|Umm Kulthum bt. al-Imam ‘Ali Daughter of Imam Ali (a)|
Bab al-Saghir cemetery, Damascus
|Full Name||Umm Kulthum bt. ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (a)|
|Well-known As||Umm Kulthum Kubra, Zaynab Sughra|
|Well-known Relatives||Imam Ali (a), Lady Fatima (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Husayn (a)|
|Place of Birth||Medina|
|Burial Place||Bab al-Saghir cemetery, Damascus|
|Known for||Daughter of Imam Ali (a)|
|Activities||Present at the Battle of Karbala|
Umm Kulthūm Kubrā bt. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib (Arabic: اُمّ کُلثُوم کُبری بنت عَليّ بن اَبيطالِب بن عَبدالمُطَّلِب) is the fourth child of Imam ‘Ali (a) and Lady Fatima (a), after Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Husayn (a) and Zaynab al-Kubra. According to historical sources, she married ‘Umar b. al-Khattab, the second Caliph. Some scholars believe that she attended in the Battle of Karbala and her sermons have been quoted in Maqtal books. The ambiguity surrounding her character and denial or approval of some events happening to her is mostly because there were three or four women with the same name and kunya in the family of Imam ‘Ali (a); Umm Kulthum Kubra who was the daughter of Lady Fatima (a), Umm Kulthum Wusta who was the wife of Muslim b. ‘Aqil, Umm Kulthum Sughra (Nafisa), and Zaynab Sughra whose Kunya was Umm Kulthum.
Birth and lineage
Historians have different opinions about Umm Kulthum’s date of birth. However, both Shi’as and Sunnis agree that ‘Ali (a) and Fatima (a) had a daughter called Umm Kulthum.
It is recorded in the history that she was born in 6/627. Some historians believe that she was born at the time of the Prophet (s) or before he (s) passed away. Another disagreement between Shi’as and Sunnis is that Shi’a scholars believe that she was younger than Zaynab (a) while Sunnis believe that she was the third child of ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and older than Zaynab (a).
Husband and Children
According to the history, Umm Kulthum first married ‘Umar b. al-Khattab. After his death, she married ‘Uwn b. Ja’far b. Abi Talib, her cousin. When he passed away, she married his brother, Muhammad. After Muhammad’s death, she married another brother of them, ‘Abd al-Allah. Al-Mas’udi believes that she had no children. Some others mention Zayd and Ruqayya as her children whose father was ‘Umar. Ibn ‘Inaba counts Hamida as the daughter of Muslim b. ‘Aqil whose mother was Umm Kulthum, the daughter of ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (a). Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin says, “It means that Muslim b. ‘Aqil married his cousin, Umm Kulthum. But there is no evidence that he married Umm Kulthum Kubra, so he might has married Umm Kulthum Wusta.”
Battle of Karbala
Snatching of earrings of Hazrat Umm Kulthum r.a by a soldier during attack at ladies and kids of Ahlul Bayt subsequently the battle is cited in relation to her presence in Karbala It is mentioned also that after the Battle of Karbala, and the killing of Husayn bin Ali, she gave a eulogy condemning the people of Kufa for abandoning her brother Husayn.
Umm Kulthum and her son Zayd died at the same time, in Abdullah’s lifetime. Eighty people attended their funeral, where Sa’id ibn al-‘As conducted the prayers, and the congregation included Abdullah ibn Umar and Abu Hurairah.
Umm Kulthum is buried in Baab Sagheer cemetery in Damascus, Syria. The Mausoleum of Umm Kulthum is located in Arrawiya village in Damascus.
Fatimids believe that she is also known as “Zaynab the Younger” and that she is buried at Sayyidah Zaynab Mosque, Damascus; whereas Zaynab the Elder lived at the end of her life in Cairo and was buried at Zaynab Mosque, Cairo
‘Imad al-Din Tabari says:“It has been narrated that Umm Kulthum, Imam Husayn’s (a) sister, passed away in Syria
In his travel book, Ibn Battuta has written:“About one parasang to Syria, there is the tomb of Umm Kulthum, the daughter of ‘Ali b. Abi Talib (a) and Lady Fatima (a)“.
Yaqut Hamawi writes:“Umm Kulthum’s tomb is in Rawiya (Damascus)”
Ibn ‘Asakir says:“The tomb which is in Rawiya (Damascus) is not Umm Kulthum’s, the daughter of Lady Fatima (a) … she passed away in Medina and was buried in Baqi’ cemetery“
Also some others believe that this tomb belongs to Zaynab (a), the daughter of ‘Ali (a) and Fatima (a), whose kunya was Umm Kulthum.