- The Delegation of Bani Fazarah: Upon the Nabi Pakﷺ return from Tabuk, the delegation of Bani Fazarah came to see him. That was in the ninth year of Al-Hijra. The group of delegates was over ten men. They came in order to profess Islam and complain about the drought of their region. Allah’s Messenger ﷺ trascended the pulpit, lifted his hands up and implored Allâh to send rain to them and said:
O Allâh, let rain fall down and water Your country and animals, and spread Your mercy and bring to life the dead lands. O Allâh, send rain that would be saving, comforting, and sprouting grass, and overwhelming vast areas sooner and not later. Let it be useful rain and not harmful. O Allah, let it be rain of mercy and not rain of torture and chastisement. Let that rain not be destructive nor cause floods. O Allâh, send us down water and help to fight the enemies,
- The Najran Delegation: Najran is rather a big area of land. It was at a considerable distance south of Makkah towards Yemen. It included seventy three villages. It took a fast-rider one day ride to cover the area. 12) Its military forces consisted of a hundred thousand fighters.
Their arrival was in the year 9 AH. The delegation comprised sixty men. Twenty-four of them were of noble families. Three out of twenty-four were leaders of Najran. ‘Abdul-Maseeh was Al-‘Aqib,
Le., who was in charge of administration and government affairs. The second was As-Salyid (the Master) under whose supervision were the cultural and political affairs: his name was Al-Aiham or Shurahbil . Abu Harithah bin ‘Alqamah was the third. He was a bishop to whom all religious presidency and spiritual leadership belonged
When that group of delegates arrived in Madinah, they met the Nabi Pakﷺand exchanged inquiries with him; but when he called them to Islam and recited the Qur’ân to them, they refused. They asked him what he thought about ‘Isa (i.e., Jesus), het delayed a whole day till the following Qur’ânic reply was revealed to him:
- likeness of Jesus before Allâh is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: ‘Be!’ – and he was. (This is) the truth from your Lord, so be not of those who doubt. Then whoever disputes with you concerning him (Jesus) after (all this) knowledge that has come to you, (i.e., Jesus being a slave of Allâh, and having no share in Divinity) say (O Muhammad ﷺ: ‘Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves then we pray and invoke (sincerely) the curse of Allâh upon those who lie.” (3:59-61] When it was morning, Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ told them about ‘Isa
(Jesus) in the light of the recently revealed Verses. He left them a whole day to consult and think it over. The next day, they still showed disapproval to admit Allâh’s Words about ‘Isa or to embrace Islam, the Nabi Pakﷺ suggested Al-Mubahalah. That is, for each party to supplicate and beg Allâh to send His curse upon those who were telling lies. After that suggestion of his, the Nabi Pak ﷺ came forward wrapping Al-Hasan and Al-Husain
AlahisSalam under his garment whereas Fatimah AlaihisSalam walking behind him and Maula Ali AlaihisSalam behind her. Seeing that the Nabi Pakﷺ was serious and prepared to face them firmly, they went aside and started consulting. Al-‘Aqib and AsSaiyid said to each other: “We shall not supplicate. For, I swear by Allah, if he is really a Prophet and exchanges curses with us, we will never prosper nor our descendants. Consequently neither nor our animals will survive it.” Finally, they decided to leave the matter to the decision of Nabi Pakﷺ about their cause, They came to him and said: “We agree to what you demand from us.” Nabi Pakﷺ then ordered them to pay Al-Jizyah (í.e., tribute) and he made agreement with them for the provision of two thousand garments, one thousand of them to be delivered in Rajab, the other thousand in Safar. With every garment they had to pay an ounce (of gold). In return they had the covenant of Allah and His Messenger ﷺ He gave them permission to practice their religious affairs freely. They asked the Prophet ﷺ to appoint a trustworthy man to receive the money, so he sent them the trustworthy man of this nation, Abu ‘Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah it, to receive the wealth.
After that Islam started to spread in Najran, naturally, they did not have to pay Al-Jizyah that non-Muslims usually paid. It was said that Al-Aqib and As-Saiyid embraced Islam soon after they reached Najran on their journey back home. It is also said that the Nabi Pakﷺ sent Hazrat Ali AlahisSalam in to them for the collection of charities and tribute.
- The Bani Hanifah Delegation: They arrived in Madinah in the ninth year of Hijra. They were 17 in number and included the Master of Liars, Musailimah bin Thumamah bin Kabeer bin Habib bin Al-Harith of Banf. Hanifah. 21 The group of delegates were housed in a Helper’s home. They came to the Nabi Pakﷺ and declared their Islamization. As for Musailimah the Liar, versions vary concerning his embracing Islam. Observation of all the
versions shows clearly that Musallimah expressed disapproval and revealed arrogance, boastful spirit and expectations to be a prince.
Nabi Pak ﷺ that perceived evil in his soul and recognized that he was one of those two evils he dreamt of while asleep.
The Prophetﷺ had a dream that he had been granted the treasures of earth. Two golden bracelets fell upon his hand, which distressed and worried him a lot. He was taught by inspiration to blow them off, so he did that and they were gone. They were interpreted to be two liars who would turn up after him. So, when Musailimah acted that way and showed disapproval, he realized that he would be one of the two liars. However, Musailimah used to say: “If Muhammadﷺ appointed me a successor of his, I would be a Muslim.” Later on Allâh’s Messengerﷺ than came to him, with a piece of palm leaf in his hand, and in the company of his orator, Thabit bin Qais bin Shammas kit. He was among some of his friends. The Prophetﷺ talked to him but Musailimah addressed him saying: “If you agree to transfer the whole thing to me after your death, I will not stand in your way.” Allâh’s Messenger ﷺreplied: “If you asked me to give you this (i.e., a piece of a palm leaf), I would not grant it to you. Your fate has been written down. Even if you repented and stopped what you are doing. Allâh appointed that you would be slain. By Allâh, I swear, that I see you now in the very state that has been revealed to me. Here is Thabit! You will hear my answer (from him).” Then he went away.”
Finally, the Prophet’s ﷺpredictions of Musailimah came true; for when Musailimah returned to Yamamah. he kept on thinking about the Prophetﷺ and how he would be his partner. His dreams and thoughts went so far as to claim that he himself was a prophet. To confirm his prophecy, he started uttering rhymed statements. He said that it was lawful to drink wine and commit
adultery. He, however , bore witness that Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ than was a real Prophet. His people, who were fascinated by what he allowed them to do, followed him and made bargains with him He grew so prominent among them that they called him the beneficent of Al-Yamamah. He wrote to Allâh’s Messengerﷺ saying “I have been appointed an associate with you, so I will have a half and Quraish will have the other half of the people’s affairs.” The reply of Allâh’s Messengerﷺ are was a letter saying that:
“Verily, the earth is Allâh’s. He gives it as a heritage to whom He wills of His servants, and the (blessed) end is for the Muttaqun (pious).” [7:128]
Ibn Mas’ud is said: When the two messengers of Musailimah Ibn An-Nawahah and Ibn Uthal – came to Allâh’s Messengerﷺ he asked them: “Do you bear witness that I am the Messenger of Allâh?” Their eply was: “We testify that Musailimah is the messenger of Allâh.” “I believe in Allâh and in His Messenger.“ said the Prophet ﷺ”If I had ever thought of killing a messenger would have killed you both.’
Musailimah’s claim to prophethood was in the tenth year of AlHijra. But he was killed in the Yamamah war during the era of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq , in Rabi’ul-Awwal, in the twelfth year of Al-Hijra He was killed by Wahshi, The second person who claimed to be a prophet was Al-Aswad Al-‘Ansi who was in Yemen. He was killed by Fairuz. His head was cut off a day and a night before the Prophet’s death. So when the Revelation came, he informed the Companions of the news. Later the news from Yemen reached Abu Bakr Radiallahu anhoo about his death.
- The Delegation of Bani ‘Amir bin Sa’sa’ah: Among the group of delegates were ‘Amir bin At-Tufail – the enemy of Allâh, Arbid
bin Qais – Labid’s maternal brother, Khalid bin Ja’far and Jabbar bin Sulma. All of them were the leaders and satans of their people. ‘Amir was the one who double-crossed the group at the Ma’unah Well. When this delegation made their mind to come to Madinah, ‘Amir and Arbid conspired to kill the Nabi Pakﷺ . So when the group of delegates arrived, ‘Amir kept on talking to the Nabi Pakﷺ whereas Arbid turned aside trying to draw his sword. He managed to draw his sword slightly when Allâh froze his hand so that he was unable to withdraw it. Allâh protected the Nabi Pak ﷺ The Prophet ﷺ invoked Allâh against them. So, when they returned. Allâh sent down a thunderbolt unto Arbid and his camel and he was burnt. As for ‘Amir he went to the home of a woman from Bani Salul with a sore gland. He eventually died while he was saying: “What am I like? I have a gland similar to a camel’s. And here I am dying in the house of the woman from Bani Salul.” In Sahih Al-Bukhari, it is narrated that ‘
Amir came to the Prophet ﷺ and said: “I grant you an opportunity to choose one of the three: you will have the flat land people and I will have townspeople; or I will succeed you; otherwise, I will invade you with Ghatfan people and two thousand horses.” But, later he got the plague in a woman’s house. So he said: “What! I have a gland similar to a camel’s, and here I am in a woman’s house of so-andso people. Fetch me my mare!” He mounted it but died on its back.
- The Tujeeb Delegation: They came to Madinah carrying the surplus of charities (Sadaqat) of their people. That is to say the extra charities they had after they had distributed the poor-due. They were thirteen men. They asked about the Qur’ân and Sunnah (the Prophet’s saying, deeds and sanctions) so that they might learn them. They demanded things from Allâh’s Messengerﷺ which he gave them pledges. They did not stay long: so when Allâh’s Messengerﷺ acknowledged their demands and allowed them to depart, they sent him a boy whom they had left with their property. The young man said to the Prophetﷺ “By Allâh, I swear, I have left my home (for Madinah) with no purpose than that you invoke Allâh the Great and All-Mighty for
a me to forgive me and have mercy on me and to make my heart source of content and sufficiency.” Allâh’s Messenger ﷺ time supplicated Allâh to grant him what he demanded,
From that time on, he was the most content person. During the Apostasy Wars, he stood fast as a Muslim and warned his people and reminded them of Allâh and went on preaching until they stood fast and did not apostatize. The group of delegates met the Prophet ﷺagain in the Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth year of Al-Hijra.
- The Tai’ Delegation: Among this group of delegates was Zaid Al-Khail They talked to the Prophetﷺ who urged them to embrace Islam. They agreed and became good Muslims. About Zaid. Allâh’s Messengerﷺ said: “The Arabs are never exact at estimating people. They have never told me about the virtues of a man correctly; for when I see the man concerned I realize that they have overestimated him except Zaid Al-Khail, when I met him I knew that they had underestimated him.” Then he named him “Zaid Al-Khair’ (i.e., Zaid, the bounteous).
The delegations arrived successively in Madinah during the ninth and tenth years of Al-Hijra. Some of the delegations were Yemeni. Al-Azd; Bani Sa’d Hudhaim from Quda’ah, Bani ‘Amir bin Qais Bani Asad, Bahra’, Khaulan, Muharib, Bani Al-Harith bin Kab. Ghamid. Bani Al-Muntafiq, Salaman, Bani ‘Abs, Muzainah, Murad. Zabid, kindah, Dhi Murrah, Ghassan, Bani ‘Aish, and Nakh’ which were the last group of delegates. Nakh’ Delegation comprised two hundred men and they arrived in the middle of Muharram in the eleventh year of Al-Hijra.
The succession of these delegations indicated the great degree of the acceptance of the Islamic Call. It manifested its influence and domination on vast areas of Arabia. The Arabs observed AlMadinah with such a great respect and estimation that they could do nothing but surrender and submit to it. Al-Madinah had become the headquarters of all Arabia; so it was impossible to avoid it. We dare not say that all the Arabians were possessed by this religion. There were lots of hard-hearted bedouins who surrendered (i.e.,
became Muslims) only because their masters did so. Their souls were not purified yet. Their tendency to raids had been deeply rooted in their souls. The teachings of Islam had not crystallized their souls well yet. About some of them the Qur’an says:
“The bedouins are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy, and more likely to be in ignorance of the limits (Allâh’s Commandments and His legal laws, etc.) which Allâh has revealed to His Messenger. And Allâh is All-Knower, AllWise. And of the bedouins there are some who look upon what they spend (in Allâh’s cause) as a fine and watch for calamities for you, on them be the calamity of evil. And Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower.” [9:97, 98]
Allâh praised others saying:
“And of the bedouins there are some who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and look upon what they spend in Allâh’s cause as approaches to Allâh, and a cause of receiving the Messenger’s invocations. Indeed these are an approach for them. Allâh will admit them to His Mercy. Certainly Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [9:99)
Those of them who were present at Makkah, Madinah and Thaqif and in many other areas of Yemen and Båhrain were different because Islam had been firmly rooted in their souls. Some of them were great Companions and leaders of the Muslims.’