Hazrat Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya

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हज़रत सैय्यदना इमाम मोहम्मद ज़िउन्नफ़्स अज़ ज़की (रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु)

मोहम्मद बिन अब्दुल्लाह कहें

या कहें ज़िउन्नफ़्स अज़ ज़की

औलाद हैं वो हसनैन के

घराने के हैं बहुत सख़ी

इमामों के हैं इमाम हैं वक़्त के मेहंदी

अब्बासियों के बरअक्स थे तेग़े हुसैनी

अल्लाह ने बनाया है पाक उनको इतना

कहता है ज़माना उन्हें नफ़्से मुत्तक़ी

पैदाइशहज़रत सैय्यदना इमाम नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने हज़रत अब्दुल्लाह अल महज़ रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के घर मे सन् सौ (100) हिजरी मे मदीना मुनव्वरा मे आँखे खोली! आप निहायत हसीनो जमील थें!

नाम कुन्नियत और परवरिश आपका नाम मोहम्मद, और लक़ब अबुल क़ासिम पड़ा! अपनी वालिदा सैय्यदा हिंद बिंत अबु उबैदा और अपने वालिद सैय्यदना अब्दुल्लाह बिन हसन मुसन्ना के आग़ोशे मोहब्बत मे पल कर जवान हुए! आपकी पाकी हया अज़मत और बुज़ुर्गी को देखकर अहले ख़ानदान और ग़ैर सब आपको नफ़्से ज़किया कहते थे!

नसब मुबारक आप सादात की उस शाख़ से ताल्लुक़ रखते है जिन्हें हर जानिब से सयादत हासिल हैं यानि आपका पूरा ख़ानदान सरकार दो आलम सल्लल्लाहो अलैहे वसल्लम से क़राबत रखता था, आपके वालिद मोहतरम हज़रत अब्दुल्लाह शहज़ादे थें हज़रत इमाम हसन मुसन्ना रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के जो बेटे थें हज़रत इमाम हसन अलैहिस्सलाम के आपकी दादी सैय्यदा फ़ातिमा सुग़रा शहज़ादी थीं इमाम हुसैन अलैहिस्सलाम की आपकी वालिदा सैय्यदा हिंद दुख़्तर थीं हज़रत सैय्यदना अबु उबैदा रज़िअल्लाहु तआला अन्हु की जो ख़ानदाने अब्दुल मुत्तलिब से थें!

इमाम नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु का ख़ुरूज करनाइस्लामी तारीख़ों से आपके मुताल्लिक़ जो सबसे अहेम वाक़ेआ खुलके सामने आता है वो है आपका अब्बासी ख़लीफ़ा अबुजाफ़र मंसूर (सन् 136 हिजरी) के ख़िलाफ़ बग़ावत और ख़ुरूजो क़याम करना जिसका तफ़्सीली ज़िक्र आगे आपके ज़ेरे नज़र होगा लेकिन उससे पहले हम अबुजाफ़र मंसूर के किरदार पर एक नज़र डालले तो हमे इस मौज़ूउ को समझने मे आसानी होगी!

अब्बासी ख़लीफ़ा अबु जाफ़र मंसूर का किरदारहज़रत सैय्यदना मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के हालात पर रौशनी डालने से पहले ख़लाफ़ते अब्बासिया के दूसरे हुक्मरान अबु जाफ़र मंसूर का किरदार और ख़ानदाने रिसालत व अईम्माए वक़्त के लिये इसका क्या रवईया था ये जान लेना ज़रूरी है! सन् एक सौ छ्त्तीस (136) हिजरी मे पहले अब्बासी ख़लीफ़ा अबुअब्बास सफ़ाह ने इन्तक़ाल किया तो उसके भाई अबुजाफ़र मंसूर ने दूसरे ख़लीफ़ा के हैसियत से बागडोर सँभाली, ख़लीफ़ा बनते ही उसने सबसे पहला जो काम किया वो हज़रत इमाम हुसैन अलैहिस्सलाम के क़ब्रे अनवर को पामाल करना और आपके ख़ानदान और तमाम ख़ानदाने रिसालत पर ज़ुल्मो सितम ढाना था जिससे अब्बासी तारीख़ के सफ़ात सियाह हो गयें थें! इसके ज़ुल्मो सितम का आलम तो ये था कि वो किसी ऐसे आदमी को न छोड़ता था जिसपर इसको ख़फ़ीफ़ सा भी शक हो जाता था कि वो इसके ख़िलाफ़ जा रहा है! इसने हज़रत इमाम अबु हनीफ़ा को काज़ी ना बनने के सिलसिले मे जेल मे डलवा दिया और उनके उस फ़तवे पर जो आपने हज़रत नफ़्से ज़किया के ख़ुरूज करने के हिमायत मे दिया था कोड़े लगवायें और फिर ज़हर देकर ख़त्म करवा दिया! सन् एक सौ अड़तालीस (148) हिजरी मे इसने ख़ानदाने रिसालत के अज़ीम फ़र्द हज़रत सैय्यदना इमाम जाफ़र सादिक़ अलैहिस्स्लाम को भी ज़हर देकर शहीद करवा दिया! अल्लामा दमेरी ने अपनी किताब हयातुल हैवान मे इसके मुताल्लिक़ लिखा है कि ये बहुत कंजूस और लालची तबियत का मालिक था! इसकी बख़ालत और हिर्स का आलम तो ये था कि अपने मातहत अफ़राद से पैसे पैसे और दाने दाने का हिसाब लेता था! मंसूर ने अपने दौरे ख़लाफ़त मे अलवी और अब्बासी अफ़राद के दरमियान फ़ितनाअंगेज़ी किया जो इससे क़ब्ल कभी नही हुआ था दूसरे अल्फ़ाज़ों मे ये कहना बेजा ना होगा कि ये दौर दूसरा यज़ीदी दौर था जिसमे  इमाम हुसैन और ख़ानदाने रिसालत के साथ इस क़द्र ज़ुल्मों सितम का मुज़ाहिरा पेश किया गया था! बस मंसूर के ख़िलाफ़ और उसके ज़ुल्मो तशद्दुद के सबब हज़रत सैय्यदना इमाम नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने भी अपने ख़ानदान के तरह आवाज़ उठाई और अपने ख़लाफ़त का दावा किया जिसकी हिमायत इमाम मालिक और इमाम अबु हनीफ़ा ने किया जिसकी तफ़्सील इस तरह बयान की जाती है!

तफ़्सीलसन् एक सौ अड़तीस (138) हिजरी मे कि जब बनु उमय्या की हुकूमत ज़वाल पज़ीर हो चुकी थी, तो हज़रत सैय्यदना मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने अलवी ख़लाफ़त की तहरीक शुरू की और अपने भाई हज़रत इब्राहीम को इस ज़मन मे बसरह रवाना किया! इस ज़माने मे सादात के साथ इन्तेहाई ज़ुल्म का रवईया रखा गया था, जब आपने ख़लाफ़त का दावा किया तो ज़्यादा तर अहले मदीना ने आपके हाथो पर बैअत किया और बैअत करने वालों मे हज़रत इमाम मालिक और हज़रत इमाम मोहम्मद हनीफ़ा भी थें और आप लोगों ने हज़रत मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़की के हिमायत मे फ़तवा भी दिया कि वो हक़ पर हैं! हज़रत मोहम्मद ज़िउन्नफ़्स अज़ ज़की की बैअत करने वालों मे अब्बासी ख़लीफ़ा अबु जाफ़र मन्सूर भी था ये वाक़ेआ मरवान अल हम्मार की हुकूमत के आख़िर का है और बनु अब्बास के तरफ़ ख़लाफ़त मुन्तक़िल होने से पहले का है! जब अबु जाफ़र मंसूर ख़लीफ़ा बना तो उसने आपकी हिमायत और पैरवी करने के बजाए आप और आपके अहले ख़ाना पर ज़ुल्मो सितम जारी कर दिया (क्योंकि वो डर गया था कि कहीं आप उसके ख़िलाफ़ बग़ावत ना कर दें जैसे आपने मरवान अल हम्मार के ख़िलाफ़ किया था) बस उसने तमाम आले हसन मुजतबा (अलैहिस्सलाम) पर ज़ुल्मो सितम शुरू कर दिया! इमाम नफ़्से ज़किया उस वक़्त रुहपोश थे और अबु जाफ़र मंसूर ने आपको और आपके भाई इब्राहीम को ढूंडने के लिए काफ़ी जद्दो जहद किया लेकिन कामियाब न हो पाया! सन् एक सौ चव्वालीस (144) हिजरी के आख़िर मे मंसूर ने आपके वालिद सैय्यदना अब्दुल्लाह अल महज़ और आपके अहले ख़ाना को ऐसे क़ैद ख़ाने मे बंद करवाया जहाँ वो अज़ान की आवाज़ तक न सुन पाते थे और ना ही अज़कार और तिलावत के बग़ैर औक़ात नमाज़ का पता चलता था, हत्ता की ज़्यादा तर लोगों ने वहीं वफ़ात पाई जिनमे आपके वालिद मोहतरम हज़रत सैय्यदना अब्दुल्लाह अल महज़ रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु भी शहीद कर दिये गएं! इस वाक़िये के बाद हज़रत मोहम्मद ज़िउन्नफ़्स अज़ ज़की रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने मदीना मे और आपके भाई हज़रत इब्राहीम ने बसरह मे ख़ुरुज किया और ये सन् एक सौ पैंतालीस (145) हिजरी मे हुआ! इसकी ख़बर जब मदीना के मुन्तज़िम को हुई तो वो घबरा गया और अपने फ़ौजों के साथ सवार होकर मदीना और मरवान के घर के इर्द गिर्द चक्कर लगाया और फिर वहीं इकठ्ठे रहे, लेकिन हज़रत मोहम्मद ज़किया के बारे मे कुछ पता न चला और फिर वापस अपने घर के तरफ़ आया तो उसने बनु हुसैन (अलैहिस्सलाम) के पास पैग़ाम भेजा और उन्हें इकठ्ठा किया और उनके साथ क़ुरैश के सरगिरोह लोग भी थे! फिर उसने उन्हें नसीयत व मलामत भी की और कहा कि ‘ऐ अहले मदीना, मंसूर ने नफ़्से ज़किया को मशारिक से मग़ारिब मे तलाशा और वो तुम्हारे दर्मियान मौजूद था और तुमने समीओ इताअत पे उसकी बैअत की है, ख़ुदा की क़सम मुझे जिसके मुताल्लिक़ ख़बर मिलेगी कि वो उसके साथ है तो मै उसे क़त्ल कर दूंगा, इस पर तमाम बनु हुसैन (अलैहिस्सलाम) ने कहा कि इसके मुताल्लिक़ हमे कुछ इल्म नही! फिर इसी दर्मियान ये पता चला कि हज़रत मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया के असहाब ज़ाहिर हो गए हैं, और उन्होंने बुलन्द आवाज़ मे तकबीर कही और लोग नस्ब शब को घबरा गए और बाज़ लोगों ने अमीर को ये मशवरा दिया कि वो सब बनु हुसैन (अलैहिस्सलाम) को क़त्ल करदे! फिर मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु दो सौ पचास आदमियों के साथ आएं और क़ैद ख़ाने के पास से गुज़रे और जो लोग उस मे मौजूद थे उन्हें निकाला और आकर दारूल इमारत का मुहासरा कर लिया और उसे फ़तेह कर लिया और मदीना के नाएब रबाह बिन उसमान को पकड़ कर मरवान के घर मे क़ैद कर दिया क्योंकि उसी ने उस शब के आग़ाज़ मे बनु हुसैन (अलैहिस्सलाम) के क़त्ल का मशवरह दिया था, बस तमाम बनु हुसैन अलैहिस्सलाम बच गएं और रबाह बिन उसमान का घेराव हो गया! हज़रत मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु सुबह को मदीना पर ग़ालिब आगएं और अहले मदीना ने उनकी इताअत करली और उन्होंने सुबह मे लोगों को नमाज़ पढ़ाई और उसी मे सूरह إنا فتحنا لك فتحا مبينا  पढ़ी और उस शब ने उस साल के रजब के चाँद को वाज़ेह कर दिया!

उस दिन हज़रत मोहम्मद बिन अब्दुल्लाह रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने अहले मदीना से ख़िताब किया और बनु अब्बास पर ऐतराज़ात किया गया और उनके क़ाबिले मज़म्मत बातो का ज़िक्र किया गया और उन्हें बताया गया कि वो यानि (मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया) जिस शहर मे भी गए है लोगों ने समिओ इताअत पर उनकी बैअत की है, और थोड़े से आदमियों के सिवा सब अहले मदीना ने उनकी बैअत कर ली! इब्ने जरीर ने बहवाला इमाम मालिक रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु रिवायत किया है कि आपने हज़रत मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु की वुसअत करने का फ़तवा दिया था और उनसे दर्याफ़्त किया गया कि हमारी गर्दनों मे मंसूर की बैअत है, तो हज़रत इमाम मालिक रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने फ़रमाया तुम्हें मजबूर किया गया है और मजबूर की कोई बैअत नही होती, बस लोगों ने हज़रत नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु से बैअत करली और इमाम मालिक रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के क़ौल की पैरवी किया! इमाम नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने इस्माईल बिन अब्दुल्लाह बिन जाफ़र रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु को अपनी बैअत की दावत दी तो उन्होंने उनसे कहा कि ऐ मेरे भतीजे बिला शुबहा आप मक़तूल है तो इस बात से ख़ौफ़ज़दा होकर कुछ लोग आपकी बैअत से बाज़ रहें लेकिन अक़सरियत आपके साथ थी! हज़रत नफ़्से ज़किया ने उस्मान बिन मोहम्मद बिन ख़ालिद बिन ज़ुबैर को मदीना पर नाएब बनाया और अब्दुल अज़ीज़ बिन अल मुत्तलिब बिन अब्दुल्लाह मख़ज़ूमी को मदीना का क़ाज़ी मुक़र्रर किया और उस्मान बिन अब्दुल्लाह बिन अम्र बिन अल ख़त्ताब को इसका पोलिस सुप्रीटेंडेंट मुक़र्रर किया और अब्दुल्लाह बिन जाफ़र बिन अब्दुल्लाह बिन मसऊद बिन मुख़रमा को अतयात के दफ़्तर का अमीर मुक़र्रर किया, हज़रत नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने हुसैन बिन मुआविया को सत्तर पियादों और तक़रीबन दस सवारों के साथ मक्का के तरफ़ नाएब बना कर रवाना किया कि अगर वो मक्का मे दाख़िल हो जाए तो वो भी मक्का चले आएंगे, जब अहले मक्का को इनके आमद का इल्म हुआ तो वो हज़ारो लड़ाकुओं के साथ इनके मुक़ाबले मे निकले तो हुसैन बिन मुआविया ने इन से कहा कि अबुजाफ़र फ़ौत हो चुका है तुम क्यों लड़ते हो? अहले मक्का के सरदार अलसरी बिन अब्दुल्लाह ने कहा उनकी डाक चार रातों मे हमारे पास आती है और मैने उसके तरफ़ ख़त रवाना किया है और मै चार रातों तक उसके जवाब का इन्तेज़ार करूंगा, बस अगर तुम्हारी बात सच हुई तो मै शहर को तुम्हारे सुपुर्द करूंगा और तुम्हारे जवानों और घोड़ों का ख़र्च मेरे ज़िम्मे होगा मगर हुसैन बिन मुआविया ने इन्तेज़ार करने से इन्कार कर दिया और क़सम खाई कि वो मक्का मे रात बसर नही करेगा सिवाए इसके कि वो मर जाए और उसने अलसरी को पैग़ाम भेजा कि हरम से निकल कर हल के तरफ़ आजाओ ताकि हरम मे ख़ूरेंज़ी ना हो, मगर वो हल के तरफ़ ना आया तो ये उनके तरफ़ बढ़े और उनके मुक़ाबले मे सफ़बन्दी की और हुसैन और उनके साथियों ने यकबारगी उन पर हमला कर दिया और उन्हें शिक़स्त दी और उनके साथ आदमी मारे गए और ये मक्का मे दाख़िल हो गए और जब सुबह हुई तो हुसैन बिन मुआविया ने लोगों से ख़िताब किया उन्हें अबु जाफ़र मंसूर के ख़िलाफ़ बरअंगेख़्ता किया और उन्हें मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया (मेहन्दी) रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के तरफ़ दावत दी! और इसी तरह आपके भाई इब्राहीम बिन अब्दुल्लाह अल महज़ रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने बसरह मे एक ही वक़्त मे सन् एक सौ पैंतालीस (145) हिजरी मे ख़ुरूज किया!

मंसूर ने ईसा बिन मूसा को बग़दाद से दस हज़ार चुनिंदा बहादुर इराक़ी सवारो का जैश हज़रत मोहम्मद ज़िउन्नफ़्स अज़ ज़की रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु से लड़ने के लिये मदीना रवाना किया जिनमे मोहम्मद बिन अबुल अब्बास सफ़ह, जाफ़र बिन हंज़ला अल बहरानी और हमीद बिन कैहतबा भी शामिल थे! मंसूर ने ईसा बिन मूसा के ज़रिये अहले मदीना के क़ुरैश और अंसार के सरदारों के नाम ख़तूत लिखे कि वो इन्हें ख़ुफ़िया तौर पर नफ़्से ज़किया के पास भिजवा दे और उन्हें इताअत की तरफ़ वापस आने की दावत दे! जब ईसा बिन मूसा मदीना मुनव्वरा के नज़दीक़ आया तो उसने एक शख़्स के हाथ ख़तूत भेजे जिसे हज़रत मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया के मुहाफ़िज़ो ने पकड़ लिया और उन्होंने उन ख़तों को हज़रत नफ़्से ज़किया के पास भेज दिया जिसके बाद उस शख़्स को पकड़ कर क़ैद ख़ाने मे डलवा दिया गया, फिर हज़रत मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने अपने असहाब से मदीना मे ठहरने का मशवरह लिया ताकि ईसा बिन मूसा आकर मदीना मे उनका मुहासरा करले या ये कि वो अपने साथियों के साथ बाहर चले जाए और ईसा बिन मूसा के साथ जंग करे! कुछ लोगों ने ये मशवरह दिया के वो मदीना ठहरे और कुछ ने मदीना से बाहर जाकर जंग करने पर रज़ामंदी दी, फिर मदीना मे क़याम करने पर इत्तिफ़ाक़ राय हो गया, इसलिये कि रसूल अल्लाह सल्लल्लाहो अलैहे वसल्लम जंग-ए-ओहद के रोज़ मदीना से बाहर निकलने पर नादिम हुए थे, फिर नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु और आपके असहाब ने मदीना के इर्द गिर्द ख़न्दक खोदने पर इत्तिफ़ाक़ किया जैसे की जंग एहज़ाब के रोज़ रसूल अल्लाह सल्लल्लाहो अलैहे वसल्लम ने किया था, बस सब लोगों ने इस बात को क़ुबूल किया और जनाब नफ़्से ज़किया ने रसूल अल्लाह सल्लल्लाहो अलैहे वसल्लम कि इक़तिदा मे लोगों के साथ अपने हाथो से ख़न्दक खोदा, और उन्हें इस ख़न्दक से एक ईंट नज़र आई तो वो ख़ुश हो गयें और हज़रत नफ़्से ज़किया को फ़तेह की बशारत दी गई, और उन्होंने तकबीर कही, और जब ईसा बिन मूसा हौज़ मे उतरा और मदीना के नज़दीक़ हुआ तो मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने मिंबर पर चढ़कर लोगों से ख़िताब किया और उन्हें बैअत के बारे मे आज़ादी दी कि तुममे से जो चाहे बैअत पर क़ायम रहे और जो चाहे उससे आज़ाद हो जाए, आपने लोगों को जिहाद के लिये भी तरग़ीब दिया, जो तक़रीबन एक लाख आदमी थे, लेकिन उनमे ज़्यादातर लोग अपने अहल के साथ मदीना से अलग हो गयें और आपके साथ कम लोग रह गयें! फिर ईसा बिन मूसा बारह (12) रमज़ानुल मुबारक हफ़्ते के दिन सन् एक सौ पैंतालीस (145) हिजरी मे अलजरफ़ मे सुलैमान बिन अब्दुल मुल्क के हौज़ पर मदीना के चार मील के फ़ासले पर उतरा, और उसने अपने पाँच सवारों को मक्का के रास्ते मे दरख़्त के पास भेजा ताकि अगर हज़रत नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु उधर जाएं तो उन्हें पकड़ लें! ईसा बिन मूसा ने सैय्यदना मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया को मंसूर की इताअत अख़्तियार करने का पैग़ाम भेजा और कहा कि वो अगर उसकी बात मान ले, तो वो उनको और उनके अहले बैत को आज़ादी दे देगा, हज़रत मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने ईसा बिन मूसा के ऐलची से कहा अगर ऐलचियों को क़त्ल ना करने का कोई उसूल न होता तो मै तुझे क़त्ल कर देता, फिर उन्होंने ईसा बिन मूसा को पैग़ाम भेजा ‘मै तुझे किताबउल्लाह और सुन्नते रसूल अल्लाह सल्लल्लाहो अलैहे वसल्लम के तरफ़ दावत देता हूँ, और तू इन्कार से बच वरना मै तुझे क़त्ल करदूंगा और तू बड़ा मक़तूल होगा और या तू मुझे क़त्ल करदेगा और तू उस शख़्स का क़ातिल होगा जिसने तुझे किताबउल्लाह और सुन्नते मुस्तफ़ा सल्लल्लाहो अलैहे वसल्लम की तरफ़ दावत दी है! फिर उनदोनो के दरमियान तीन दिन तक ऐलची आते-जाते रहे और वो इन्हें दावत देता और आप उसे दावत देते! ईसा बिन मूसा इन तीनों दिनों मे सलअ की नज़दीकी घाटी पर खड़े होकर यही ऐलान करता रहता था कि ‘ऐ अहले मदीना हम पर तुम्हारा ख़ून हराम है बस जो महज़ हमारे झण्डे तले आकर खड़ा हो जायेगा उसको अमान है जो अपने घर मे दाख़िल हो जायेगा उसको अमान है जो मदीना से बाहर चला जायेगा उसे अमान है और जो अभी अपने हथियारों को फेंक देगा उसको अमान है हमे तुमसे जंग नही करना हमे तो बस ‘मोहम्मद’ चाहिये कि हम उसे ख़लीफ़ा के पास ले जायें! इस बात पर अहले मदीना ने उस पर और उसकी माँ पर लानत भेजी और उससे कहा कि ऐ ईसा बिन मूसा हमारे पास मोहम्मद सल्लल्लाहो अलैहे वसल्लम का साहबज़ादा है और हम उसकी हिफ़ाज़त करेंगे और तेरे साथ जंग करेंगे! बस इस बात पर ईसा बिन मूसा बुरा ज़लील हुआ और उसने जंग की ठान ली! उसने अपने फ़ौजों को कई दस्तों मे तक़सीम कर दिया और उसने हरावल पर हमीद बिन कैहतबा को मैमना पर मोहम्मद बिन सफ़ाह को मैसरह पर दाऊद बिन करार को और साका पर अल हशैम बिन शैबा को अमीर मुक़र्रर किया और उनके पास ऐसे जंगी हथियार थे जो इससे क़ब्ल नही देखे गयें थें लेकिन हज़रत मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के पास आपके जद् बुज़ुर्गवार हज़रत अली हैदरे कर्रार शेरे ख़ुदा की तलवार ‘ज़ुल्फ़िकार’ थी जिसका कोई मुक़ाबिल नही था!

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 शहादतपन्द्रह (15) रमज़ानुल मुबारक सन् एक सौ पैंतालीस (145) हिजरी तक़रीबन सात सौ तिरसठ (763) ईस्वी को दोशम्बे के दिन मक़ाम ”अहजाज़ अल ज़ैत” (जो मदीना तय्यबा के कुछ फ़ासले पर है) हज़रत मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु और ईसा बिन मूसा के फ़ौज के दरमियान जंग छिड़ गई बड़े ज़ोर का रन हुआ, ज‌‌हां ईसा बिन मूसा का लश्करे जर्रार था वहीं हज़रत मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया के साथ सिर्फ़ तीन सौ तेरह (313) फ़िदायीन थे, मगर उन सब पर भारी थे काफ़ी क़त्लो ग़ारत हुई यहाँ तक अस्र का वक़्त हो गया हज़रत मोहम्मद ज़किया अस्र की नमाज़ अदा करने के लिये सलअ मे वादी के पानी बहने की जगह चले गयें और कुछ देर के लिये जंग मुलतवी हो गयी! नमाज़ अदा करने के बाद हज़रत ने अपनी तलवार का म्यान तोड़ दिया और घोड़े की कूँचें काट दी और आपके तमाम असहाबों ने भी यही किया और फिर जंग छिड़ गयी जिसमे आपके काफ़ी असहाब को फरीक़ैन ने क़त्ल कर दिया और आप भी पा प्यादह हो गयें! मशहूर है कि हज़रत मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया ने ईसा बिन मूसा के सत्तर बहादुरों को अपने हाथों से क़त्ल किया, अहले इराक़ ने आप पर हमला बोल दिया और हज़रत इमाम नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के जाँनिसारों की एक टुकड़ी ने शहादत का जाम नोश फ़रमाया, जंग बहुत तेज़ हो गयी और आपके जाँनिसारों की तादाद बहुत कम हो गयी लेकिन आप रज़िअल्लाहु तआला अन्हु ने शेर के तरह ईसा बिन मूसा के फ़ौज का सामना किया काफ़ी देर तक इसी हालत मे लड़ाई चलती रही लेकिन आपके फ़िदायीनों कि कमी हो जाने और आपके तन्हा हो जाने के सबब अहले इराक़ आप पर ग़ालिब आ गयें और अपना स्याह झ्ण्डा सलअ पर बलन्द कर दिया और फिर मदीना मुनव्वरा मे दाख़िल होकर मस्जिदे नबवी पर स्याह झण्डे को नस्ब कर दिया ये देखकर हज़रत मोहम्मद ज़किया के असहाब एक दूसरे से कहने लगे मदीना छिन गया, मदीना छिन गया और हज़रत सैय्यदना इमाम मोहम्मद ज़िउन्नफ़्स अज़ ज़की रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु को तन्हा छोड़ कर वहाँ से भाग खड़े हुए आपके साथियों की बेवफ़ाई के वजह से आप तन्हा हो गयें लेकिन आपके हाथों मे ज़ुल्फ़िकार थी और जो कोई आपके तरफ़ बढ़ता आप उसे क़त्ल करते जाते थे हत्ता की आपने काफ़ी इराक़ियों को वासिले जहन्नम किया ये देखकर अहले इराक़ियों ने हुजूम बनाकर आप पर हमला कर दिया इनमे से एक ने आपके दायें कान के लौ के नीचे बड़े बेरहमी से हमला किया जिससे आप ज़मीन पर गिर पड़े और अपने आपको बचाने लगें और कहने लगें तुम हलाक हो जाओ तुम्हारे नबी का बेटा मजरुह और मज़लूम है! हमीद बिन कैहतबा कहने लगा ऐ लोगों इनको क़त्ल न करो तो इससे लोग रुक गयें और उसके बाद ख़ुद आगे बढ़कर उसने हज़रत इमाम ज़िउन्नफ़्स अज़ ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के सरे अनवर को जिस्म मुबारक से जुदा कर दिया और उसको ईसा बिन मूसा के पास भेज दिया! ईसा बिन मूसा ने आपके सर को मंसूर के सामने ले जाकर रख दिया! मंसूर ने आपके सरे अनवर को सफ़ेद तश्त पर रख दिया और ये हुक्म दिया कि उसे बाज़ारों और सूबों मे घुमाया जाये तो उसके ग़ुलामों ने उसके हुक्म की तामील की! मंसूर ने इमाम नफ़्से ज़किया के साथ ख़ुरूज करने वाले अशराफ़े क़ुरैश को अपने दरबार मे बुलाना शुरु किया और उनमे से बाज़ लोगों को मौत की सज़ा दी बाज़ को तड़पा कर मौत के घाट उतारा और बाज़ को उसने माफ़ कर दिया!

ज़ुल्फ़िक़ारे अली रज़िअल्लाहु अन्हुहज़रत अली रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु की तलवार ज़ुल्फ़िकार जो आपसे हज़रत इमाम नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के पास पहुँची थी वो हज़रत की शहादत के बाद अब्बासी ख़लीफ़ा मंसूर के पास भेज दी गयी और जो अबु जाफ़र मंसूर से पुश्त दर पुश्त अब्बासी ख़लीफ़ाओं के पास मुन्तक़िल होती रही!

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हदीसे पाकहज़रत सैय्यदना अबु ज़र ग़फ़्फ़ारी रज़िअल्लाहु अन्हु से हदीसे पाक मरवी है कि आप रसूल अल्लाह सल्लल्लाहो अलैहे वसल्लम ने फ़रमाया कि ”ऐ लोगों तुम्हे कैसा महसूस होगा जब मेरा एक फ़रज़न्द मक़ाम ”अहजाज़-अल-ज़ैत” मे बड़ी बेदर्दी से क़त्ल कर दिया जाएगा! और ये हदीस मुबारक हज़रत इमाम सैय्यदना ज़िउन्नफ़्स अज़ ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के शक्ल मे पूरी हुई और आपको आपके अहले ख़ानदान के तरह (जिनमे हज़रत सैय्यदना इमाम हुसैन अलैहिस्सलाम और हज़रत सैय्यदना ज़ैद शहीद रज़िअल्लाहु अन्हु को भी बड़ी बेदर्दी से सदाए-हक़ बुलन्द करने की वजह से क़त्ल कर दिया गया था) क़त्ल कर दिया गया!

हज़रत इमाम बुख़ारी फ़रमाते हैं कि हज़रत नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु अ‍पने हदीस पर मुवाफ़कत नही करते थें और आपही ने बयान किया है कि आपकी वालिदा आपको चार साल तक अपने हमल मे लिये रहीं और आपही ने ये भी बयान किया है कि आप तवील फ़रबह गन्दुमगो आली सतूत बलन्द हिम्मत और शुजाअत वाले थें और आपको 15 रमज़ानुल मुबारक सन् 145 मे 45 साल की उम्र मे क़त्ल कर दिया गया!

हज़रत सैय्यदना मोहम्मद ज़िउन्नफ़्स अज़ ज़किया रज़िअल्लाहु तआला अन्हु ने बहुत सी किताबें तसव्वुफ़ पर लिखी जिनमे मुस्तक़बिल के ऐसे ऐसे राज़ अयाँ थे कि अगर वो किसी अहले दीन के हाथों मे होती तो वो दीन पर साबित क़दम होता और वो किताब ख़िदमते ख़ल्क मे काफ़ी मददगार साबित होती, लेकिन वहीं किसी ऐसे इन्सान (बददीन) के हाथों मे आजाती तो वो उसका ग़लत फ़ाएदा उठाता और दीन को तल्क़ मल्क़ कर देता और इसीलिये हज़रत इमाम नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने जंग पर जाने से पहले अपने अहले ख़ाना से ताक़ीद किया कि अगर वो जंग मे शहीद हो जाते हैं तो वो उनकी तमाम किताबों को जला दें क्योंकि अगर वो अब्बासियों के हाथ लग गई तो शायद वो उसका ग़लत इस्तेमाल करेंगे!

मज़ार मुबारक हज़रत सैय्यदना इमाम मोहम्मद नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के सरे अनवर को मंसूर के पास भेज दिया गया था जिसकी बेहुर्मती करने के लिये उसने उसे गली कूँचों मे फिरवाया और फिर उसे इमाम नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह अन्हु की हमशीरा सैय्यदा ज़ैनब को सौंप दिया जिसे उन्होंने जन्नतुल बक़िया मे दफ़्न करवा दिया और जिस्म मुबारक को मक़ाम ”अहजाज़-अल-ज़ैत” मे दफ़्न किया गया था और आपकी मज़ार भी वहीं मौजूद थी जिसको 1925 मे नज्दियों ने मुनहदिम करा दिया था और उसके जगह (सैप्ट्को बस स्टैण्ड) बनवा दिया था!

हज़रत सैय्यदना इब्राहीम बिन अब्दुल्लाह अल महज़ रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु को भी आपके भाई सैय्यदना नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के तरह 25 ज़ीक़अद 145 हिजरी तक़रीबन 763 ईस्वी को बसरह मे शहीद कर दिया गया! (तारीख़ इब्ने ख़लदून, तरीख़ इब्ने कसीर, तारीख़ तिबरी)

औलाद मुबारक हज़रत सैय्यदना मोहम्मद ज़िउन्नफ़्स अज़ ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु को आपकी ज़ौजा सैय्यदा सलमह के बत्ने अक़दस से दो फ़रज़न्द अल्लाह रब्बुल इज़्ज़त ने अता किये (1) हज़रत सैय्यदना अब्दुल्लाह अल अशतर उर्फ़ अब्दुल्लाह शाह ग़ाज़ी रहमतउल्लाह अलैह (जद् सादात-ए-क़ुत्बिया) (आपको आपके वालिद हज़रत इमाम नफ़्से ज़किया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु ने इस्लाम के तबलीग़ के लिये सरज़मीने सिन्ध के तरफ़ रवाना किया जिसका ज़िक्र अभी आगे होगा) और (2) सैय्यदना हसन उर्फ़ मिस्री शाह रहमतउल्लाह अलैह (आप भी बहुत बड़े वली है, आपने भी गिरआँक़द्र ख़िदमत इस्लाम की सरअंजाम दिया है, आपका मज़ार मराकश मे है और वहाँ का सबसे मारूफ़ मज़ार है और मर्जा-ए-ख़लायक बना हुआ है और मिस्री शाह रहमतउल्लाह अलैह के नाम से मशहूर और मारूफ़ है!                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

सिन्ध की मुख़्तसर तारीख़हज़रत अब्दुल्लाह शाह ग़ाज़ी रहमतउल्लाह अलैह की हालाते ज़िन्दगी पर रौशनी डालने से पहले ये जानलेना ज़रूरी है कि आपके यहाँ तशरीफ़ावरी से पहले क्या हालात थे, इसका नाम सिन्ध होने की वजेह तस्मिया, और यहाँ इस्लाम की कितनी तबलीग़ हुई और उसे फ़ैलाने मे मुसलमान कितना कामियाब हो पायें! ”मोहम्मद क़ासिम फ़रिश्ता” इस मौज़ूउ पर इस तरह अपनी किताब ”तारीख़ फ़रिश्ता” मे रक़्मतराज़ हैं कि हज़रत नूह अलैहिस्सलाम ने तूफ़ान थम जाने के बाद अपने तीनो फ़रज़न्दों हाम, साम, और साफ़िस को ख़ेती बाड़ी और कारोबार का हुक्म देकर दुनिया के चारो एतराफ़ मे रवाना किया! हाम बिन नूह अलैहिस्सलाम दुनिया के जुनूबी हिस्से के तरफ़ गयें और उसको आबाद और ख़ुशहाल किया! हाम बिन नूह अलैहिस्सलाम के छ: फ़रज़न्द हुए जिनमे एक का नाम सिन्द था और यही सिन्द बिन हाम ने सरज़मीने सिन्ध को सरसब्ज़ो शादाब किया और इन्हीं के नाम के मुनास्बत से इस ख़ित्ते का नाम सिन्द हुआ जो बाद मे सिन्ध कहा जाने लगा! इसी मौज़ूउ पर तारीख़ फ़रिश्ता और मुस्तनद किताबों के हवाले से ”जनाब मौलाना डा. सिब्ते शब्बर ज़ैदी साहब” अपनी किताब ”सिन्ध तसव्वुफ़ और अब्दुल्लाह शाह ग़ाज़ी” मे लिखते हैं कि सिन्ध की तारीख़ उस वक़्त से बयान की जाती है जब ”अर्या” क़बाएल यहाँ हमलावर हुई और यहाँ मौजूद क़दीम बशिन्दों यानी ”दारुड़” (द्रविड) क़ौम को अपना ग़ुलाम बना लिया और ये वाक़ेआ हज़रत ईसा अलैहिस्सलाम से तक़रीबन दो हज़ार (2000) साल पहले का है और हज़रत ईसा अलैहिस्सलाम से तक़रीबन आठ सौ (800) साल पहले सिन्ध और अरब के दरमियान तिजारती ताल्लुक़ात कायम हुए! तीन सौ पचीस साल क़ब्ल मसीह सिकन्दरे आज़म ने इस ख़ित्ते को फतेह करने की ग़रज़ से यहाँ हमला किया जिससे इस इलाक़े को मज़ीद शोहरत हासिल हुई! ”मोहन जोदड़ो” के असरात और ख़ण्डरात से यहाँ के तहज़ीब का बख़ूबी अन्दाज़ा किया जा सकता है यहाँ के लोग मुख़्तलिफ़ मज़हबों और ज़बानों के हामिल रहें हैं! सिन्ध और अरब के तिजारती ताल्लुक़ात ज़्यादा क़दीमी और अहम थे सिन्ध के मुख़्तलिफ़ इलाक़ों से मुख़्तलिफ़ क़िस्म के अम्वाल अरब जाया करते थे और अरब के मुख़्तलिफ़ बाज़ारों मे फरोख़्त होते थे और अरब यहाँ अच्छे क़िस्म के घोड़ों को फ़रोख़्त करते थे! सिन्ध नाम की दूसरी वजेह जनाब शब्बर ज़ैदी साहब इस तरह बयान करते हैं कि जब अर्या समाज यहाँ आयें तो यहाँ एक बड़ी दरिया को बहते देखा जिसे इनकी ज़बान मे सिन्धू कहा जाता था बस इसी मुनास्बत से ये लोग इस पूरे इलाक़े को सिन्धू कहने लगे जो बाद मे सिन्धू से सिन्ध हो गया!

सिन्ध मे इस्लामहज़रत जनाब उमर बिन ख़त्ताब रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के ज़माने सन् पन्द्रह (15) हिजरी मे उस्मान बिन अबिलआस सक़फ़ी बहरैन और उमान के गवर्नर मुक़र्रर किये गयें इनके हुक्म से हकम बिन अबिलआस ने भरुच पर फ़ौजकशी की और मुग़ैरा बिन अबिलआस के लश्कर ने दैबल के तरफ़ कूच किया अरबों का सिन्ध पर ये पहला हमला शुमार किया जाता है, इस तरह सिन्ध का एक हिस्सा मुसलमानों के ज़ेरे असर आया, फिर हज़रत उस्माने ग़नी रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के ज़माने सन् पचीस (25) हिजरी मे हकीम बिन जब्ला अब्दी ने इधर का रुख़ किया लेकिन मुश्किलात के सबब तसख़ीरे सिन्ध का मंसूबा मुलतवी कर दिया गया और लश्कर सिन्ध पर हमला न कर सका, फिर जनाब मौला अली शेरे ख़ुदा रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के दौरे हुकूमत सन् उन्तालीस (39) हिजरी मे सिन्ध पर हारिस बिन मुर्र्ह अब्दी ने हमला किया और फ़तेह हासिल की, फिर हज़रत अमीर मुआविया रज़िअल्लाह तआला अन्हु के दौरे हुकूमत सन् चव्वालिस (44) हिजरी मे महलब बिन अबि सफ़रह की दानिस्त मे फौज को सिन्ध के तरफ़ भेजा गया लेकिन उन्हें भी शिकस्त हासिल हुई, फिर उसी दौर मे अब्दुल्लाह बिन सवार ने सिन्ध पर लश्करकशी किया लेकिन उन्हें भी कोई ख़ास कामियाबी हासिल न हुई, फिर उसके बाद बड़ा लश्कर बनि उमय्या के ख़लीफा वलीद बिन अब्दुल मुल्क के दौरे हुकूमत मे चौरानबे (94) हिजरी मे सिन्ध के तरफ़ रवाना हुआ जिसके सिपेहसालार मोहम्मद बिन क़ासिम थे! मोहम्मद बिन क़ासिम से क़ब्ल मुसलमान सिन्ध के सरज़मीं पर अपनी कोई मुकम्मल हुकूमत बनाने मे कामियाब न हो सके अलबत्ता इस्लाम सिन्ध मे पहुँच चुका था लेकिन मुकम्मल तौर पर इस्लाम की इशाअत अभी बाक़ी थी जिसे शायद ख़ुदा को हज़रत सैय्यदना अब्दुल्लाह शाह ग़ाज़ी के दस्ते अक़दस से कराना था!

सिन्ध मे मुसलमान गवर्नरन् चौरानबे (94) हिजरी मे मोहम्मद बिन क़ासिम ने सिन्ध को फ़तेह किया और पहले गवर्नर के हैसियत से वहाँ की ज़िम्मेदारी सँभाली और उनके बाद हज़रत सैय्यदना अबु अब्दुल्लाह अल अशतर उर्फ़ अब्दुल्लाह शाह ग़ाज़ी रहमतउल्लाह अलैह की शहादत तक दर्ज ज़ेल गवर्नर नामज़द हुए!

(1) यज़ीद बिन अबि कब्शा

(2) आमिर बिन अब्दुल्लाह

(3) हबीब बिन महलब

(4) अम्र बिन मुस्लिम बाहली

(5) जुनैद बिन अब्दुल रहमान अलर्री

(6) तमीम बिन ज़ैद अतबी

(7) हकम बिन अवॉन क़ल्बी

(8) अम्र बिन मोहम्मद बिन क़ासिम

(9) यज़ीद बिन अरारी

(10) मंसूर बिन जम्हूर

(11) मूसा बिन क़अब तमीमी

(12) अय्यना बिन मूसा तमीमी

(13) अम्र बिन हफ़्स बिन उस्मान (इन्हीं के दौरे हुकूमत मे हज़रत अब्दुल्लाह शाह ग़ाज़ी सिन्ध तशरीफ़ लायें)

(14) हिश्शाम बिन अमरु तग़लबी (इन्हीं के वक़्त मे इस्लाम पूरी तरह सिन्ध की सरज़मीं पर पहुँचा जिसका वाहिद सबब हज़रत सैय्यदना अब्दुल्लाह शाह ग़ाज़ी रहमतउल्लाह अलैह की बाबरकत शख़्सियत थी जिसका ज़िक्र आपके ज़मन मे अभी आगे आएगा)

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Hazrat sarkar Imam Muhammad Al-Nafs Al-Zakiyya al Mahdi r.a jo apne waqt k sardar aur tahreek e Alvi k baani the.aapne Abbasi khaleefa jafar Al mansoor k khilaf khurooj o qayam kiya tha. Aur ahle madeena aur Makka ne Aapke dast paak par bait kiya tha. Aapki himayat aur rafaqat me Hazrat imam abu haneefa r.a ne fatwa diya tha jiske eiwaz aapko qaid khane me zaher Dekar khatm karwa diya gya aur Imam Malik r.a k bazu katwa diye gye. Aur Khud aapko bhi Jang me maqaam ahjar az zait jo madeena Munawwara se kuch fasle par hai badi bedardi se shaheed karwa diya gya. Aapki Mazaar pur Anwar bhi jannatul baqi shareef me hai.

Muhammed b. ‘Abd Allah b. al-Hasan was among the leading ‘Alawids in his knowledge, his jurisprudence, his bravery, and his generosity. He had all kinds of hereditary and acquisitive merits. He was called Dhu al-Nafs al-Zakiya and Sarih Quraysh, for neither his mother nor his grandmothers were slave wives; rather his forefathers and grandmothers belonged to Quraysh. The people called him al-Mehdi of whom the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, gave good news.[3] In this respect the poet says:

We hope that Muhammed will be an Imam through whom the revealed Book lives.
Through whom Islam is good as it became corrupt, and (through whom) a miserable, dependent orphan lives.He will fill our land with justice as is filled with misguidance, and will bring that which I expect.[4]

[1] Al-Ghadir, vol. 3, p. 238.
[2] Al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, vol. 10, p. 81.
[3] Ghayat al-Ikhtisar, p. 12.
[4] Maqatil al-Talibiyyin, p. 243.

He was similar to his grandfather the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, in his behavior and morals. The people of Medina thought that if it was possible for Allah to send a prophet after Muhammed, may Allah bless him and his family, he would be he.[1]

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All the Hashimites nominated him for the caliphate.

The Zaydis regarded Muhammad Nafs az-Zakiyyah and Ibrahim as among the Zaydi Imams because Yahya ibn Zayd had designated them as his successors.

Al-Mansur al-Dewaniqi served him, ordered the clothes he worn, and held his mount, that he might seek nearness to him. He and his brother al-Saffah pledged allegiance to him twice. When the ‘Abbasids usurped the government, Muhammed severely felt pain and summoned the people to pledge allegiance to him, and they responded to him. Muhammed and his brother Ibrahim hid themselves, while the summoners to them traveled trough the cities summoning the people to them. Their father ‘Abd Allah urged them to revolt (against the ‘Abbasids) and moved them to struggle against them. He said to them: “Surely, If Abu Ja’far (al-Mansur) has prevented you from living as honorable, he cannot prevent you from dying as honorable.”[2]

When Muhammed heard of the death of his father along with his ‘Alawid cousins in the prison of al-Mansur, and of different kinds of punishment and torture which happened to them, he and his brother Ibrahim decided to declare the revolt on a certain day. Muhammed declared it in Yethrib on the due day, as it was said. The people pledged allegiance to him; they were delighted with their pledging allegiance to him. His army occupied the official offices and controlled the public treasury. The people of the Yemen and Mecca hurried to pledge allegiance to him. Many people gathered to show obedience and submission to him, and he rose among them and delivered a sermon.

He praised and lauded Allah, and then he said: “Now then, O people, it is clear to you that this tyrannical, the enemy of Allah, Abu Ja’far (al-Mansur) has built a green dome as a sign of opposing Allah in His kingdom and of belittling the Holy Kaaba, while Allah punished Pharaoh when he said: “I am your most high lord! The most appropriate of people in undertaking this religion are the children of the Emigrants and the Ansar, who helped them. O Allah, surely they have made lawful the things you made unlawful and made unlawful the things you made lawful. So they have given security to him whom You frightened and frightened him to whom You gave security. Therefore, count them in number, and kill them separately, and leave none of them!

“O people, surely, by Allah, I have come out in revolt among you while I think that your not men of strength and intense. However I have chosen you for my self; I have come to this (city) while the pledge of allegiance has been taken to me in all those cities where Allah is served.”[3]

This oration indicates that the pledge of allegiance was taken to him from all the

[1] Shadharat al-Dhahab, vol. 1, p. 213.
[2] Maqatil al-Talibiyyin, p. 243.
[3] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 9, p. 219.

Islamic regions. However, some of those who commented on his speech thought that al-Mansur schemed against him. It was he who ordered his governors to write letters to Muhammed and to respond to his summons, that he might hurry to declare the revolt before he ended his plans, and that al-Mansur might put an end to it in the bud.

Any way, when al-Mansur hear of the revolt, he sent an army of about four thousand horsemen and appointed over it his crown prince, ‘Isa b. Musa, as commander in chief. The army covered the desert and reached Yethrib (Medina). When Muhammed came to know of the arrival of the army, he spread his fighters all over the streets and the lanes. Before the outbreak of the battle, he addressed his army, saying: “O People, we have gathered you to fight (them); we will entrust the mountain passes to you. The enemy is close to you and is many in number. Victory is from Allah, and the affair is in His hand. It seems to me that I have to give you permission (to leave) and to make easy the ways to you; there fore, whoever wishes to stay, he can stay; and whoever wishes to leave, he can leave.”

This oration belongs to someone who was deserted, had no trust in victory and no hope in overcoming the events due to the fact that his army was few in number while that of the enemy was great in number. He did not force his companions to battle against the enemy, nor did he depend on the means of deception and misguidance. So manhood and nobility were clear in this attitude of his.

When the opportunists and those ambitious heard his speech, they deserted him. Accordingly, none remained with him except his very loyal companions,[1] who had no ability to defend him. So ‘Abd Allah b. Ja’far[2] hurried to him and said to him: “My father and mother be ransom for you; surely you have no ability (to defeat) what I have seen, and with you there is none honest to fight (them). Therefore, go now and join al-Hasan b. Mu’awiya in Mecca, for most your companions are with him.”

Muhammed answered him according to the honor and nobility his great soul had, saying: “O Abu Ja’far, by Allah, If I went out, the people of Medina would be killed. By Allah, I will not return until I kill or be killed. You are free in respect with me. So go wherever you wish.”[3] [1] Ibid.
[2] ‘Abd Allah b. Ja’far was the eldest of his brothers after Isma’il but he did not have a position of honor with his father similar to the rest of his father’s sons. He was suspected of opposing his father’s teaching; and it is said that he used to mix with the Hashwiyya and was inclined towards the beliefs of the Murji’a. He claimed the Imamate after his father and argued that he was the eldest of the surviving brothers. A group of the followers of Abu ‘Abd Allah, peace be on him, followed him in his declaration. Later must of them went back to the doctrine of the Imamate of his brother Musa, peace be on him. We will explain that. This has been mentioned in Tanqeeh al-Maqaal, vol. 2, p. 174.
[3] Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 9, p. 224.

If Muhammed had left Yethrib (Medina), al-Mansur’s Army would have occupied it, treated the people with an extreme severity, and violated all the sacred things. Thus, Muhammed thought that he had to stay therein and to sacrifice himself for security and safety of the people. The battle broke out between the two sides. After a terrible conflict between the forces of the truth and those of falsehood, the great leader, Muhammed Dhu al-Nafs al-Zakiya, was badly wounded and fell on the ground and knelt down. The sinful one, Hemid b. Qahtaba, shouted at his fighters, saying: “Do not kill him!” Then the rogue (Hemid b. Qahtaba) himself went and cut off his holy head,[1] that he alone might commit the sin and enter the Hell-fire!

With this one of the most wonderful page of the pages of the holy jihad ended, and the greatest reformative movement in the Islamic world was folded, while it aimed at spreading justice, prevailing of security and ease among the people. The good forces collapsed; the hopes of the free were destroyed, for they lost their high leader, who was for them as a light stand in the way of struggle and jihad.

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The Revolt of Ibrahim al-Zaki

Ibrahim b. ‘Abd Allah was among the leading thinkers and one of the eminent men of his time in his knowledge, his courtesy, his good manners, and his good management. His pure soul was full of faith in the right of the community. So he went to the fields of jihad to save it from the government of enslavement and abasement. He intended to establish among its lands the Islamic justice and the Qur’anic laws.

The thing for which Ibrahim was famous was that he had an iron will; he was alert and sensitive. Al-Mansur increasingly wanted him to be arrested, so he spread spies on him. Ibrahim could sit on the dinning tables of al-Mansur, and he did not recognize him. He mentioned that, saying: “The looking (for me) in al-Mousil forced me to sit on the dinning tables of al-Mansur. He came to it (al-Mousil) to look for me. The (people of) the land expelled me, and I found no allowable place. He imposed searching (for me), spread spies (on me), and invited the people to his lunch. However, I came in among those who came in, and ate among those who ate, and then I went out. As a result he refrained from looking (for me).”

This boldness is a proof of his unique abilities that placed him on the level of the great, who do not think of defeat, and whose determination is not changed by difficult events. The sad news of the murder of his brother came to him while he was on the pulpit and delivering a speech, so he recited the following poetry lines:

O Abu al-Manazil, O best of knights, whoever is bereaved of you in the world is indeed bereaved!
[1] Maqatil al-Talibiyyin.

Allah knows that if I fear them and the heart is fearful of them, they will not kill him, and I will not hand over my brother to them until we all die or we all live!

Then his tears flowed on his holy face, and he praised his brother, and composed some words out of his sadness, saying: “O Allah, You know that Muhammed went out in revolt to show anger for You, to remove these heavy (days), and to prefer Your right; therefore have mercy on him, forgive him; make the hereafter the best resort and return for him in the world.”

He elegized his brother with these poetry lines:

I will lament for you through the thin, white (swords) and the spear, for surely through them the seeker attain his revenge.
We are the people who do not weep for their perishing one, even if he breaks their backs.
I am not like the one who mourns for his brother with tears he makes through pressing the water of his eyeball with pressing.
But I relieve my heart through an attack with which I inflame firebrands among their phalanxes.[1]
The heroism in the brilliant sense of the word was present in this wonderful attitude Ibrahim adopted, for the murder of his brother did not weaken his determination; rather it increased him in faith and determination, and he continued his struggle.
Ibrahim declared his great revolt against al-Mansur in Basrah, so the Muslims responded to him and joined his summons. Sufyan b. Mu’awiya, the governor of Basrah, was among those who supported him. He always contacted with him and informed him of al-Mansur’s new decisions concerning Basrah. He helped him very much with the affairs of the revolt.

Ibrahim occupied Basrah and sent the summoners to him to al-Ahwaz, Persia, Wasit, and al-Meda’in. These countries responded to him and pledged allegiance to him. The flag of the ‘Alawid state waved over them. The news of the violent revolt successively came to al-Mansur, and he became afraid, frightened, and impatient. Al-Hajjajj b. Qutayba came in to him and saw him hitting the ground with his scepter and reciting:

I have installed myself as a target for spears; surely the head does the like of that!
So al-Hajjajj said to him: “May Allah make your glory last and grant you a victory over your enemy, you say just as al-A’sha has said: [1] Ibid., 342.

“‘And if their war is kindled among them and is heated for them after its being cold, it will find someone who is patient toward its heat, the attacks of wars, and their repetition.”

Al-Mansur said to him: “O Hajjajj, surely Ibrahim has come to know my rough side, my difficult direction, and my coarse horn. He has been encouraged to walk towards me from Basrah by these countries neighboring the troops of the Commander of the faithful; the people of Iraq have agreed with him on opposition and disobedience to me. I have shot each country with its own stone and every district with its own arrow. I have sent to them a noble, blessed, victorious one, ‘Isa b. Musa along with many troops and equipment. I have sought help from Allah against him (Ibrahim) and regarded Him as sufficient to him, for surely the Commander of the faithful has neither strength nor force except through Him.”

When Ibrahim had troops supplied with numbers and equipment, he decided to go to war against al-Mansur. However, his companions from Basrah advised him to stay in Basrah and to send the troops; if they had escaped, he would have reinforced them with other than them. Some people from Kufa said: “Surely there are many groups of people in Kufa. If they saw you, they would die before you; and if they did not see you, many reasons would hold them back (from fighting).” As for Ibrahim, he responded to the viewpoint of the Kufans. As a result he himself headed for al-Mansur to war against him. If he had stayed in Basrah, he would have overcome those events and won a victory.

Al-Mansur sent an army of fifty thousand fighters to battle against Ibrahim. He appointed ‘Isa b. Musa, his crown prince, as a command-in-chief over the army and appointed Hemid b. Qahtaba as commander over its vanguard. He said to him when he saw him off: “Surely these wicked people (the ast3rs) claim that when you meet Ibrahim, your companions will wander about one time in order to find him, then they will come to, and the final result will be yours.”

Ibrahim along with his troops covered the desert; he was heard reciting al-Qatami’s poetry lines:

If a wise man manage the affairs, then Whayb will end what he can do.
The disobedience to the one who is compassionate to you is of that which increases you in strength when you hear from him.
The best of things is that which you receive from him, and not that you follow him with following.
But when the leather is cut, is won-out and defective, so artisans are overcome.[1]
[1] Al-Kamil, vol. 5, p. 18.

This indicates that he repented of his walking (towards al-Mansur), for he came to know that if had stayed in Basrah, it would have been better for him. Then he along with his troops headed for Bakhimra, and not for Kufa lest the honors should be violated and the children should be killed. Some people advised him to walk towards Kufa, for it would be more guaranteed, but he did not respond to them out of fear of what we have mentioned.

The fire of the war broke out between the two sides, and al-Mansur’s army was defeated and its vanguards reached Kufa. So al-Mansur was afraid, intended to escape, and mentioned the words of Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on him, concerning that the ‘Abbasids would win the government. That was when he said to al-Rabi’: “Where is the statement of their (Imam called) al-Sadiq? How have our children not attained it (the government)? So where is the emirate of the boys?”

When he was besieged and straitened, he ordered the camels and other animals to be put at all the gates of Kufa, that he might escape from it. Al-Mansur’s troops returned after their defeat because of a river they found and were not able to pass it. So they all came back. Ibrahim’s companions had moved through water, that they might fight on one front. Thus, when they tried to escape, the water prevented them from escaping. Ibrahim along with some of his companions resisted. Hemid b. Qahtaba fought against them and sent their heads to ‘Isa. A treacherous arrow came and fell into Ibrahim’s mouth, and he changed his place and said to his companions: “Bring me down!” They brought him down off his mount, and he said: “Allah’s command is a sealed determination! We wanted an affair, and Allah wanted other than it.”

His companions and his special group gathered around him to defend him and to fight on his behalf. So Hemid b. Qahtaba said (to his troops): “Attack that group (of fighters) to remove them from their places and to know that around which they have gathered.” They attacked them and removed them from Ibrahim. They cut off his holy head and brought it to ‘Isa. So he prostrated and sent the head to al-Mansur.[1]

With this one of the most wonderful pages of holy jihad was ended and a great person in the Islamic world was folded, while he intended to put an end to oppression and tyranny, and to return the honorable life in Islam.

When al-Mansur, the wicked and evil one, heard of the murder of the great martyr (Ibrahim), he was about to fly out of happiness, for he achieved all his hopes and expectations. He found delicious the food which was before him, and he said to those around him: “Ibrahim intended to prevent me from (having) such a food!”[2]
[1] Ibid., p. 224.
[2] Al-Mas’udi, Murujj al-Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 224.

Surely, the revolt of Ibrahim al-Zaki was not for the enjoyments and pleasures of the world; rather it was for destroying evil deeds, annihilating oppression, and saving the people from the terrorist government that ruled them during the days of al-Mansur. Surely that immortal revolt was for achieving ideals, putting the Qur’anic laws into practice among the general life of the people. Al-Mansur happily turned to those present in his gathering and said to them: “By Allah, I have never seen one more loyal to Merwan’s children than al-Hajjajj!”

So al-Musayyab b. Zahra al-Dabbi opposed him and showed him that they obeyed him more than al-Hajjajj did to his masters, the Umayyads, saying: “O Commander of the faithful, al-Hajjajj did not precede us to an affair, and we remained behind him. By Allah, Allah did not create on earth someone more beloved to us than our Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family. You ordered us to kill his children, and we obeyed you and did (that); therefore, are we loyal to you?”

His words hurt al-Mansur, and he shouted at him: “Sit down! May you not sit down!”[1] Al-Mansur possessed alone the kingdom after the revolt of the ‘Alawids. After that, the tyrannical and arrogant one, al-Mansur, went too far in oppressing and exhausting the subjects. That was because the good forces of which he was afraid were defeated. As a result he became earnest in punishing the ‘Alawids severely and in uprooting them. In the following pages we will deal with the different kinds of exhaustion they faced and which cannot be described out of its atrocity and severity.

His Putting them in Columns

When the revolt of the ‘Alawids was suppressed, al-Mansur looked for the rest of the ‘Alawids. He put those he found into empty columns built of plaster and bricks. He found a handsome boy of al-Hasan’s. He handed over the boy to a builder and ordered him to put him into an empty column and to brick him up. He entrusted one of his reliable persons with carrying that task. The builder put the boy into the empty column. He felt pity for him, and he left for him an outlet in the column, that some air might enter through it. He said to the boy: “Do not worry! Be patient! For surely, I will take you out of this column when it gets dark!”

When it became dark, the builder came and took the ‘Alawid (boy) out of it and said to: “Fear Allah in respect with (shedding) my blood and that of those workers with me. Hide your person; for surely I have taken you out of the column in the dark, for I have fear that your grandfather, Allah’s Apostle, may Allah and his family, will be my opponent before Allah on the Day of Judgment.” He asked the
[1] Ibid.

 

boy to hide his person, and he asked him to tell his mother of that, that her soul might be good, and her impatience might be less. The boy escaped, and none came to know where he lived. The builder reached the house appointed by the ‘Alawid boy, and he heard sound like that of bees out of crying. He knew that it was the boy’s mother. He told her about the story of her son and went away from her.[1]

The Case of the ‘Alawids’ Heads

The story of the case is full of sorrows and anxieties, for al-Mansur filled it with the heads of the ‘Alawids, old, young, and children. He ordered Rita, al-Mehdi’s wife, not to let al-Mehdi open it and not to come to know about it except after his death. Al-Teberi has narrated it in his book al-Tarikh. The following is its text: “When al-Mansur decided to perform the hajj, he sent for Rita, al-Mehdi’s wife, and ordered her about what he wanted. He entrusted her with and gave her the keys of the cases. He walked towards and made her take an oath. He confirmed the oath lest she should open some of the cases and inform anyone even her and al-Mehdi except that she came to know of his death. When she came to know of it, only she and al-Mehdi had to sit together to open the case. Al-Mehdi had been in al-Ray when Abu Ja’far (al-Mansur) went to the hajj. When he came from al-Ray and went to Medinat al-Salam (Baghdad), Rita gave him the keys and asked him not to open the cases and not to inform anybody of them until she came to know of al-Mansur’s death. When al-Mehdi heard of the death of al-Mansur and he undertook the caliphate, he along with Rita opened the door. Suddenly he found a big case where was a group of the Talibiyyin dead in whose ears were labels on which were their lineage. Among them were children, young men, and many old men. When al-Mehdi saw that, he became terrified. He ordered a bit to be dug, and they were buried in it. Then he ordered a shop to be built on them.”[2]

Al-Mansur kept and stored that case for the day on which property will not avail, nor sons. He stored it for the Day of Decision, and the day when the unjust one shall bite his hands.

The ‘Alawids ask al-Mansur for Mercy

The ‘Alawids asked this tyrannical one (al-Mansur) for mercy. However, neither human feelings nor the close kinship moved him to pardon them. He went to the Sacred House of Allah. While he was walking among his procession, the daughter of ‘Abd Allah b. al-Hasan walked towards him and recited to him the following, gentle poetry lines:

Have mercy on the young children of Yazid, surely they have become orphans because they have lost you, not because they have lost Yazid! Have mercy on the toothless old people who are in chains and shackles in prison!

[1] Bihar al-Anwar, vol.47, pp. 306-307. ‘Uyun Akhbar al-Rida, vol. 1, p. 111.
[2] Al-Tabari, vol. 6, p. 320, first edition.

If you punish us due to our crime, then we will be killed out of it everywhere!
If you are generous through the womb kinship among us, then your grandfather is not far from our grandfather![1]
Yet this gentle entreaty did not move his severe mind, and he said to her: “Have you reminded me of him, ‘Abd Allah’s daughter?”
Then he ordered him to be killed in the ground prison, and he breathed his last in it.
Through this action al-Mansur reached bottomless meanness and severity!

Imam al-Sadiq passes away

Imam al-Sadiq suffered all kinds of misfortunes and pain during the time of al-Mansur. He saw the exhaustion and the ordeals from which the Muslims suffered and saw the different kinds of punishments and torture the ‘Alawids met. His being safe from al-Mansur was a miracle in spite of his guarding against taking part in any of the political fields. This can be established through his famous tradition: “Safety has become rear, to the extent that requesting it has become hidden, for surely if it is (attained) through a thing, then it is about to (be attained) through inactivity. If it is sought through inactivity and is not found, then it is about (to be attained) through silence; and the happy is he who is busy with his own soul.”

Al-Mansur tried to kill him several times, but Allah turned away his plot from him. He summoned him several times while he was bursting with anger. He tried to kill him, but Allah drove away his evil from him. One day he commanded al-Rabi’ to go to him. However, al-Rabi’ sent his son Muhammed to him. He ordered him to bring him in the state in which he was, saying to him: “Go to Ja’far b. Muhammed. Climb the wall. Do not open any door to him lest he should change his condition. However, come down (the wall) and go to him.” Muhammed carried out the orders. He found the Imam standing and praying. After the Imam had finished his prayer, Muhammed said to him:

-Respond to the Commander of the faithful.

-Let me put on my clothes.

-We have no way to do that.

He brought the Imam as he was and made him come in to al-Mansur, and he angrily said to him: “Why do you not give up your envy, your oppression, and your plotting against this ‘Abbasid house. Allah will increase you nothing through that but intense envy and unhappiness through which you cannot attain what you have

[1] It has been mentioned in the book Tadhkirat al-Khawas, p. 230: “The statement of Fatima, daughter of ‘Abd Allah, ‘Have mercy on the young of Yazid,’ was a slip of tongue. That is because ‘Abd Allah b. al-Husayn had no son called Yazid, nor there was among the family of Abu Talib a person called Yazid except Yazid b. Mu’awiya b. ‘Abd Allah b. Ja’far. expected.”

So the Imam said to him: “By Allah, O Commander of the faithful, I have done nothing of this. I lived during the reign of the Umayyads. You have come to know that they were the most hostile of creation to us and you, and that they had no right (to assume) this authority; nevertheless, by Allah, I did not wrong them, nor did they hear any evil from me, though I turned away from them. O Commander of the faithful, how do I do that while you are my cousin, the nearest of the creation to me in womb kinship, the greatest of them in giving and kindness to me? So how do I do that?” Al-Mansur bowed his head for an hour. Then he raised his head and said: “You are false and sinful!”

He brought out a file of letters. He threw the file to him and said to him: “These are your letters to the people of Khuresan. In them you have summoned them to break their pledge of allegiance to me and to pledge allegiance to you instead of me.”

The Imam said to him: “By Allah, O Commander of the faithful, I have not done that. I do not regard that as lawful, nor it is of my creed. I am among those who believe in obeying you in all circumstances. I have reached an age that has made me too weak to do that. If I intended to do that, then send me to one of your prisons until death comes to me, for it is close to me!”

The wicked, ignoble one (al-Mansur) shouted at him: “No! No dignity!”

He bowed his head. Then he stretched his hand to the sword, drew a span of the hand of it, caught its hilt, and then he sheathed it. After that he said rude words to the Imam: “O Ja’far, do you not feel shame of this white hair and this lineage? Why do say false words and sow dissension among the Muslims? You want to shed blood and stir up discord between the subjects and the rulers!” The Imam said to him: “No, by Allah, O Commander of the faithful, I have not done that. These are not my letters, nor that is my hand writing, nor that is my seal.”

Al-Mansur drew a cubit of the sword, and then he sheathed it. He admonished the Imam, and he apologized to him. He drew the sword except a little bit of it, and then he sheathed it. He bowed his head, and then he raised it and said: “I think that you are truthful!” He commanded al-Rabi’ to bring him a perfume of musk and ambergris (ghaliya). He took some of it and put it on the Imam’s beard. The Imam’s beard was white, and it turned black due to the perfume. He went too far in honoring and magnifying the Imam. The reason for that is that he saw a proof of his Lord, so he pardoned him.[1]

[1] Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 47, pp.195-199. Muhajj al-Da’awat, p. 192.

Al-Mansur harbored malice against Imam al-Sadiq because the Muslims had unanimously agreed that he was great. Al-Mansur’s name went out before the Imam’s brilliant name. The Islamic world talked about his reputation and carried his merits and knowledge. The tyrannical, arrogant one (al-Mansur) tried to bring the Imam gradually to his procession when he wrote to him: “Why do you not visit us just as the people do?”

He thought that the Imam, peace be on him, would respond to him like those whom the world deluded. He did not know that the Imam, peace be on him, refrained from contacting with him, for he put before him these words of Him, the Exalted: And do not incline to those who are unjust lest the fire should touch you. When Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on him, read al-Mansur’s letter, he answered him: “We have nothing of the world for which we fear you, nor have you anything of the hereafter for which we hope you, nor are you in a blessing on which we congratulate you, nor do you regard it as a wrath, that we may console you for it. Therefore, why do we visit you?”

However al-Mansur did not understand the Imam’s speech, for the world deluded him, and the love for kingdom and authority blinded his heart. When he read the Imam’s letters, he answered him: “Surely you make friends with us to advise us.”

The Imam, peace be on him, wrote an answer to him, saying: “Whoever likes the world should not advise you; and whoever likes the hereafter should not make friend with you.”

Al-Mansur failed in achieving his hopes. Imam Musa, peace be on him, met with him. Some flies sat on al-Mansur’s face and he drove them away with his hand, but they came again, to the extent that he became bored with them, so he turned to the Imam and asked him: “O Abu ‘Abd Allah, why did Allah create flies?”

The Imam, peace be on him, paid no attention to him and indifferently answered him, saying: “In order to abase tyrants with them!” That answer displeased al-Mansur, and that the Imam paid no attention to him annoyed him. As a result he thought for a long time to assassinate him.

The tyrannical one (al-Mansur) decided to commit the most dangerous atrocity and the greatest crime in Islam, pay no attention to disgrace and the fire. He gave a deadly poison to his governor over Yethrib (Medina) and commanded him to put it into food and give it to the Imam to eat. When the Imam had the food, the poison cut off his intestines. The Imam felt severe pain and painful aches. When he felt that his decreed death was close at hand, he ordered his family and his relatives to be brought. When they gathered around him, he gave them this valuable teaching: “Surely our intercession do not include him who makes light of prayers.”

Then he secretly entrusted his son Imam Musa, peace be on him, with his affairs and gave him his special teachings. He also entrusted the office of the Imamate to five people, who were Abu Ja’far al-Mansur, Muhammed b. Sulayman, ‘Abd Allah, Musa, and Hamida. He did that because he had fear for his son of the infidel authority. That became clear after his death. For al-Mansur wrote to his governor and commanded him to kill the testamentary trustee of the Imam if he had been appointed. So his governor wrote back to him that they were five people, and that he was among them. Al-Mansur said that he had no way to kill those people.

The pain of the Imam became intense, and he suffered from severe aches. When his decreed death was close at hand, the Imam recited some verses of the Holy Qur’an. He secretly addressed his Lord and implored him until his pure soul joined the Garden of the Abode. That great soul the like of which was not created in the past and the future, except his forefathers, in clemency, knowledge, kindness, and showing sympathy to all people rose high to the High Comrade (Allah).

The head of Islam and first guide of the Islamic caravan who spared no effort to enlighten human thought and to spread the essence of knowledge and virtue among people passed away. His death was among the dangerous events with which the Islamic world was afflicted; its gravity shook the world. The outcry from the houses of the Hashimites became loud. The crying and wailing from the houses of Yethrib (Medina) became loud. Many people hurried toward the Imam. They were either silent or crying or astonished or wailing for the demise of the great Imam, who was for them as shelter and place of flight in all their affairs.

Imam Musa, peace be on him, was broken-hearted; his soul melted in sorrows and regrets. He prepared his father for burial while he was shedding tears. He washed the pure corpse and shrouded it with two Shatawi garments he used during the ritual consecration, with a shirt and a turban belonged to Imam Zayn al-‘Abidin, peace be on him, and with a garment Imam Musa, peace be on him, bought for forty dinars. After he had prepared him for burial, Imam Musa, peace be on him, prayed over him. Then the holy corpse was carried on fingertips. The crowded masses surrounded it. He was brought to the holy cemetery of al-Baqi’ and was buried in his final resting place beside his father al-Baqir and his grandfather Zayn al-‘Abidin, peace be on him. The famous poet Abu Hurayra stood on the edge of the grave and praised Imam al-Sadiq with these poetry lines:

When they carried him on their shoulders, I said:

Do you know what are carrying to the earth? The one who is like a rock that falls off the top of a lofty height!

In the early morning the people poured dust upon his grave, while he had been on the crossroads![1]

Having finished burying and praising Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on him, the Muslims walked towards Imam Musa to console him on his painful misfortune, [1] Usool al-Kafi.

and he thanked them for their consolations. Then he came back home accompanied by his household and his loyal companions. Then he ordered a light to be put in the place where his father died according to the sunna. The light was kindled every day until Imam Musa, peace be on him, was arrested in Iraq.[1]

Imam Musa undertook the great office of Imamate after his father’s death; his holy age was then twenty years,[2] and al-Mansur was in the tenth year of his reign.

The Shi’ites follow Imam Musa

When the Shi’ites were afflicted with the death of their great spiritual leader, Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on him, they imitated his son Imam Musa. The people all over the countries that adopted the Imamate sent delegations to appoint the Imam after Abi ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq), peace be on him. Those delegations went to Yethrib (Medina). They met with Imam Musa, adopted his Imamate and pledged allegiance to him. That is because he had all the qualities his father had such as knowledge, piety, righteousness and other high moral qualities that were not available except with those Allah protected from slips, purified from defilement, and chose to guide His servants to the straight path.

Hisham b. Salim, a Shi’ite master and notable, related about how he and his companions resorted to Imam Musa after the death of his father, saying: I (i.e. Hisham b. Salim) and Muhammed b. Nu’man (known as) Sahib al-Taq were in Medina after the death of Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq). The people had agreed that ‘Abd Allah b. Ja’far was the leader of the affair (sahib al-amr) and the one who would undertake the office of the Imamate after his father. My companions I and came in to him. When we sat down, we asked him the following questions:

-How much poor-tax (zakat) should be paid on two hundred dirhams?

-Five dirhams.
-How much on a hundred dirhams?
-Two and a half dirhams.
They were astonished at this religious decision that has no relationship with the Islamic Law. That is because the minimum amount of dirhams is two hundred dirhams; and there is nothing on that which is less than it. Hisham sneered at this religious verdict that has no concept: -By Allah, you are declaring the doctrine of the Murji’a.
-By Allah, I do not know the doctrine of the Murji’a.

[1] Al-Jawahir, Kitab al-Tahara.
[2] Saffwat al-Saffwa.

Hisham and Muhammed left him while they could not see the way out of pain and sadness, for they did not come to know the Imam who would undertake the office of the Imamate after Abu ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq). Then Hisham said: “(Shall I go) to the Murji’ites, the Qadarities, the Mu’tazilites, to the Zaydites, to the Kharijites?”

While Hisham and Muhammed were roaming in a current of suspicions and thoughts and were reflecting on a doctrine to follow, they saw an old man indicating with his hand to Hisham to follow him. Hisham thought that the old man was among the spies of al-Mansur and could understand their speech. He fearfully turned to his companion and ordered him to go away from him, that only he might be punished. He followed the old man, and he took him to Imam Musa b. Ja’far, peace be on him. When he came in to him, he became tranquil. When he sat down, the Imam turned to him and said to him with kindness and affection: “To me, not to the Murji’ites, nor to the Qadarities, nor to the Mu’tazilites, nor to the Zaydites….” Hisham became happy, for he found his objective when the Imam told him about what he had in his inner self. This is one of the marks and signs of the Imamate. Then Hisham asked him the following question:

-May I be your ransom, has your father gone?
-Yes.
-Has he left through death?
-Yes.
-Whom shall we follow after him?
-If Allah wills, He will guide you to that man.
-May I be your ransom, your brother ‘Abd Allah claims that he is the Imam after his father.
-‘Abd Allah intends that Allah should not be worshipped (properly).
-Who is in charge of us after him.

He answered him with an answer similar to his first one, and Hisham asked him:

-Are you him?
-I am not saying that.

Hisham made a mistake in his speech, and he corrected his mistake, saying:

-Do you have an Imam over you? -No.
He admired and magnified the Imam, to the extent that none knew except Allah. Then he said to him:

-May I be your ransom, may I question you like I used to question your father.

-Question. You will be informed but do not spread (the answer) around. For if you do spread it around, then slaughter will take place. Then he asked him many questions, to the extent that he came to know that the Imam was a sea (of knowledge) which could not be exhausted out of his abundant knowledge and merit. After he had come to know him and been sure of his Imamate, he asked him: -May I be your ransom, the Shi’a of your father is lost (without a leader). May I put this matter to them and summon them (to follow) you? For you have taken (a promise of secrecy from me).

-Tell those of them whose righteousness you are familiar with, but take (a promise of) secrecy from them. For if it gets spread around, there will be slaughter. And he pointed to his neck with his hand.

Then he went out while he was tranquil and happy-hearted due to what he had found. So his friend hurried to him and asked him: -What happened to you? -Guidance.

Then he told him the story, and they both went to Zarara and Abu Basir. After they had met with them, they told them about the Imam’s tradition. Thus, Zarara and Abu Basir hurried to the Imam and asked him some questions. He answered them, and they were sure of his Imamate. Then the Shi’ite masses went to the Imam in groups and pledged allegiance to him and acknowledged his Imamate. The overwhelming majority of the Shi’ites adopted his Imamate except the companions of Ammar al-Sabati, for they insisted on their own thoughts.[1]

After his father, the Imam, peace be on him, took care of the affairs of the Shi’ites, spreading the Islamic principles, supplying the religious scholars and the students with different kinds of knowledge. Due to these deeds the government kept an eye on him. Accordingly he was unable to communicate with the Shi’a openly; likewise the Shi’a were unable to declare their beliefs and principles.

 

Siblings
Muḥammad had eight brothers and five sisters. Muḥammad himself, Ibrāhīm,
Mūsā, Idrīs (al-Akbar), Hārūn, Kulthūm, Umm Kulthūm, Fāṭima, Zaynab and
Ruqayya were born to Hind bt. Abī ʿUbayda; ʿĪsā and Idrīs (al-Aṣghar) were
born to ʿĀtika bt. ʿAbd al-Malik b. al-Ḥārith b. Khālid b. al-ʿĀṣ b. Hishām b.
al-Mughīra b. ʿAbdallāh b. Makhzūm. Yaḥyā and Sulaymān were born to Hind’s
niece, Qarība bt. Rukayḥ b. Abī ʿUbayda b. ʿAbdallāh. b. Zamʿa.24

Wives and Children
1) Umm Salama bt. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib,
his cousin. She bore him five children: three boys, ʿAbdallāh, who was
called al-Ashtar, ʿAlī, and al-Ḥasan; and two girls, Fāṭima and Zaynab.
2) Fākhita bt. Fulayḥ b. Muḥammad b. al-Mundhir b. al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām,
who bore him one child, whose name was Ṭāhir.44
3) Ḥafṣa bt. ʿImrān b. Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad b. Ṭalḥa b. ʿUbaydallāh.
According to one source, Muḥammad was her third husband and after
him she married another husband, but other sources do not mention
Muḥammad as one of her husbands.45
4) A concubine, who bore him Ibrāhīm.46
5) slave woman, who bore him al-Ḥasan.47

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