The Delegations part 1

  1. The Delegation of ‘Abdul-Qais: This tribe had two arrivals. The first was in the fifth year of Al-Hijra or before that date. Munqidh bin Hibban, a member of that tribe, used to trade in Madinah. So, as soon as he heard of Islam when he had arrived in Madinah for trading – that was after the migration – he embraced Islam and carried a pledge from the Prophet ﷺ to his people who eventually became Muslims too. Thirteen or fourteen of them came to the Prophetﷺ in one of the Sacred Months. It was then that they asked the Prophet’s ﷺadvice about the Faith and drinks. Their chief was Al-Ashaj Al-‘Asari, to whom Allâh’s Messengerﷺ said: “You have two qualities that Allâh likes: farsightedness and tolerance.”

Their second arrival was in the Year of Delegations. They were forty men. Al-Jarud bin Al-‘Ala’ Al-‘Abdi, who was Christian but turned to be a good Muslim, was one of that group.”

  1. Daws Delegation: The arrival of this tribe was in the early times of the seventh year and that was when Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ was in Khaibar. At-Tufail bin ‘Amr Ad-Dawsite had become a Muslim when Allâh’s Messengerﷺ was in Makkah. He went back home to his people where he continued calling people to Islam but they delayed till he despaired of them and returned to Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ and asked him to invoke Allâh against Daws, but Allâh’s Messengerﷺ invoked Allâh to guide Daws. Later on, Daws embraced Islam. So At-Tufail arrived in Madinah accompanied by seventy or eighty families of his people in the early times of the seventh year of Al-Hijra, at the time that Allâh’s Messenger ﷺthan was at Khaibar, so he caught up to him there.
  1. Farwah Bani ‘Amr Al-Judhami’s messenger: Farwah Radiallahu anhoo was an Arab leader in the Byzantine army. He was a Byzantine agent ruler by proxy over the Arabs allied to the Byzantines. His center was at Ma’an and his rulership extended to the surrounding areas in the lands of Ash-Sham. Seeing the stamina and courage of the Muslims, he became a Muslim. The battle of Mu’tah – which took place in the eighth year of Al-Hijra – compelled his admiration. He sent a white mule as a gift with a messenger of his to Allâh’s Messenger ﷺthan to inform him of his conversion into Islam. When the Byzantines learned that he embraced Islam, they sent him to prison. At first they gave him an opportunity to choose one of the two – “either he turns back from Islam or death shall be his punishment.” After his refusal they crucified him and beheaded him at a spring called ‘Afra’ in Palestine.”
  2. The Suda’ Delegation: The arrival of this delegation was after the departure of Allah’s Messengerﷺ from Al-Ji’ranah in the eighth year of Al-Hijra. It was because Allah’s Messenger ﷺhad already dispatched a mission of four hundred Muslims and asked them to go to Suda’. Suda’ was a spring in Yemen. While the mission was camping there at the starting point of a canal, Ziyad bin Al-Harith As-Suda’i learned of their stay, so he came to Allâh’s Messengerﷺ and said: “I have come to you as a deputy of my people, so tell your army to go back and I give a guarantee on behalf of my people.” The army was sent away from the canal. In his turn As-Suda’i went back, encouraged and urged his people to come and meet Allâh’s Messengerﷺ . Eventually fifteen of them came and pledged allegiance to him as true Muslims. Returning home, they in their turn urged the rest to become Muslims. Thus Islam spread among them. Later on, a hundred men joined Allâh’s Messengerﷺ in Hajjatul-Wada’ (Farewell Pilgrimage.)
  1. The arrival of Ka’b bin Zuhair bin Abi Sulma: Ka’b who was a member of a family of poets, was considered one of the best poets among the Arabs. He used to satirize the Prophet ﷺ when he was not a Muslim. In the eighth year of Al-Hijra and at the time that Allâh’s Messengerﷺ had already gone back from the Ta’if invasion, Bujair bin Zuhair wrote a letter to his brother Kab warning and advising him: “Allâh’s Messengerﷺ killed some men in Makkah who used to satirize and harm him, and the poets who survived fled in all directions for their lives. So, if you want to save your skin, hasten to Allâh’s Messengerﷺ . He never kills those who come to him repenting. If you refuse to do as I say, it is up to you to try to save your skin by any means.” The two brothers corresponded with one another for a long time until Ka’b felt awkward as if the earth had restricted around him. Arriving in Madinah, he stayed at a man’s house from Juhainah as a guest. They performed the Morning prayer together; but when he was about to leave, the man suggested that he go to Allâh’s Messengerﷺ Ka’b then said: “O Messenger of Allâh!ﷺ Ka’b bin Zuhair has come to you as a repentant Muslim; will he be secure and forgiven if I fetch him?” Allâh’s Messengerﷺ said, “Yes.” “I am Ka’b bin Zuhair,” he said. Upon hearing that, one of the Helpers rose to his feet and asked the Messengerﷺ to let him cut his throat. “Leave him alone!” said the Prophet ﷺ”he has become a repentant Muslim after his disposal of the past.” Ka’b then recited his well-known poem “Su’ad …” in which he praised the Prophet ﷺ thanked him and apologized for the wrongs he had done. Both Emigrants and Helpers were spoken of in this poem but differently. He praised the Emigrants but criticized the Helpers, for one of them demanded the Prophet’sﷺ permission to kill him. Later on Ka’b tried to compensate for that by praising the Helpers in another poem.
  2. The ‘Udhrah Delegation: This delegation, which consisted of twelve men, arrived in Madinah in Safar, the ninth year of Al

Hijra. One of them was Hamzah bin An-Nu’man dute. When they were asked who they were, they said: “We are Bani ‘Udhrah, the foster brothers of Qusai to his mother. We are the ones who supported Qusai, and removed Khuza’ah and Bani Bakr from the bosom of Makkah. We are a people of relatives and kin.” So Allâh’s Messengerﷺ than welcomed them and gave good tidings to them, which was the conquest of Ash-Sham; but he, on the other hand, forbade them from consulting a soothsayer and from eating the slain animals they slaughtered. Eventually they became Muslims, stayed there for several days and then left.

  1. The Bali Delegation: Their arrival was in Rabi’ul-Awwal, the ninth year of Al-Hijra. They embraced Islam, stayed in Madinah for three days. Their chief Abu Ad-Dubaib wondered whether hospitality was rewarded by Allâh. Allâh’s Messengerﷺ said:

“Yes, and so is any charity you offer to poor or rich people as Sadaqah.”

He also inquired about the time allotted to hospitality. “Three days,” said he. “What about the stray ewe?” The Prophetﷺ contact said: “It is either yours or your brother’s; otherwise it goes to the wolf.” He inquired about the stray camel. “It is none of your business. Leave it alone until its owner finds it.”

  1. The Thaqif Delegation: Their arrival was in Ramadan, the ninth year of Al-Hijra, ﷺ after the return of Allâh’s Messengerﷺ from Tabuk. As to how they became Muslims, this could be deduced from the following:

Their chief ‘Urwah bin Mas’ud Ath-Thaqafi came to see Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ after the latter’s return from At-Ta’if in DhulQa’dah of the year 8 A.H. ‘Urwah became a Muslim. He thought that when he will tell his people about Islam and call them to embrace it, they would do so, because he had always been an obeyed leader. He was even more beloved to them than their own firstborn. But contrary to that, when he called them to Islam they shot at with arrows from every direction and killed him. They

remained as they were for months before they started discussing the situation again among themselves. Upon realizing that they were incapable of fighting the neighboring Arabs who had paid allegiance to the Prophet ﷺ and converted to Islam, they made up their mind to dispatch a man to Allâh’s Messengerﷺ They concluded that ‘Abd Yalil bin ‘Amr would be the right messenger.

‘Abd refused to do such a thing lest they should kill him as they had killed ‘Urwah dito. “I will not do such a thing unless you send some other men with me,” said ‘Abd. So, they sent two men of their allies and three others from Bani Malik. The six of them included ‘Uthman bin Abul-‘As Ath-Thaqafi who was the youngest.

When they entered into the Prophet’s audience, a tent was erected in a corner of the Mosque so that they might listen to the Qur’ân and see the people in prayer. During their stay, they came again and again to the Prophet ﷺwho kept on calling them to embrace Islam, until their chief asked Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ enter into a peace treaty between him and Thaqif by means of which he would allow them to commit fornication, drink wine and deal with usury. They also asked him not to injure their idol Al-Lat or to oblige them to perform the prayer. Finally they insisted that they would not knock down the idols themselves. But Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ turned down all their requests. They went aside to council. Realizing that there were no other alternatives, they submitted and professed Islam. The only condition that they insisted on was that the demolition of Al-Lat should be dealt with and handled by Allâh’s Messengerﷺ the whereas Thaqif should in no way knock it down themselves. Allâh’s Messengerﷺ agreed and took a pledge from them.

Being the most attentive and the keenest to understand Islam and learn Qur’ân, ‘Uthman bin Abul-‘As was appointed by Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ the chief of his people. His keenness to learn the Qur’ân and understand Islam was clearly apparent through his behavior during their stay.

Everyday morning, the group of delegates used to go and see Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ Being the youngest one, ‘Uthman bin Abul

As was left behind to watch their camels and belongings. At noon when they came back and slept, ‘Uthman being used to go to Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ in order to learn the Qur’ân and inquire about religious matters. If it happened that Allâh’s Messengerﷺ was asleep, he would then go to Abu Bakr for the same purpose. With the passage of time, he turned out to be a source of blessing to his people. Later, during the Apostasy Wars (Ar-Riddah) when Thaqif were determined to apostatize, he addressed them saying: “O people of Thaqift You have been the latest at embracing Islam, so do not be the first to apostatize.” Consequently they gave up apostasy and remained adhered to Islam, The group of delegates returned horne but they were determined

to conceal the truth for a while. They told their people to expect a fight at any moment. They pretended to be grieved and depressed. They claimed that Allâh’s Messengerﷺ demanded that they should embrace Islam and abandon adultery, drinking wine and dealing with usury and some other things, or else he would fight them. Seized by the arrogance and the zeal of Al-Jahiliyah (preIslamic traditions), Thaqif remained for days intent on fighting. Then Allâh cast terror and depression in their hearts in such a way that they gave up the idea of fighting and thought that the delegation should go back to the Prophet ﷺ and announce their approval. It was then that the group of delegates told them the truth and revealed the items of their peace-talk with the Prophet ﷺ consequently the people of Thaqif embraced Islam.

Allâh’s Messengerﷺ some men to destroy the idol called AlLat under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid b. Al-Mughirah bin Shu’bah stood to his feet, held the hoe and the ax and said to his companions: “By Allâh, I will make you laugh at Thaqif.” He struck Al-Lat with them, and pretended to fall down while doing so. The people of Thaqif were frightened at that sight and said: “May Allah dismay Al-Mughirah. The goddess has killed him.” Hearing that Al-Mughirah ten jumped up to his feet and said: “May Allâh bring shame on you. Al-Lat is nothing but a mass of dirt and stones.” Then he struck the door and broke it. He mounted its highest wall, and so did the other men. They knocked Al-Lat down

till they levelled it to the ground. Then they dug up its foundation and brought out its jewels and garments, to the great astonishment of Thaqif. Khalid bin Al-Walid and his group came back to Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ the carrying Al-Lat’s jewels and garments Allâh’s Messengerﷺ distributed them and thanked Allâh for helping his Prophetﷺ and solidifying his religion.”

  1. The Message of the Yemeni Kings: After the return of Allah’s Messengerﷺ from Tabuk, a message came to him from the kings of Himyar, Al-Harith bin ‘Abd Kilal, Nu’aim bin ‘Abd Kilal and AnNu’man bin Qeel who was the ruler of Dhi Ra’in, Hamdan and Mu’afir. Their messenger was Malik bin Murrah Ar-Rahawi. They sent him in order to inform the Prophet about ﷺtheir embracing Islam and their parting with polytheism. In reply to their message. Allâh’s Messengerﷺ stated the rights and responsibilities of the believers, gave them the promise of Allâh and the promise of His Messengerﷺ for those entering covenants provided they paid the tribute. He sent to them some of his Companions under the command of Mu’adh bin Jabal .
  2. The Hamdan Delegation: The arrival of this delegation was in the ninth year of Al-Hijra after the Messenger’sﷺ return from Tabuk. So, Allâh’s Messengerﷺ gave them a pledge to guarantee the fulfillment of their demands. He appointed Malik bin AnNamt as chief over those of his people who embraced Islam. Khalid bin Al-Walid was sent with the purpose of calling the rest of them to Islam. He stayed with them for six months calling them to Islam but no one responded to his call. Later on Hazrat ‘Ali bin Abi Talib AlahisSalam was dispatched there and Khalid was ordered to come back. Upon arriving at Hamdan. ‘Hazrat Ali AlahisSalam communicated to them a message from Allâh’s Messengerﷺ and called them to Islam. They responded to the call and became Muslims. ‘Hazrat Ali AlahisSalam wrote to Allah’s Messengerﷺ informing him of the good news. Allah’s Messengerﷺ was briefed on the content of that letter, so he prostrated, then raised his head up and said: “Peace be upon Hamdan. Peace be upon Hamdan.”

Fitnon kā ẓuhūr

Fitnoṅ kā ẓuhūr aur muʻāsharatī burā’iyoṅ kā ʻām ho jānā ʻalāmāte Qiyāmat meṅ se hai

al-Qur’ān

  1. وَمَا خَلَقْنَا السَّمٰوٰتِ وَالْاَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَآ اِلاَّ بِالْحَقِّ ط وَاِنَّ السَّاعَةَ لَاٰتِیَةٌ فَاصْفَحِ الصَّفْحَ الْجَمِيْلَo

(الحجر، 15/ 85)

اور ہم نے آسمانوں اور زمین کو اور جو کچھ ان دونوں کے درمیان ہے عبث پیدا نہیں کیا، اور یقینا قیامت کی گھڑی آنے والی ہے سو (اے اخلاقِ مجسّم!) آپ بڑے حسن و خوبی کے ساتھ درگزر کرتے رہئے –

Aur ham ne āsmnāoṅ aur zamīn ko aur jo kuc̥h in donoṅ ke darmiyān hai ʻabas̲ paidā nahīṅ kiyā, aur yaqīnan qiyāmat kī ghar̥ī āne wālī hai so (ae Aḳhlāqe Mujassam!) Āp bar̥e ḥusn-o ḳhūbī ke sāth dar guzar karte rahe.
[al-Ḥijr, 15/85.]

al-Ḥadīt̲h̲

  1. عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ رضي الله عنهما قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُوْلَ اللهِ ﷺ یَقُوْلُ: إِنَّ اللهَ لَا یَقْبِضُ الْعِلْمَ انْتِزَاعًا یَنْتَزِعُهٗ مِنَ الْعِبَادِ وَلٰـکِنْ یَقْبِضُ الْعِلْمَ بِقَبْضِ الْعُلَمَاءِ حَتّٰی إِذَا لَمْ یُبْقِ عَالِمًا اتَّخَذَ النَّاسُ رُءوْسًا جُهَّالًا فَسُئِلُوْا فَأَفْتَوْا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ فَضَلُّوْا وَأَضَلُّوْا۔

مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ۔

حضرت عبد اللہ بن عمرو بن العاص رضی اللہ عنہما بیان کرتے ہیں کہ میں نے رسول اللہ ﷺ سے سنا: آپ ﷺ نے فرمایا: اللہ تعالیٰ علم کو اس طرح نہیں اٹھائے گا کہ لوگوں کے سینے سے نکال لے، بلکہ علماء کو ایک ایک کرکے اٹھاتا رہے گا یہاں تک کہ جب کوئی عالم نہیں رہے گا تو لوگ جہلاء کو اپنا راہنما بنا لیں گے۔ ان سے مسائل پوچھے جائیں گے تو وہ بغیر علم کے فتویٰ دیں گے، وہ خود بھی گمراہ ہوں گے اور دوسروں کو بھی گمراہ کریں گے۔

یہ حدیث متفق علیہ ہے۔

Ḥaz̤rat ʻAbd Allāh bin ʻAmr bin al-ʻĀṣ raḍiya Allāhu ‘anhu bayān karte haiṅ keh maiṅ ne Rasūl Allāh ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihi wa-sallam se sunā: Āp ṣallá Allāhu ‘alayhi wa-Ālihi wa-sallam ne farmāyā: Allāh Taʻālá ʻilm ko is ṭarḥ nahīṅ ut̥hā’egā keh logoṅ ke sīne se nikāl le, bal-keh ʻulamā’ ko ek-ek kar ke ut̥hātā rahegā yahāṅ tak keh jab ko’ī ʻālim nahīṅ rahegā to log juhalā’ ko apnā rāhnumā banā leṅge. Un se masā’il pūc̥he jā’eṅge to woh baġhair ʻilm ke fatwá deṅge, woh ḳhẉud bhī gumrāh hoṅge aur dūsroṅ ko bhī gumrāh kareṅge.*Yeh ḥadīs̲ muttafaq ʻalayh hai.*

[Ṭāhir al-Qādrī fī al-Qawlu al-Ḥasani fī ʻalāmatī al-sāʻaṫi wa-ẓuhūri al-fitan,/16_17, raqam: 02.]

Hazrat Malik ibn Nuwayrah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)

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Malik ibn Nuwayrah (Arabic: مالك بن نويرة‎), also spelled as Malik ibn Nuwera, sahabi (a companion of Hazrat Muhammad(صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم), was a chief of the Bani Yarbu’, a clan of the Banu Hanzala, a large section of the powerful tribe of Bani Tamim which inhabited the north-eastern region of Arabia, between Bahrain and Najd. The tribe was pagan until Islam came to Arabia. The centre of Malik’s clan was Butah.

Famous for his generosity and hospitality, Malik is said to have kept a light burning outside his house all night so that any traveller passing that way would know where to find shelter and food. He would get up during the night to check the light. A strikingly handsome man, he had a thick head of hair and his face, a contemporary has said, was “as fine as the moon.” He was skilful in the use of weapons and noted for his courage and chivalry, and he was an accomplished poet. Malik possessed all the qualities which the Arabs looked for in the perfect male. He was married to Layla bint al-Minhal who was considered to be one of the most beautiful women in Arabia.

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In view of his distinguished position in the tribe and his unquestionable talents, Hazrat Muhammad(صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم) appointed him as an officer over the clan of Bani Handhalah. His main responsibility was the collection of taxes and their despatch to Madinah. Later, when the news of Prophet(صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم)  passed away reached Butah, Malik had just collected a good deal of tax but not yet despatched it to Madinah. Because he did not consider the caliphate of Hazrat Abu bakar is legitimate as Prophet Muhammad(صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم) appointed Hazrat Ali AlahisSalam as his successor in his life time at ghadeer.So he refused to pay taxes to Hazrat  Abu bakar and willing to pay it to the righteous caliph Hazrat  Ali AlahisSalam. He at once opened the coffers and returned the money to the taxpayers. “O Bani Handhalah!” he announced, “your wealth is now our own.” (al-Balazuri: book no: 1, page no:10)

When Malik heard about Khalid bin Walid’s victories against powerful Arab tribes, he ordered his tribesmen not to engage the approaching Khalid in battle, to stay at home, and hope for peace.(Tabari: Vol. 2, Page no: 501-502)

Malik himself apparently moved away across the desert with his family. Also, so as to prove himself loyal to the state of Madinah (the future Islamic empire), he collected the tax and sent it to Madinah. His riders were stopped by Khalid’s army at the town of Battah. Khalid asked them about the signing of a pact with Sajjah but they said it was only to exact revenge on their terrible enemies and that so war does not reach their lands. (Tabari: Vol. p. 501-2)

When Khalid reached Najd, he found no opposing army, so he sent his cavalry to nearby villages and ordered them to call the Azaan (call for prayers) to each party they meet. Zirrar bin Azwar, a group leader, arrested the family of Malik when they answered the call to prayer.

Hazrat Abu Bakr had given orders that the test to be applied to suspected rebels was that they be asked to repeat the Muslim formula and that they answer the call to prayer. One such party seized Malik ibn Nuweira and his family and brought them in to Khalid, although they claimed to be Muslims. The prisoners were placed under guard but, during the night, Malik ibn Nuweira and his supporters were killed in cold blood. Within 24 hours Khalid had married the widow of his victim.

Hazrat Abu Qatada, an erstwhile friend and companion of  Prophet(صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم) and Hazrat ‘Abd Allah b. ‘Umar , hastened to Medina to complain to Hazrat Abu Bakr, who summoned Khalid to answer the accusation. Hazrat Umar b. Khattab pressed the caliph to deprive Khalid of his command. condemned this act of Khalid and ‘Hazrat Umar called for his stoning, but Hazrat Abu Bakr did not punish Khalid and said that he had made a mistake and paid the blood money for Malik from the bayt al-mal (public treasury).Khalid, returning to Medina, claimed that he had not ordered the execution of Malik, but that his instructions to the guards had been misunderstood. Caliph Hazrat Abu Bakr said ‘I will not sheathe a sword which God has drawn for His service,’. Khalid’s excuses were accepted.(John Bagot Glubb (1963). The Great Arab Conquests. p. 112.)

Not Considering Malik an Apostate(Murtad)


1-Ibn Athir (a Sunni scholar of 6th/12th and 7th/13th century) wrote, “According to al-Tabari and other early scholars, Malik was not apostate. That ‘Umar told Khalid, ‘you killed a Muslim man’, that Abu Qutada made a testimony that they [people of Malik’s tribe] called adhan and made prayer and that Abu Bakr returned their captives to them and paid Malik’s blood money from public treasury, all show that Malik was Muslim

2-Apparently, Khalid was in a war with the Apostasy. So, when he got evidence that Malik distributed collected Zakah on hearing the news of prophets death, and of his pact with Sajah, he confidently declared Malik an Apostate and ordered his execution. After the execution, in the same night he married Layla, the wife of Malik ibn Nuwayra, who was said to be one of the most beautiful women in Arabia at that time.-[al-Tabari: Vol. 2, p- 5]

3-al-Minhal al-Tamimi: Amongst Malik’s bin Nuwayrah’s relatives. He [Lahu Idraak] converted (during Prophet’s time), al-Zubair bin Bakr mentioned him in al-Muwafaqyat (book)…He said: ‘al-Minhal passed by Malik bin Nuwayrah’s body when Khalid killed him, then he brought a cloth from his bag and shrouded his dead body and then buried him.’-[al Isaba, Vol. 6, p. 249]

4-Abu Qutada and Abdullah ibn Omar testified that (Malik is Muslim) but Khalid ordered Dharar bin al-Auzwar to behead him. Then Khalid took his wife. -[Mullah Muttaqi Hindi (d. 975 H), Kanz ul Ummal. Vol- 5, p- 619, No. 1409:I]

5-And it is written in Sunan al-Bayhaqi that this Dharar bin al-Auzwar was a rapist, He raped a captured woman when he served under Khalid- Narrated by Abu al-Hussain bin al-Fadhl al-Qatan that is said to be came through a chain from Harun bin al-Asam: Omar bin al-Khattab sent Khalid bin al-Walid in an army, hence Khalid sent Dharar bin al-Auzwar in a squadron and they invaded a district belonging to the tribe of Banu Asad.

They then captured a pretty bride, Dharar liked her hence he asked his companions to grant her to him and they did so. He then had sexual intercourse with her, when he completed his mission he felt guilty, and went to Khalid and told him about what he did. Khalid said: ‘I permit you and made it lawful to you.’
He said: ‘No, not until you write a message to Omar’.

Then they sent a message to Omar, and Omar answered that he (Dharar) should be stoned. By the time Omar’s message was delivered, Dharar was dead. Khalid said: ‘Allah didn’t want to disgrace Dharar’[Sunan al-Bayhaqi, Vol. 2, p. 365, No. 18685]

6-Abu Qutada swore by Allah never to march with Khalid for any war, and he said: ‘The desert Arabs encouraged him (Khalid) on killing them for the sake of booties and that was Malik bin Nuwayra’s case.’ [al-Musanaf, Vol. 10, p. 174, No. 18721]

7-Al-Bara bin Azeb said: When we were sitting with Rasulullah, a delegation from Bani Tammim came to Him. Malik bin Nuwayra said: “Oh Allah’s Messenger, teach me faith”.

The Prophet said: ‘To testify that there is no god but Allah, and I’m His messenger, pray salah, fast during Ramzan, pay Zakah, perform pilgrimage, and follow my Wasi after me,” and he pointed to Ali. “And don’t shed blood, don’t steal, don’t betray, don’t eat orphan’s money, don’t drink alcohol and follow my laws, permit what is lawful and forbid what is unlawful, give the rights from your own self to the poor and strong, to the old and young.” Till (the prophet) mentioned to him the Islamic laws.

He said: ‘Oh Rasulullah, I’m a man who quickly forgets, please repeat those again’. Then the Prophet repeated.
He said: ‘By the God of the house, I learnt faith.’ He then left pulling his cloth. When he was not went far away, the Prophet said: ‘Who ever wants to see a man of heaven, he should look at this man.’

Hazrat Abu Bakr and Hazrat Omar said: ‘Oh Allah’s messenger, who are you referring to?’

He looked downwards and they (Abu Bakr and Omar) followed him (Malik) and said to him: ‘Good news from Allah and His messenger to you to have been promised Paradise.’

When Allah’s Messenger(صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم) passed away and Bani Tamim tribe came to Medina with Malik bin Nuwayra And he went to see as to who became the successor after the Prophet(صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم), he entered the mosque on Friday and  Hazrat Abu Bakr was giving an address on the pulpit. Malik looked at him and said: ‘O brother of Tamim’.
Abu Bakr said: ‘Yes’.

Malik said: ‘Where is the Wasi of Allah’s messenger(صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم), who ordered I was ordered to follow?’
They (people) said: ‘Oh you desert Arab, things have changed.’

Then he got closer to Hazrat Abu Bakr and said: ‘Who allowed you to climb onto the pulpit while the Wasi of Allah’s Messenger is here?’
He (Khalid) replied: ‘Stay (back); this is not your business.’

Then Malik rode on his camel and said: ‘We obeyed Prophet(صلى-الله-عليه-و-آله-وسلم) as long he was amongst us, Oh people, what I have to do with Abu Bakr….’ –[Ibn Shazan, al-Fadael, p. 75].

8This is the cause of Malik’s refusal to submit Zakah to Caliph Abu Bakr. Is not he said when he gave back all the collected Zakah to the respective payer of his tribesmen, “I will only pay taxes to the man chosen at Ghadeer” (Ali ibn Abi Talib). And this is recorded in al-Estighatha as-

Maliks tribe do not want to submit Zakah to Caliph Abu Bakr because they believed that they were supposed to submit it to Ali bin Abi Talib.[Abu al-Qasim al-Kufi (d. 352 H), al-Estighatha,Vol 1, p. 7].

9-The condemnation of Hazrat Omar against Khalid recorded in Tarikh ibn Asakir. Narrated by Abu Ghalib al-Bana and Abu Abdullah al-Bana that is said to be came through a chain from Mus’ab bin Abdullah as-

“….Hazrat  Omar said: ‘I admonished Khalid for breaking the orders and for what he did with the money.’ Khalid would distribute the booty amongst the soldiers without informing Hazrat  Abu Bakr. He made decisions that contravened those of Hazrat  Abu Bakr, he killed Malik bin Nuwayra and married his wife. He made peace with the people of Yamama and married the daughter of Maj’a bin Marara. These were met with disapproval by Hazrat  Abu Bakr and he issued Diyat (blood money) to Mutammim bin Nuwayra and ordered Khalid to divorce Malik’s wife….’ -[Tarikh ibn Asakir, Vol. 16, p. 274]

10-(Hazrat Omar) said to Abu Bakr: ‘He (Khalid) has performed adultery, you have to stone him’.
Hazrat Abu Bakr said: ‘I can’t stone him; he interpreted hence made a mistake’.
(Hazrat Omar) said: ‘Then dismiss him’.
He (Hazrat Abu Bakr) said: ‘I cannot put the sword back in the sheath which Allah has pulled out on my opponents.’-[Ibn Sa’ad].

Hazrat Abu Bakr said: ‘Can it be more than Khalid interpreted and made a mistake?”
Then Hazrat Abu Bakr sent Khalid back and paid Blood Money for Malik bin Nuwayra and returned the booty.[Tarikh Ibn Asakir, Vol. 16, p. 254].

11-Narrated by Abu Bakr al-Ansari that is said to be came through a chain from Hanzala bin Ali al-Aslami as-

“…When Khalid arrived at Medina, he entered the Mashjid un Nabi wearing rusty armor and with his sword. There were some arrows in his turban, he passed by Omar but didn’t talk to him, then he came to Abu Bakr, and he heard from him what pleased him, he then left happy.

Omar therefore knew that Abu Bakr had pleased him, therefore he didn’t talk to him (Khalid). Omar was angry at him (Khalid) because of what he had done, by killing Malik bin Nuwayra and marrying his wife and also for what was in his heart against him (Khalid) about Bani Jadhima case’[Tarikh Ibn Asakir, Vol. 16, p. 258]

12-According to ibn Kathir, Khalid ordered that the head (of Malik) be placed with two stones and inserted into a cooking pot, he then ate from it that night in order to scare the Arabs and others from being apostates[al-Bidayah wa al-Nihaya, Vol. 6, p. 354]


13-These words of Mutammim clearly allude to the fact that prior the murder, Khalid and Malik exchanged oaths and that too, in the name of Allah.
Malik’s father in law al-Minhal al-Tamimi was present when Khalid murdered Malik as recorded by Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani in his al-Isaba-

We replied: ‘We are slaves of Allah.’
They said: ‘We are slaves of Allah too.’
Then Khalid arrested them.

14-Tabarani records this oath in Mu’jam al-Kabir, as- Abu Khalifa al-Fadhl bin Habab narrated from Muhammad bin Salam al-Jumahi from Abu Ubaida, who said: Dharar bin al-Auzwar the one who killed Malik bin Nuwayra, therefore Mutammim bin Nuwayra said a (poem) in that case condemning Khalid ibn al-Walid :… ‘you gave him an oath in the name of Allah and then you killed him? Surely if he (Malik) gave you an oath, he would never betray…-[al Tabarani, Mu’jam al-Kabir, Vol. 8 p. 294, Imam Abi Bakr al-Haythami also recorded this tradition]