Ali AlahisSalam THE MIRACLE OF Nabi Pakﷺ part 6

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ALI (A.S.) AS VIEWED BY THE HISTORIANS

George Jordach, the famous Christian writer from Egypt in his book Ali (A.S.) speaker of Human Rights
asks, Have you heard about any king among the kings of the world, who had all the wealth and
resources at his disposal which no other ruler could get and then too he chooses for himself a life of
sufferings and sorrows though he belongs to the noblest of all the clans and his gynecology was
accepted as the most pious among the world and he says, “No honour is nobler than humility and
kindness.” Advising his friends he said, “If you are my friend then wear the dress of a destitute.” About
himself he prayed, “O Lord forgive me for my mistakes the people are not aware of.” While he punished
his admirers for calling him god, he gave brotherly advice to his enemies, he did not approve of its and
reprimanded them for their misbehaviors. His opponents created enmity with him, wronged him, spoke
ill of him and came to fight with him still people heard him saying, “Oblige your brothers by warning
them, correct them by showing favours and giving them favours.” He said , “You should tie the knot of
love and affection with your brother, remembering that your brother is not strong enough to break the
knot nor is he capable of harming you.” When the people advised him to treat the oppressors (who had
become very strong in the previous regimes) kindly, so that they may not weaken his government, Ali
(A.S.) replied, “Your friend is he who saves you from ills and your enemy is he who induces you to do
bad deeds. Adopt truthfulness even if you are the loser, and avoid telling lies even if you are profited by
it.”
When somebody who was under his obligation came to fight with him he said, “If a person does not
acknowledge your obligations, you should not stop obliging him.” When he was advised to behave like
other rulers to win over his enemies he replied, “Whosoever’s heart is overpowered by sins is not a
victor and whosoever succeeds through bad means is in reality a loser.” He always overlooked the
misbehaviors of his enemies which he alone was aware of and said, “It is in the nature of a brave man
to ignore the mistakes he has seen in others.” When his enemies said, something which some of his
friends did not believe, he said, “When you hear something which is likely to benefit people then do not
doubt the person.”
Do you know any religious head who gave orders to his officers in these words, “People are your
brothers either because of your religion (followers of Islam) or are equal to you as they too are the
inhabitants of this earth like you. Therefore forgive them and overlook (their mistakes) as you expect
the same attitude from your Lord.”
Do you known such a king who gave away his kingdom to establish truth, or a rich person who chose
only a bread of barley for his survival, and life to him was meant to be spent for the benefit of the
mankind. Have you seen any brave person in history who may have to face a group of selfish and
greedy persons and among them his own relatives and after the battle is over it was discovered that the
victor was the loser and he even after losing the battle returns victorious. Because his enemies were
inhuman and had used their swords like tyrants with mean devices like fraud, treachery, bribe, lies and
cheating and he with his great human qualities of rights, justice and equality and with a clear heart and
far sighted intelligence overlooked not only the advantages he would get but even his own self and this
sacrifice turned the victories of his enemies into defeat and his own defeat proved to be a victory, a
victory for the high qualities of a human being.
Have you come across such a brave fighter in the history , who loves his own enemies and wishes to
see in them good human qualities and who treats them with kindness. He instructed his own people not
to start the war till they are attacked first, and when the enemies lose the battle by the will of Allah and
are on the run he orders them not to kill the fleeing soldiers nor even chase them or attack the injured
soldiers or harass the women.
When his eleven thousand blood-thirsty enemies prevented him from drawing drinking water from the
river so that he and his soldiers may die of thirst, and when he conquers the river after a bloody fight
he invites them (his enemies) to draw water just as he and his people were drawing. He even allows
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them to carry with them as much water as they like and then says ,”A person who dies fighting for the
cause of Allah will not be rewarded as much as the man who forgives his enemies, and does not take
revenge.”
Such a brave fighter who never had a parallel, never used his bravery against his enemies. Enemies
who were all united against him and spoke with one voice and had come with one mission – to kill him
-yet he confined himself to verbal condemnation only, though he could have easily slain them. He goes
before them bareheaded and unarmed. While they are fully armed and their bodies fully covered with
armour. He meets them and reminds them of their old friendship. He also moans for their adopting the
wrong path. But when they refuse to hear him and he realises that mere good words are not going to
have any effect on them and that their only purpose of coming there was to kill him, he just alerts his
soldiers and does not order them to fight. But when the enemies begin to attack him and his soldiers,
he finished them all in no time, and when he sees them lying dead before him he weeps on their
corpses though they deserved no sympathy as they were all greedy and selfish people and had made
his life miserable.
In the history of the entire world we cannot get a man of such strong convictions who may not have
slowed his activities or had become nervous fearing revolt. What else can shake the faith of a person
who sees that his enemies are very strong and united and are accusing him with charges of infidelity
and seduction and are threatening him with death and destruction of his faith, still he doesn’t slow his
activities nor any hindrance deviates him from his path, nor he stops preaching his mission. He
continues to do so with the same zeal and at all costs, with no benefit for himself either in terms of
wealth or high position. The only happiness he tried to achieve was to see the success of his mission.
Have you ever found in the history of the universe a person whose heart was redundant with elegance,
generosity, affection and compassion, and was surrounded on all sides by greedy, selfish, disobedient,
malicious, merciless power seekers, who though divided among themselves and cutting each others
throat only to destroy him and he with his statements full of love and kindness invites them towards
peace, safety and security.
If you examine the happenings of the world through your heart and mind, you will be attracted by such
a splendid personality and his high ideals that everything in this world will look humble, you will lose
the charm of this world and life in it. Even your children, your relatives, your wealth and power will have
no value in your eyes, before this personality.
This personality is so tall that you cannot accommodate him with ordinary people, and his intellectual
sight so deep that you cannot compare it with the thinking and wisdom of other people. Can you find
such an enlightened person who himself suffered sorrows and pains to see that others may draw
comfort and benefits from him? Who paved the way of happiness and content for his friends and foes
alike?
Such a sagacious learned person who had the knowledge with all its pros and cons of everything and
was aware of all sciences and even those which had hardly found any footing in the minds of the
people. His natural instinct was such that the sciences which were later discovered in the east already
had its roots and base in him.
Have you ever seen such a perfect and comprehensive mind which recognized the basic fact that
caused the formation of a collective society. What Ali (A.S.) had understood fourteen hundred years
ago is now being debated by the scholars of east and west. That is the means of life and its economy
for which the people of today are running in different directions to achieve them. One party ignoring the
law of nature and justice are using their minds on wrong methods. The rich are dying to acquire more
wealth, the rulers striving hard to exploit their labour and to keep them under control, the innovators of
the religion in order to increase the number of their followers and companions and to achieve their
wrongful gains are busy using meaning-less slogans and wrong logic.
Are you aware of any such intellectual who one thousand four hundred years ago fixed such norms
that shattered thousands of superstitions and who said, “If a person is hungry then surely his share
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has been grabbed by another person.” Then he says, “Wherever I have seen abundant wealth I have
noticed along with it somebody’s rights usurped.”
A sage and a farsighted person had discovered the real secret of humanity more than a thousand years
ago and said, “Good characters, good conduct and good behaviors are found in the blood of those who
have been deprived respect by their kings and rulers, whose lives were considered useless and who
were always subjected to sufferings and losses. Who always fought the tyrants and said, “By Allah I
will snatch the rights of the oppressed from the oppressors and drag the tyrant to the spring of
righteousness by putting a bridle in his nose, even is he does not like it.”
Whatever he said to his people then, shows that he had understood them fully. He saw that a group of
rich and upper class people inspite of their inability and incapacity to rule had occupied the seats of
the government and were forcing their helpless and unlucky subjects to submission and humility.
Addressing this upper class he said, “Your powerfuls are sitting in high positions and those who are
weak and helpless are living the life of misery and humility.” What he meant was that the poor have
been forced by the oppressors and tyrants to live the life of suppression and without getting a chance
of demonstrating their good qualities and good characters. While the rich are hiding their defects and
weaknesses under their rich garments. Then writing about Nahjul Balagha (A collection of Ali (A.S.)’s
sermons and letters) George Jordach writes, “Have you read Nahjul Balagha from the relics of the
eastern world and seen how eloquent and in how impressive style he has derived and framed singular
and rarest sentences on his thoughts and conceptions which are all full of human feelings, and as long
as humanity exists in this world with its thoughts, imaginations and feelings this book will attract him.
Every sentence well-measured and connected with each other. Every piece of his work pleasing and at
the same time deep and full of meanings. He has described facts and incidents with zeal and fervor and
has also informed the world about things beyond this universe. New meanings have been expressed in
beautiful phraseology connecting excellent meanings with a charming appearance. When you keep the
book before you, you will see in it an ocean full of storms and torrents. It is like the events of the world
which cannot be changed. Even the change of one letter from the original text changes the whole
conception. Its style of narration is exhilarating, even more than a magical melody. It’s beautiful
appearance for an intelligent seeker is more than a charming impression. It is a world full of splendor
and wonderful things which has been filled with varieties of beautiful things. A pleasure for the eyes
and ears and a test for the intelligence.
Elaborating further George writes, “If he has opened his tongue for the purpose of condemning
something then even a storm or a hurricane cannot bear it. If it is chiding, then it is a volcano with the
thunderings and the rains of lightnings and fire on the head of the sinners. If it is logic and reasonings
then the senses and wisdom have been overpowered and the doors of all other examples have been
shut except his own reasonings and quotations. If he wants to attract your heart towards any other
thing on which you want to concentrate then he quietly diverts your feelings and wisdom and takes you
to the reality of the subject. He then gets you strength so that you may probe into it. When he advises
you he talks like a father to you and gives you immeasurable love. His eloquence is greater than all
eloquences. All the qualities of Arabic language which existed then or were born later have been used
to describe its content and finally it was accepted and declared by the world that his literary work is
below the word of God and above the work of all human beings.
Such a vast knowledge of high standard with great eloquence and perfect bravery with such love and
gratitude that no limit can be visualized. If from all these qualities a man would have received even one
it would have been enough to blind man. And when all these qualities are found in one person then
what must be his condition. And sometimes it so happens that this thinker writer, intellectual,
administrator, ruler and commander suddenly leaves the company of the people, officers and soldiers
and goes in seclusion and doesn’t keep any contact with any one only to arouse the human qualities in
man and stir his feelings. To transmit to the ears of the heart smoothly and quietly nice words which
are proof of warm love and extreme sentiments. According to him, “He is poor who has no friends; do
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not feel happy over others misfortunes; get closer to the people through kindness and favours; forgive
your oppressors; do not
disappoint the person from your obligations who does not want to oblige you; if a person severs his
relations with you form new relations with him; befriend the person who keeps grudge against you.”
Such a great person who was considered a great thinker of all the great thinkers of the world, a well
wisher who proved a better well wisher than all the well wishers of the world, the most learned among
all the scholars of the world.
In giving love and kindness he surpassed all the lovers of the world. As renouncer of the world no
person could compete with him, and as a reformer he has surpassed all the reformers of the world. A
sharer of griefs of all the grief stricken people. In calamities he was a companion of the sufferers. A
man who taught morals to the moral teachers of the world and to the brave he taught the art of fighting
and for speaking truth he always risked his life. He crossed the highest peak of all human greatness
and qualities and in all qualities his preaching and practice was the same. He never delayed any good
work and was always on the fore front. This person was so great and so imminent that the huge
overpowering strength of the enemies had no effect on him and the victories of others was never
considered worthy because everything during that period had reversed. The right had become wrong,
light was darkness, earth was sky every word had its opposite meaning but on Ali (A.S.)’s thinking was
the deepest of all the thinkers among human beings. He sacrificed his life for truth and reality. He was
father figure of the martyrs, a proclaimer of justice and a man from the east who will always remain
alive. Then praying, George says, “O mother nature what would have happened if you would have
shown mercy on us and gifted us during every age one brave man like Ali (A.S.) with the same kind of
heart, mind, tongue and Zulfiqar (Ali (A.S.)’s sword). Haroon Bin Antara narrates that his father went to
see Ali (A.S.) during winter and found him shivering with cold as he was without a shirt and had
covered himself with a bed sheet. Haroon’s father asked, “O leader of the faithfuls, Allah has provided
you a share in the Baitul Maal (National Exchequer) then why are you suffering like this.” Ali (A.S.)
replied, “By Allah I do not take anything from Baitul Maal, and this bed sheet too is the one that I
brought from Madina.”

THE HIGHEST DEGREE

One of the verses of the Quran points out that God is the possessor
of the high degrees. The verse is:
15- Possessor of the high degrees, and Ruler of the whole
dominion. He sends inspiration, bearing His commands, to
whomever He chooses from among His servants to warn
about the Day of Gathering.
40-The Believer, 15
“Rafii al-Darajat” is translated as “the possessor of the high
degrees,” but it can also be translated as “the one who increases the
degrees.” The word “Rafii” expresses highness and the word “aldarajat” expresses the degrees. The mathematical value of “Rafii,”
which states the highest degree, is 360. And this number is the equivalent of the conventionally accepted highest degree in the universe.
The mathematical values are as follows:

THE HIGHEST DEGREE
Raf = 200
Fa = 80
Ya = 10
Ayn = 70
+
Total = 360

The word=Mathematical value of the word
Rafii=360
The conventionally accepted
highest degree in the universe=360

Chapter 47 on the noble character and habits of Sayyidina Rasulullah Saliallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam.

The noble character of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wasallam is known to the whole universe. Allah Ta’aala has also mentioned this in the Qur-aan.. ‘And lo! thou art of a tremendous nature’.-Suratul Qalam, 4. His noble character and habits are regarded as an example to the world today. The etiquette of Muhammad Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam has fame, pomp and honour in the world, and what more can be said after Allah Ta’aala Himself has praised Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. Allah Ta’aala says in Suratul Qalam: ‘And lo! thou art of a tremendous nature’. In this aayah it has been stressed in many ways that ‘Verily you are of the most noble character’. It is difficult to count and fully describe the noble character of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. A great portion has been written on this subject in the books of hadith. Examples of these are mentioned by the author in this chapter, where he mentions fifteen ahaadith.

(326) Hadith Number 1.
Khaarijah bin Zayd bin Thaabit Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says that a group came to Zayd bin Thaabit (his father) and requested him to describe to them some facts about Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. He replied. “What can I describe to you of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi ‘Wasallam. (It is beyond my means to describe them). I was the neighbour of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. (Therefore he was mostly present and knew many facts. He was also a writer of the wahi-revelation). When wahi was revealed to Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, he sent for me, I came and wrote it. (Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam always showed kindness, and made us feel at ease). Whatever we discussed, he discussed the same. If we discussed some worldly affairs, he also spoke of it. (It was not that he only spoke about the hereafter to us,’and despised the talking of worldly affairs). When we spoke of the hereafter, he too spoke of the hereafter. When we began speaking of the hereafter, he described its events etc in detail). ‘When we spoke of food, Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam also spoke of it. (Its etiquette, benefits, tasty foods, foods that are harmful, etc. In the previous chapters many such commands of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam are mentioned. i.e. ‘What a wonderful curry vinegar is’. ‘Use olive oil, it is from a mubaarak tree’. etc.). All this I am saying are facts on Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam”‘.

Commentary
Many things are mentioned in this hadith, of which many have been explained in the hadith (in brackets). The translation of the last sentence according to the mashaa-ikh of teaching is as mentioned above. According to this humble servant in the beginning of the hadith where it is mentioned ‘What can I describe to you of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam’ is connected to this last sentence, and the translation will be this that ‘I can describe to you all the conditions of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. Whatever type of question you may ask me about, I will explain it to you, as I was a neighbour of Rasulullah Sallallahu.’Alayhi Wasallam and also the writer of the wahi (revelation). Every religious and worldly activity, eating, drinking etc. was found among the practices of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, therefore what should I describe to you and what can I say, as every memoir of his is wonderful, and every time and condition beautiful’. In this hadith Sayyidina Zayd Radiyallahu ‘Anhu saying, when wahi was revealed, he was called. This was mostly done because he lived nearest to Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. There were other Sahaabah also who wrote the wahi, among them were Sayyidina ‘Uthmaan Radiyallahu ‘Anhu, Sayyidina ‘Ali Radiyallahu ‘Anhu, Sayyidina Ubay Radiyallahu ‘Anhu, Sayyidina Mu’aawiyah Radiyallahu ‘Anhu, Sayyidina Khaalid bin Sa’d Radiyallahu ‘Anhu, Sayyidina Hanzalah Radiyallahu ‘Anhu, Sayyidina ‘Alaa Hadrami Radiyallahu ‘Anhu, Sayyidina Abaan bin Sa’eed Radiyallahu ‘Anhu. These nine Sahaabah wrote the wahi. In the above hadith a question may arise, that speaking of worldly -affairs such as eating, drinking etc. is a useless conversation, and it was the noble habit of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam not to waste time in useless things, as has been mentioned in many ahaadith. It has also been, mentioned in the seventh hadith of the previous chapter that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam controlled his tongue and spoke only that which was necessary. The reply to that is not every worldly discussion is useless, but many discussions about eating and drinking and other worldly affairs are necessary, and were waajib for Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. Among these, are what is permissible and not permissible, what is good or bad, etc. can only be known if Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam
explained them, or when they were discussed before him he did not comment on them. It has also been mentioned in this hadith that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam inquired about the people and encouraged their good deeds and explained to them the detrimental effects of bad deeds. It is for this reason that worldly affairs were discussed in the gathering of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, and not for the sake of wasting time.

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(327) Hadith Number 2.
‘Amr ibnul ‘Aas Radiyallahu ‘Anhu reports: “(Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam gave attention, spoke and showed love to the worst person of a nation. So that, the person may feel he is being given special attention). He used to give attention, and spoke to me also in a manner, that I began to feel that I was the best among the community. (Therefore one day) I asked: ‘O Messenger of Allah, am I better or is Abubakr better?’ He replied: ‘Abubakr’. I then asked: ‘Am I better, or ‘Umar?’ He replied. “Umar’. I asked: ‘Am I better or ‘Uthmaan?’ He replied: ‘Uthmaan’.When I asked him these questions, Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam told me the truth. (He did not tell me I was better to keep me happy. Afterwards I felt ashamed of myself on this deed). I felt I should not have asked such a question”.

Commentary
This Sahaabi in the beginning due to the special attention given to him by Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam felt he was the best among the community. We find from the first lengthy hadith already mentioned, that it was his noble habit to give preference to the best. But, at times, to make one’s heart happy and in politeness he gave preference to that which was not the best. He even showed special love to the non-believers and the munafiqeen (hyprocrites). In the hadith, the order in which the question were asked, is because in the time of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam the Sahaabah Radiyallahu ‘Anhum regarded Abubakr Radiyallahu ‘Anhu as the best amongst the people. It is also narrated in the ahaadith that in the time of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam we regarded Abubakr as the best, and after him ‘Umar. Sayyidina Ibn ‘Umar Radiyallahu ‘Anhu relates that in the time of Rasulullah Sallallahu’Alayhi Wasallam we did not regard anyone equal to Abubakr, after him was ‘Umar, and after him ‘Uthrnaan. After that the other Sahaabah were not given preference. This means that the superiority of these three Sahaabah in this order was manifest. In the time of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam we the Sahaabah accepted this. Muhammad, the son of ‘Ali (Radiyallahu’Anhu), once asked his father ‘Ali Radiyallahu ‘Anhu who was the best person after Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam?.He replied: ‘Abubakr Radiyallahu ‘Anhu’ I asked after him who? He replied: “Umar’. There are many other ahaadith wherein during the time of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam this order is mentioned. Therefore ‘Amr Radiyallahu ‘Anhu asked the question in this order. He competed with the one who was regarded as the best then the second, then the third best. If I am not better than the first then surely I might be better then the second or third.

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(328) Hadith Number 3.
Anas bin Maalik Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says: “I remained in the service (of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam for ten years. He never once told me ‘Oof ‘. When I did something, he never asked me, why did you do so? When I did not do a certain task, he never asked me why I did not
do it. Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam had the best character among all people. (and also possessed the most excellent features, so much so,) that I never felt a silk cloth, nor pure silk, nor any other thing softer than the palm of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. Nor did I smell any musk or any other fragrance, more sweet smelling than the sweat of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam”.

Commentary
This is not an exaggeration, or something to do with faith. The perspiration of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu.’Alayhi Wasallam was collected and used as a fragrance. The one with whom Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam shook hands, a fragrance emitted from that hand for a whole day. It is a proven fact that by committing excess evil the body gives off a disgraceful smell. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam not uttering even the word ‘Oof’ on anything is due to his high and noble character and humbleness. He did not regard Sayyidina Anas Radiyallahu ‘Anhu fulfilling or not fulfilling a duty to be something from Sayyidina Anas Radyallahu ‘Anhu’s own side, but something that is from Allah, and was always contented with it. In another hadith this has also been stated that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam used to say.’ ‘Only that shall happen that Allah wills. If it is destined to happen it shall happen’. This is the uttermost pleasure from a beloved’s deed. In the technical terms of the sufis the essence of ‘Rida bil Qadaa’ (contentment and acceptance of divine decree) has a different certificate. There is a famous saying of Raabi’ah Basriyyah, the translation of which is, ‘O Allah, if you cut me into pieces, as a result, my love for You will surely increase’ . The acts of all the accomplished sufis are taken from the many noble acts of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. The personality of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was perfect and most complete in all aspects. After him the state of ‘All inclusive perfection’ did not remain. Therefore among the sufis, a certain habit of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was evident and at another place another habit was evident. Here it is worth noting that this state of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was regarding his own person. Sayyiditina ‘Aayeshah Radiyallahu ‘Anha says.’Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam never took revenge on his own behalf (or for any wrong done to him), but if a command of Allah was transgressed (i.e. haraam deed was committed) then he surely punished the evil doer’. A similar incident is also mentioned in hadith number three in the chapter on the speech of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam.
A PLEASANT INCIDENT: There is a surprising story regarding the last portion of the hadith under discussion, from which we find the complete love of the Sahaabah Radiyallahu ‘Anhum for Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam. That is, Sayyidina Anas Radiyallahu ‘Anhu once began saying with complete love and happiness, that I shook the mubaarak hands of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam with these hands of mine. I did not feel any silken cloth or pure silk softer than the hands of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. The student before whom this hadith was mentioned, showed his desire, that I also wish to shake hands with those hands that shook the hands of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. Thereafter, this chain continued in such a manner that today after more 1,350 years it is still continually practised. It is well known as the hadith of musafahah (hand shaking) as the hand shaking is continued. Shah Waliyullah Dehlavi has also mentioned this in his book ‘Musalsalaat’, through whom it had reached my respected ustaadh Maulana Khalil Ahmad Saahib (May Allah fill his resting place with nur).

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(329) Hadith Number 4.
Anas Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says: “A person who was wearing yellow coloured clothing was sitting by Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. It was the habit of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam not to bluntly express things he did not approve of. (Therefore he kept silent). When that person left, Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said to those present ‘It would have been better if you had told him not to wear yellow clothing”‘.

Commentary
This was a great kindness of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam on the ummah. He did not usually prohibit anything to an individual, because it was possible that that person may reject it or may become a cause for one to raise an objection, which could lead to kufr. When Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu’Alayhi Wasallam felt that it would not lead to this, he prohibited that which was undesirable. It is stated that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam prohibited Sayyidina ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr ibnul ‘Aas Radiyallahu ‘Anhu from wearing such clothing. Many other such instances are mentioned in the books of hadith. Also this delaying and not openly prohibiting a thing were only in such circumstances where it was feared to be detrimental or where there was no fear of harm if it was delayed. This method was not adopted where a haraam thing was committed. It is therefore found in hadith number three in the chapter on the speech of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, where in a detailed narration of Sayyidina Imaam Hasan Radiyallahu ‘Anhu it is related that when one transgressed the truth, at that time no one could endure his anger, nor
could anybody stop him, till Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam avenged that deed. A similar incident will be mentioned in the ensuing pages.

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(330) Hadith Number 5.
‘Aayeshah Radiyallahu ‘Anha reports, that: “It was not the nature of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam to talk indecently, nor did he engage himself in the use of obscene language. Nor did he shout and talk in the bazaars (which is against dignity). He did not avenge a bad deed with a bad one, but forgave it, and thereafter did not even mention it”.

Commentary
Some people are by nature indecent and habituated to telling obscene jokes, some, in order to keep a gathering happy, indulge in indecent conversations. For this reason Sayyiditina ‘Aayeshah Radiyallahu’Anha refused both. There is no harm if one goes into the bazaar to fulfil one’s needs, but to go there and shout about is against dignity. One should in a quiet manner, complete ones needs and return. This also does not mean that by not shouting in the bazaar, he made a noise at other places. The object is that it is generally found that people make noise in the bazaars (while dealing etc.). If one is calm in the bazaars, it is apparent that at other places too one will be calm. The whole history of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu’Alayhi Wasallam is filled with incidents where he did not avenge a bad deed with a bad one. What types of torments and suffering did he not suffer at the hands of the nonbelievers? What did he not confront in the Battle of Uhud? When the Sahaabah Radiyallahu ‘Anhum could not bear these happenings, they requested’ Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam to curse these non-believers. Instead Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam made this du’aa: ‘O Allah, grant my nation hidayah, for they know not’. Zayd bin Sa’nah Radiyallahu’Anhu who was a Jew, once began saying: ‘There was not a sign of prophethood in Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam which I had not found in him, except for two signs, which I did not have the opportunity to test. The first is that his hilm (gentleness) will overcome his anger. The second is, the more one acts foolishly towards him the more he will tolerate it. I looked for a chance to test these two signs, and kept on coming and going to his gatherings. One day Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam came out of his house. ‘Ali was with him. just then a badawi type of person came and said:’O Rasulullah, my community have accepted Islaam, and I had told them that, if they became Muslims, they shall receive abundant sustenance. And now such a time has come where drought has befallen us. I fear that they will leave Islaam. If the idea is suitable, it is suggested that you assist them. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam looked towards a person who may have been ‘Ali. He replied, ‘Ya Rasulullah, there is nothing available’. Sayyidina Zayd Radiyallahu ‘Anhu who was of the Jewish faith at that time, was witnessing this incident, he said. ‘O Muhammad, if you can do this, a certain amount of dates of a certain person’s palm grove be given to me at a fixed time, then I shall pay now in advance and collect the dates at the appointed time. Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam replied this was possible, but if you do not stipulate the palm grove I can make an agreement. I accepted it, and paid eighty mith-qaal of gold (according to well known sayings one mithaqaal equals 100 grains or four and half maa-shaas approx. four and half grams). Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam gave the gold to this badawi and said to him, do not forget to be just, and fulfil their needs with this. Zayd Radiyallahu ‘Anhu further says, when two or three days were left for the time to collect the dates, Rasulullah was sitting near a well while returning from a funeral with the Sahaabah, among whom were Abubakr, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthmaan. I came and caught the hem of the kurtah and sheet of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and cynically said: ‘O Muhammad, you do not want to pay my debt. I swear by Allah, that I know all the children of ‘Abdul Muttalib very well. You are very poor payers’. ‘Umar looked at me in anger and said: ‘O enemy of Allah! what are you mumbling? I swear by Allah, that if I did not fear (the presence of Rasulullah) I would have severed your head’. Rasulullah was looking at me very calmly, and said smilingly to ‘Umar: ”Umar, This person and I are in need of something more. He should have told me to take care in fulfilling his rights and should have advised in a better manner when putting forward his claim. Go take him and fulfill his rights, and for having scolded him give him in lieu twenty saa’ (approximately two mann approx 66,5 kg) dates extra in excess of his right’. Umar took me and fulfilled my rights and gave me the twenty extra saa’. I asked: ‘For what are these twenty extra saa’? ”Umar replied: ‘This is the command of Rasulullah’. Zayd Radiyallahu ‘Anhu said:”Umar do you know me? ‘Umar replied: No’ I said: I am Zayd bin Sa’nah. He asked: ‘The Allaamah (great learned) of the Jews? ‘I replied: ‘I am that very person’. He said: ‘Being a man of such calibre, why did you behave before Rasulullah in such a manner?’ . I replied: ‘Two signs from the signs of prophethood were left, which I was not able to test. The first is the hilm (gentleness) of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam suspersedes his anger. The second is that, the more one acts foolishly towards him, the more he will tolerate it. Now I have tested these two also, therefore I make you witness to my acceptance of Islam.
I give half of my wealth in charity (sadqah) to the ummah of Muhammad Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam”. Therefore he returned to the noble presence of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and accepted Islaam. Later he took part in many battles and was martyred in the Battle of Tabuk (May Allah be pleased with him). -Jam’u; Fawaa-id and Jam’ul Wasaa-il.

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(313) Hadith Number 6.
‘Aayeshah Radiyallahu ‘Anha reports: ”Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam did noy hit anything with his mubaarak hands, besides the time when he made jihaad in the Path of Allah. He did not hit a servant nor a women (wife, slave girl etc.)”.

Commentary
Hudhud is included in the Path of Allah and also jihaad. By hitting, it is meant to hit in anger, this in general usage is called hitting. This is not against one hitting un-intentionally and playfully, as has been mentioned in some ahaadith.

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(332) Hadith Number 7.
‘Aayeshah Radiyallahu ‘Anha says: ”I have never seen Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam avenge himself for a personal affliction, but if one transgressed a prohibited thing from those prohibited by Allah, (To commit a haraam act. The commentators on hadith say the rights of man are also included) then there was no one more angry than Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. Whenever Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was given a choice between two things, he always chose the one that was simple, if it did not lead to any type of sin”.

Commentary
It is written in the books of history that in the Battle of Uhud when ‘Utbah threw a stone at Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and his mubaarak teeth became shaheed, and his blessed face became full of blood. A few among those present said. ‘Make du’aa for the curse of that wicked person’. Instead Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam made this du’aa: ‘O Allah, grant my people hidayah, for they do not know’. Once a badawi came and pulled the sheet of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam so hard that it made a mark an his mubaarak neck, the badawi then said: ‘Load grain on these camels of mine. You do not give from your or your father’s wealth (He meant as if the wealth in the baytul maal (treasury) belongs to us and not to you). Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said. ‘Till you do not compensate for pulling the sheet, I shall not make grain available to you’. He said: ‘I swear by Allah, that I will not compensate you’. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was smiling and had grain loaded onto his camels. We are among those who used his mubaarak name and claim to follow him. If anything is said or done against our dignity, or if one uses a harsh word then we feel it against our dignity. The meaning of the last sentence in this hadith is that when Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was given a choice by Allah between two things, especially that which was in the interests of the ummah, he always chose the easy and simple thing for the ummah. In the same manner in worldly matters where a choice between two things were given, he chose the simple one as long as it did not have a shar’ee shortcoming in it. In many ahaadith under different subjects, that to put oneself into unnecessary difficulties was not liked by Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam.

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(333) Hadith Number 8.
‘Aayeshah Radiyallahu ‘Anha reports. “A person asked permission to present himself before Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam while I was with him. Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said: ‘What a bad person is he among his community’. After saying this, he gave him permission to enter. After the person entered, he spoke very softly to him. When the person left I said: ‘O Rasulullah, you said what you said before he entered, then you spoke so softly to him,. Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said: ‘O ‘Aayeshah, the worst person is that who stops speaking to one because of his indecency”‘.

Commentary
Most of the ‘ulama have written that this person’s name was ‘Uyaynah. It is said that till then he had not sincerely accepted Islaam, but hypocritically and outwardly. Upto that time Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam treated the hyprocrites in the same manner as he had treated the Muslims. Therefore he treated him in the same manner. After the death of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam when some people began turning away from Islaam (irtidaad), he also became a murtad, and openly declared the kufr that was in his heart. When he was brought before Sayyidina Abubakr Radiyallahu ‘Anhu, the children of Madinah began jeering him that this person has also become a murtad (turned apostate). He replied: ‘Since when have I been a Muslim that it may be said that I have become a murtad. He later became a Muslim, and took part in jihaad in the time of Sayyidina ‘Umar Radiyallahu ‘Anhu.
It is for this reason that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam pointed out this fact before he entered. Since this was intended to rectify (islaah) and to save others from harm, therefore this saying of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam cannot be termed according to the shari’ah as ghibah (backbiting). To mention a bad deed of a person with the intention that others may not fall into it, or be tricked into it, is not classed as those prohibited in ghibah. Some of the ‘ulama have stated that this person was an open faasiq. It is permissible to make ghibah of the one who openly indulges in fisq and fujur. When he arrived in the presence of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, to make him feel at ease and captivate his heart, Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam spoke softly to him, as was his noble habit. It was also the noble habit of sayyidina
Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam to speak softly to everyone. It is for this reason that Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam made this clear to Sayyiditina ‘Aayeshah Radiyallahu ‘Anha and others, so they may not feel that by the courtesy shown by Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam to this person, that this person is honest and a well wisher, and due to this one may be deceived and fall into some, calamity, or a secret may be said before him. It is the habit of hyprocrites to discuss the secrets of others so that they obtain special status and one’s inner secrets. In the last sentence of the hadith the words ‘worst person’ could have two meanings. This may be referring to the person that presented himself. In order to keep away from his rudness, he was treated in this manner, or this may be referring to the noble personage of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam that, ‘When did you find me to be a rude person, that you were waiting for such a thing. He is an indecent person, and due to his indecency people will refrain from coming to him, and if I also speak like this, people must also stop coming to me’. As a result of which only he shall be a loser, but how could Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam tolerate him being a loser.

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(334) Hadith Number 9.
Imaam Hasan Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says, (my younger brother) Husayn said: “I asked my father (Sayyidina ‘Ali Radiyallahu ‘Anhu) about the conduct of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam in his assemblies’ He replied.. ‘Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was always happy and easy mannered. There was always a smile and a sign of happiness on his blessed face. He was soft-natured and when the people needed his approval, he easily gave consent. He did not speak in a harsh tone nor was he stone-hearted. He did not scream while speaking, nor was he rude or spoke indecently. He did not seek other’s faults. He never overpraised anything nor exceeded in joking, nor was he a miser. He kept away from undesirable language and did not make as if he did not hear anything. If he did not agree with the next person’s wish he did not make that person feel disheartened, nor did he promise anything to that person. He completely kept himself away from three things: from arguments, pride and senseless utterances. He prohibited people from three things. He did not disgrace or insult anyone, nor look for the faults of others, he only spoke that from which thawaab and reward was attained. When he spoke, those present bowed their heads in such a manner, as if birds were sitting on their heads. (They did not shift about, as birds will fly away on the slightest move). When he completed his talks, the others would begin speaking. (No one would speak while Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu’Alayhi Wasallam spoke. Whatever one wanted to say, it would be said after he had completed speaking). They did not argue before him regarding anything. Whenever one spoke to him the other would keep quiet and listen till he would finish. The speech of every person was as if the first person was speaking. (They gave attention to what every person said. It was not as is generally found that in the beginning people pay full attention, and if the talk is lengthened they became bored, and begin to pay less attention). When all laughed for something, he would laugh too. The things that surprised the people, he would also show his surprise regarding that. (He would not sit quietly and keep himself aloof from everyone, but made himself part of the gathering). He exercised patience at the harshness and indecent questions of a traveller. (Villagers usually ask irrelevant questions. They do not show courtesy and ask all types of questions. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam did not reprimand them but exercised patience). The Sahaabah would bring travellers to his assemblies (so that they thernselves could benefit from the various types of questions asked by these people, and also hear some questions regarding which they themselves, due to etiquette, would not ask). Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam’ would say: ‘When you see a person in need, then always ‘help that person’. (If someone praised him, he would detest it). If someone, by way of thanks praised him, he would remain silent, (because it is necessary that one ‘thank a person for a good favour or good deed. It is like one fulfilling one’s duty. Some of the ‘ulama have translated this as: ‘If one did not exceed in praising him, he would keep silent’. That means if he exceeded he would prohibit him). He did not interrupt someone talking and did not begin speaking when someone else was busy speaking. If one exceeded the limits he would stop him or would get up and leave (so that that person would stop)”.

Commentary
This hadith is a portion of hadith number seven in the previous chapter. The complete hadith of Sayyidina Imaam Husayn Radiyallahu ‘Anhu is mentioned in the Jam’ul Fawaa-id and the Shifa of Qaadi ‘Iyaad. lmaam Tirmidhi has mentioned this hadith in portions according to the relevant chapters.
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(335) Hadith Number 10.
Jaabir Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says. “Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam never said ‘No’ to a request of a person”.

Commentary
If he was in possession of the required article at that moment, he gave it, otherwise he would promise to give it at another time, or he would make du’aa for the person, that Allah fulfil the person’s need by some other means.

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(336) Hadith Number 11.
Ibn ‘Abbaas Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says: “Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was the most generous among people in performing good deeds (No one could compare with him in generosity. He himself led a simple life, but in giving he would put a king to shame.At a time of great need a woman presented him a sheet, and he wore it as he was in need of it.A person came to him, and asked him for it, he presented the sheet to that person. Taking of loans and fulfilling the needs of.others, when the creditors came, and if something had come from somewhere, he would pay the debts, and did not go home till everything was given to the needy. There exists many incidents of this nature, so much so that it is not possible to enumerate them). Particularly in the month of Ramadaan, he would be more generous till the month ended. (His generosity in this month exceeded all the other months). In this month when Jibra-eel ‘Alayhis Salaam came and recited the Qur-aan to Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, at that time his generosity exceeded the wind that brings forth heavy rains”.

Commentary
Here the wind is described with speed, that the wind did not blow as fast, as did the generosity of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam, or it is his widespread benefits, the benefits of rain are not so widespread, as that of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. The example of rain is just to illustrate, otherwise what connection has the rain with the generosity of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu’Alayhi Wasallam, as the rain only benefits in the growing of material things. The shower of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam benefits materially, spiritually, worldly and religiously. Rain gives life to the earth, and he gave life to the hearts. It is narrated in Tirmidhi that once there came for Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam ninety thousand Dirhams, the equivalent of which is more than twenty thousand Rupees. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam had the amount spread onto a sack, and had it distributed there and then. After it was distributed a person came to ask, the incident of which is mentioned in the commentary of hadith number thirteen in this chapter. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu’Alayhi Wasallam said to him, I have nothing left by me. You may loan from someone on my behalf, when I have something I shall pay that debt. This was the noble habit of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam What can one ask regarding this in the month of Ramadaan. It was a time when from the Lord of all the heavens, the best words were revealed at the best time, to the best of the creation by the malaa-ikah (angels). Sayyidina Rasulullah Salallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam was blessed with the highest and complete rank; and the highest rank is to have the qualities of Allah the Almighty. If one wishes to see a sample of the great mercies and blessings of Allah that descends in this month, read the book of this humble servant, titled ‘Virtues of Ramadaan’.

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(337) Hadith Number 12.
Anas Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says: “Rasulullah. Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam did not store anything for the next day”.

Commentary
Whatever he possessed, he fed it to the people till nothing was left. He did not keep anything, thinking that he would need it the next day. This is an example of the complete reliance of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam on Allah Ta’aala, that what the Lord had given today, He will give it tomorrow too. All this is regarding himself. The wives were given their expenses so that they might spend it in the manner they wished. If they wished they could have kept it or distribute it, but they too, being the wives of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam had this spirit. Once two bags of Dirhams were presented to Sayyiditina ‘Aayeshah Radiyallahu ‘Anha as a gift, the total of which amounted to more than one hundred thousand Dirhams. She ordered a tray, filled it and distributed it till there was nothing left. At the time she was fasting and had only one roti and olive oil, with which she made iftaar. The slave girl said. ‘If we had purchased meat for one Dirham today, we could have broken our fasts with it’. She replied: ‘What is the use of complaining now; if you had reminded me at that time I would have purchased it for you’. In the Hikaayatus Sahaabah, a few such incidents of these truthful followers have been compiled. If the meaning of the hadith is, that he did not leave anything for himself nor for his family till the next day, then too it will not be out of place.

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(338) Hadith Number 13.
‘Umar Radiyallahu ‘Anhu reports that once a needy person came to ask Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam for his need. Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam replied: “I do not have anything at present. Go and purchase something on my behalf. When something arrives I will pay for it”. ‘Umar Radiyallahu ‘Anhu said: “O Messenger of Allah, whatever you possessed you have already given away. Allah Ta’aala did not make you responsible for that which is not in your means”. Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam felt annoyed at this saying of ‘Umar Radiyallahu’Anhu. Thereupon a person from among, the Ansaar said: “O Rasul, of Allah, spend whatever you wish, and do not fear any lessening from the Lord of the ‘Arsh (Throne)”. (That Great Deity that is the Lord of the’Arsh, nothing will decrease in His Bounties by giving you). Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam smiled and the happiness could be seen on his mubaarak face due to the saying of the Ansaari. Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam than said: “Allah Ta’aala has commanded me to do this”.

Commentary
Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam also commanded Sayyidina Bilaal Radiyallahu ‘Anhu to do this. Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah Radiyallahu. ‘Anhu says Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wasallam once saw a heap of dates by Sayyidina Bilaal Radiyallahu ‘Anhu. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu’Alayhi Wasallam asked what is this. He replied: ‘I have kept it for my future needs’. Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said: ‘Do you not fear that because of this, tomorrow on the day of qiyaamah, the smoke of jahannam will reach you’. After this he also said. ‘Spend O Bilaal, and do not fear the Lord of the ‘Arsh, that it will become less’. Who has the strength to cover all the incidents of the generosity of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam. For his generosity it was not necessary that he possessed something. It was the general practice of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam to take a loan and spend on the needy, as is mentioned in the hadith under discussion. Sayyidina Bilaal Radiyallahu ‘Anhu was once asked: ‘What was the method of the expenditure of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam?’. He replied: ‘Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam did not keep anything. Till the end I was responsible for handling it. It was his noble habit that when a person accepted Islaam and came to him and if he saw this person unclothed, he commanded me to clothe that person. I would obtain a loan from somewhere and purchase clothing and food for that person. Once a person from the mushrikeen (polytheists) came to me, and began saying that I have a lot of wealth, whatever loan you may need take it from me, and it is not necessary to take a loan from anyone else. I began to obtain loans from him. One day I performed wudu and as I was preparing to call out the adhaan, I saw that mushrik (polytheist) coming with a few merchants. Upon seeing me he began to say ‘O Habshi’ I replied: ‘I am present.’. He began to swear at me in a cynical manner, and asked: ‘How many days are left till the end of this month?’ I replied: ‘The month is nearly ending’. He said: ‘Four days are left. If you do not pay your loans by that time. I will make you a slave in lieu of my debt. The way you were grazing sheep before in slavery, your position will become the same’. Sayyidina Bilaal Radiyallahu ‘Anhu says: ‘Whatever becomes of a person as a result of such threats, the same overtook me.
After ‘eshaa I came in the presence of Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam and narrated the whole incident to him, then I said: ‘There is no way to pay this debt so quickly, nor do you have anything nor do I have anything I will hide away. When you pay the debt I will come out, otherwise, that mushrik will disgrace me very much’. Before the morning prayers a person came running to me and said that Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam is calling you. When I presented myself, Rasulullah Sallallahu’Alayhi Wasallam said: ‘Allah Ta’aala has made a means to pay your debt. These four camels are standing, and are laden with gifts sent by the ruler of Fadak. I paid the full debt that morning, and informed Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam that Allah Ta’aala has freed you from debts. Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam asked: ‘Is there anything left from the gifts or not?’. I replied: ‘A little is left’. Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam said: ‘Distribute it, so that I may be at ease’. The evening fell and yet there was some left. After ‘eshaa Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam inquired again, upon which I replied: ‘The needy ones did not arrive, there is still some left’. Thereupon Rasulullah Sallallahu’Alayhi Wasallarn spent the night in the masjid and did not go home. The next day after ‘eshaa he inquired again, whereupon I replied: ‘Allah Ta’aala has freed you from its responsibilities. Everthing has been distributed’. Rasulullah Sallallahu’Alayhi Wasallam then thanked Allah, and went to his home. -Abu Daawud.

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(339) Hadith Number 14.
Rubayyi’ bint Mu’awwidh bin ‘Af-raa Radiyallahu ‘Anha says: “I brought to Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam a tray full of dates, and some small cucumbers. Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam gave me a handful of jewellery”.

Commentary
This hadith has been explained in hadith number six and seven, in the chapter of the fruits of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam.

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(340) Hadith Number 15.
‘Aayeshah Radiyallahu ‘Anha reports that Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam accepted gifts, and also gave presents in return.

Commentary
It is a sign of complete etiquette, that the feeling of a person is taken into consideration in returning a present. There is no benefit for one in not recompensating a gift. Many a time due to intense love one goes through hardships to give presents. In recompensating a present one is also made happy. It does not result in a loss, but is of benefit. Therefore in some ahaadith instead of ‘Wa yuthibu minha’ (and he recompensated it), ‘Wa yuthibu khayram minha’ (and he recompensated some- thing better than it) is mentioned. From other ahaadith too this noble habit of Sayyidina Rasulullah Sallallahu ‘Alayhi Wasallam is evident, that he gave more in return for a present received.

Hadith 15: Translation of Sahih Bukhari, Book 15: The Two Festivals (Eids)

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Volume 2, Book 15, Number 69:

Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Umar:

Umar bought a silk cloak from the market, took it to Allah’s Apostle and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! Take it and adorn yourself with it during the ‘Id and when the delegations visit you.” Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) replied, “This dress is for those who have no share (in the Hereafter).” After a long period Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) sent to Umar a cloak of silk brocade. Umar came to Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) with the cloak and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! You said that this dress was for those who had no share (in the Hereafter); yet you have sent me this cloak.” Allah’s Apostle said to him, “Sell it and fulfill your needs by it.”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 70:
Narrated Aisha:

Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) came to my house while two girls were singing beside me the songs of Buath (a story about the war between the two tribes of the Ansar, the Khazraj and the Aus, before Islam). The Prophet (p.b.u.h) lay down and turned his face to the other side. Then Abu Bakr came and spoke to me harshly saying, “Musical instruments of Satan near the Prophet (p.b.u.h) ?” Allah’s Apostle (p.b.u.h) turned his face towards him and said, “Leave them.” When Abu Bakr became inattentive, I signalled to those girls to go out and they left. It was the day of ‘Id, and the Black people were playing with shields and spears; so either I requested the Prophet (p.b.u.h) or he asked me whether I would like to see the display. I replied in the affirmative. Then the Prophet (p.b.u.h) made me stand behind him and my cheek was touching his cheek and he was saying, “Carry on! O Bani Arfida,” till I got tired. The Prophet (p.b.u.h) asked me, “Are you satisfied (Is that sufficient for you)?” I replied in the affirmative and he told me to leave.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 71:
Narrated Al-Bara’:

I heard the Prophet (p.b.u.h) delivering a Khutba saying, “The first thing to be done on this day (first day of ‘Id ul Adha) is to pray; and after returning from the prayer we slaughter our sacrifices (in the name of Allah) and whoever does so, he acted according to our Sunna (traditions).”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 72:
Narrated Aisha:

Abu Bakr came to my house while two small Ansari girls were singing beside me the stories of the Ansar concerning the Day of Buath. And they were not singers. Abu Bakr said protestingly, “Musical instruments of Satan in the house of Allah’s Apostle !” It happened on the ‘Id day and Allah’s Apostle said, “O Abu Bakr! There is an ‘Id for every nation and this is our ‘Id.”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 73:
Narrated Anas bin Malik,:

Allah’s Apostle never proceeded (for the prayer) on the Day of ‘Id-ul-Fitr unless he had eaten some dates. Anas also narrated: The Prophet used to eat odd number of dates.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 74:
Narrated Anas:

The Prophet said, “Whoever slaughtered (his sacrifice) before the ‘Id prayer, should slaughter again.” A man stood up and said, “This is the day on which one has desire for meat,” and he mentioned something about his neighbors. It seemed that the Prophet I believed him. Then the same man added, “I have a young she-goat which is dearer to me than the meat of two sheep.” The Prophet permitted him to slaughter it as a sacrifice. I do not know whether that permission was valid only for him or for others as well.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 75:
Narrated Al-Bara’ bin ‘Azib:

The Prophet delivered the Khutba after offering the prayer on the Day of Nahr and said, “Whoever offers the prayer like us and slaughters like us then his Nusuk (sacrifice) will be accepted by Allah. And whoever slaughters his sacrifice before the ‘Id prayer then he has not done the sacrifice.” Abi Burda bin Niyar, the uncle of Al-Bara’ said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have slaughtered my sheep before the ‘Id prayer and I thought today as a day of eating and drinking (not alcoholic drinks), and I liked that my sheep should be the first to be slaughtered in my house. So slaughtered my sheep and took my food before coming for the prayer.” The Prophet said, “The sheep which you have slaughtered is just mutton (not a Nusuk).” He (Abu Burda) said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have a young she-goat which is dearer to me than two sheep. Will that be sufficient as a Nusuk on my behalf? “The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, “Yes, it will be sufficient for you but it will not be sufficient (as a Nusuk) for anyone else after you.”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 76:
Narrated Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri:

The Prophet used to proceed to the Musalla on the days of Id-ul-Fitr and Id-ul-Adha; the first thing to begin with was the prayer and after that he would stand in front of the people and the people would keep sitting in their rows. Then he would preach to them, advise them and give them orders, (i.e. Khutba). And after that if he wished to send an army for an expedition, he would do so; or if he wanted to give and order, he would do so, and then depart. The people followed this tradition till I went out with Marwan, the Governor of Medina, for the prayer of Id-ul-Adha or Id-ul-Fitr.

When we reached the Musalla, there was a pulpit made by Kathir bin As-Salt. Marwan wanted to get up on that pulpit before the prayer. I got hold of his clothes but he pulled them and ascended the pulpit and delivered the Khutba before the prayer. I said to him, “By Allah, you have changed (the Prophet’s tradition).” He replied, “O Abu Sa’id! Gone is that which you know.” I said, “By Allah! What I know is better than what I do not know.” Marwan said, “People do not sit to listen to our Khutba after the prayer, so I delivered the Khutba before the prayer.”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 77:
Narrated ‘Abdullah bin Umar:

Allah’s Apostle used to offer the prayer of ‘Id-ul-Adha and ‘Id-ul-Fitr and then deliver the Khutba after the prayer.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 78:
Narrated Ibn Juraij:

‘Ata’ said, “Jabir bin ‘Abdullah said, ‘The Prophet went out on the Day of ‘Id-ul-Fitr and offered the prayer before delivering the Khutba, Ata told me that during the early days of IbnAz-Zubair, Ibn Abbas had sent a message to him telling him that the Adhan for the ‘Id Prayer was never pronounced (in the life time of Allah’s Apostle) and the Khutba used to be delivered after the prayer. Ata told me that Ibn Abbas and Jabir bin ‘Abdullah, had said, ú- where was no Adhan for the prayer of ‘7d-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Aqha.” ‘At a’ said, “I heard Jabir bin ‘Abdullah saying, ‘The Prophet stood up and started with the prayer, and after it he delivered the Khutba. When the Prophet of Allah (p.b.u.h) finished (the Khutba), he went to the women and preached to them, while he was leaning on Bilal’s hand. Bilal was spreading his garment and the ladies were putting alms in it.’ ” I said to Ata, “Do you think it incumbent upon an Imam to go to the women and preach to them after finishing the prayer and Khutba?” ‘Ata’ said, “No doubt it is incumbent on Imams to do so, and why should they not do so?”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 79:
Narrated Ibn Abbas:

I offered the ‘Id prayer with Allah’s Apostle, Abu Bakr, Umar and ‘Uthman and all of them offered the prayer before delivering the Khutba.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 80:
Narrated Ibn Umar:

Allah’s Apostle, Abu Bakr and Umar! used to offer the two ‘Id prayers before delivering the Khutba.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 81:
Narrated Ibn Abbas:

The Prophet offered a two Rakat prayer on the Day of Id ul Fitr and he did not pray before or after it. Then he went towards women along with Bilal and ordered them to pay alms and so they started giving their earrings and necklaces (in charity).

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 82:
Narrated Al-Bara’ bin ‘Azib:

The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said, “The first thing that we should do on this day of ours is to pray and then return to slaughter the sacrifice. So anyone who does so, he acted according to our Sunna (tradition), and whoever slaughtered the sacrifice before the prayer, it was just meat which he presented to his family and would not be considered as Nusuk.” A person from the Ansar named Abu Burda bin Niyyar said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I slaughtered the Nusuk (before the prayer) but I have a young she-goat which is better than an older sheep.” The Prophet I said, “Sacrifice it in lieu of the first, but it will be not sufficient (as a sacrifice) for anybody else after you.”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 83:
Narrated Said bin Jubair:

I was with Ibn Umar when a spear head pierced the sole of his foot and his foot stuck to the paddle of the saddle and I got down and pulled his foot out, and that happened in Mina. Al-Hajjaj got the news and came to enquire about his health and said, “Alas! If we could only know the man who wounded you!” Ibn Umar said, “You are the one who wounded me.” Al-Hajjaj said, “How is that?” Ibn Umar said, “You have allowed the arms to be carried on a day on which nobody used to carry them and you allowed arms to be carried in the Haram even though it was not allowed before.”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 84:
Narrated Said bin ‘Amr bin Said bin Al-‘Aas:

Al-Hajjaj went to Ibn Umar while I was present there. Al-Hajjaj asked Ibn Umar, “How are you?” Ibn Umar replied, “I am all right,” Al-Hajjaj asked, “Who wounded you?” Ibn Umar replied, “The person who allowed arms to be carried on the day on which it was forbidden to carry them (he meant Al-Hajjaj)”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 85:
Narrated Al-Bara’:

The Prophet delivered the Khutba on the day of Nahr (‘Id-ul-Adha) and said, “The first thing we should do on this day of ours is to pray and then return and slaughter (our sacrifices). So anyone who does so he acted according to our Sunna; and whoever slaughtered before the prayer then it was just meat that he offered to his family and would not be considered as a sacrifice in any way. My uncle Abu Burda bin Niyyar got up and said, “O, Allah’s Apostle! I slaughtered the sacrifice before the prayer but I have a young she-goat which is better than an older sheep.” The Prophet said, “Slaughter it in lieu of the first and such a goat will not be considered as a sacrifice for anybody else after you.”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 86:
Narrated Ibn Abbas:

The Prophet said, “No good deeds done on other days are superior to those done on these (first ten days of Dhul Hijja).” Then some companions of the Prophet said, “Not even Jihad?” He replied, “Not even Jihad, except that of a man who does it by putting himself and his property in danger (for Allah’s sake) and does not return with any of those things.”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 87:
Narrated Muhammad bin Abi Bakr Al-Thaqafi:

While we were going from Mina to ‘Arafat, I asked Anas bin Malik, about Talbiya, “How did you use to say Talbiya in the company of the Prophet?” Anas said: “People used to say Talbiya and their saying was not objected to and they used to say Takbir and that was not objected to either. ”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 88:
Narrated Um ‘Atiya:

We used to be ordered to come out on the Day of ‘Id and even bring out the virgin girls from their houses and menstruating women so that they might stand behind the men and say Takbir along with them and invoke Allah along with them and hope for the blessings of that day and for purification from sins.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 89:
Narrated Ibn Umar: On the day of ‘Id-ul-Fitr and ‘Id-ul-Adha a spear used to be planted in front of the Prophet I (as a Sutra for the prayer) and then he would pray.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 90:
Narrated Ibn Umar:

The Prophet used to proceed to the Musalla and an ‘Anaza used to be carried before him and planted in the Musalla in front of him and he would pray facing it (as a Sutra).

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 91:
Narrated Muhammad:

Um ‘Atiyya said: “Our Prophet ordered us to come out (on ‘Id day) with the mature girls and the virgins staying in seclusion.” Hafsa narrated the above mentioned Hadith and added, “The mature girls or virgins staying in seclusion but the menstruating women had to keep away from the Musalla.”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 92:
Narrated Ibn Abbas:

I (in my boyhood) went out with the Prophet on the day of ‘Id ul Fitr or Id-ul-Adha. The Prophet prayed and then delivered the Khutba and then went towards the women, preached and advised them and ordered them to give alms.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 93:
Narrated Al-Bara’:

The Prophet went towards Al-Baqi (the grave-yard at Medina) on the day of Id-ul-Adha and offered a two-Rakat prayer (of ‘Id-ul-Adha) and then faced us and said, “On this day of ours, our first act of worship is the offering of prayer and then we will return and slaughter the sacrifice, and whoever does this concords with our Sunna; and whoever slaughtered his sacrifice before that (i.e. before the prayer) then that was a thing which he prepared earlier for his family and it would not be considered as a Nusuk (sacrifice.)” A man stood up and said, “O, Allah’s Apostle! I slaughtered (the animal before the prayer) but I have a young she-goat which is better than an older sheep.” The Prophet (p.b.u.h) said to him, “Slaughter it. But a similar sacrifice will not be sufficient for anybody else after you.”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 94:
Narrated ‘Abdur Rahman bin ‘Abis:

Ibn Abbas was asked whether he had joined the Prophet in the ‘Id prayer. He said, “Yes. And I could not have joined him had I not been young. (The Prophet came out) till he reached the mark which was near the house of Kathir bin As-Salt, offered the prayer, delivered the Khutba and then went towards the women. Bilal was accompanying him. He preached to them and advised them and ordered them to give alms. I saw the women putting their ornaments with their outstretched hands into Bilal’s garment. Then the Prophet along with Bilal returned home.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 95:
Narrated Ibn Juraij:

‘Ata’ told me that he had heard Jabir bin ‘Abdullah saying, “The Prophet stood up to offer the prayer of the ‘Id ul Fitr. He first offered the prayer and then delivered the Khutba. After finishing it he got down (from the pulpit) and went towards the women and advised them while he was leaning on Bilal’s hand. Bilal was spreading out his garment where the women were putting their alms.” I asked ‘Ata’ whether it was the Zakat of ‘Id ul Fitr. He said, “No, it was just alms given at that time. Some lady put her finger ring and the others would do the same.” I said, (to ‘Ata’), “Do you think that it is incumbent upon the Imam to give advice to the women (on ‘Id day)?” He said, “No doubt, it is incumbent upon the Imams to do so and why should they not do so?” Al-Hasan bin Muslim told me that Ibn Abbas had said, “I join the Prophet, Abu Bakr, Umar and ‘Uthman in the ‘Id ul Fitr prayers. They used to offer the prayer before the Khutba and then they used to deliver the Khutba afterwards. Once the Prophet I came out (for the ‘Id prayer) as if I were just observing him waving to the people to sit down. He, then accompanied by Bilal, came crossing the rows till he reached the women. He recited the following verse: ‘O Prophet! When the believing women come to you to take the oath of fealty to you . . . (to the end of the verse) (60.12).’ After finishing the recitation he said, “O ladies! Are you fulfilling your covenant?” None except one woman said, “Yes.” Hasan did not know who was that woman. The Prophet said, “Then give alms.” Bilal spread his garment and said, “Keep on giving alms. Let my father and mother sacrifice their lives for you (ladies).” So the ladies kept on putting their Fatkhs (big rings) and other kinds of rings in Bilal’s garment.” Abdur-Razaq said, ” ‘Fatkhs’ is a big ring which used to be worn in the (Pre-lslamic) period of ignorance.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 96:
Narrated Aiyub:

Hafsa bint Sirin said, “On Id we used to forbid our girls to go out for ‘Id prayer. A lady came and stayed at the palace of Bani Khalaf and I went to her. She said, ‘The husband of my sister took part in twelve holy battles along with the Prophet and my sister was with her husband in six of them. My sister said that they used to nurse the sick and treat the wounded. Once she asked, ‘O Allah’s Apostle! If a woman has no veil, is there any harm if she does not come out (on ‘Id day)?’ The Prophet said, ‘Her companion should let her share her veil with her, and the women should participate in the good deeds and in the religious gatherings of the believers.’ ” Hafsa added, “When Um-‘Atiya came, I went to her and asked her, ‘Did you hear anything about so-and-so?’ Um-‘Atlya said, ‘Yes, let my father be sacrificed for the Prophet (p.b.u.h). (And whenever she mentioned the name of the Prophet she always used to say, ‘Let my father be’ sacrificed for him). He said, ‘Virgin mature girls staying often screened (or said, ‘Mature girls and virgins staying often screened–Aiyub is not sure as which was right) and menstruating women should come out (on the ‘Id day). But the menstruating women should keep away from the Musalla. And all the women should participate in the good deeds and in the religious gatherings of the believers’.” Hafsa said, “On that I said to Um-‘Atiya, ‘Also those who are menstruating?’ ” Um-‘Atiya replied, “Yes. Do they not present themselves at ‘Arafat and elsewhere?”.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 97:
Narrated Um-‘Atiya:

We were ordered to go out (for ‘Id) and also to take along with us the menstruating women, mature girls and virgins staying in seclusion. (Ibn ‘Aun said, “Or mature virgins staying in seclusion).” The menstruating women could present themselves at the religious gathering and invocation of Muslims but should keep away from their Musalla.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 98:
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:

The Prophet (p.b.u.h) used to Nahr or slaughter sacrifices at the Musalla (on ‘Id-ul-Adha).

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 99:
Narrated Al-Bara’ bin ‘Azib:

On the day of Nahr Allah’s Apostle delivered the Khutba after the ‘Id prayer and said, “Anyone who prayed like us and slaughtered the sacrifice like we did then he acted according to our (Nusuk) tradition of sacrificing, and whoever slaughtered the sacrifice before the prayer, then that was just mutton (i.e. not sacrifice).” Abu Burda bin Naiyar stood up and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! By Allah, I slaughtered my sacrifice before I offered the (Id) prayer and thought that today was the day of eating and drinking (non-alcoholic drinks) and so I made haste (in slaughtering) and ate and also fed my family and neighbors.” Allah’s Apostle said, “That was just mutton (not a sacrifice).” Then Abu Burda said, “I have a young she-goat and no doubt, it is better than two sheep. Will that be sufficient as a sacrifice for me?” The Prophet replied, “Yes. But it will not be sufficient for anyone else (as a sacrifice), after you.”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 100:
Narrated Anas bin Malik:

Allah’s Apostle .~ offered the prayer on the day of Nahr and then delivered the Khutba and ordered that whoever had slaughtered his sacrifice before the prayer should repeat it, that is, should slaughter another sacrifice. Then a person from the Ansar stood up and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! because of my neighbors (he described them as being very needy or poor) I slaughtered before the prayer. I have a young she-goat which, in my opinion, is better than two sheep.” The Prophet gave him the permission for slaughtering it as a sacrifice.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 101:
Narrated Jundab:

On the day of Nahr the Prophet offered the prayer and delivered the Khutba and then slaughtered the sacrifice and said, “Anybody who slaughtered (his sacrifice) before the prayer should slaughter another animal in lieu of it, and the one who has not yet slaughtered should slaughter the sacrifice mentioning Allah’s name on it.”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 102:
Narrated Jabir bin ‘Abdullah:

On the Day of ‘Id the Prophet used to return (after offering the ‘Id prayer) through a way different from that by which he went.

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 103:
Narrated ‘Urwa on the authority of ‘Aisha:

On the days of Mina, (11th, 12th, and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah) Abu Bakr came to her while two young girls were beating the tambourine and the Prophet was lying covered with his clothes. Abu Bakr scolded them and the Prophet uncovered his face and said to Abu Bakr, “Leave them, for these days are the days of ‘Id and the days of Mina.” ‘Aisha further said, “Once the Prophet was screening me and I was watching the display of black slaves in the Mosque and (‘Umar) scolded them. The Prophet said, ‘Leave them. O Bani Arfida! (carry on), you are safe (protected)’.”

Volume 2, Book 15, Number 104:
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas:

The Prophet went out and offered a two Rakat prayer on the Day of ‘Id ul Fitr and did not offer any other prayer before or after it and at that time Bilal was accompanying him.

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