Ḥasan b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (Arabic: حسن بن حسن بن علي بن ابي طالب) known as Ḥasan al-Muthannā (Arabic: حسن المثنّی) was the son of Imam al-Hasan (a) and one of the noblemen of Alawites. In the Event of Karbala, he was a member of Imam al-Husayn’s (a) army. Although he was injured in the day of ‘Ashura, he was not killed through the intercession of one of his maternal relatives; and after recovering from injuries, he returned from Kufa to Medina. He was in charge of alms given by Imam ‘Ali (a). He took part in the rebellion of ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Muhammad against Hajjaj b. Yusuf. There are disagreements among scholars whether Hasan al-Muthanna claimed to be an Imam.
Lineage and Kunya::
His father was Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a). His mother was Khawla bt. Manzur b. Zabban al-Fazari. After the death of her husband (36 AH), Muhammad b. Talha b. ‘Ubayd Allah, in the Battle of Jamal, Khawla married Imam al-Hasan (a).His kunya was Abu Muhammad.
Wife and children::
His wife was his cousin, Fatima, the daughter of Imam al-Husayn (a). They got married before the Event of ‘Ashura.His sons whose mother was Fatima, the daughter of Imam al-Husayn (a), were ‘Abd Allah Mahd, Ibrahim ‘Amr, and Hasan Muthallath, all of whom passed away in the prison of Abu Ja’far Mansur, the Abbasid caliph.His grandchildren, specially sons of ‘Abd Allah b. Hasan, who himself was a literate and knowledgeable man, such as Muhammad known as Nafs Zakiyya and Ibrahim known as Qatil Bakhamra, led important movements against the Abbasids.
Taking part in the Battle of Karbala::
Hasan al-Muthanna was present in the Event of Karbala. Ahmad b. Ibrahim Hasani, in a tradition quoted from Abu Mikhnaf, has said that his age at that time was nineteen or twenty.On the day of ‘Ashura, he bravely fought beside Imam al-Husayn (a) and was injured and captive. His maternal uncle, Asma’ b. Kharijah Fazari, saved him. He was cured in Kufa; and after recovering, he returned to Medina.
The Custodian of Properties Endowed by Imam Ali (a)::
According to Imam Ali’s (a) will, Hasan al-Muthanna was the custodian of alms given by Imam (a) and the properties he (a) had endowed in Medina.
When Hajjaj b. Yusuf al-Thaqafi was the ruler of Medina, he wanted Hasan al-Muthanna to let ‘Umar b. Ali help him in custodianship of alms, because ‘Umar was Hasan al-Muthanna’s uncle. But, since only the children of Lady Fatima (a) have the right to hold custodianship of alms, he refused Hajjah’s request. Hajjaj went to Syria to ‘Abd al-Malik b. Marwan, the Umayyad caliph; and the caliph prevented Hajjaj from that.
Hasan al-Muthanna put his son, ‘Abd Allah, in charge of custodianship of alms after his death. But Mansur ‘Abbasi imprisoned ‘Abd Allah and held custodianship of alms himself.
Cooperation with ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Muhammad::
When ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Muhammad b. Ash’ath Kindi rebelled against Hajjaj b. Yusuf, he intended to call himself the caliph. But because only someone from Quraysh could hold caliphate, he wrote letters to noblemen of Alawites, Imam al-Sajjad (a) and Hasan al-Muthanna, to convince them. Imam al-Sajjad (a) declined his request. Hasan al-Muthanna who thought rebels might break their allegiance, refused to accept caliphate of ‘Abd al-Rahman as well. But, after their insistence, finally he became convinced and paid allegiance to him as the caliph. Famous Iraqi scholars such as ‘Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Liyli, Sha’bi, Muhammad b. Sirin, and al-Hasan al-Basri paid allegiance to him who was called al-Rida.
According to al-Shaykh al-Mufid, Hasan al-Muthanna never claimed to be an Imam, nor did anyone with similar name claim so.In Zaydis’ references, Hasan al-Muthanna has been mentioned as an Imam.
After the death of Ibn Ash’ath in 85 AH, Hasan al-Muthanna fled. Finally, the agents of Walid b. ‘Abd al-Malik poisoned and killed him. They transferred his body to Medinaand buried him in Baqi’ cemetery.