Soon after emigrating to Madinah and making sure that the pillars of the new Islamic community were well established on strong bases of administrative, political and ideological unity, the Prophet ﷺstand started to establish regular and clearly-defined relations with non-Muslims. All of these efforts were exerted solely to provide peace, security, and prosperity to all mankind at large, and to bring about a spirit of understanding and harmony within his region, in particular. Geographically, the closest people to Madinah were the Jews. While harboring evil intentions, and nursing a bitter feeling of resentment, they showed neither the least resistance nor the slightest hostility. The Prophet ﷺ decided to conclude a treaty with them with clauses that provided full freedom in faith and vealth. He had no intention whatsoever of following severe solicies involving expulsion, seizure of wealth and land or lostility. the treaty came within the context of another of a larger tamework relating to inter-Muslim relationships. The most important provisions of the treaty are the following:
1. The Jews of Bani ‘Awf are one community with the believers. The Jews will profess their religion and the Muslims theirs.
2. The Jews shall be responsible for their expenditure, and the Muslims for theirs.
3. If attacked by a third party, each shall come to the help of the other
4. Each party shall hold counsel with the other. Mutual relation shall be founded on righteousness; sin is totally excluded.
5. Neither shall commit sins to the prejudice of the other.
6. The wronged party shall be aided.
7. The Jews shall contribute to the cost of war so long as they are fighting alongside the believers.
8Madinah shall remain sacred and inviolable for all that join this treaty
9. Should any disagreement arise between the signatories to this treaty, then Allâh the All-High and His Messenger shall settle the dispute.
10. The signatories to this treaty shall boycott the Quraish commercially: they shall also abstain from extending any support to them.
11. Each shall contribute to defending Madinah, in case of a foreign attack, in its respective area.
12. This treaty shall not hinder either party from seeking lawful revenge.
Madinah and its suburbs, after the endorsement of this treaty, turned into a coalition state, with Madinah proper as capital and Hazrat Muhammadﷺ as ‘president’; authority lay mainly in the hand of the Muslims, and consequently it was a real capital of Islam. To expand the zone of peace and security the Prophetﷺ started to enter into similar treaties with other tribes living around ‘his state’.