matters relating to the sacred status of Makkah.

After entertaining Allâh’s praise, he proclaimed that Makkah was a holy land and would remain so till the Day of Judgment. No bloodshed was allowed therein. Should anyone take the liberty of fighting within Makkah on grounds derived from the events that characterized the Conquest, he should remember that it had been a license granted temporarily to the Nabi Pakﷺ virtually does not go for others.

In one narration he said, “It is not allowed to uproot its shrubs or to cut its trees, or to chase (or disturb) its game, or to pick up its fallen things except by a person who would announce that (what has found) publicly.”

Al-‘Abbas Radiallahu anhoo said: “O Allâh’s Messenger! Except the lemon grass (for it is used) by our goldsmiths and for our homes.” The Nabi Pakﷺ then said: “Except the lemon grass.”

In this context, out of the spirit of revenge, the tribesmen of Khuza’ah killed a man from the Lalth tribe. Here the Nabi Pakﷺ was annoyed and ordered Khuza’ah to stop those pre-Islamic practices.

He, moreover, gave the family of anyone killed, the right to consider either of two options, blood money or just retribution (the killer is killed),

In one narration, a man from Yemen named Abu Shah stood and said, “Have it written down for me O Messenger of Allâh!” So the Nabi Pakﷺ said, “Write it for Abu Shah.”

The Helpers fear the Nabi Pakﷺ might stay in Makkah

After having delivered his address, the Nabi Pakﷺ rode to a small hill, Safa, not far from Al-Ka’bah. Turning his face towards the Sacred House, amidst a vast admiring and devotional multitude, he raised his hand in passionate prayer to Allâh.

The citizens of Madinah who had gathered round him were having fear, as Allâh had given him victory over his native city, he might choose to stay here. He insisted on an explanation of their fear and so they spoke openly. He immediately dismissed their fears and assured them that he had lived with them and would die with them.

Taking the Pledge

Immediately after the great Conquest, the Makkans came to realize that the only way to success lay in the avenue of Islam. They complied with the new realities and gathered to pledge loyalty to the Nabi Pakﷺ . The men came first pledging full obedience in all areas they can afford. Then came the women to follow the men’s example. The Nabi Pakﷺ niet met with ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab receiving the pledge of loyalty and communicating to them for him. Hind bint “Utbah, Abu Sufyan’s wife, came in the group of women disguised lest the Prophet the should recognize and account for her, having chewed the liver of Hamzah , his uncle.

The Nabi Pakﷺ accepted their allegiance on condition that they associate none with Allâh, to which they immediately agreed. He added that they should not practice theft.

Allâh’s Messenger stayed in Makkah for 19 days. During that period he taught about Islam and guided people to piety. He ordered Abu Usaid Al-Khuza’i to fix up the pillars of the Sacred Area, sent missions to all quarters inviting them to adopt Islam and break down the idols still lying in the surrounding area of Makkah, and he had all of them broken, he told them:

“Whoever believes in Allâh and the Hereafter, should not leave any idol in his house without breaking it.”

Dispatching Platoons

Shortly after the great Conquest, the Nabi Pakﷺ began to dispatch platoons and missions aiming at eliminating the last symbols of pre-Islamic practices.

1 Nabi Pakﷺ sent Khalid bin Al-Walid in Ramadan 8 A.H., to a spot called Nakhlah where there was a goddess called Al-‘Uzza respected by the Quraish and Kinanah tribes. It had custodians from Bani Shaiban, Khalid, at the head of thirty horsemen arrived at the spot and exterminated it. On his return, the Nabi Pakﷺ asked him if he had seen anything there, to which Khalid gave a negative answer. Here, he was told that it had not been destroyed and he had to go there again and fulfill the task. He went back again and there he saw a black woman, naked with wild hair. Khalid struck her with his sword into two parts. He

returned and narrated the story to the Prophet who then confirmed the fulfillment of the task.

  1. Later, in the same month, ‘Amr bin Al-‘As voting was sent on a mission to destroy another idol called Suwa’, respected by Hudhail. It used to stand at a distance of three kilometers from Makkah. On a question posed by the doorkeeper, ‘Amr said that he had been ordered by the Nabi Pakﷺ to knock down the idol. The man warned ‘Amr that he would not be able to do it. ‘Amr was surprised to see someone still in the wrong, approached the idol and destroyed it, then he broke the casket beside it but found nothing. The man immediately embraced Islam.
  2. Sa’d bin Zaid Al-Ashhali was also sent in the same month and on the same mission to Al-Mushallal to destroy an idol, Manat, respected by both Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj tribes. Here also a black woman, naked with messy hair appeared wailing and beating on her chest. Sa’d immediately killed her, destroyed the idol and broke the casket and returned at the conclusion of his mission.
  3. Khalid bin Al-Walid argenting at the head of 350 horsemen of Helpers, Emigrants and Bani Sulaim was dispatched once again in the same year 8 A.H., to the locality of Bani Jadhimah bedouins to invite them to the fold of Islam.

He was instructed to carry out his mission with peace and goodwill. There, the people were not articulate enough to communicate their intentions, so Khalid ordered his men to kill them and take the others as captives. He even had in mind to kill the captives but some of the Companions were opposed to his plan. News of bloodshed reached the Nabi Pakﷺ He was deeply grieved and raised his hands towards the heaven, uttering these words; “O Allah! I am innocent of what Khalid has done,” twice.

He immediately sent Hazrat ‘Ali AlahisSalam to make every possible reparation to the tribes who had been wronged. After a careful inquiry, Hazr at’Ali Radiallahu anhoo paid the blood money to all those who suffered loss. The

remaining portion was also distributed amongst the members of the tribe in order to alleviate their suffering. Khalid due to his unreasonable behavior, had a dispute with ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Awf . Hearing this, the Nabi Pakﷺ got angry, and ordered Khalid content to stop that dispute adding that his Companions (meaning ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Awf ) were too high in rank to be involved in such arguments.

That is the story of the conquest of Makkah and the decisive battle that exterminated paganism once and for all.

The other tribes in the Arabian Peninsula were waiting and closely watching the final outcome of the bitter struggle between the Muslims and idolaters, already convinced that the Holy Sanctuary would not fall but in the hands of the righteous party.

It had been a conviction deeply established in their minds ever since the elephant army of Abrahah Al-Ashram advanced from Yemen intending to destroy the Sacred House 50 years before.

The Treaty of Al-Hudaibiyah was the natural prelude to this great victory in which people believed deeply and over which people talked a lot. The Muslims in Makkah, who feared to declare their Faith in public, began to appear and work enthusiastically for this new approach of life.

People began to convert into Islam in very large numbers, and the Muslim army that numbered only 3000 in the previous battles. now came to reach 10,000 in number.

In fact, this decisive change provided people with the keen insight to perceive things and the world around them as a whole in a different perspective. The Muslims were then to control all of the political and religious affairs in Arabia. They had monopolized both the religious supremacy and worldly power.

The whole post-Hudaibiyah phase had been well-furnished in favor of the new Islamic movement. Streams of desert bedouins began to pour in paying full homage to Allâh’s Messenger embracing the new faith and then carrying it to different quarters for propagation.

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