We have already mentioned that Allah’s Messenger te arrived in Madinah on Friday, 12th Rabi’ul-Awwal, 1 A.H., ie., September 27th, 622 C.E. and took the lower floor of Abu Ayyub’s house as temporary residence.
Building the Prophetic Mosque
The first task to which the Prophet ﷺ the attended on his arrival in Madinah was the construction of a Mosque, at the very site where his camel knelt down. The land, which belonged to two orphans, was purchased. The Prophetﷺ himself contributed to building the Mosque by carrying adobe bricks and stones while reciting verses:
“O Allah! no bliss is there but that of the Hereafter, I
beseech you to forgive the Emigrants and Helpers.” The location was that of the graves of the polytheists. The ground was cleared of weeds and shrubs, palm trees and rubbish, the graves of the polytheists dug up and then levelled and the trees planted around. The Qiblah (the direction in which the Muslims turn their faces in prayer) was constructed to face Jerusalem: two beams were also erected to hold the ceiling up. It was square in form, each side measuring approximately 100 yards, facing towards the north and having three gates on each of the remaining sides. Nearby, rooms reserved for the Prophet’s household were built of stones and adobe bricks with ceilings of palm leaves.To the north of the Mosque, a place was reserved for the Muslims who had neither family nor home. The Adhan (summoning the Muslims to the Mosque by the Call for prayer)
was initiated at this early stage of post-migration era. of how that occurred, and the dream that ‘Abdullah bin
Zaid Radiallahu anhoo had about it, is very popular and has been narrated by Az Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, Ahmad and Ibn Khuzaimah.” The Mosque was not merely a place to perform prayers, but rather an Islami league where the Muslim’s were instructed in Islam and its doctrines. It served as an assembly place where the conflicting pre Islamic trends used to come to terms; it was the headquarters wherein all the affairs of the Muslims were administered, and consultative and executive councils held.
The Brotherhood between the Muslims
The Mosque being thus constructed, the Prophetﷺ the next turned his attention to cementing the ties of mutual brotherhood among the Muslims of Madinah, Al-Ansar (the Helpers) and Al-Muhajirun (the Emigrants). It was indeed unique in the history of the world A gathering of 90 men, half of whom Emigrants and the others Helpers assembled in the house of Anas bin Malik cities where the Prophetﷺ gave the spirit of brotherhood his official blessing When either of the two persons who had been paired as brothers, passed away, his property was inherited by his brother-in-faith. This practice continued till the following Verse was revealed at the time of the battle of Badr, and the regular rule of inheritance was allowed to take its usual course:
“But kindred by blood are nearer to one another regarding inheritance.  [8:75)
Brotherhood-in-faith was holding subordinate every distinction of race and kindred and supporting the Islamic principle: none is superior to the other except on the basis of piety and God-fearing The Prophet ﷺattached to that brotherhood a valid contract: it was not just meaningless words but rather a valid practice relating to blood and wealth rather than a passing impulse taking the form of accidental greeting,
The atmosphere of brotherhood created a spirit of selflessness infused deeply in the hearts of his followers, and produced very healthy results. For example, Sa’d bin Ar-Rabl, a Helper, said to his fellow brother ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Awf “I am the richest man among the Helpers. I am glad to share half of my property with you. I have two wives, I am ready to divorce one and after the expiry of her ‘Iddah (the prescribed period for a woman divorcee to stay within her house unmarried), you may marry her.” But ‘Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Awf was not prepared to accept anything: neither property nor home. So he blessed his brother and said: “Kindly direct me to the market so that I may make my fortune with my own hands.” And he did prosper and got married very shortly by his own struggle.”
The Helpers were extremely generous to their brethren-in-faith. Abu Hurairah reported that they once approached the Prophet ﷺcontent with the request that their orchards of palm trees should be distributed equally between the Muslims of Madinah and their brethren from Makkah. But the Prophet ﷺwas hesitant to put this heavy burden upon them. It was, however, decided that the Emigrants would work in the orchards along with the Helpers and the yield would be divided equally among them. Such examples point directly to the spirit of cordiality, sacrifice and selflessness on the part of the Helpers, and also to the feeling of appreciation, gratitude and self-respect that the Emigrants held dear to their hearts. They took only what helped them make a reasonable living. In short, this policy of mutual brotherhood was so wise and timely that many obstinate problems were resolved wonderfully and reasonably.
A Charter of Islamic Alliance
Just as the Prophetﷺ had established a code of brotherhood
among the believers, so too he was keen on establishing friendly relations between the Muslim and non-Muslim tribes of Arabia. He established a sort of treaty aiming at ruling out all pre-Islamic enmities and inter-tribal hostilities. He was so careful not to leave any area in the charter that would allow pre-Islamic traditions to creep in or violate the new environment he wanted to establish. Herein, we look over some of its provisions: In the Name of Allâh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. This is a document from Hazrat Muhammad,ﷺ the Messenger of Allah, concerning Emigrants and Helpers and those who followed and strove with them. 1. They are one nation to the exclusion of other people. 2. The Emigrants of Quraish shall unite together and pay blood money
from among themselves, and shall ransom honorably their prisoners. Every tribe of the Helpers shall unite together, as they were at first, and every section among them will pay a ransom for releasing its relative prisoners. 3. Believers shall not leave anyone poor among them by not paying his redemption money or blood money in kind. 4. Whoever is rebellious or whoever seeks to spread enmity and sedition, the hand of every God-fearing Muslim shall be against him, even if he be his son. 5. A believer shall not kill another believer, nor shall he support a disbeliever against a believer. 6. The protection of Allâh is one (and is equally) extended to the humblest of the believers. 7. The believers are supported by each other. 8. Whosoever of the Jews follows us, shall have aid and help, they shall not be injured, nor any enemy be aided against them. 9. The peace
of the believers is indivisible. No separate peace shall be made when believers are fighting in the way of Allâh. Conditions must be fair and equitable to all. 10. It shall not be lawful for a believer, who holds by what is in
this document and believes in Allâh and the Day of Judgment, to help a criminal nor give him refuge. Those who give him refuge and provide him help shall have the curse and anger of Allâh on the Day of Resurrection. Their indemnity is not accepted. 11. Killing a believer deliberately with no good reason entails killing the killer unless the heirs consider it otherwise, 12. Whenever you differ about a matter, it must be referred to Allâh and to Muhammad (ﷺ)
The Individual Role in the Society
With this wisdom and intellect, the Prophetﷺ erected the pillars of the new society. This phenomenon no doubt left its mark on the virtuous Muslims. He used to bring them up in the light of the Islamic education, he sanctified their souls, enjoined them to observe righteousness and praiseworthy manners and was keen on infusing into them the ethics of good relations, honor, nobility, worship and first and foremost obedience to Allâh and His Messengerﷺ than the following are some of the virtues he used to instill in the minds of his followers: A man asked Allâh’s Messengerﷺ change which of the merits is superior in Islam. He remarked:
“That you provide food and extend greetings to one whom you know or do not know.”:
‘Abdullah bin Salam citiem said: “When the Prophet ﷺarrived in Madinah, I went to see him and I immediately recognized through his features that he would never be a liar. The first things he (the Prophetﷺ) said was:
O you people! Extend the greeting of peace among yourselves, provide food to the needy, maintain the tiles of kinship, observe prayer at night while people are asleep,then you will peacefully enter the Garden (Paradise).
And he said:
” He will not enter Paradise, whose neighbor is not secure from his wrongful conduct.
And he said: :*The Muslim is the one from whose tongue and hands theMuslims are safe.”
And he said:
“None of you believes (truly) till one likes for his brother that which he loves for himself.• He said: :
“The believers in their mutual love, are like the human body where when the eye is in agony, the entire body feels the pain; when the head aches, all the body will suffer.
(5) And he said: :
“The bonds of brotherhood between two Muslims are like parts of a house, one part strengthens and holds the other”
And he said: :
“Do not have malice against a Muslim; do not be envious of other Muslims: do not go against a Muslim or abandon him. O the servants of Allâh! Be like brothers with each other. It is not violable for a Muslim to desert his brother for over three days.”
And he said: :
A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim; he neither oppresses him nor does he hand him over to an oppressor. Whoever fulfills a need of his brother, Allâh will fulfill his need. Whoever brings a Muslim out of a discomfort, Allâh will bring him out of the discomforts of the Day of Resurrection. And whoever screens a Muslim, Allâh will screen him on the Day of Resurrection.”
“Show mercy to people on earth so that Allâh will have mercy on you in heaven.”
And he said:
“He is not a perfect believer, who goes to bed full and knows that his neighbor is hungry.”
And:”Abusing a Muslim is an act of disobedience and fighting him is disbelief.”
And:”To remove something harmful from the road, is charity, and it is a part from the parts of Faith.”
He also would encourage the believers to spend in charity, reminding them of relevant virtues for which the hearts yearn: “Charity erases sins just as water extinguishes fire.”
And:”Clothing an under-clad Muslim, entitles you to a garment from the Paradise; feeding a hungry Muslim will make you eligible (by Allâh’s Will) for the fruit of the Paradise, and if you provide water to a thirsty Muslim, Allâh will provide you with a drink from the Sealed Nectar’.’
And he said:
“Try to avert Fire even by half a date (in charity) if not by tendering a good word. “
The Prophetﷺ also promoted that habit of not asking others for help unless one is totally helpless. He used to talk to his Companions a lot about the merits, virtues and Divine reward implied in observing the prescribed worships and rituals. He would always bring forth supporting proofs in order to link them physically and spiritually to the Revelation sent to him, hence he would describe them of their duties and responsibilities in terms of the consequences of the Call of Islam, and at the same time emphasize the importance of comprehension and consideration. That was his practice of maximizing their morale and instilling in them the noble values and ideals so that they could become models of virtue to be copied by subsequent generations. Abdullah bin Mas’ud Radiallahu anhoo once said: “If you are willing to follow a good example, then you have an option in the tradition of the deceased, because the living are likely to fall as easy prey to oppression (so they might hesitate in Faith). Follow the steps of Hazrat Muhammad’s ﷺ Companions. They were the best in this nation, the most pious, the most learned and the least compromising. Allah chose them to accompany the Prophetﷺ and establish His religion. Therefore, become familiar with their virtues, follow their righteous way and adhere as much as you can to their manners and assimilate their biography, for indeed they followed unwavering guidance.”There is then the great Messenger of Allâhﷺ whose moral visible attributes, aspects of perfection, talents, virtues, noble manners and praiseworthy deeds, entitle him to occupy the innermost cells of our hearts, and become the dearest target that the self yearns
for. Those were the attributes and qualities on whose basis the Prophetﷺ wanted to build a new society, the most wonderful and the most honorable society ever known in history. On these grounds, he strove to resolve the longstanding problems, and later gave mankind the chance to breathe a sigh of relief after a long exhausting journey in dark and gloomy avenues. Such lofty morale lay at the very basis of creating a new society with integrated components immune to all fluctuations of time, and powerful enough to change the whole course of humanity.